Part 11 out of 11
during this war, and to intimate that a refusal would be looked
upon as a resolution on their part to give no quarter. It was
visible a cartel would be of great advantage to the Prince's
affairs; his friends would be more ready to declare for him if
they had nothing to fear but the chance of war in the field; and
if the court of London refused to settle a cartel, the Prince was
authorized to treat his prisoners in the same manner the Elector
of Hanover was determined to treat such of the Prince's friends
as might fall into his hands: it was urged that a few examples
would compel the court of London to comply. It was to be
presumed that the officers of the English army would make a point
of it. They had never engaged in the service but upon such terms
as are in use among all civilized nations, and it could be no
stain upon their honour to lay down their commissions if these
terms were not observed, and that owing to the obstinacy of their
own Prince. Though this scheme was plausible, and represented as
very important, the Prince could never be brought into it: it
was below him, he said, to make empty threats, and he would never
put such as those into execution; he would never in cold blood
take away lives which he had saved in heat of action, at the
peril of his own. These were not the only proofs of good nature
the Prince gave about this time. Every day produced something
new of this kind. These things softened the rigour of a military
government, which was only imputed to the necessity of his
affairs, and which he endeavoured to make as gentle and easy as
It has been said, that the Prince sometimes exacted more state
and ceremonial than seemed to suit his condition; but, on the
other hand some strictness of etiquette was altogether
indispensable where he must otherwise have been exposed to
general intrusion. He could also endure, with a good grace, the
retorts which his affectation of ceremony sometimes exposed him
to. It is said, for example, that Grant of Glenmoriston having
made a hasty march to join Charles, at the head of his clan,
rushed into the Prince's presence at Holyrood with unceremonious
haste, without having attended to the duties of the toilet. The
Prince received him kindly, but not without a hint that a
previous interview with the barber might not have been wholly
unnecessary. 'It is not beardless boys,' answered the displeased
Chief, 'who are to do your Royal Highness's turn.' The Chevalier
took the rebuke in good part.
On the whole, if Prince Charles had concluded his life soon after
his miraculous escape, his character in history must have stood
very high. As it was, his station is amongst those, a certain
brilliant portion of whose life forms a remarkable contrast to
all which precedes, and all which follows it.
NOTE 32.--THE SKIRMISH AT CLIFTON
The following account of the skirmish at Clifton is extracted
from the manuscript Memoirs of Evan Macpherson of Cluny, chief of
the clan Macpherson who had the merit of supporting the principal
brunt of that spirited affair. The Memoirs appear to have been
composed about 1755, only ten years after the action had taken
place. They were written in France, where that gallant Chief
resided in exile, which accounts for some Gallicisms which occur
in the narrative.
'In the Prince's return from Derby back towards Scotland, my Lord
George Murray, Lieutenant-General, cheerfully charg'd himself
with the command of the rear; a post, which, altho' honourable,
was attended with great danger, many difficulties, and no small
fatigue; for the Prince being apprehensive that his retreat to
Scotland might be cut off by Marischall Wade, who lay to the
northward of him with an armie much superior to what H. R. H.
had, while the Duke of Comberland with his whole cavalrie
followed hard in the rear, was obliged to hasten his marches. It
was not, therefore, possible for the artilirie to march so fast
as the Prince's armie, in the depth of winter, extremely bad
weather, and the worst roads in England; so Lord George Murray
was obliged often to continue his marches long after it was dark
almost every night, while at the same time, he had frequent
allarms and disturbances from the Duke of Comberland's advanc'd
parties. Towards the evening of the twentie-eight December 1745,
the Prince entered the town of Penrith, in the Province of
Comberland. But as Lord George Murray could not bring up the
artilirie so fast as he wou'd have wish'd, he was obliged to pass
the night six miles short of that town, together with the
regiment of Mac-Donel of Glengarrie, which that day happened to
have the arrear guard. The Prince, in order to refresh his
armie, and to give my Lord George and the artilirie time to come
up, resolved to sejour the 29th at Penrith; so ordered his little
army to appear in the morning under arms, in order to be
reviewed, and to know in what manner the numbers stood from his
haveing entered England. It did not at that time amount to 5000
foot in all, with about 400 cavalrie, composed of the noblesse
who serv'd as volunteers, part of whom form'd a first troop of
guards for the Prince, under the command of My Lord Elchoe, now
Comte de Weems, who, being proscribed, is presently in France.
Another part formed a second troup of guards under the command of
My Lord Balmirino, who was beheaded at the Tower of London. A
third part serv'd under My Lord le Comte de Kilmarnock, who was
likewise beheaded at the Tower. A fourth part serv'd under My
Lord Pitsligow, who is also proscribed; which cavalrie, tho' very
few in numbers, being all Noblesse, were very brave, and of
infinite advantage to the foot, not only in the day of battle,
but in serving as advanced guards on the several marches, and in
patroling dureing the night on the different roads which led
towards the towns where the army happened to quarter.
'While this small army was out in a body on the 29th December,
upon a rising ground to the northward of Penrith, passing review,
Mons. de Cluny with his tribe, was ordered to the Bridge of
Clifton, about a mile to southward of Penrith, after having
pass'd in review before Mons. Patullo, who was charged with the
inspection of the troops, and was likewise Quarter Master General
of the army, and is now in France. They remained under arms at
the Bridge, waiting the arrival of My Lord George Murray with the
artilirie, whom Mons. de Cluny had orders to cover in passing the
bridge. They arrived about sunsett closely pursued by the Duke
of Comberland with the whole body of his cavalrie, reckoned
upwards of 3000 strong, about a thousand of whom, as near as
might be computed, dismounted, in order to cut off the passage of
the artilirie towards the bridge, while the Duke and the others
remained on horseback in order to attack the arrear. My Lord
George Murray advanced, and although he found Mons. de Cluny and
his tribe in good spirits under arms, yet the circumstance
appear'd extremely delicate. The numbers were vastly unequall,
and the attack seem'd very dangerous; so my Lord George declin'd
giving orders to such time as he ask'd Mons. de Cluny's oppinion.
"I will attack them with all my heart," says Mons. de Cluny, "if
you order me." "I do order it then," answered my Lord George, and
immediately went on himself along with Mons. de Cluny, and fought
sword in hand on foot, at the head of the single tribe of
Macphersons. They in a moment made their way through a strong
hedge of thorns, under the cover whereof the cavalrie had taken
their station, in the struggle of passing which hedge My Lord
George Murray, being dressed EN MONTAGNARD, as all the army were,
lost his bonnet and wig; so continued to fight bare-headed during
the action, They at first made a brisk discharge of their
firearms on the enemy, then attacked them with their sabres, and
made a great slaughter a considerable time, which obliged
Comberland and his cavalrie to fly with precipitation and in
great confusion; in so much, that if the Prince had been provided
in a sufficient number of cavalrie to have taken advantage of the
disorder, it is beyond question that the Duke of Comberland and
the bulk of his cavalrie had been taken prisoners. By this time
it was so dark that it was not possible to view or number the
slain, who filled all the ditches which happened to be on the
ground where they stood. But it was computed that, besides those
who went off wounded upwards of a hundred at least were left on
the spot, among whom was Colonel Honeywood, who commanded the
dismounted cavalrie, whose sabre, of considerable value, Mons. de
Cluny brought off and still preserves; and his tribe lykeways
brought off many arms;--the Colonel was afterwards taken up, and,
his wounds being dress'd, with great difficultie recovered.
Mons. de Cluny lost only in the action twelve men, of whom some
haveing been only wounded, fell afterwards into the hands of the
enemy, and were sent as slaves to America, whence several of them
returned, and one of them is now in France, a serjeant in the
Regiment of Royal Scots. How soon the accounts of the enemie's
approach had reached the Prince, H. R. H. had immediately ordered
Mi-Lord le Comte de Nairne, Brigadier, who, being proscribed, is
now in France, with the three batalions of the Duke of Athol, the
batalion of the Duke of Perth, and some other troups under his
command, in order to support Cluny, and to bring off the
artilirie. But the action was intirely over before the Comte de
Nairne, with his command, cou'd reach nigh to the place. They
therefore return'd all to Penrith, and the artilirie marched up
in good order. Nor did the Duke of Comberland ever afterwards
dare to come within a day's march of the Prince and his army
dureing the course of all that retreat, which was conducted with
great prudence and safety, when in some manner surrounded by
NOTE 33.--THE OATH UPON THE DIRK
As the heathen deities contracted an indelible obligation if they
swore by Styx, the Scottish Highlanders had usually some peculiar
solemnity attached to an oath which they intended should be
binding on them. Very frequently it consisted in laying their
hand, as they swore, on their own drawn dirk; which dagger,
becoming a party to the transaction, was invoked to punish any
breach of faith. But, by whatever ritual the oath was
sanctioned, the party was extremely desirous to keep secret what
the especial oath was, which he considered as irrevocable. This
was a matter of great convenience, as he felt no scruple in
breaking his asseveration when made in any other form than that
which he accounted as peculiarly solemn; and therefore readily
granted any engagement which bound him no longer than he
inclined. Whereas, if the oath which he accounted inviolable
was once publicly known, no party with whom he might have
occasion to contract, would have rested satisfied with any other.
Louis XI of France practised the same sophistry, for he also had
a peculiar species of oath, the only one which he was ever known
to respect, and which, therefore, he was very unwilling to
pledge. The only engagement which that wily tyrant accounted
binding upon him, was an oath by the Holy Cross of Saint Lo
d'Angers, which contained a Portion of the True Cross. If he
prevaricated after taking this oath, Louis believed he should
die within the year. The Constable Saint Paul, being invited to
a personal conference with Louis, refused to meet the king unless
he would agree to ensure him safe conduct under sanction of this
oath. But, says Comines, the king replied, he would never again
pledge that engagement to mortal man, though he was willing to
take any other oath which could be devised. The treaty broke
off, therefore, after much chaffering concerning the nature of
the vow which Louis was to take. Such is the difference between
the dictates of superstition and those of conscience.
ABIIT, EVASIT, ERUPIT, EFFUGIT, more correctly the quotation is,
'abiit, excessit, evasit, erupit': varying terms to express the
haste, secrecy, and energy of the flight.
ABOON or ABUNE, above.
ADSCRIPTI GLEBAE, slaves, transferred with the land to which they
are bound, from one possessor to another.
ALERTE A LA MURAILLE, 'Quick to the wall!'
ALEXANDER AB ALEXANDRO, Alexander the son of Alexander.
ALMA = 'alma mater terra', the land, the bounteous mother.
ALTER EGO, his other self.
AMBRY, AWMRY, chest.
ANILIA, old women's tales.
ASSOILZIED, acquitted, or absolved.
BARLEY, parley; CRY BARLEY IN A BRUILZIE, call a truce during a
BARON-BAILIE, steward of the estate.
BEAUFET, buffet, sideboard.
BEN, within (by, in).
BENT, open country.
BIBLIOPOLIST, seller of books.
BIRLIEMAN, a parish official.
BLIND, hidden, out of the way.
BLOOD-WIT, blood-money, compensation for homicide.
BON VIVANT, a lover of good fare.
BOUNE, make ready.
BRUCKLE, brittle, frail.
BRUILZIE, broil, scrimmage.
BUSK, get ready.
CAILLIACH, crone, old woman.
CAISSE MILITAIRE, military chest.
CANNY, shrewd; UNCANNY or NO CANNY, eerie.
CANTER, beggar; from the whining or 'canting' tone.
C'EST DES DEUX OREILLES, properly, 'c'est d'une oreille,' an
expression appreciative of good wine.
C'EST L'HOMME KI SE BAST ET KI CONSEILLE, it is the man who
fights and gives counsel.
CEAN-KINNE, head of the clan.
CEDANT ARMA TOGAE, let weapons give place to the citizen's robe.
CELA NE TIRE A RIEN, that counts for nothing.
CELA VA SANS DIRE, that goes without saying.
CHANGE-HOUSE, public house.
CLAMHEWIT, slash, clout.
CLAW FAVOUR, curry favour.
COM., short for COMITATUS = county.
CONCLAMARE VASA, to give the signal for baggage, i.e. for packing
CONGES, bowing and scraping.
COUPE-JARRET, cut-throat (literally, leg-chopper).
COUR PLENIERE, full court, state-reception.
COUTEAU DE CHASSE, hunting-knife.
COW YER CRACKS, stop your chatter.
CREAGH, foray, raid.
DANS SON TORT, in the wrong.
DE FACTO, in actual fact.
DE JURE, by legal right.
DEMELEE, extrication from a hobble.
DEOCH AN DORUIS, stirrup-cup.
DIAOUL!--CEADE MILLIA MOLLIGHEART, O the devil! a hundred
DINMONTS, year-old wethers.
DOER, factor, agent.
DORLACH, valise, portmanteau.
DUE DONZELLETTE GARRULE, two garrulous damsels.
ELISOS OCULOS, ET SICCUM SANGUINE GUTTUR, eyes squeezed out of
his head, and throat drained of blood.
EN ATTENDANT, meanwhile.
EN MOUSQUETAIRE, from a soldier's point of view.
EPULAE AD SENATUM, PRANDIUM VERO AD POPULUM ATTINET, for the
senate feasts are befitting, but for the people a simple meal.
EPULAE LAUTIORES, splendid feasts.
ET SINGULA PRAEDANTUR ANNI, the passing years rob us of every
thing we possess, one by one.
ETTER-CAP, A venomous person.
FAIRE LA CUREE, to give the shin, &c., of a killed stag to the
FAIRE LA MEILLEURE CHERE, to make good cheer.
FEROCIORES IN ASPECTU, MITIORES IN ACTU, fierce in appearance, in
FILLE DE CHAMBRE, lady's maid.
FORIS-FAMILIATED, excluded from the family, out of the
jurisdiction of the head of the family.
FUNGARQUE INANI MUNERE, I shall render a fruitless service.
GARCONS APOTHICAIRES, chemists' assistants.
GARDEZ L'EAU, beware of the water.
GAUDET EQUIS ET CANIBUS, he finds his pleasure in horses and
GIMMERS, ewes of two years.
GRAT, cried; GREET, cry, weep.
GRICE, young pig.
GRIFFIN, a four-legged dragon.
HAEC TIBI ERUNT ARTES, &c.
'These be your acts; to impose the rule of peace;
To spare the humbled, crush the arrogant foe.'
HAGGIS, a dish composed of the pluck, &c., of a sheep, with
oatmeal, suet, onions, &c., boiled inside the animal's maw.
HALLAN, inner wall.
HANTLE, a lot.
HECK, cattle rack.
HER NAIN SELL, me, myself.
HIPPOGRIFF, a cross between a horse and a dragon.
HOMAGIUM, the act of homage.
HUMANA PERPESSI SUMUS, we have borne all that man can inflict on
ILK, each; OF THAT ILK, having the same title as the surname.
IMPIGER, IRACUNDUS, INEXORABILIS, ACER, untiring, swift to wrath,
IN CARCERE, in prison.
IN ERGASTULO, in a dungeon (a private prison, as opposed to
IN INTEGNUM, in full.
IN LOCO PARENTIS, in the place of a parent.
IN REBUS BELLICIS MAXIME DOMINATUR FORTUNA, in matters of war,
Luck has most to say.
IN SERVITIO EXUENDI, SEU DETRAHENDI. CALIGAS REGIS POST
BATALLIAM, for the service of undoing or pulling off the king's
boots after a battle.
INTROMITTED, interfered with.
JOGUE, jogee, ascetic or conjurer.
KEMPLE, a load of hay (forty 'bottles').
KITTLE, tricky, difficult.
KYLOES, highland cattle.
LA BELLE PASSION, the gentle passion.
LA HOULETTE ET LE CHALLUMEAU, the shepherd's crook and pipe.
LAIRD, (equivalent to) squire.
LAISSEZ FAIRE A DON ANTOINE, Leave that to Don Antonio.
LAPIS OFFENSIONIS ET PETRA SCANDALI, a stone of stumbling and a
rock of offence.
LE BEAU IDEAL, the perfect conception.
LEGES CONVIVIALES, the rules of the table.
LES COUSTUSMES DE NORMANDIE, C'EST L'HOMME KI SE BAST ET KI
CONSEILLE, [according to] the Norman custom, it is the man who
fights and gives counsel.
LEVY EN MASSE, full muster.
LIBER PATER, Father Liber; an old Italian deity, afterwards
identified with Bacchus.
LIGHTLY, make light of.
LIMMER, hussy, good-for-nothing.
LOUPING-ON STANE, mounting-stone.
LOUR, to frown.
MA BELLE DEMOISELLE, my fair damsel.
MADAME SON EPOUSE, Madam his wife.
MAILS, rent, dues.
MAIS CELA VIENDRA AVEC LE TEMPS, but that will come with time.
MAJOR DOMO, butler, mayor of the house, steward.
MANEGE, the art of training and managing horses.
MART, fatted beasts, slaughtered at Martinmas for winter
MAUGRE, in spite of.
MAUVAISE HONTE, false shame.
MAVORTIA PECTORA, warlike breasts.
MON COEUR, &c.
'My heart so light, quo' she,
My lad, is not for you;
'Tis for a soldier bold,
With beard of martial hue.
Down, down, derrydown.
'A feather in his hat,
A red heel on his shoe;
Who plays upon the flute,
And on the fiddle too.
Down, down, derrydown.'
MORNING, morning drink.
MORTIS CAUSA, the cause of death.
MUTEMUS CLYPEOS, &c.
'Change we our shields, and for
ourselves assume the trappings
of the Greeks.'
NEBULONES NEQUISSIMI, worthless scamps.
NEC NATURALITER IDIOTA, not a born idiot.
NUNC INSANUS AMOR, &c.
'Love's frenzy keeps me still in war's array
Where bolts fly thick, and foemen compass me.'
NUNCUPATIVE, legally valid nomination of an heir.
OBSIDIONAL CROWN, the reward of a commander who delivered a town
from siege; here used erroneously for the reward of the soldier
who first entered a besieged city.
ORRA, odd; ORRA MAN, the man who does the odd jobs.
O VOUS QUI BUVEZ, &c.
'O you, who drink from flagons full,
From out this happy fountain cool,
Here where, upon the banks, you see
Only the flocks of silly sheep,
With rustic maids for company,
Who bare of foot their wardship keep.'
OYER AND TERMINER, to hear and determine (legal, from Norman
PEACHED, informed against, betrayed.
PER CONJURATIONEM, on oath.
PINNERS, cap with lappets.
PIS-ALLER, an inferior article which will do to go on with.
PLOY, employment, or fuss.
POCULUM POTATORIUM, drinking-cup.
PRANDIUM, a meal.
PRIMAE NOTAE, of the first quality.
PROCUL A PATRIAE FINIBUS, far from the borders of your own land.
PROCUL DUBIO, without doubt.
PRONER, praise up.
PUER (JUVENIS) BONAE SPEI ET MAGNAE INDOLIS, a youth of promising
future and of high character.
QUANTUM SUFFICIT, as much as is needed, enough.
QUASI BEARWARDEN, in the capacity of Bearwarden.
QU'IL CONNOIT BIEN SES GENS, that he knows well with whom he has
RAMPANT, erect on the hind legs.
RECEPTO AMICO, when a friend is present.
RECTUS IN CURIA, cleared before the law,
REDD, put in order.
RESILING, drawing back.
RISU SOLVUNTUR TABULAE, the prosecution is laughed out of court.
ROKELAY, short cloak.
RUNT, an old cow.
RUSE DE GUERRE, military stratagem.
SACRAMENTUM MILITARE, soldiers' oath of allegiance.
SALIENT, in the act of leaping.
SANCTUM SANCTORUM, lit. 'holy of holies'; a specially private
retreat or study.
SANS TACHE, without stain.
SENNACHIES, Highland genealogists.
SERVABIT ODOREM TESTA DIU, the pot will keep the smell for a long
SHEMUS BEG, little James.
SHIBBOLETH, a pass-word (Judges xii, 6).
SIDIER ROY, red-coated soldiers.
SKENE, small dirk or dagger.
SORNER, a person who lives on his neighbours.
SOWENS, porridge or gruel.
SPEIRINGS, askings, = information.
SPENCE, best room.
SPES ALTERA, another hope.
SPUILZIE, spoil (cf. BRUILZIE = broil).
STIRK, a year-old heifer or bullock.
STOUP, mug, flagon.
STOUTHREIF, robbery with violence.
STRATH, a valley.
STRATHSPEY, a Scottish dance.
STREEK, lie down.
SUI JURIS, of his own right.
SUUM CUIQUE, to each his due.
SYBOES, onions or radishes.
TAIGLIT, slow, tired.
TAILLIE, covenant, bond.
TAISHATR, a person who has second-sight.
TANDEM TRIUMPHANS, triumphant in the end.
TANQUAM PRIVATUS, in my private capacity.
TAPPIT-HEN, a pewter-pot, holding nearly a gallon.
TESTAMENTUM MILITARE, will made on the field of battle.
TIL, to; INTIL, into; UNTIL, unto.
TINCHEL, circle of beaters for driving game.
TOCHER, dowry; TOCHERLESS, dowerless.
TOTO COELO, as widely as may be.
TOUN, collection of houses,
TREWS, tartan trousers.
TROISIEME ETAGE, third floor.
UMWHILE, sometime, late.
UN PETIT PENDEMENT BIEN JOLI, a very pretty little hanging.
UNSONSY, senseless, or uncanny.
VINUM LOCUTUM EST, it was the wine that spoke.
VINUM PRIMAE NOTAE, wine of the first quality.
VITA ADHUC DURANTE, as long as life lasts.
VIX EA NOSTRA VOCO, I scarcely call these things my own.
WANCHANCY, unchancy unlucky. ill-omened.
WARE, spend, bestow.
WHEEN, WHIN, few.
WYVERN, two-legged dragon.