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Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

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<-- begin Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary - 1913 -->
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A (named ? in the English, and most commonly  in other
languages). The first letter of the English and of many
other alphabets. The capital A of the alphabets of Middle
and Western Europe, as also the small letter (a), besides
the forms in Italic, black letter, etc., are all descended
from the old Latin A, which was borrowed from the Greek
Alpha, of the same form; and this was made from the first
letter (?) of the Phoenician alphabet, the equivalent of the
Hebrew Aleph, and itself from the Egyptian origin. The Aleph
was a consonant letter, with a guttural breath sound that
was not an element of Greek articulation; and the Greeks
took it to represent their vowel Alpha with the  sound, the
Phoenician alphabet having no vowel symbols.
This letter, in English, is used for several different
vowel sounds. See Guide to pronunciation,  43P74. The
regular long a, as in fate, etc., is a comparatively modern
sound, and has taken the place of what, till about the early
part of the 17th century, was a sound of the quality of 
(as in far).
2. (Mus.) The name of the sixth tone in the model major
scale (that in C), or the first tone of the minor scale,
which is named after it the scale in A minor. The second
string of the violin is tuned to the A in the treble staff.
P A sharp (A#) is the name of a musical tone intermediate
between A and B.P A flat (A?) is the name of a tone
intermediate between A and G.
A per se (L. per se by itself), one pre minent; a
nonesuch. [Obs.]
O fair Creseide, the flower and A per se
Of Troy and Greece.
A (? emph. ?). 1. [Shortened form of an. AS. ? one. See
One.] An adjective, commonly called the indefinite article,
and signifying one or any, but less emphatically. =At a
birth8; =In a word8; =At a blow8. Shak. It is placed before
nouns of the singular number denoting an individual object,
or a quality individualized, before collective nouns, and
also before plural nouns when the adjective few or the
phrase great many or good many is interposed; as, a dog, a
house, a man; a color; a sweetness; a hundred, a fleet, a
regiment; a few persons, a great many days. It is used for
an, for the sake of euphony, before words beginning with a
consonant sound [for exception of certain words beginning
with h, see An]; as, a table, a woman, a year, a unit, a
eulogy, a ewe, a oneness, such a one, etc. Formally an was
used both before vowels and consonants.
2. [Originally the preposition a (an, on).] In each; to
or for each; as, =twenty leagues a day8, =a hundred pounds a
year8, =a dollar a yard8, etc.
A (?), prep. [Abbreviated form of an (AS. on). See On.]
1. In; on; at; by. [Obs.] =A God's name.8 =Torn a pieces.8
=Stand a tiptoe.8 =A Sundays8 Shak. =Wit that men have now a
days.8 Chaucer. =Set them a work.8 Robynson (More's Utopia)
2. In process of; in the act of; into; to; P used with
verbal substantives in Ping which begin with a consonant.
This is a shortened form of the preposition an which was
used before the vowel sound); as in a hunting, a building, a
begging. =Jacob, when he was a dying8 Heb. xi. 21. =We'll a
birding together.8 = It was a doing.8 Shak. =He burst out a
laughing.8 Macaulay. The hyphen may be used to connect a
with the verbal substantive (as, aPhunting, aPbilding) or
the words may be written separately. This form of expression
is now for the most part obsolete, the a being omitted and
the verbal substantive treated as a participle.
A. [From AS. of off, from. See Of.] Of. [Obs.] =The name
of John a Gaunt.8 =What time a day is it ?8 Shak. =It's six
a clock.8 B. Jonson.
A. A barbarous corruption of have, of he, and sometimes
of it and of they. =So would I a done8 =A brushes his hat.8
A. An expletive, void of sense, to fill up the meter
A merry heart goes all the day,
Your sad tires in a milePa.
AP. A, as a prefix to English words, is derived from
various sources. (1) It frequently signifies on or in (from
an, a forms of AS. on), denoting a state, as in afoot, on
foot, abed, amiss, asleep, aground, aloft, away (AS. onweg),
and analogically, ablaze, atremble, etc. (2) AS. of off,
from, as in adown (AS. ofdne off the dun or hill). (3) AS.
? (Goth. usP, urP, Ger. erP), usually giving an intensive
force, and sometimes the sense of away, on, back, as in
arise, abide, ago. (4) Old English yP or iP (corrupted from
the AS. inseparable particle geP, cognate with OHG. gaP,
giP, Goth. gaP), which, as a prefix, made no essential
addition to the meaning, as in aware. (5) French (L. ad
to), as in abase, achieve. (6) L. a, ab, abs, from, as in
avert. (7) Greek insep. prefix ? without, or privative, not,
as in abyss, atheist; akin to E. unP.
Besides these, there are other sources from which the
prefix a takes its origin.
A 1 (?). A registry mark given by underwriters (as at
Lloyd's) to ships in firstPclass condition. Inferior grades
are indicated by A 2 and A 3.
A 1 is also applied colloquially to other things to
imply superiority; prime; firstPclass; firstPrate.
XAam (?), n. [D. aam, fr. LL. ama; cf. L hama a water
bucket, Gr. ?] A Dutch and German measure of liquids,
varying in different cities, being at Amsterdam about 41
wine gallons, at Antwerp 36+, at Hamburg 38,. [Written also
Aum and Awm.]
XAard6Pvark7 (?), n. [D., earthPpig.] (Zol.) An
edentate mammal, of the genus Orycteropus, somewhat
resembling a pig, common in some parts of Southern Africa.
It burrows in the ground, and feeds entirely on ants, which
it catches with its long, slimy tongue.
XAard6Pwolf7 (?), n. [D, earthPwolf] (Zol.) A
carnivorous quadruped (Proteles Lalandii), of South Africa,
resembling the fox and hyena. See Proteles.
AaOron6ic (?), AaOron6icOal (?),} a. Pertaining to
Aaron, the first high priest of the Jews.
Aar6on's rod7 (?). [See Exodus vii. 9 and Numbers xvii.
8] 1. (Arch.) A rod with one serpent twined around it, thus
differing from the caduceus of Mercury, which has two.
2. (Bot.) A plant with a tall flowering stem; esp. the
great mullein, or hagPtaper, and the goldenProd.
AbP (?). [Latin prep., etymologically the same as E. of,
off. See Of.] A prefix in many words of Latin origin. It
signifies from, away , separating, or departure, as in
abduct, abstract, abscond. See AP(6).
XAb (?), n. [Of Syriac origin.] The fifth month of the
Jewish year according to the ecclesiastical reckoning, the
eleventh by the civil computation, coinciding nearly with
XAb6aOca (?), n. [The native name.] The ManilaPhemp
plant (Musa textilis); also, its fiber. See Manila hemp
under Manila.
AObac6iOnate (?), v.t. [LL. abacinatus, p.p. of
abacinare; ab off+bacinus a basin.] To blind by a redPhot
metal plate held before the eyes. [R.]
AObac7iOna6tion (?), n. The act of abacinating. [R.]
XAb7aOcis6cus (?), n. [Gr.?, dim of ?. See Abacus.]
(Arch.) One of the tiles or squares of a tessellated
pavement; an abaculus.
Ab6aOcist (?), n. [LL abacista, fr. abacus.] One who
uses an abacus in casting accounts; a calculator.
AOback6 (?), adv. [Pref. aP + back; AS. on ? at, on, or
toward the back. See Back.] 1. Toward the back or rear;
backward. =Therewith aback she started.8
2. Behind; in the rear.
3. (Naut.) Backward against the mast;Psaid of the sails
when pressed by the wind.
To be taken aback. (a) To be driven backward against the
mast;Psaid of the sails, also of the ship when the are thus
driven. (b) To be suddenly checked, baffled, or discomfited.
Ab6ack (?), n. An abacus. [Obs.]
AbOac6tiOnal (?), a. [L. ab + E. actinal.] (Zol.)
Pertaining to the surface or end opposite to the mouth in a
radiate animal;Popposed to actinal. =The aboral or abactinal
AbOac6tion (?), n. Stealing cattle on a large scale.
AbOac6tor (?), n. [L., fr. abigere to drive away;
ab+agere to drive.] (Law) One who steals and drives away
cattle or beasts by herds or droves. [Obs.]
XAObac6uOlus (?), n. ; pl. Abaculi (?). [L., dim. of
abacus.] (Arch.) A small tile of glass, marble, or other
substance, of various colors, used in making ornamental
patterns in mosaic pavements.
Ab6aOcus (?), n.; E. pl. Abacuses ; L. pl. Abaci (?).
[L. abacus, abax, ?] 1. A table or tray strewn with sand,
anciently used for drawing, calculating, etc. [Obs.]
2. A calculating table or frame; an instrument for
performing arithmetical calculations by balls sliding on
wires, or counters in grooves, the lowest line representing
units, the second line, tens, etc. It is still employed in
3. (Arch.) (a) The uppermost member or division of the
capital of a column, immediately under the architrave. See
Column. (b) A tablet, panel, or compartment in ornamented or
mosaic work.
4. A board, tray, or table, divided into perforated
compartments, for holding cups, bottles, or the like; a kind
of cupboard, buffet, or sideboard.
Abacus harmonicus (Mus.), an ancient diagram showing the
structure and disposition of the keys of an instrument.
Ab6aOda (?), n. [Pg., the female rhinoceros.] The
rhinoceros. [Obs.]
AObad6don (?), n. [Heb. ? destruction, abyss, fr. ? to
be lost, to perish.] 1. The destroyer, or angel of the
bottomless pit; P the same as Apollyon and Asmodeus.
2. Hell; the bottomless pit. [Poetic]
In all her gates, Abaddon rues
Thy bold attempt.
AObaft6 (?), prep. [Pref. aPon + OE. baft, baften,
biaften, AS.?; be by + ? behind. See After, Aft, By.]
(Naut.) Behind; toward the stern from; as, abaft the
Abaft the beam. See under Beam.
AObaft6, adv. (Naut.) Toward the stern; aft; as, to go
AObai6sance (?), n. [For obeisance; confused with F.
abaisser, E. abase] Obeisance. [Obs.]
AObai6ser (?), n. Ivory black or animal charcoal.

AObaist6 (?), p.p. Abashed; confounded; discomfited.
AbOal6ienOate (?), v.t. [L. abalienatus, p.p. of
abalienare; ab + alienus foreign, alien. See Alien.] 1.
(Civil Law) To transfer the title of from one to another; to
2. To estrange; to withdraw. [Obs.]
3. To cause alienation of (mind).
AbOal7ienOa6tion (?), n. [L. abalienatio: cf. F.
abalianation.] The act of abalienating; alienation;
estrangement. [Obs.]
XAb7aOlo6ne (?), n. (Zol.) A univalve mollusk of the
genus Haliotis. The shell is lined with motherPofPpearl, and
used for ornamental purposes; the seaPear. Several large
species are found on the coast of California, clinging
closely to the rocks.
AOband6 (?), v.t. [Contracted from abandon.]
1. To abandon. [Obs.]
Enforced the kingdom to aband.
2. To banish; to expel. [Obs.]
Mir. for Mag.
AOban6don (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abandoned (?); p.pr. &
vb.n. Abandoning .] [OF. abandoner, F.abandonner; a (L.
ad)+bandon permission, authority, LL. bandum, bannum, public
proclamation, interdiction, bannire to proclaim, summon: of
Germanic origin; cf. Goth. bandwjan to show by signs, to
designate OHG. banproclamation. The word meant to proclaim,
put under a ban, put under control; hence, as in OE., to
compel, subject, or to leave in the control of another, and
hence, to give up. See Ban.] 1. To cast or drive out; to
banish; to expel; to reject. [Obs.]
That he might ... abandon them from him.
Being all this time abandoned from your bed.
2. To give up absolutely; to forsake entirely ; to
renounce utterly; to relinquish all connection with or
concern on; to desert, as a person to whom one owes
allegiance or fidelity; to quit; to surrender.
Hope was overthrown, yet could not be abandoned.
I. Taylor.
3. Reflexively : To give (one's self) up without attempt
at selfPcontrol ; to yield (one's self) unrestrainedly ; P
often in a bad sense.
He abandoned himself ... to his favorite vice.
4. (Mar. Law) To relinquish all claim to; P used when an
insured person gives up to underwriters all claim to the
property covered by a policy, which may remain after loss or
damage by a peril insured against.
Syn.P To give up; yield; forego; cede; surrender;
resign; abdicate; quit; relinquish; renounce; desert;
forsake; leave; retire; withdraw from. P To Abandon, Desert,
Forsake. These words agree in representing a person as
giving up or leaving some object, but differ as to the mode
of doing it. The distinctive sense of abandon is that of
giving up a thing absolutely and finally; as, to abandon
one's friends, places, opinions, good or evil habits, a
hopeless enterprise, a shipwrecked vessel. Abandon is more
widely applicable than forsake or desert. The Latin
original of desert appears to have been originally applied
to the case of deserters from military service. Hence, the
verb, when used of persons in the active voice, has usually
or always a bad sense, implying some breach of fidelity,
honor, etc., the leaving of something which the person
should rightfully stand by and support; as, to desert one's
colors, to desert one's post, to desert one's principles or
duty. When used in the passive, the sense is not necessarily
bad; as, the fields were deserted, a deserted village,
deserted halls. Forsake implies the breaking off of previous
habit, association, personal connection, or that the thing
left had been familiar or frequented; as, to forsake old
friends, to forsake the paths of rectitude, the blood
forsook his cheeks. It may be used either in a good or in a
bad sense.
AOban6don, n. [F. abandon. fr. abandonner. See Abandon,
v.] Abandonment; relinquishment. [Obs.]
XA7ban7don6 (?), n. [F. See Abandon.] A complete giving
up to natural impulses; freedom from artificial constraint;
careless freedom or ease.
AOban6doned (?), a. 1. Forsaken, deserted. =Your
abandoned streams.8
2. SelfPabandoned, or given up to vice; extremely
wicked, or sinning without restraint; irreclaimably wicked ;
as, an abandoned villain.
Syn.P Profligate; dissolute; corrupt; vicious; depraved;
reprobate; wicked; unprincipled; graceless; vile. P
Abandoned, Profligate, Reprobate. These adjectives agree in
expressing the idea of great personal depravity. Profligate
has reference to open and shameless immoralities, either in
private life or political conduct; as, a profligate court, a
profligate ministry. Abandoned is stronger, and has
reference to the searing of conscience and hardening of
heart produced by a man's giving himself wholly up to
iniquity; as, a man of abandoned character. Reprobate
describes the condition of one who has become insensible to
reproof, and who is morally abandoned and lost beyond hope
of recovery.
God gave them over to a reprobate mind.
Rom. i. 28.
AOban6donedOly, adv. Unrestrainedly.
AOban7donOee6 (?), n. (Law) One to whom anything is
legally abandoned.
AOban6donOer (?), n. One who abandons.
Beau. & Fl.
AOban6donOment (?), n. [Cf. F. abandonnement.]
1. The act of abandoning, or the state of being
abandoned; total desertion; relinquishment.
The abandonment of the independence of Europe.
2. (Mar. Law) The relinquishment by the insured to the
underwriters of what may remain of the property insured
after a loss or damage by a peril insured against.
3. (Com. Law) (a) The relinquishment of a right, claim,
or privilege, as to mill site, etc. (b) The voluntary
leaving of a person to whom one is bound by a special
relation, as a wife, husband, or child; desertion.
4. Careless freedom or ease; abandon. [R.]
XAOban6Odum (?), n. [LL. See Abandon.] (Law) Anything
forfeited or confiscated.
Ab6aOnet (?), n. See Abnet.
XAOban6ga (?), n. [Name given by the negroes in the
island of St. Thomas.] A West Indian palm; also the fruit of
this palm, the seeds of which are used as a remedy for
diseases of the chest.
Ab7anOna6tion (?), Ab7anOnition (?),} n. [LL. abannatio;
ad + LL. bannire to banish.] (Old Law) Banishment. [Obs.]
Ab7arOtic7uOla6tion (?), n. [L. ab + E. articulation :
cf. F. abarticulation . See Article.] (Anat.) Articulation,
usually that kind of articulation which admits of free
motion in the joint; diarthrosis.
AObase6 (?), v.t. [imp.&p.p. Abased (?); p.pr. & vb. n.
Abasing.] [F. abaisser, LL. abassare, abbassare ; ad +
bassare, fr. bassus low. See Base, a.]
1. To lower or depress; to throw or cast down; as, to
abase the eye. [Archaic]
Saying so, he abased his lance.
2. To cast down or reduce low or lower, as in rank,
office, condition in life, or estimation of worthiness; to
depress; to humble; to degrade.
Whosoever exalteth himself shall be abased.
Luke xiv.ll.
Syn.P To Abase, Debase, Degrade. These words agree in
the idea of bringing down from a higher to a lower state.
Abase has reference to a bringing down in condition or
feelings; as to abase one's self before God. Debase has
reference to the bringing down of a thing in purity, or
making it base. It is, therefore, always used in a bad
sense, as, to debase the coin of the kingdom, to debase the
mind by vicious indulgence, to debase one's style by coarse
or vulgar expressions. Degrade has reference to a bringing
down from some higher grade or from some standard. Thus, a
priest is degraded from the clerical office. When used in a
moral sense, it denotes a bringing down in character and
just estimation; as, degraded by intemperance, a degrading
employment, etc. =Art is degraded when it is regarded only
as a trade.8
AObased6 (?), a. 1. Lowered; humbled.
2. (Her.) [F. abaiss.] Borne lower than usual, as a
fess; also, having the ends of the wings turned downward
towards the point of the shield.
AObas6edOly (?), adv. Abjectly; downcastly.
AObase6ment (?), n. [Cf. F. abaissement.] The act of
abasing, humbling, or bringing low; the state of being
abased or humbled; humiliation.
AObas6er (?), n. He who, or that which, abases.
AObash6 (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abashed (?); p.pr. & vb.
n. Abashing.] [OE. abaissen, abaisshen, abashen, OF.esbahir,
F. bahir, to astonish, fr. L. ex + the interjection bah,
expressing astonishment. In OE. somewhat confused with
abase. Cf. Finish.] To destroy the selfPpossession of; to
confuse or confound, as by exciting suddenly a consciousness
of guilt, mistake, or inferiority; to put to shame; to
disconcert; to discomfit.
Abashed, the devil stood,
And felt how awful goodness is.
He was a man whom no check could abash.
Syn.P To confuse; confound; disconcert; shame. P To
Abash, Confuse, Confound. Abash is a stronger word than
confuse, but not so strong as confound. We are abashed when
struck either with sudden shame or with a humbling sense of
inferiority; as, Peter was abashed in the presence of those
who are greatly his superiors. We are confused when, from
some unexpected or startling occurrence, we lose clearness
of thought and selfPpossession. Thus, a witness is often
confused by a severe crossPexamination; a timid person is
apt to be confused in entering a room full of strangers. We
are confounded when our minds are overwhelmed, as it were,
by something wholly unexpected, amazing, dreadful, etc., so
that we have nothing to say. Thus, a criminal is usually
confounded at the discovery of his guilt.
Satan stood
Awhile as mute, confounded what to say.
AObash6edOly (?), adv. In an abashed manner.
AObash6ment (?), n. [Cf. F. bahissement.] The state of
being abashed; confusion from shame.
XAObas6si (?), XAObas6sis (?),} n. [Ar.& Per.?,
belonging to Abas (a king of Persia).] A silver coin of
Persia, worth about twenty cents.
AObat6aOble (?), a. Capable of being abated; as, an
abatable writ or nuisance.
AObate6 (?), v.t. [imp.& p.p. Abated, p.pr.& vb.n.
Abating.] [OF. abatre to beat down, F. abattre, LL. abatere;
ab or ad + batere, battere (popular form for L. batuere to
beat). Cf. Bate, Batter.]
1. To beat down; to overthrow. [Obs.]
The King of Scots ... sore abated the walls.
2. To bring down or reduce from a higher to a lower
state, number, or degree; to lessen; to diminish; to
contract; to moderate; toto cut short; as, to abate a
demand; to abate pride, zeal, hope.
His eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated.
3. To deduct; to omit; as, to abate something from a
Nine thousand parishes, abating the odd hundreds.
4. To blunt. [Obs.]
To abate the edge of envy.
5. To reduce in estimation; to deprive. [Obs.]
She hath abated me of half my train.
6. (Law) (a) To bring entirely down or put an end to; to
do away with; as, to abate a nuisance, to abate a writ. (b)
(Eng. Law) To diminish; to reduce. Legacies are liable to be
abated entirely or in proportion, upon a deficiency of
To abate a tax, to remit it either wholly or in part.
AObate6 (?), v.i. [See Abate, v.t.] 1. To decrease, or
become less in strength or violence; as, pain abates, a
storm abates.
The fury of Glengarry ... rapidly abated.
2. To be defeated, or come to naught; to fall through;
to fail; as, a writ abates.
To abate into a freehold, To abate in lands (Law), to
enter into a freehold after the death of the last possessor,
and before the heir takes possession. See Abatement, 4.
Syn.P To subside; decrease; intermit; decline; diminish;
lessen. P To Abate, Subside. These words, as here compared,
imply a coming down from some previously raised or exited
state. Abate expresses this in respect to degrees, and
implies a diminution of force or of intensity; as, the storm
abates, the cold abates, the force of the wind abates; or,
the wind abates, a fever abates. Subside (to settle down)
has reference to a previous state of agitation or commotion;
as, the waves subside after a storm, the wind subsides into
a calm. When the words are used figuratively, the same
distinction should be observed. If we conceive of a thing as
having different degrees of intensity or strength, the word
to be used is abate. Thus we say, a man's anger abates, the
ardor of one's love abates, =Winter rage abates8. But if the
image be that of a sinking down into quiet from preceding
excitement or commotion, the word to be used is subside; as,
the tumult of the people subsides, the public mind subsided
into a calm. The same is the case with those emotions which
are tumultuous in their nature; as, his passion subsides,
his joy quickly subsided, his grief subsided into a pleasing
melancholy. Yet if, in such cases, we were thinking of the
degree of violence of the emotion, we might use abate; as,
his joy will abate in the progress of time; and so in other
AObate (?), n. Abatement. [Obs.]
Sir T.Browne.
AObate6ment (?), n. [OF. abatement , F. abattement.] 1.
The act of abating, or the state of being abated; a
lessening, diminution, or reduction; removal or putting an
end to; as, the abatement of a nuisance is the suppression
2. The amount abated; that which is taken away by way of
reduction; deduction; decrease; a rebate or discount
3. (Her.) A mark of dishonor on an escutcheon.
4. (Law) The entry of a stranger, without right, into a
freehold after the death of the last possessor, before the
heir or devisee.
Defense in abatement, Plea in abatement, (Law), plea to
the effect that from some formal defect ( e.g. misnomer,
want of jurisdiction) the proceedings should be abated.
AObat6er (?), n. One who, or that which, abates.
Ab6aOtis, Aba6tOtis,} (?) n. [F. abatis, abattis, mass
of things beaten or cut down, fr. abattre. See Abate.]
(Fort.) A means of defense formed by felled trees, the ends
of whose branches are sharpened and directed outwards, or
against the enemy.
Ab6aOtised (?), a. Provided with an abatis.
AOba6tor (?), n. (Law) (a) One who abates a nuisance.
(b) A person who, without right, enters into a freehold on
the death of the last possessor, before the heir or devisee.
XA7bat7toir6 (?), n.; pl. Abattoirs (?). [F., fr.
abattre to beat down. See Abate.] A public slaughterhouse
for cattle, sheep, etc.
Ab6aOture (?), n. [F. abatture, fr. abattre. See Abate.]
Grass and sprigs beaten or trampled down by a stag passing
through them.
XA7bat7voix6 (?), n. [F. abattre to beat down + voix
voice.] The soundingPboard over a pulpit or rostrum.
AbOawed6 (?), p.p. [Perh. p.p. of a verb fr. OF. abaubir
to frighten, disconcert, fr. L. ad + balbus stammering.]
Astonished; abashed. [Obs.]
AbOax6iOal (?), AbOax6ile (?),} a. [L. ab + axis axle.]
(Bot.) Away from the axis or central line; eccentric.
AObay6 (?), n. [OF. abay barking.] Barking; baying of
dogs upon their prey. See Bay. [Obs.]
Abb (?), n. [AS. ?; pref. aP + web. See Web.] Among
weaves, yarn for the warp. Hence, abb wool is wool for the
Ab6ba (?), n. [Syriac ? father. See Abbot.] Father;
religious superior; P in the Syriac, Coptic, and Ethiopic
churches, a title given to the bishops, and by the bishops
to the patriarch.
Ab6baOcy (?), n.; pl. Abbacies (?). [L. abbatia, fr.
abbas, abbatis, abbot. See Abbey.] The dignity, estate, or
jurisdiction of an abbot.
AbOba6tial (?), a. [LL. abbatialis : cf. F. abbatial.]
Belonging to an abbey; as, abbatial rights.
AbObat6icOal (?), a. Abbatial. [Obs.]
XAb6b7 (?), n.[F. abb. See Abbot.] The French word
answering to the English abbot, the head of an abbey; but
commonly a title of respect given in France to every one
vested with the ecclesiastical habit or dress.
5 After the 16th century, the name was given, in social
parlance, to candidates for some priory or abbey in the gift
of the crown. Many of these aspirants became well known in
literary and fashionable life. By further extension, the
name came to be applied to unbeneficed secular ecclesiastics
Ab6bess (?), n. [OF.abaesse, abeesse, F. abbesse, L.
abbatissa, fem. of abbas, abbatis, abbot. See Abbot.] A
female superior or governess of a nunnery, or convent of
nuns, having the same authority over the nuns which the
abbots have over the monks. See Abbey.
Ab6bey (?), n.; pl. Abbeys (?). [OF. aba e, F. abbaye,
L. abbatia, fr. abbas abbot. See Abbot.] 1. A monastery or
society of persons of either sex, secluded from the world
and devoted to religion and celibacy; also, the monastic
building or buildings.
5 The men are called monks, and governed by an abbot;
the women are called nuns, and governed by an abbess.
2. The church of a monastery.

<-- p. 3 -->

In London, the Abbey means Westminster Abbey, and in
Scotland, the precincts of the Abbey of Holyrood. The name
is also retained for a private residence on the site of an
abbey; as, Newstead Abbey, the residence of Lord Byron.
Syn.P Monastery; convent; nunnery; priory; cloister. See

Ab6bot (?), n. [AS. abbod, abbad, L. abbas, abbatis, Gr.
?, fr. Syriac ? father. Cf. Abba, Abb.]
1. The superior or head of an abbey.
2. One of a class of bishops whose sees were formerly
Abbot of the people, a title formerly given to one of
the chief magistrates in Genoa. P Abbot of Misrule (or Lord
of Misrule), in medival times, the master of revels, as at
Christmas; in Scotland called the Abbot of Unreason.

Ab6botOship (?), n. [Abbot + Oship.] The state or office of
an abbot.
AbObre6viOate (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abbreviated (?); p.pr.
& vb.n. Abbreviating.] [L. abbreviatus, p.p. of abbreviare;
ad + breviare to shorten, fr. brevis short. See Abridge.] 1.
To make briefer; to shorten; to abridge; to reduce by
contraction or omission, especially of words written or
It is one thing to abbreviate by contracting, another by
cutting off.
2. (Math.) To reduce to lower terms, as a fraction.
AbObre6viOate (?), a. [L. abbreviatus, p.p.] 1. Abbreviated;
abridged; shortened. [R.] =The abbreviate form.8
2. (Biol.) Having one part relatively shorter than another
or than the ordinary type.
AbObre6viOate, n. An abridgment. [Obs.]
AbObre6viOa7ted (?), a. Shortened; relatively short;
AbObre7viOa6tion (?), n. [LL. abbreviatio: cf. F.
abbrviation.] 1. The act of shortening, or reducing.
2. The result of abbreviating; an abridgment.
3. The form to which a word or phrase is reduced by
contraction and omission; a letter or letters, standing for
a word or phrase of which they are a part; as, Gen. for
Genesis; U.S.A. for United States of America.
4. (Mus.) One dash, or more, through the stem of a note,
dividing it respectively into quavers, semiquavers, or
AbObre6viOa7tor (?), n. [LL.: cf. F. abbrviateur.] 1. One
who abbreviates or shortens.
2. One of a college of seventyPtwo officers of the papal
court whose duty is to make a short minute of a decision on
a petition, or reply of the pope to a letter, and afterwards
expand the minute into official form.
AbObre6viOaOtoOry (?), a. Serving or tending to abbreviate;
shortening; abridging.
AbObre6viOaOture (?), n. 1. An abbreviation; an abbreviated
state or form. [Obs.]
2. An abridgment; a compendium or abstract.
This is an excellent abbreviature of the whole duty of a
Jer. Taylor.
Abb6 wool (?). See Abb.
A B C6 (?). 1. The first three letters of the alphabet, used
for the whole alphabet.
2. A primer for teaching the alphabet and first elements of
reading. [Obs.]
3. The simplest rudiments of any subject; as, the A B Cof
A B C book, a primer.
XAb6dal (?), n. [Ar. badFl, pl. abd>l, a substitute, a good,
religious man, saint, fr. badalato change, substitute.] A
religious devotee or dervish in Persia.
AbOde6riOan (?), a. [From Abdera, a town in Thrace, of which
place Democritus, the Laughing Philosopher, was a native.]
Given to laughter; inclined to foolish or incessant
AbOde6rite (?), n. [L. Abderita, Abderites, fr. Gr. '?.] An
inhabitant of Abdera, in Thrace.
The Abderite, Democritus, the Laughing Philosopher.
Ab6dest (?), n. [Per. >bdast; ab water + dast hand.]
Purification by washing the hands before prayer; P a
Mohammedan rite.
Ab6diOcaOble (?), a. Capable of being abdicated.
Ab6diOcant (?), a. [L. abdicans, p.pr. of abdicare.]
Abdicating; renouncing; P followed by of.
Monks abdicant of their orders.
Ab6diOcant, n. One who abdicates.
Ab6diOcate (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abdicated (?); p.pr. &
vb.n. Abdicating.] [L. abdicatus, p.p. of abdicare; ab +
dicare to proclaim, akin to dicere to say. See Diction.] 1.
To surrender or relinquish, as sovereign power; to withdraw
definitely from filling or exercising, as a high office,
station, dignity; as, to abdicate the throne, the crown, the
5 The word abdicate was held to mean, in the case of James
II., to abandon without a formal surrender.
The crossPbearers abdicated their service.
2. To renounce; to relinquish; P said of authority, a trust,
duty, right, etc.
He abdicates all right to be his own governor.
The understanding abdicates its functions.
3. To reject; to cast off. [Obs.]
Bp. Hall.
4. (Civil Law) To disclaim and expel from the family, as a
father his child; to disown; to disinherit.
Syn. - To give up; quit; vacate; relinquish; forsake;
abandon; resign; renounce; desert. P To Abdicate, Resign.
Abdicate commonly expresses the act of a monarch in
voluntary and formally yielding up sovereign authority; as,
to abdicate the government. Resign is applied to the act of
any person, high or low, who gives back an office or trust
into the hands of him who conferred it. Thus, a minister
resigns, a military officer resigns, a clerk resigns. The
expression, =The king resigned his crown,8 sometimes occurs
in our later literature, implying that he held it from his
people. P There are other senses of resign which are not
here brought into view.
Ab6diOcate (?), v.i. To relinquish or renounce a throne, or
other high office or dignity.
Though a king may abdicate for his own person, he cannot
abdicate for the monarchy.
Ab7diOca6tion (?), n. [L. abdicatio: cf. F. abdication.] The
act of abdicating; the renunciation of a high office,
dignity, or trust, by its holder; commonly the voluntary
renunciation of sovereign power; as, abdication of the
throne, government, power, authority.
Ab6diOcaOtive (?), a. [L. abdicativus.] Causing, or
implying, abdication. [R.]
Ab6diOca7tor (?), n. One who abdicates.
Ab6diOtive (?), a. [L. abditivus, fr. abdereto hide.]
Having the quality of hiding. [R.]
Ab6diOtoOry (?), n. [L. abditorium.] A place for hiding or
preserving articles of value.
AbOdo6men (?), n. [L. abdomen (a word of uncertain etymol.):
cf. F. abdomen.] 1. (Anat.) The belly, or that part of the
body between the thorax and the pelvis. Also, the cavity of
the belly, which is lined by the peritoneum, and contains
the stomach, bowels, and other viscera. In man, often
restricted to the part between the diaphragm and the
commencement of the pelvis, the remainder being called the
pelvic cavity.
2. (Zol.) The posterior section of the body, behind the
thorax, in insects, crustaceans, and other Arthropoda.
AbOdom6iOnal (?), a. [Cf. F. abdominal.] 1. Of or pertaining
to the abdomen; ventral; as, the abdominal regions, muscles,
2. (Zol.) Having abdominal fins; belonging to the
Abdominales; as, abdominal fishes.
Abdominal ring (Anat.), a fancied ringlike opening on each
side of the abdomen, external and superior to the pubes; P
called also inguinal ring.
AbOdom6iOnal, n.; E. pl. Abdominals, L. pl. Abdominales. A
fish of the group Abdominales.
XAbOdom7iOna6les (?), n. pl. [NL., masc. pl.] (Zol.) A
group including the greater part of freshPwater fishes, and
many marine ones, having the ventral fins under the abdomen
behind the pectorals.
XAbOdom7iOna6liOa (?), n. pl. [NL., neut. pl.] (Zol.) A
group of cirripeds having abdominal appendages.
AbOdom7iOnos6coOpy (?), n. [L. abdomen + Gr. ? to examine.]
(Med.) Examination of the abdomen to detect abdominal
AbOdom7iOnoOthoOrac6ic (?), a. Relating to the abdomen and
the thorax, or chest.
AbOdom6iOnous (?), a. Having a protuberant belly;
Gorgonius sits, abdominous and wan,
Like a fat squab upon a Chinese fan.
AbOduce6 (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abduced (?); p.pr. & vb.n.
Abducing.] [L. abducereto lead away; ab + ducere to lead.
See Duke, and cf. Abduct.] To draw or conduct away; to
withdraw; to draw to a different part. [Obs. or Archaic]
If we abduce the eye unto corner, the object will not
Sir T.Browne.
AbOdu6cent (?), a. [L. abducens, p.pr. of abducere.]
(Physiol.) Drawing away from a common center, or out of the
median line; as, the abducent muscles. Opposed to adducent.
AbOduct6 (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abducted (?); p.pr. & vb.n.
Abducting.] [L. abductus, p.p. of abducere. See Abduce.] 1.
To take away surreptitiously by force; to carry away (a
human being) wrongfully and usually by violence; to kidnap.
2. To draw away, as a limb or other part, from its ordinary
AbOduc6tion (?), n. [L. abductio: cf. F. abduction.] 1. The
act of abducing or abducting; a drawing apart; a carrying
2. (Physiol.) The movement which separates a limb or other
part from the axis, or middle line, of the body.
3. (Law) The wrongful, and usually the forcible, carrying
off of a human being; as, the abduction of a child, the
abduction of an heiress.
4. (Logic) A syllogism or form of argument in which the
major is evident, but the minor is only probable.
AbOduc6tor (?), n. [NL.] 1. One who abducts.
2. (Anat.) A muscle which serves to draw a part out, or form
the median line of the body; as, the abductor oculi, which
draws the eye outward.
AObeam6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO + beam.] (Naut.) On the beam,
that is, on a line which forms a right angle with the ship's
keel; opposite to the center of the ship's side.
AObear6 (?), v.t. [AS. >beran; pref. >O + beran to bear.] 1.
To bear; to behave. [Obs.]
So did the faery knight himself abear.
2. To put up with; to endure. [Prov.]
AObear6ance (?), n. Behavior. [Obs.]
AObear6ing, n. Behavior. [Obs.]
Sir. T.More.
A7beOceOda6riOan (?), n. [L. abecedarius. A word from the
first four letters of the alphabet.] 1. One who is learning
the alphabet; hence, a tyro.
2. One engaged in teaching the alphabet.
A7beOceOda6riOan, A7beOce6daOry (?), } a. Pertaining to, or
formed by, the letters of the alphabet; alphabetic; hence,
Abecedarian psalms, hymns, etc., compositions in which (like
the 119th psalm in Hebrew) distinct portions or verses
commence with successive letters of the alphabet.
A7beOce6daOry (?), n. A primer; the first principle or
rudiment of anything. [R.]
AObed6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO in, on + bed.] 1. In bed, or on
the bed.
Not to be abed after midnight.
2. To childbed (in the phrase =brought abed,8 that is,
delivered of a child).
AObeg6ge (?). Same as Aby. [Obs.]
AObele6 (?), n. [D. abeel (abeelPboom), OF. abel, aubel, fr.
a dim. of L. albus white.] The white polar (Populus alba).
Six abeles i' the churchyard grow.
Mrs. Browning.
AObel6iOan (?), A6belOite (?), A7belOo6niOan (?), } n.
(Eccl. Hist.) One of a sect in Africa (4th century),
mentioned by St. Augustine, who states that they married,
but lived in continence, after the manner, as they
pretended, of Abel.
A6belOmosk7 (?), n. [NL. abelmoschus, fr. Ar. abuPlPmisk
father of musk, i.e., producing musk. See Musk.] (Bot.) An
evergreen shrub (Hibiscus P formerly AbelmoschusPmoschatus),
of the East and West Indies and Northern Africa, whose musky
seeds are used in perfumery and to flavor coffee; P
sometimes called musk mallow.
Ab7 erPdePvine6 (?), n. (Zol.) The European siskin
(Carduelis spinus), a small green and yellow finch, related
to the goldfinch.
AbOerr6 (?), v.i. [L. aberrare. See Aberrate.] To wander; to
stray. [Obs.]
Sir T.Browne.
AbOer6rance (?), AbOer6ranOcy (?), } n. State of being
aberrant; a wandering from the right way; deviation from
truth, rectitude, etc.
Aberrancy of curvature (Geom.), the deviation of a curve
from a circular form.
AbOer6rant (?), a. [L. aberrans, Orantis, p.pr. of
aberrare.] See Aberr.] 1. Wandering; straying from the right
2. (Biol.) Deviating from the ordinary or natural type;
exceptional; abnormal.
The more aberrant any form is, the greater must have been
the number of connecting forms which, on my theory, have
been exterminated.
Ab6erOrate (?), v.i. [L. aberratus, p.pr. of aberrare; ab +
errare to wander. See Err.] To go astray; to diverge. [R.]
Their own defective and aberrating vision.
De Quincey.
Ab7erOra6tion (?), n. [L. aberratio: cf. F. aberration. See
Aberrate.] 1. The act of wandering; deviation, especially
from truth or moral rectitude, from the natural state, or
from a type. =The aberration of youth.8 Hall. =Aberrations
from theory.8 Burke.
2. A partial alienation of reason. =Occasional aberrations
of intellect.8 Lingard.
Whims, which at first are the aberrations of a single brain,
pass with heat into epidemic form.
3. (Astron.) A small periodical change of position in the
stars and other heavenly bodies, due to the combined effect
of the motion of light and the motion of the observer;
called annual aberration, when the observer's motion is that
of the earth in its orbit, and dairy or diurnal aberration,
when of the earth on its axis; amounting when greatest, in
the former case, to 20.4'', and in the latter, to 0.3''.
Planetaryaberration is that due to the motion of light and
the motion of the planet relative to the earth.
4. (Opt.) The convergence to different foci, by a lens or
mirror, of rays of light emanating from one and the same
point, or the deviation of such rays from a single focus;
called spherical aberration, when due to the spherical form
of the lens or mirror, such form giving different foci for
central and marginal rays; and chromatic aberration, when
due to different refrangibilities of the colored rays of the
spectrum, those of each color having a distinct focus.
5. (Physiol.) The passage of blood or other fluid into parts
not appropriate for it.
6. (Law) The producing of an unintended effect by the
glancing of an instrument, as when a shot intended for A
glances and strikes B.
Syn. - Insanity; lunacy; madness; derangement; alienation;
mania; dementia; hallucination; illusion; delusion. See
Ab7erOra6tionOal (?), a. Characterized by aberration.
Ab7eOrun6cate (?), v.t. [L. aberuncare, for aberruncare. See
Averruncate.] To weed out. [Obs.]
Ab7eOrun6caOtor (?), n. A weeding machine.
AObet6 (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abetted (?); p.pr. & vb.n.
Abetting.] [OF. abeter; a (L. ad) + beter to bait (as a
bear), fr. Icel. beita to set dogs on, to feed, originally,
to cause to bite, fr. Icel. bFtato bite, hence to bait, to
incite. See Bait, Bet.] 1. To instigate or encourage by aid
or countenance; P used in a bad sense of persons and acts;
as, to abet an illPdoer; to abet one in his wicked courses;
to abet vice; to abet an insurrection. =The whole tribe
abets the villany.8
Would not the fool abet the stealth,
Who rashly thus exposed his wealth?
2. To support, uphold, or aid; to maintain; P in a good
sense. [Obs.]r duty is urged, and our confidence abetted.
Jer. Taylor.
3. (Law)To contribute, as an assistant or instigator, to the
commission of an offense.
Syn. - To incite; instigate; set on; egg on; foment;
advocate; countenance; encourage; second; uphold; aid;
assist; support; sustain; back; connive at.
AObet6 (?), n. [OF. abet, fr. abeter.] Act of abetting; aid.
AObet6ment (?), n. The act of abetting; as, an abetment of
treason, crime, etc.
AObet6tal (?), n. Abetment. [R.]

<-- p. 4 -->

AObet6ter, AObetOtor } (#), n. One who abets; an instigator
of an offense or an offender.
5 The form abettor is the legal term and also in general
Syn. P Abettor, Accessory, Accomplice. These words denote
different degrees of complicity in some deed or crime. An
abettor is one who incites or encourages to the act, without
sharing in its performance. An accessory supposes a
principal offender. One who is neither the chief actor in an
offense, nor present at its performance, but accedes to or
becomes involved in its guilt, either by some previous or
subsequent act, as of instigating, encouraging, aiding, or
concealing, etc., is an accessory. An accomplice is one who
participates in the commission of an offense, whether as
principal or accessory. Thus in treason, there are no
abettors or accessories, but all are held to be principals
or accomplices.
Ab7eOvac6uOa6tion (#), n. [Pref. abO + evacuation.] (Med.) A
partial evacuation.
AObey6ance (#), n. [OF. abeance expectation, longing; a (L.
ad) + baer, beer, to gape, to look with open mouth, to
expect, F. bayer, LL. badare to gape.] 1. (Law) Expectancy;
condition of being undetermined.
5 When there is no person in existence in whom an
inheritance (or a dignity) can vest, it is said to be in
abeyance, that is, in expectation; the law considering it as
always potentially existing, and ready to vest whenever a
proper owner appears.
2. Suspension; temporary suppression.
Keeping the sympathies of love and admiration in a dormant
state, or state of abeyance.
De Quincey.
AObey6anOcy (#), n. Abeyance. [R.]
AObey6ant (#), a. Being in a state of abeyance.
X Ab6hal (#), n. The berries of a species of cypress in the
East Indies.
AbOhom6iOnaOble (#), a. Abominable. [A false orthography
anciently used; h was foisted into various words; hence
abholish, for abolish, etc.]
This is abhominable, which he [Don Armado] would call
Shak. Love's Labor's Lost, v. 1.
AbOhom7iOnal (#), a. [L. ab away from + homo, hominis, man.]
Inhuman. [Obs.]
AbOhor6 (#), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Abhorred (#); p. pr. & vb.
n. Abhorring.] [L. abhorrere; ab + horrere to bristle,
shiver, shudder: cf. F. abhorrer. See Horrid.] 1. To shrink
back with shuddering from; to regard with horror or
detestation; to feel excessive repugnance toward; to detest
to extremity; to loathe.
Abhor that which is evil; cleave to that which is good.
Rom. xii. 9.
2. To fill with horror or disgust. [Obs.]
It doth abhor me now I speak the word.
3. (Canon Law) To protest against; to reject solemnly.
I utterly abhor, yea, from my soul
Refuse you for my judge.
Syn. P To hate; detest; loathe; abominate. See Hate.
AbOhor6, v. i. To shrink back with horror, disgust, or
dislike; to be contrary or averse; P with from. [Obs.] =To
abhor from those vices.8
Which is utterly abhorring from the end of all law.
AbOhor6rence (#), n. Extreme hatred or detestation; the
feeling of utter dislike.
AbOhor6renOcy (#), n. Abhorrence. [Obs.]
AbOhor6rent (#), a. [L. abhorens, Orentis, p. pr. of
abhorrere.] 1. Abhorring; detesting; having or showing
abhorrence; loathing; hence, strongly opposed to; as,
abhorrent thoughts.
The persons most abhorrent from blood and treason.
The arts of pleasure in despotic courts
I spurn abhorrent.
2. Contrary or repugnant; discordant; inconsistent; P
followed by to. =Injudicious profanation, so abhorrent to
our stricter principles.8
3. Detestable. =Pride, abhorrent as it is.8
I. Taylor.
AbOhor6rentOly, adv. With abhorrence.
AbOhor6rer (#), n. One who abhors.
AbOhor6riOble (#), a. Detestable. [R.]
AbOhor6ring (#), n. 1. Detestation.
2. Object of abhorrence.
Isa. lxvi. 24.
X A6bib (#), n. [Heb. abFb, lit. an ear of corn. The month
was so called from barley being at that time in ear.] The
first month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, corresponding
nearly to our April. After the Babylonish captivity this
month was called Nisan.
AObid6ance (#), n. The state of abiding; abode; continuance;
compliance (with).
The Christians had no longer abidance in the holy hill of
A judicious abidance by rules.
AObide6 (#), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Abode (#), formerly Abid
(#); p. pr. & vb. n. Abiding (#).] [AS. >bFdan; pref. ? (cf.
Goth. usO, G. erO, orig. meaning out) + bFdan to bide. See
Bide.] 1. To wait; to pause; to delay. [Obs.]
2. To stay; to continue in a place; to have one's abode; to
dwell; to sojourn; P with with before a person, and commonly
with at or in before a place.
Let the damsel abide with us a few days.
Gen. xxiv. 55.
3. To remain stable or fixed in some state or condition; to
continue; to remain.
Let every man abide in the same calling.
1 Cor. vii. 20.
Followed by by: To abide by. (a) To stand to; to adhere; to
The poor fellow was obstinate enough to abide by what he
said at first.
(b) To acquiesce; to conform to; as, to abide by a decision
or an award.
AObide6, v. t. 1. To wait for; to be prepared for; to await;
to watch for; as, I abide my time. =I will abide the coming
of my lord.8
[Obs., with a personal object.]
Bonds and afflictions abide me.
Acts xx. 23.
2. To endure; to sustain; to submit to.
[Thou] shalt abide her judgment on it.
3. To bear patiently; to tolerate; to put up with.
She could not abide Master Shallow.
4. [Confused with aby to pay for. See Aby.] To stand the
consequences of; to answer for; to suffer for.
Dearly I abide that boast so vain.
AObid6er (#), n. 1. One who abides, or continues. [Obs.]
=Speedy goers and strong abiders.8
2. One who dwells; a resident.
AObid6ing, a. Continuing; lasting.
AObid6ingOly, adv. Permanently.
X A6biOes (#), n. [L., fir tree.] (Bot.) A genus of
coniferous trees, properly called Fir, as the balsam fir and
the silver fir. The spruces are sometimes also referred to
this genus.
Ab6iOeOtene (#), n. [L. abies, abietis, a fir tree.] A
volatile oil distilled from the resin or balsam of the nut
pine (Pinus sabiniana) of California.
Ab7iOet6ic (#), a. Of or pertaining to the fir tree or its
products; as, abietic acid, called also sylvic acid.
Ab6iOeOtin, Ab6iOeOtine } (#), n. [See Abietene.] (Chem.) A
resinous obtained from Strasburg turpentine or Canada
balsam. It is without taste or smell, is insoluble in water,
but soluble in alcohol (especially at the boiling point), in
strong acetic acid, and in ether.
Ab7iOtin6ic (#), a. Of or pertaining to abietin; as,
abietinic acid.
Ab6iOtite (#), n. (Chem.) A substance resembling mannite,
found in the needles of the common silver fir of Europe
(Abies pectinata).
Eng. Cyc.
Ab6iOgail (#), n. [The proper name used as an appellative.]
A lady's waitingPmaid.
Her abigail reported that Mrs. Gutheridge had a set of night
curls for sleeping in.
AObil6iOment (#), n. Habiliment. [Obs.]
AObil6iOty (#), n.; pl. Abilities (#). [F. habilet, earlier
spelling habilit (with silent h), L. habilitas aptitude,
ability, fr. habilis apt. See Able.] The quality or state of
being able; power to perform, whether physical, moral,
intellectual, conventional, or legal; capacity; skill or
competence in doing; sufficiency of strength, skill,
resources, etc.; P in the plural, faculty, talent.
Then the disciples, every man according to his ability,
determined to send relief unto the brethren.
Acts xi. 29.
Natural abilities are like natural plants, that need pruning
by study.
The public men of England, with much of a peculiar kind of
Syn. P Capacity; talent; cleverness; faculty; capability;
efficiency; aptitude; aptness; address; dexterity; skill.
Ability, Capacity. These words come into comparison when
applied to the higher intellectual powers. Ability has
reference to the active exercise of our faculties. It
implies not only native vigor of mind, but that ease and
promptitude of execution which arise from mental training.
Thus, we speak of the ability with which a book is written,
an argument maintained, a negotiation carried on, etc. It
always something to be done, and the power of doing it.
Capacity has reference to the receptive powers. In its
higher exercises it supposes great quickness of apprehension
and breadth of intellect, with an uncommon aptitude for
acquiring and retaining knowledge. Hence it carries with it
the idea of resources and undeveloped power. Thus we speak
of the extraordinary capacity of such men as Lord Bacon,
Blaise Pascal, and Edmund Burke. =Capacity,8 says H. Taylor,
=is requisite to devise, and ability to execute, a great
enterprise.8 The word abilities, in the plural, embraces
both these qualities, and denotes high mental endowments.
AObime6 or AObyme6 (#), n. [F. ab me. See Abysm.] A abyss.
Ab7iOoOgen6eOsis (#), n. [Gr. ? priv. + ? life + ?, origin,
birth.] (Biol.) The supposed origination of living organisms
from lifeless matter; such genesis as does not involve the
action of living parents; spontaneous generation; P called
also abiogeny, and opposed to biogenesis.
I shall call the... doctrine that living matter may be
produced by not living matter, the hypothesis of
Huxley, 1870.
Ab7iOoOgeOnet6ic (#), a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to
abiogenesis. P Ab7iOoOgeOnet6icOalOly (#), adv.
Ab7iOog6eOnist (#), n. (Biol.) One who believes that life
can be produced independently of antecedent.
Ab7iOog6eOnous (#), a. (Biol.) Produced by spontaneous
Ab7iOog6eOny (#), n. (Biol.) Same as Abiogenesis.
Ab7iOoOlog6icOal (#), a. [Gr. ? priv. + E. biological.]
Pertaining to the study of inanimate things.
AbOir6riOtant (#), n. (Med.) A medicine that diminishes
AbOir6riOtate (#), v. t. [Pref. abO + irritate.] (Med.) To
diminish the sensibility of; to debilitate.
AbOir7riOta6tion (#), n. (Med.) A pathological condition
opposite to that of irritation; debility; want of strength;
AbOir6riOtaOtive (#), a. (Med.) Characterized by
abirritation or debility.
AObit6 (#), 3d sing. pres. of Abide. [Obs.]
Ab6ject (#), a. [L. abjectus, p. p. of abjicere to throw
away; ab + jacere to throw. See Jet a shooting forth.] 1.
Cast down; lowPlying. [Obs.]
From the safe shore their floating carcasses
And broken chariot wheels; so thick bestrown
Abject and lost lay these, covering the flood.
2. Sunk to a law condition; down in spirit or hope;
degraded; servile; groveling; despicable; as, abject
posture, fortune, thoughts. =Base and abject flatterers.8
Addison. =An abject liar.8 Macaulay.
And banish hence these abject, lowly dreams.
Syn. P Mean; groveling; cringing; meanPspirited; slavish;
ignoble; worthless; vile; beggarly; contemptible; degraded.
AbOject6 (#), v. t. [From Abject, a.] To cast off or down;
hence, to abase; to degrade; to lower; to debase. [Obs.]
Ab6ject (#), n. A person in the lowest and most despicable
condition; a castaway. [Obs.]
Shall these abjects, these victims, these outcasts, know any
thing of pleasure?
I. Taylor.
AbOject6edOness (#), n. A very abject or low condition;
abjectness. [R.]
AbOjec6tion (#), n. [F. abjection, L. abjectio.] 1. The act
of bringing down or humbling. =The abjection of the king and
his realm.8
2. The state of being rejected or cast out. [R.]
An adjection from the beatific regions where God, and his
angels and saints, dwell forever.
Jer. Taylor.
3. A low or downcast state; meanness of spirit; abasement;
That this should be termed baseness, abjection of mind, or
servility, is it credible?
Ab6jectOly (#), adv. Meanly; servilely.
Ab6jectOness, n. The state of being abject; abasement;
meanness; servility.
AbOjudge6 (#), v. t. [Pref. abO + judge, v. Cf. Abjudicate.]
To take away by judicial decision. [R.]
AbOju6diOcate (#), v. t. [L. abjudicatus, p. p. of
abjudicare; ab + judicare. See Judge, and cf. Abjudge.] To
reject by judicial sentence; also, to abjudge. [Obs.]
AbOju7diOca6tion (#), n. Rejection by judicial sentence.
Ab6juOgate (#), v. t. [L. abjugatus, p. p. of abjugare.] To
unyoke. [Obs.]
AbOjunc6tive (#), a. [L. abjunctus, p. p. of abjungere; ab +
jungere to join.] Exceptional. [R.]
It is this power which leads on from the accidental and
abjunctive to the universal.
I. Taylor.
Ab7juOra6tion (#), n. [L. abjuratio: cf. F. abjuration.] 1.
The act of abjuring or forswearing; a renunciation upon
oath; as, abjuration of the realm, a sworn banishment, an
oath taken to leave the country and never to return.
2. A solemn recantation or renunciation; as, an abjuration
of heresy.
Oath of abjuration, an oath asserting the right of the
present royal family to the crown of England, and expressly
abjuring allegiance to the descendants of the Pretender.
Brande & C.
AbOju6raOtoOry (#), a. Containing abjuration.
AbOjure6 (#), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Abjured (#); p. pr. & vb.
n. Abjuring (#).] [L. abjurare to deny upon oath; ab +
jurare to swear, fr. jus, juris, right, law; cf. F. abjurer.
See Jury.] 1. To renounce upon oath; to forswear; to
disavow; as, to abjure allegiance to a prince. To abjure the
realm, is to swear to abandon it forever.
2. To renounce or reject with solemnity; to recant; to
abandon forever; to reject; repudiate; as, to abjure errors.
=Magic I here abjure.8
Syn. P See Renounce.
AbOjure6, v. i. To renounce on oath.
Bp. Burnet.
AbOjure6ment (#), n. Renunciation. [R.]
AbOjur6er (#), n. One who abjures.
AbOlac6tate (#), v. t. [L. ablactatus, p. p. of ablactare;
ab + lactare to suckle, fr. lac milk.] To wean. [R.]
Ab7lacOta6tion (#). n. 1. The weaning of a child from the
breast, or of young beasts from their dam.
2. (Hort.) The process of grafting now called inarching, or
grafting by approach.
AbOla6queOate (#), v. t. [L. ablaqueatus, p. p. of.
ablaqueare; fr. ab + laqueus a noose.] To lay bare, as the
roots of a tree. [Obs.]
AbOla7queOa6tion (#), n. [L. ablaqueatio.] The act or
process of laying bare the roots of trees to expose them to
the air and water. [Obs.]
Ab7lasOtem6ic (#), a. [Gr. ? priv. + ? growth.] (Biol.)
AbOla6tion (#), n. [L. ablatio, fr. ablatus p. p. of auferre
to carry away; ab + latus, p. p. of ferre carry: cf. F.
ablation. See Tolerate.] 1. A carrying or taking away;
Jer. Taylor.
2. (Med.) Extirpation.
3. (Geol.) Wearing away; superficial waste.
Ab7laOti6tious (#), a. Diminishing; as, an ablatitious
Sir J. Herschel.
Ab6laOtive (#), a. [F. ablatif, ablative, L. ablativus fr.
ablatus. See Ablation.] 1. Taking away or removing. [Obs.]
Where the heart is forestalled with misopinion, ablatire
directions are found needful to unteach error, ere we can
learn truth.
Bp. Hall.
2. (Gram.) Applied to one of the cases of the noun in Latin
and some other languages, P the fundamental meaning of the
case being removal, separation, or taking away.
Ab6laOtive, (Gram.) The ablative case.
ablative absolute, costruction in Latin, in which a noun in
the ablative case has a participle (either expressed or
implied), agreeing with it in gender, number, and case, both
words forming a clause by themselves and being unconnected,
grammatically, with the rest of the sentence; as, Tarquinio
regnante, Pythagoras venit, i. e., Tarquinius reigning,
Pythagoras came.
X Ab6laut (#), n. [Ger., offPsound; ab off + laut sound.]
(Philol.) The substitution of one root vowel for another,
thus indicating a corresponding modification of use or
meaning; vowel permutation; as, get, gat, got; sing, song;
hang, hung.

AOblaze6 (#), adv. & a. [Pref. aO + blaze.] 1. On fire; in a
blaze, gleaming.
All ablaze with crimson and gold.
2. In a state of glowing excitement or ardent desire.
The young Cambridge democrats were all ablaze to assist
A6ble (#), a. [Comp. Abler (#); superl. Ablest (#).] [OF.
habile, L. habilis that may be easily held or managed, apt,
skillful, fr. habere to have, hold. Cf. Habile and see
Habit.] 1. Fit; adapted; suitable. [Obs.]
A many man, to ben an abbot able.
2. Having sufficient power, strength, force, skill, means,
or resources of any kind to accomplish the object; possessed
of qualifications rendering competent for some end;
competent; qualified; capable; as, an able workman, soldier,
seaman, a man able to work; a mind able to reason; a person
able to be generous; able to endure pain; able to play on a
3. Specially: Having intellectual qualifications, or strong
mental powers; showing ability or skill; talented; clever;
powerful; as, the ablest man in the senate; an able speech.
No man wrote abler state papers.
4. (Law) Legally qualified; possessed of legal competence;
as, able to inherit or devise property.
Able for, is Scotticism. =Hardly able for such a march.8
Syn. P Competent; qualified; fitted; efficient; effective;
capable; skillful; clever; vigorous; powerful.
A6ble, v. t. [See Able, a.] [Obs.] 1. To make able; to
enable; to strengthen.
2. To vouch for. =I 'll able them.8
OaOble (#). [F. Oable, L. Oabilis.] An adjective suffix now
usually in a passive sense; able to be; fit to be;
expressing capacity or worthiness in a passive sense; as,
movable, able to be moved; amendable, able to be amended;
blamable, fit to be blamed; salable.
The form Oible is used in the same sense.
5 It is difficult to say when we are not to use Oable
instead of Oible. =Yet a rule may be laid down as to when we
are to use it. To all verbs, then, from the AngloPSaxon, to
all based on the uncorrupted infinitival stems of Latin
verbs of the first conjugation, and to all substantives,
whencesoever sprung, we annex Oable only.8
Fitzed. Hall.
A7blePbod6ied (#), a. Having a sound, strong body;
physically competent; robust. =AblePbodied vagrant.8 Froude.
P A7blePbod6iedOness, n.
Ab6leOgate (#), v. t. [L. ablegatus, p. p. of ablegare; ab +
legare to send with a commission. See Legate.] To send
abroad. [Obs.]
Ab6leOgate (#), n. (R. C. Ch.) A representative of the pope
charged with important commissions in foreign countries, one
of his duties being to bring to a newly named cardinal his
insignia of office.
Ab7leOga6tion (#), n. [L. ablegatio.] The act of sending
abroad. [Obs.]
Jer. Taylor.
A7blePmind6ed (#), a. Having much intellectual power. P
A7blePmind6edOness, n.
A6bleOness (#), n. Ability of body or mind; force; vigor.
[Obs. or R.]
Ab6lepOsy (#), n. [Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? to see.] Blindness.
A6bler (#), a., comp. of Able. P A6blest (#), a., superl. of
Ab6let (#), Ab6len ] [F. ablet, ablette, a dim. fr. LL.
abula, for albula, dim. of albus white. Cf. Abele.] (Zol.)
A small freshPwater fish (Leuciscus alburnus); the bleak.
Ab6liOgate (#), v. t. [L. ab + ligatus, p. p. of ligare to
tie.] To tie up so as to hinder from. [Obs.]
AbOlig7uOri6tion (?), n. [L. abligurito, fr. abligurire to
spend in luxurious indulgence; ab + ligurire to be
lickerish, dainty, fr. lingere to lick.] Prodigal expense
for food. [Obs.]
A6blins (#), adv. [See Able.] Perhaps. [Scot.]
AObloom6 (#), adv. [Pref. aO + bloom.] In or into bloom; in
a blooming state.
AbOlude6 (#), v. t. [L. abludere; ab + ludere to play.] To
be unlike; to differ. [Obs.]
Bp. Hall.
Ab6luOent (#), a. [L. abluens, p. pr. of. abluere to wash
away; ab + luere (lavere, lavare). See Lave.] Washing away;
carrying off impurities; detergent. P n. (Med.) A detergent.
AOblush6 (#), adv. & a. [Pref. aO + blush.] Blushing; ruddy.
AbOlu7tion (#), n. [L. ablutio, fr. abluere: cf. F.
ablution. See Abluent.] 1. The act of washing or cleansing;
specifically, the washing of the body, or some part of it,
as a religious rite.
2. The water used in cleansing. =Cast the ablutions in the
3. (R. C. Ch.) A small quantity of wine and water, which is
used to wash the priest's thumb and index finger after the
communion, and which then, as perhaps containing portions of
the consecrated elements, is drunk by the priest.
AbOlu6tionOaOry (#), a. Pertaining to ablution.
AbOlu6viOon (#), n. [LL. abluvio. See Abluent.] That which
is washed off. [R.]
A6bly (#), adv. In an able manner; with great ability; as,
ably done, planned, said.
OaObly (#). A suffix composed of Oable and the adverbial
suffix Oly; as, favorably.
Ab6neOgate (#), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Abnegated; p. pr. & vb.
n. Abnegating.] [L. abnegatus,p. p. of abnegare; ab + negare
to deny. See Deny.] To deny and reject; to abjure.
Sir E. Sandys. Farrar.
Ab7neOga6tion (#), n. [L. abnegatio: cf. F. abngation.] a
denial; a renunciation.
With abnegation of God, of his honor, and of religion, they
may retain the friendship of the court.
Ab6neOgaOtive (#), a. [L. abnegativus.] Denying; renouncing;
negative. [R.]
Ab6nePga7tor (#), n. [L.] One who abnegates, denies, or
rejects anything. [R.]
X Ab6net (#), n. [Heb.] The girdle of a Jewish priest or
Ab6noOdate (#), v. t. [L. abnodatus, p. p. of abnodare; ab +
nodus knot.] To clear (tress) from knots. [R.]
Ab7noOda6tion (#), n. The act of cutting away the knots of
trees. [R.]
AbOnor6mal (#), a. [For earlier anormal.F. anormal, LL.
anormalus for anomalus, Gr. ?. Confused with L. abnormis.
See Anomalous, Abnormous, Anormal.] Not conformed to rule or
system; deviating from the type; anomalous; irregular. =That
deviating from the type; anomalous; irregular. 8
Ab7norOmal6iOty (#), n.; pl. Abnormalities (#). 1. The state
or quality of being abnormal; variation; irregularity.
2. Something abnormal.
AbOnor6malOly (#), adv. In an abnormal manner; irregularly.
AbOnor6miOty (#), n.; pl. Abnormities (#). [LL. abnormitas.
See Abnormous.] Departure from the ordinary type;
irregularity; monstrosity. =An abnormity... like a calf born
with two heads.8
Mrs. Whitney.
AbOnor6mous (#), a. [L. abnormis; ab + norma rule. See
Normal.] Abnormal; irregular.
A character of a more abnormous cast than his equally
suspected coadjutor.
State Trials.
AOboard6 (#), adv. [Pref. aO on, in + board.]
. On board; into or within a ship or boat; hence, into or
within a railway car.
2. Alongside; as, close aboard.
Naut.: To fall aboard of, to strike a ship's side; to fall
foul of. P To haul the tacks aboard, to set the courses. P
To keep the land aboard, to hug the shore. P To lay (a ship)
aboard, to place one's own ship close alongside of (a ship)
for fighting.
AOboard6, prep. 1. On board of; as, to go aboard a ship.
2.Across; athwart. [Obs.]
Nor iron bands aboard
The Pontic Sea by their huge navy cast.
AObod6ance (#), n. [See Bode.] An omen; a portending. [Obs.]
AObode6 (#), pret. of Abide.
AObode6, n. [OE. abad, abood, fr. abiden to abide. See
Abide. For the change of vowel, cf. abode, imp. of abide.]
1. Act of waiting; delay. [Obs.]
And with her fled away without abode.
2. Stay or continuance in a place; sojourn.
He waxeth at your abode here.
3. Place of continuance, or where one dwells; abiding place;
residence; a dwelling; a habitation.
Come, let me lead you to our poor abode.
AObode6, n. [See Bode, v. t.] An omen. [Obs.]
HighPthundering Juno's husband stirs my spirit with true
AObode6, v. t. To bode; to foreshow. [Obs.]
AObode6, v. i. To be ominous. [Obs.]
AObode6ment (#), n. A foreboding; an omen. [Obs.]
=Abodements must not now affright us.8
AObod6ing (#), n. A foreboding. [Obs.]
AObol6ish (#), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Abolished (#); p. pr. &
vb. n. Abolishing.] [F. abolir, L. abolere, aboletum; ab +
olere to grow. Cf. Finish.]
1. To do away with wholly; to annul; to make void; P said of
laws, customs, institutions, governments, etc.; as, to
abolish slavery, to abolish folly.
2. To put an end to, or destroy, as a physical objects; to
wipe out. [Archaic]
And with thy blood abolish so reproachful blot.
His quick instinctive hand
Caught at the hilt, as to abolish him.
Syn. P To Abolish, Repeal, Abrogate, Revoke, Annul, Nullify,
Cancel. These words have in common the idea of setting aside
by some overruling act. Abolish applies particularly to
things of a permanent nature, such as institutions, usages,
customs, etc.; as, to abolish monopolies, serfdom, slavery.
Repeal describes the act by which the legislature of a state
sets aside a law which it had previously enacted. Abrogate
was originally applied to the repeal of a law by the Roman
people; and hence, when the power of making laws was usurped
by the emperors, the term was applied to their act of
setting aside the laws. Thus it came to express that act by
which a sovereign or an executive government sets aside
laws, ordinances, regulations, treaties, conventions, etc.
Revoke denotes the act or recalling some previous grant
which conferred, privilege, etc.; as, to revoke a decree, to
revoke a power of attorney, a promise, etc. Thus, also, we
speak of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Annul is
used in a more general sense, denoting simply to make void;
as, to annul a contract, to annul an agreement. Nullify is
an old word revived in this country, and applied to the
setting of things aside either by force or by total
disregard; as, to nullify an act of Congress. Cancel is to
strike out or annul, by a deliberate exercise of power,
something which has operative force.
AObol6ishOaOble (#), a. [Cf. F. abolissable.] Capable of
being abolished.
AObol6ishOer (#), n. One who abolishes.
AObol6ishOment (#), n. [Cf. F. abolissement.] The act of
abolishing; abolition; destruction.
Ab6oOli6tion (#), n. [L. abolitio, fr. abolere: cf. F.
abolition. See Abolish.] The act of abolishing, or the state
of being abolished; an annulling; abrogation; utter
destruction; as, the abolition of slavery or the slave
trade; the abolition of laws, decrees, ordinances, customs,
taxes, debts, etc.
5 The application of this word to persons is now unusual or
Ab7oOli6tionOism (#), n. The principles or measures of
Ab7oOli6tionOist, n. A person who favors the abolition of
any institution, especially negro slavery.
Ab7oOli7tionOize (#), v. t. To imbue with the principles of
abolitionism. [R.]
X AObo6ma (#), n. (Zol.) A large South American serpent
(Boa aboma).
X Ab7oOma6sum (#), X Ab7oOma6sus (#), } n. [NL., fr. L. ab +
omasum (a Celtic word.) (Anat.) The fourth or digestive
stomach of a ruminant, which leads from the third stomach
omasum. See Ruminantia.
AOboom6iOnaOble (#), a. [F. abominable. L. abominalis. See
Abominate.] 1. Worthy of, or causing, abhorrence, as a thing
of evil omen; odious in the utmost degree; very hateful;
detestable; loathsome; execrable.
2. Excessive; large; P used as an intensive. [Obs.]
5 Juliana Berners... informs us that in her time [15th c.],
=a bomynable syght of monkes8 was elegant English for =a
large company of friars.8
G. P. Marsh.
AObom6iOnaObleOness, n. The quality or state of being
abominable; odiousness.
AObom6iOnaObly (#), adv. In an abominable manner; very
odiously; detestably.
AObom6iOnate (#), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Abominated; p. pr. &
vb. n. Abominating.] [L. abominatus, p. p. or abominari to
deprecate as ominous, to abhor, to curse; ab + omen a
foreboding. See Omen.] To turn from as illPomened; to hate
in the highest degree, as if with religious dread; loathe;
as, to abominate all impiety.
Syn. P To hate; abhor; loathe; detest. See Hate.
AObom7iOna6tion (#), n. [OE. abominacioun, Ocion, F.
abominatio. See Abominate.] 1. The feeling of extreme
disgust and hatred; abhorrence; detestation; loathing; as,
he holds tobacco in abomination.
2. That which is abominable; anything hateful, wicked, or
shamefully vile; an object or state that excites disgust and
hatred; a hateful or shameful vice; pollution.
Antony, most large in his abominations.
3. A cause of pollution or wickedness.
Syn. P Detestation; loathing; abhorrence; disgust; aversion;
loathsomeness; odiousness.
AObom6iOna7tor (#), n. One who abominates.
Sir W. Scott.
AOboon6 (#), prep. and adv. Above. [Scot. & Prov. Eng.]
Aboon the pass of BallyPBrough.
Sir W. Scott.
The ceiling fair that rose aboon.
J. R. Drake.
AbOo6ral (#), a. [L. ab. + E. oral.] (Zol.) Situated
opposite to, or away from, the mouth.
X AObord6 (#), n. [F.] Manner of approaching or accosting;
AObord6 (#), v. t. [F. aborder, ? (L. ad) + bord rim, brim,
or side of a vessel. See Border, Board.] To approach; to
accost. [Obs.]
Ab7oOrig6iOnal (#), a. [See Aborigines.]
1. First; original; indigenous; primitive; native; as, the
aboriginal tribes of America. =Mantled o'er with aboriginal
2. Of or pertaining to aborigines; as, a Hindoo of
aboriginal blood.
Ab7oOrig6iOnal, n. 1. An original inhabitant of any land;
one of the aborigines.
2. An animal or a plant native to the region.
It may well be doubted whether this frog is an aboriginal of
these islands.
Ab7oOrig7iOnal6iOty (#), n. The quality of being aboriginal.
Westm. Rev.
Ab7oOrig6iOnalOly (#), adv. Primarily.
Ab7oOrig6iOness (#), n. pl. [L. Aborigines; ab + origo,
especially the first inhabitants of Latium, those who
originally (ab origine) inhabited Latium or Italy. See
Origin.] 1. The earliest known inhabitants of a country;
native races.
2. The original fauna and flora of a geographical area
AOborse6ment (#), n. Abortment; abortion. [Obs.]
Bp. Hall.
AObor6sive (#), a. Abortive. [Obs.]
AObort6 (#), v. i. [L. abortare, fr. abortus, p. p. of
aboriri; ab + oriri to rise, to be born. See Orient.]
1. To miscarry; to bring forth young prematurely.
2. (Biol.) To become checked in normal development, so as
either to remain rudimentary or shrink away wholly; to
become sterile.
AObort6, n. [L. abortus, fr. aboriri.] 1. An untimely birth.
Sir H. Wotton.
2. An aborted offspring. [Obs.]
AObort6ed, a. 1. Brought forth prematurely.
2. (Biol.) Rendered abortive or sterile; undeveloped;
checked in normal development at a very early stage; as,
spines are aborted branches.
The eyes of the cirripeds are more or less aborted in their
mature state.

AObor6tiOcide (#), n. [L. abortus + caedere to kill. See
Abort.] (Med.) The act of destroying a fetus in the womb;
AObor7tiOfa6cient (#), a. [L. abortus (see Abort, v.) +
faciens, p. pr. of facere to make.] Producing miscarriage. P
n. A drug or an agent that causes premature delivery.
AObor6tion (#), n. [L. abortio, fr. aboriri. See Abort.] 1.
The act of giving premature birth; particularly, the
expulsion of the human fetus prematurely, or before it is
capable of sustaining life; miscarriage.
5 Ii is sometimes used for the offense of procuring a
premature delivery, but strictly the early delivery is the
abortion, =causing or procuring abortion8 is the full name
of the offense.

p. 6

2. The immature product of an untimely birth.
3. (Biol.) Arrest of development of any organ, so that it
remains an imperfect formation or is absorbed.
4. Any fruit or produce that does not come to maturity, or
anything which in its progress, before it is matured or
perfect; a complete failure; as, his attempt. proved an
AObor6tionOal (#), a. Pertaining to abortion; miscarrying;
AObor6tionOist, n. One who procures abortion or miscarriage.
AObor6tive (#), a. [L. abortivus, fr. aboriri. See Abort,
v.] 1. Produced by abortion; born prematurely; as, an
abortive child. [R.]
2. Made from the skin of a stillOborn animal; as, abortive
vellum. [Obs.]
3. Rendering fruitless or ineffectual. [Obs.] =Plunged in
that abortive gulf.8
4. Coming to naught; failing in its effect; miscarrying;
fruitless; unsuccessful; as, an abortive attempt. =An
abortive enterprise.8
5. (Biol.) Imperfectly formed or developed; rudimentary;
sterile; as, an abortive organ, stamen, ovule, etc.
6. (Med.) (a) Causing abortion; as, abortive medicines.
Parr. (b) Cutting short; as, abortive treatment of typhoid
AObor6tive, n. 1. That which is born or brought forth
prematurely; an abortion. [Obs.]
2. A fruitless effort or issue. [Obs.]
3. A medicine to which is attributed the property of causing
AObor6tiveOly, adv. In an abortive or untimely manner;
immaturely; fruitlessly.
AObor6tiveOness, n. The quality of being abortive.
AObort6ment (#), n. Abortion. [Obs.]
AObought6 (#), imp. & p. p. of Aby. [Obs.]
AObound6 (#), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Abounded; p. pr. & vb. n.
Abounding.] [OE. abounden, F. abonder, fr. L. abundare to
overflow, abound; ab + unda wave. Cf. Undulate.] 1. To be in
great plenty; to be very prevalent; to be plentiful.
The wild boar which abounds in some parts of the continent
of Europe.
Where sin abounded grace did much more abound.
Rom. v. 20.
2. To be copiously supplied; P followed by in or with.
To abound in, to posses in such abundance as to be
characterized by. P To abound with, to be filled with; to
possess in great numbers.
Men abounding in natural courage.
A faithful man shall abound with blessings.
Prov. xxviii. 20.
It abounds with cabinets of curiosities.
AObout6 (#), prep. [OE. aboute, abouten, abuten; AS. >butan,
onbutan; on + butan, which is from be by + utan outward,
from ut out. See But, Out.]
1. Around; all round; on every side of. =Look about you.8
Shak. =Bind them about thy neck.8 Prov. iii. 3.
2. In the immediate neighborhood of; in contiguity or
proximity to; near, as to place; by or on (one's person).
=Have you much money about you?8
3. Over or upon different parts of; through or over in
various directions; here and there in; to and fro in;
Lampoons... were handed about the coffeehouses.
Roving still about the world.
4. Near; not far from; P determining approximately time,
size, quantity. =ToPmorrow, about this time.8 Exod. ix. 18.
=About my stature.8 Shak.
He went out about the third hour.
Matt. xx. 3.
5 This use passes into the adverbial sense.
5. In concern with; engaged in; intent on.
I must be about my Father's business.
Luke ii. 49.
6. Before a verbal noun or an infinitive: On the point or
verge of; going; in act of.
Paul was now aboutto open his mouth.
Acts xviii. 14.
7. Concerning; with regard to; on account of; touching. =To
treat about thy ransom.8
She must have her way about Sarah.
AObout6, adv. 1. On all sides; around.
'Tis time to look about.
2. In circuit; circularly; by a circuitous way; around the
outside; as, a mile about, and a third of a mile across.
3. Here and there; around; in one place and another.
Wandering about from house to house.
1 Tim. v. 13.
4. Nearly; approximately; with close correspondence, in
quality, manner, degree, etc.; as, about as cold; about as
high; P also of quantity, number, time. =There fell... about
three thousand men.8
Exod. xxii. 28.
5. To a reserved position; half round; in the opposite
direction; on the opposite tack; as, to face about; to turn
one's self about.
To bring about, to cause to take place; to accomplish. P To
come about, to occur; to take place. See under Come. P To go
about, To set about, to undertake; to arrange; to prepare.
=Shall we set about some revels? Shak. P Round about, in
every direction around.
AObout6Psledge6 (#), n. The largest hammer used by smiths.
AObove6 (#), prep. [OE. above, aboven, abuffe, AS. abufon;
an (or on) on + be by + ufan upward; cf. Goth. uf under.
?199. See Over.] 1. In or to a higher place; higher than; on
or over the upper surface; over; P opposed to below or
Fowl that may fly above the earth.
Gen. i. 20.
2. Figuratively, higher than; superior to in any respect;
surpassing; beyond; higher in measure or degree than; as,
things above comprehension; above mean actions; conduct
above reproach. =Thy worth... is actions above my gifts.8
I saw in the way a light from heaven above the brightness of
the sun.
Acts xxxvi. 13.
3. Surpassing in number or quantity; more than; as, above a
hundred. (Passing into the adverbial sense. See Above,
adv., 4.)
above all, before every other consideration; chiefly; in
preference to other things.
Over and above, prep. or adv., besides; in addition to.
AObove6 (#), adv. 1. In a higher place; overhead; into or
from heaven; as, the clouds above.
2. Earlier in order; higher in the same page; hence, in a
foregoing page. 8That was said above.8
3. Higher in rank or power; as, he appealed to the court
4. More than; as, above five hundred were present.
Above is often used elliptically as an adjective by omitting
the word mentioned, quoted, or the like; as, the above
observations, the above reference, the above articles. P
Above is also used substantively. =The waters that come down
from above.8
Josh. iii. 13.
It is also used as the first part of a compound in the sense
of before, previously; as, abovePcited, abovePdescribed,
abovePmentioned, abovePnamed, abovesaid, abovespecified,
abovePwritten, abovePgiven.
AObove6board7 (#), adv. Above the board or table. Hence: in
open sight; without trick, concealment, or deception. =Fair
and aboveboard.8
5 This expression is said by Johnson to have been borrowed
from gamesters, who, when they change their cards, put their
hands under the table.
AObove6Pcit7ed (#), a. Cited before, in the preceding part
of a book or writing.
AObove6deck7 (#), a. On deck; and hence, like aboveboard,
without artifice.
AObove6Pmen7tioned (#), AObove6Pnamed7 (#), a.
AObove6Pnamed7 (#), a. Mentioned or named before; aforesaid.
AObove6said7 (#), a. Mentioned or recited before.
AObox6 (#), adv. & a. (Naut.) Braced aback.
Ab7raOcaOdab6ra (#), n. [L. Of unknown origin.] A mystical
word or collocation of letters written as in the figure.
Worn on an amulet it was supposed to ward off fever. At
present the word is used chiefly in jest to denote something
without meaning; jargon.
AbOra6dant (#), n. A material used for grinding, as emery,
sand, powdered glass, etc.
AbOrade6 (#), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Abraded; p. pr. & vb. n.
Abrading.] [L. abradere, abrasum, to scrape off; ab + radere
to scrape. See Rase, Raze.] To rub or wear off; to waste or
wear away by friction; as, to abrade rocks.
AObrade6 (#), v. t. Same as Abraid. [Obs.]
A7braOham6ic (#), a. Pertaining to Abraham, the patriarch;
as, the Abrachamic covenant.
A7braOhamOit6ic, OicOal (#), a. Relating to the patriarch
A6braOhamPman7 (#) or A6bramPman7 (#), n. [Possibly in
allusion to the parable of the beggar Lazarus in Luke xvi.
Murray (New Eng. Dict.).] One of a set of vagabonds who
formerly roamed through England, feigning lunacy for the
sake of obtaining alms.
To sham Abraham, to feign sickness.
AObraid6 (#), v. t. & i. [OE. abraiden, to awake, draw (a
sword), AS. >bredgan to shake, draw; pref. >O (cf. Goth.
usO, Ger. erO, orig. meaning out) + bregdan to shake, throw.
See Braid.] To awake; to arouse; to stir or start up; also,
to shout out. [Obs.]
AObran6chiOal (#), a. (Zol.) Abranchiate.
X AObran7chiOa6ta (#), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. ? priv. + ?,
pl., the gills of fishes.] (Zol.) A group of annelids, so
called because the species composing it have no special
organs of respiration.
AObran6chiOate (#), a. (Zol.) Without gills.
AbOrase6 (#), a. [L. abrasus, p. p. of abradere. See
Abrade.] Rubbed smooth. [Obs.] =An abrase table.8
B. Jonson.
AbOra6sion (#), n. [L. abrasio, fr. abradere. See Abrade.]
1. The act of abrading, wearing, or rubbing off; the wearing
away by friction; as, the abrasion of coins.
2. The substance rubbed off.
3. (Med.) A superficial excoriation, with loss of substance
under the form of small shreds.
AbOra6sive (#), a. Producing abrasion.
AObraum6 or AObraum6 salts (#), n. [Ger., fr. abrumen to
remove.] A red ocher used to darken mahogany and for making
chloride of potassium.
X AObrax6as (#), n. [A name adopted by the Egyptian Gnostic
Basilides, containing the Greek letters , , , ,
, , which, as numerals, amounted to 365. It was
used to signify the supreme deity as ruler of the 365
heavens of his system.] A mystical word used as a charm and
engraved on gems among the ancients; also, a gem stone thus
AObray6 (#), v. [A false form from the preterit abraid,
abrayde.] See Abraid. [Obs.]
AObreast6 (#), adv. [Pref. aO + breast.] 1. Side by side,
with breasts in a line; as, =Two men could hardly walk
2. (Naut.) Side by side; also, opposite; over against; on a
line with the vessel's beam; P with of.
3. Up to a certain level or line; equally advanced; as, to
keep abreast of [or with] the present state of science.
4. At the same time; simultaneously. [Obs.]
Abreast therewith began a convocation.
AObreg6ge (#), v. t. See Abridge. [Obs.]
Ab7reOnounce6 (#), v. t. [L. abrenuntiare; ab + renuntiare.
See Renounce.] To renounce. [Obs.] =They abrenounce and cast
them off.8
Ab7reOnun7ciOa6tion (#), n. [LL. abrenuntiatio. See
Abrenounce.] Absolute renunciation or repudiation. [Obs.]
An abrenunciation of that truth which he so long had
professed, and still believed.
AbOrep6tion (#), n. [L. abreptus, p. p. of abripere to
snatch away; ab + rapere to snatch.] A snatching away.
X A7breu7voir6 (#), n. [F., a watering place.] (Masonry) The
joint or interstice between stones, to be filled with
A6briOcock (#), n. See Apricot. [Obs.]
AObridge6 (#), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Abridged (#); p. pr. &
vb. n. Abridging.] [OE. abregen, OF. abregier, F. abrger,
fr. L. abbreviare; ad + brevis short. See Brief and cf.
Abbreviate.] 1. To make shorter; to shorten in duration; to
lessen; to diminish; to curtail; as, to abridge labor; to
abridge power or rights. =The bridegroom... abridged his
She retired herself to Sebaste, and abridged her train from
state to necessity.
2. To shorten or contract by using fewer words, yet
retaining the sense; to epitomize; to condense; as, to
abridge a history or dictionary.
3. To deprive; to cut off; P followed by of, and formerly by
from; as, to abridge one of his rights.
AObridg6er (#), n. One who abridges.
AObridg6ment (#), n. [OE. abregement. See Abridge.] 1. The
act abridging, or the state of being abridged; diminution;

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