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Waverley, Or 'Tis Sixty Years Hence, Complete by Sir Walter Scott

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'Why really, Baron, I do not see why, to keep the secret of these foolish
boys, Waverley and Stanley, and of my wife, who is no wiser, one old
soldier should continue to impose upon another. You must know, then, that
I have so much of that same prejudice in favour of my native country,
that the sum of money which I advanced to the seller of this extensive
barony has only purchased for me a box in----shire, called Brere-wood
Lodge, with about two hundred and fifty acres of land, the chief merit of
which is, that it is within a very few miles of Waverley-Honour.'

'And who, then, in the name of Heaven, has bought this property?'

'That,' said the Colonel, 'it is this gentleman's profession to explain.'

The Bailie, whom this reference regarded, and who had all this while
shifted from one foot to another with great impatience, 'like a hen,' as
he afterwards said, 'upon a het girdle'; and chuckling, he might have
added, like the said hen in all the glory of laying an egg, now pushed
forward. 'That I can, that I can, your honour,' drawing from his pocket a
budget of papers, and untying the red tape with a hand trembling with
eagerness. 'Here is the disposition and assignation by Malcolm
Bradwardine of Inch-Grabbit, regularly signed and tested in terms of the
statute, whereby, for a certain sum of sterling money presently contented
and paid to him, he has disponed, alienated, and conveyed the whole
estate and barony of Bradwardine, Tully-Veolan, and others, with the
fortalice and manor-place--'

'For God's sake, to the point, sir; I have all that by heart,' said the

'--To Cosmo Comyne Bradwardme, Esq.,' pursued the Bailie, 'his heirs and
assignees, simply and irredeemably, to be held either a me vel de me--'

'Pray read short, sir.'

'On the conscience of an honest man, Colonel, I read as short as is
consistent with style--under the burden and reservation always--'

'Mr. Macwheeble, this would outlast a Russian winter; give me leave. In
short, Mr. Bradwardine, your family estate is your own once more in full
property, and at your absolute disposal, but only burdened with the sum
advanced to re-purchase it, which I understand is utterly disproportioned
to its value.'

'An auld sang--an auld sang, if it please your honours,' cried the
Bailie, rubbing his hands; 'look at the rental book.'

'--Which sum being advanced, by Mr. Edward Waverley, chiefly from the
price of his father's property which I bought from him, is secured to his
lady your daughter and her family by this marriage.'

'It is a catholic security,' shouted the Bailie,' to Rose Comyne
Bradwardine, alias Wauverley, in life-rent, and the children of the said
marriage in fee; and I made up a wee bit minute of an antenuptial
contract, intuitu matrimonij, so it cannot be subject to reduction
hereafter, as a donation inter virum et uxorem.'

It is difficult to say whether the worthy Baron was most delighted with
the restitution of his family property or with the delicacy and
generosity that left him unfettered to pursue his purpose in disposing of
it after his death, and which avoided as much as possible even the
appearance of laying him under pecuniary obligation. When his first pause
of joy and astonishment was over, his thoughts turned to the unworthy
heir-male, who, he pronounced, had sold his birthright, like Esau, for a
mess o' pottage.

'But wha cookit the parritch for him?' exclaimed the Bailie; 'I wad like
to ken that;--wha but your honour's to command, Duncan Macwheeble? His
honour, young Mr. Wauverley, put it a' into my hand frae the
beginning--frae the first calling o' the summons, as I may say. I
circumvented them--I played at bogle about the bush wi' them--I cajolled
them; and if I havena gien Inch-Grabbit and Jamie Howie a bonnie begunk,
they ken themselves. Him a writer! I didna gae slapdash to them wi' our
young bra' bridegroom, to gar them baud up the market. Na, na; I scared
them wi' our wild tenantry, and the Mac-Ivors, that are but ill settled
yet, till they durstna on ony errand whatsoever gang ower the doorstane
after gloaming, for fear John Heatherblutter, or some siccan
dare-the-deil, should tak a baff at them; then, on the other hand, I
beflummed them wi' Colonel Talbot; wad they offer to keep up the price
again' the Duke's friend? did they na ken wha was master? had they na
seen eneugh, by the sad example of mony a puir misguided unhappy body--'

'Who went to Derby, for example, Mr. Macwheeble?' said the Colonel to him

'O whisht, Colonel, for the love o' God! let that flee stick i' the wa'.
There were mony good folk at Derby; and it's ill speaking of
halters'--with a sly cast of his eye toward the Baron, who was in a deep

Starting out of it at once, he took Macwheeble by the button and led him
into one of the deep window recesses, whence only fragments of their
conversation reached the rest of the party. It certainly related to
stamp-paper and parchment; for no other subject, even from the mouth of
his patron, and he once more an efficient one, could have arrested so
deeply the Bailie's reverent and absorbed attention.

'I understand your honour perfectly; it can be dune as easy as taking out
a decreet in absence.'

'To her and him, after my demise, and to their heirs-male, but preferring
the second son, if God shall bless them with two, who is to carry the
name and arms of Bradwardine of that ilk, without any other name or
armorial bearings whatsoever.'

'Tut, your honour!' whispered the Bailie, 'I'll mak a slight jotting the
morn; it will cost but a charter of resignation in favorem; and I'll hae
it ready for the next term in Exchequer.'

Their private conversation ended, the Baron was now summoned to do the
honours of Tully-Veolan to new guests. These were Major Melville of
Cairnvreckan and the Reverend Mr. Morton, followed by two or three others
of the Baron's acquaintances, who had been made privy to his having again
acquired the estate of his fathers. The shouts of the villagers were also
heard beneath in the courtyard; for Saunders Saunderson, who had kept the
secret for several days with laudable prudence, had unloosed his tongue
upon beholding the arrival of the carriages.

But, while Edward received Major Melville with politeness and the
clergyman with the most affectionate and grateful kindness, his
father-in-law looked a little awkward, as uncertain how he should answer
the necessary claims of hospitality to his guests, and forward the
festivity of his tenants. Lady Emily relieved him by intimating that,
though she must be an indifferent representative of Mrs. Edward Waverley
in many respects, she hoped the Baron would approve of the entertainment
she had ordered in expectation of so many guests; and that they would
find such other accommodations provided as might in some degree support
the ancient hospitality of Tully-Veolan. It is impossible to describe the
pleasure which this assurance gave the Baron, who, with an air of
gallantry half appertaining to the stiff Scottish laird and half to the
officer in the French service, offered his arm to the fair speaker, and
led the way, in something between a stride and a minuet step, into the
large dining parlour, followed by all the rest of the good company.

By dint of Saunderson's directions and exertions, all here, as well as in
the other apartments, had been disposed as much as possible according to
the old arrangement; and where new movables had been necessary, they had
been selected in the same character with the old furniture. There was one
addition to this fine old apartment, however, which drew tears into the
Baron's eyes. It was a large and spirited painting, representing Fergus
Mac-Ivor and Waverley in their Highland dress, the scene a wild, rocky,
and mountainous pass, down which the clan were descending in the
background. It was taken from a spirited sketch, drawn while they were in
Edinburgh by a young man of high genius, and had been painted on a
full-length scale by an eminent London artist. Raeburn himself (whose
'Highland Chiefs' do all but walk out of the canvas) could not have done
more justice to the subject; and the ardent, fiery, and impetuous
character of the unfortunate Chief of Glennaquoich was finely contrasted
with the contemplative, fanciful, and enthusiastic expression of his
happier friend. Beside this painting hung the arms which Waverley had
borne in the unfortunate civil war. The whole piece was beheld with
admiration and deeper feelings.

Men must, however, eat, in spite both of sentiment and vertu; and the
Baron, while he assumed the lower end of the table, insisted that Lady
Emily should do the honours of the head, that they might, he said, set a
meet example to the YOUNG FOLK. After a pause of deliberation, employed
in adjusting in his own brain the precedence between the Presbyterian
kirk and Episcopal church of Scotland, he requested Mr. Morton, as the
stranger, would crave a blessing, observing that Mr. Rubrick, who was at
HOME, would return thanks for the distinguished mercies it had been his
lot to experience. The dinner was excellent. Saunderson attended in full
costume, with all the former domestics, who had been collected, excepting
one or two, that had not been heard of since the affair of Culloden. The
cellars were stocked with wine which was pronounced to be superb, and it
had been contrived that the Bear of the Fountain, in the courtyard,
should (for that night only) play excellent brandy punch for the benefit
of the lower orders.

When the dinner was over the Baron, about to propose a toast, cast a
somewhat sorrowful look upon the sideboard, which, however, exhibited
much of his plate, that had either been secreted or purchased by
neighbouring gentlemen from the soldiery, and by them gladly restored to
the original owner.

"In the late times," he said, "those must be thankful who have saved life
and land; yet when I am about to pronounce this toast, I cannot but
regret an old heirloom, Lady Emily, a POCULUM POTATORIUM, Colonel

Here the Baron's elbow was gently touched by his major-domo, and, turning
round, he beheld in the hands of Alexander ab Alexandro the celebrated
cup of Saint Duthac, the Blessed Bear of Bradwardine! I question if the
recovery of his estate afforded him more rapture. "By my honour," he
said, "one might almost believe in brownies and fairies, Lady Emily, when
your ladyship is in presence!"

"I am truly happy," said Colonel Talbot, "that, by the recovery of this
piece of family antiquity, it has fallen within my power to give you some
token of my deep interest in all that concerns my young friend Edward.
But that you may not suspect Lady Emily for a sorceress, or me for a
conjuror, which is no joke in Scotland, I must tell you that Frank
Stanley, your friend, who has been seized with a tartan fever ever since
he heard Edward's tales of old Scottish manners, happened to describe to
us at second-hand this remarkable cup. My servant, Spontoon, who, like a
true old soldier, observes everything and says little, gave me afterwards
to understand that he thought he had seen the piece of plate Mr. Stanley
mentioned in the possession of a certain Mrs. Nosebag, who, having been
originally the helpmate of a pawnbroker, had found opportunity during the
late unpleasant scenes in Scotland to trade a little in her old line, and
so became the depositary of the more valuable part of the spoil of half
the army. You may believe the cup was speedily recovered; and it will
give me very great pleasure if you allow me to suppose that its value is
not diminished by having been restored through my means."

A tear mingled with the wine which the Baron filled, as he proposed a cup
of gratitude to Colonel Talbot, and 'The Prosperity of the united Houses
of Waverley-Honour and Bradwardine!'

It only remains for me to say that, as no wish was ever uttered with more
affectionate sincerity, there are few which, allowing for the necessary
mutability of human events, have been upon the whole more happily



Our journey is now finished, gentle reader; and if your patience has
accompanied me through these sheets, the contract is, on your part,
strictly fulfilled. Yet, like the driver who has received his full hire,
I still linger near you, and make, with becoming diffidence, a trifling
additional claim upon your bounty and good nature. You are as free,
however, to shut the volume of the one petitioner as to close your door
in the face of the other.

This should have been a prefatory chapter, but for two reasons: First,
that most novel readers, as my own conscience reminds me, are apt to be
guilty of the sin of omission respecting that same matter of prefaces;
Secondly, that it is a general custom with that class of students to
begin with the last chapter of a work; so that, after all, these remarks,
being introduced last in order, have still the best chance to be read in
their proper place.

There is no European nation which, within the course of half a century or
little more, has undergone so complete a change as this kingdom of
Scotland. The effects of the insurrection of 1745,--the destruction of
the patriarchal power of the Highland chiefs,--the abolition of the
heritable jurisdictions of the Lowland nobility and barons,--the total
eradication of the Jacobite party, which, averse to intermingle with the
English, or adopt their customs, long continued to pride themselves upon
maintaining ancient Scottish manners and customs,--commenced this
innovation. The gradual influx of wealth and extension of commerce have
since united to render the present people of Scotland a class of beings
as different from their grandfathers as the existing English are from
those of Queen Elizabeth's time.

The political and economical effects of these changes have been traced by
Lord Selkirk with great precision and accuracy. But the change, though
steadily and rapidly progressive, has nevertheless been gradual; and,
like those who drift down the stream of a deep and smooth river, we are
not aware of the progress we have made until we fix our eye on the now
distant point from which we have been drifted. Such of the present
generation as can recollect the last twenty or twenty-five years of the
eighteenth century will be fully sensible of the truth of this statement;
especially if their acquaintance and connexions lay among those who in my
younger time were facetiously called 'folks of the old leaven,' who still
cherished a lingering, though hopeless, attachment to the house of

This race has now almost entirely vanished from the land, and with it,
doubtless, much absurd political prejudice; but also many living examples
of singular and disinterested attachment to the principles of loyalty
which they received from their fathers, and of old Scottish faith,
hospitality, worth, and honour.

It was my accidental lot, though not born a Highlander (which may be an
apology for much bad Gaelic), to reside during my childhood and youth
among persons of the above description; and now, for the purpose of
preserving some idea of the ancient manners of which I have witnessed the
almost total extinction, I have embodied in imaginary scenes, and
ascribed to fictitious characters, a part of the incidents which I then
received from those who were actors in them. Indeed, the most romantic
parts of this narrative are precisely those which have a foundation in

The exchange of mutual protection between a Highland gentleman and an
officer of rank in the king's service, together with the spirited manner
in which the latter asserted his right to return the favour he had
received, is literally true. The accident by a musket shot, and the
heroic reply imputed to Flora, relate to a lady of rank not long
deceased. And scarce a gentleman who was 'in hiding' after the battle of
Culloden but could tell a tale of strange concealments and of wild and
hair'sbreadth'scapes as extraordinary as any which I have ascribed to my
heroes. Of this, the escape of Charles Edward himself, as the most
prominent, is the most striking example. The accounts of the battle of
Preston and skirmish at Clifton are taken from the narrative of
intelligent eye-witnesses, and corrected from the 'History of the
Rebellion' by the late venerable author of 'Douglas.' The Lowland
Scottish gentlemen and the subordinate characters are not given as
individual portraits, but are drawn from the general habits of the
period, of which I have witnessed some remnants in my younger days, and
partly gathered from tradition.

It has been my object to describe these persons, not by a caricatured and
exaggerated use of the national dialect, but by their habits, manners,
and feelings, so as in some distant degree to emulate the admirable Irish
portraits drawn by Miss Edgeworth, so different from the 'Teagues' and
'dear joys' who so long, with the most perfect family resemblance to each
other, occupied the drama and the novel.

I feel no confidence, however, in the manner in which I have executed my
purpose. Indeed, so little was I satisfied with my production, that I
laid it aside in an unfinished state, and only found it again by mere
accident among other waste papers in an old cabinet, the drawers of which
I was rummaging in order to accommodate a friend with some
fishing-tackle, after it had been mislaid for several years.

Two works upon similar subjects, by female authors whose genius is highly
creditable to their country, have appeared in the interval; I mean Mrs.
Hamilton's 'Glenburnie' and the late account of 'Highland Superstitions.'
But the first is confined to the rural habits of Scotland, of which it
has given a picture with striking and impressive fidelity; and the
traditional records of the respectable and ingenious Mrs. Grant of Laggan
are of a nature distinct from the fictitious narrative which I have here

I would willingly persuade myself that the preceding work will not be
found altogether uninteresting. To elder persons it will recall scenes
and characters familiar to their youth; and to the rising generation the
tale may present some idea of the manners of their forefathers.

Yet I heartily wish that the task of tracing the evanescent manners of
his own country had employed the pen of the only man in Scotland who
could have done it justice--of him so eminently distinguished in elegant
literature, and whose sketches of Colonel Caustic and Umphraville are
perfectly blended with the finer traits of national character. I should
in that case have had more pleasure as a reader than I shall ever feel in
the pride of a successful author, should these sheets confer upon me that
envied distinction. And, as I have inverted the usual arrangement,
placing these remarks at the end of the work to which they refer, I will
venture on a second violation of form, by closing the whole with a



NOTES--Volume I.


LONG the oracle of the country gentlemen of the high Tory party. The
ancient News-Letter was written in manuscript and copied by clerks, who
addressed the copies to the subscribers. The politician by whom they were
compiled picked up his intelligence at coffee-houses, and often pleaded
for an additional gratuity in consideration of the extra expense attached
to frequenting such places of fashionable resort.


There is a family legend to this purpose, belonging to the knightly
family of Bradshaigh, the proprietors of Haigh Hall, in Lancashire,
where, I have been told, the event is recorded on a painted glass window.
The German ballad of the Noble Moringer turns upon a similar topic. But
undoubtedly many such incidents may have taken place, where, the distance
being great and the intercourse infrequent, false reports concerning the
fate of the absent Crusaders must have been commonly circulated, and
sometimes perhaps rather hastily credited at home.


The attachment to this classic was, it is said, actually displayed in the
manner mentioned in the text by an unfortunate Jacobite in that unhappy
period. He escaped from the jail in which he was confined for a hasty
trial and certain condemnation, and was retaken as he hovered around the
place in which he had been imprisoned, for which he could give no better
reason than the hope of recovering his favourite Titus Livius. I am sorry
to add that the simplicity of such a character was found to form no
apology for his guilt as a rebel, and that he was condemned and executed.


Nicholas Amhurst, a noted political writer, who conducted for many years
a paper called the Craftsman, under the assumed name of Caleb D'Anvers.
He was devoted to the Tory interest, and seconded with much ability the
attacks of Pulteney on Sir Robert Walpole. He died in 1742, neglected by
his great patrons and in the most miserable circumstances.

'Amhurst survived the downfall of Walpole's power, and had reason to
expect a reward for his labours. If we excuse Bolingbroke, who had only
saved the shipwreck of his fortunes, we shall be at a loss to justify
Pulteney, who could with ease have given this man a considerable income.
The utmost of his generosity to Amhurst that I ever heard of was a
hogshead of claret! He died, it is supposed, of a broken heart; and was
buried at the charge of his honest printer, Richard Francklin.'--Lord
Chesterfield's Characters Reviewed, p. 42.


I have now given in the text the full name of this gallant and excellent
man, and proceed to copy the account of his remarkable conversion, as
related by Doctor Doddridge.

'This memorable event,' says the pious writer, 'happened towards the
middle of July 1719. The major had spent the evening (and, if I mistake
not, it was the Sabbath) in some gay company, and had an unhappy
assignation with a married woman, whom he was to attend exactly at
twelve. The company broke up about eleven, and, not judging it convenient
to anticipate the time appointed, he went into his chamber to kill the
tedious hour, perhaps with some amusing book, or some other way. But it
very accidentally happened that he took up a religious book, which his
good mother or aunt had, without his knowledge, slipped into his
portmanteau. It was called, if I remember the title exactly, The
Christian Soldier, or Heaven taken by Storm, and it was written by Mr.
Thomas Watson. Guessing by the title of it that he would find some
phrases of his own profession spiritualised in a manner which he thought
might afford him some diversion, he resolved to dip into it, but he took
no serious notice of anything it had in it; and yet, while this book was
in his hand, an impression was made upon his mind (perhaps God only knows
how) which drew after it a train of the most important and happy
consequences. He thought he saw an unusual blaze of light fall upon the
book which he was reading, which he at first imagined might happen by
some accident in the candle, but, lifting up his eyes, he apprehended to
his extreme amazement that there was before him, as it were suspended in
the air, a visible representation of the Lord Jesus Christ upon the
cross, surrounded on all sides with a glory; and was impressed as if a
voice, or something equivalent to a voice, had come to him, to this
effect (for he was not confident as to the words), "Oh, sinner! did I
suffer this for thee, and are these thy returns?" Struck with so amazing
a phenomenon as this, there remained hardly any life in him, so that he
sunk down in the arm-chair in which he sat, and continued, he knew not
how long, insensible.'

'With regard to this vision,' says the ingenious Dr. Hibbert, 'the
appearance of our Saviour on the cross, and the awful words repeated, can
be considered in no other light than as so many recollected images of the
mind, which probably had their origin in the language of some urgent
appeal to repentance that the colonel might have casually read or heard
delivered. From what cause, however, such ideas were rendered as vivid as
actual impressions, we have no information to be depended upon. This
vision was certainly attended with one of the most important of
consequences connected with the Christian dispensation--the conversion of
a sinner. And hence no single narrative has, perhaps, done more to
confirm the superstitious opinion that apparitions of this awful kind
cannot arise without a divine fiat.' Doctor Hibbert adds in a note--'A
short time before the vision, Colonel Gardiner had received a severe fall
from his horse. Did the brain receive some slight degree of injury from
the accident, so as to predispose him to this spiritual
illusion?'--Hibbert's Philosophy of Apparitions, Edinburgh, 1824, p. 190.


The courtesy of an invitation to partake a traveller's meal, or at least
that of being invited to share whatever liquor the guest called for, was
expected by certain old landlords in Scotland even in the youth of the
author. In requital mine host was always furnished with the news of the
country, and was probably a little of a humorist to boot. The devolution
of the whole actual business and drudgery of the inn upon the poor
gudewife was very common among the Scottish Bonifaces. There was in
ancient times, in the city of Edinburgh, a gentleman of good family who
condescended, in order to gain a livelihood, to become the nominal keeper
of a coffee-house, one of the first places of the kind which had been
opened in the Scottish metropolis. As usual, it was entirely managed by
the careful and industrious Mrs. B--; while her husband amused himself
with field sports, without troubling his head about the matter. Once upon
a time, the premises having taken fire, the husband was met walking up
the High Street loaded with his guns and fishing-rods, and replied calmly
to someone who inquired after his wife, 'that the poor woman was trying
to save a parcel of crockery and some trumpery books'; the last being
those which served her to conduct the business of the house.

There were many elderly gentlemen in the author's younger days who still
held it part of the amusement of a journey 'to parley with mine host,'
who often resembled, in his quaint humour, mine Host of the Garter in the
Merry Wives of Windsor; or Blague of the George in the Merry Devil of
Edmonton. Sometimes the landlady took her share of entertaining the
company. In either case the omitting to pay them due attention gave
displeasure, and perhaps brought down a smart jest, as on the following

A jolly dame who, not 'Sixty Years Since,' kept the principal caravansary
at Greenlaw, in Berwickshire, had the honour to receive under her roof a
very worthy clergyman, with three sons of the same profession, each
having a cure of souls; be it said in passing, none of the reverend party
were reckoned powerful in the pulpit. After dinner was over, the worthy
senior, in the pride of his heart, asked Mrs. Buchan whether she ever had
had such a party in her house before. 'Here sit I,' he said, 'a placed
minister of the Kirk of Scotland, and here sit my three sons, each a
placed minister of the same kirk. Confess, Luckie Buchan, you never had
such a party in your house before.' The question was not premised by any
invitation to sit down and take a glass of wine or the like, so Mrs. B.
answered drily, 'Indeed, sir, I cannot just say that ever I had such a
party in my house before, except once in the forty-five, when I had a
Highland piper here, with his three sons, all Highland pipers; and deil a
spring they could play amang them.'


There is no particular mansion described under the name of Tully-Veolan;
but the peculiarities of the description occur in various old Scottish
seats. The House of Warrender upon Bruntsfield Links and that of Old
Ravelston, belonging, the former to Sir George Warrender, the latter to
Sir Alexander Keith, have both contributed several hints to the
description in the text. The House of Dean, near Edinburgh, has also some
points of resemblance with Tully-Veolan. The author has, however, been
informed that the House of Grandtully resembles that of the Baron of
Bradwardine still more than any of the above.


I am ignorant how long the ancient and established custom of keeping
fools has been disused in England. Swift writes an epitaph on the Earl of
Suffolk's fool--

Whose name was Dickie Pearce

In Scotland, the custom subsisted till late in the last century; at
Glamis Castle is preserved the dress of one of the jesters, very
handsome, and ornamented with many bells. It is not above thirty years
since such a character stood by the sideboard of a nobleman of the first
rank in Scotland, and occasionally mixed in the conversation, till he
carried the joke rather too far, in making proposals to one of the young
ladies of the family, and publishing the bans betwixt her and himself in
the public church.


After the Revolution of 1688, and on some occasions when the spirit of
the Presbyterians had been unusually animated against their opponents,
the Episcopal clergymen, who were chiefly nonjurors, were exposed to be
mobbed, as we should now say, or rabbled, as the phrase then went, to
expiate their political heresies. But notwithstanding that the
Presbyterians had the persecution in Charles II and his brother's time to
exasperate them, there was little mischief done beyond the kind of petty
violence mentioned in the text.


I may here mention that the fashion of compotation described in the text
was still occasionally practised in Scotland in the author's youth. A
company, after having taken leave of their host, often went to finish the
evening at the clachan or village, in 'womb of tavern.' Their entertainer
always accompanied them to take the stirrup-cup, which often occasioned a
long and late revel.

The poculum potatorium of the valiant Baron, his blessed Bear, has a
prototype at the fine old Castle of Glamis, so rich in memorials of
ancient times; it is a massive beaker of silver, double gilt, moulded
into the shape of a lion, and holding about an English pint of wine. The
form alludes to the family name of Strathmore, which is Lyon, and, when
exhibited, the cup must necessarily be emptied to the Earl's health. The
author ought perhaps to be ashamed of recording that he has had the
honour of swallowing the contents of the Lion; and the recollection of
the feat served to suggest the story of the Bear of Bradwardine. In the
family of Scott of Thirlestane (not Thirlestane in the Forest, but the
place of the same name in Roxburghshire) was long preserved a cup of the
same kind, in the form of a jack-boot. Each guest was obliged to empty
this at his departure. If the guest's name was Scott, the necessity was
doubly imperative.

When the landlord of an inn presented his guests with deoch an doruis,
that is, the drink at the door, or the stirrup-cup, the draught was not
charged in the reckoning. On this point a learned bailie of the town of
Forfar pronounced a very sound judgment.

A., an ale-wife in Forfar, had brewed her 'peck of malt' and set the
liquor out of doors to cool; the cow of B., a neighbour of A., chanced to
come by, and seeing the good beverage, was allured to taste it, and
finally to drink it up. When A. came to take in her liquor, she found her
tub empty, and from the cow's staggering and staring, so as to betray her
intemperance, she easily divined the mode in which her 'browst' had
disappeared. To take vengeance on Crummie's ribs with a stick was her
first effort. The roaring of the cow brought B., her master, who
remonstrated with his angry neighbour, and received in reply a demand for
the value of the ale which Crummie had drunk up. B. refused payment, and
was conveyed before C., the bailie, or sitting magistrate. He heard the
case patiently; and then demanded of the plaintiff A. whether the cow had
sat down to her potation or taken it standing. The plaintiff answered,
she had not seen the deed committed, but she supposed the cow drank the
ale while standing on her feet, adding, that had she been near she would
have made her use them to some purpose. The bailie, on this admission,
solemnly adjudged the cow's drink to be deoch an doruis, a stirrup-cup,
for which no charge could be made without violating the ancient
hospitality of Scotland.


The story last told was said to have happened in the south of Scotland;
but cedant arma togae and let the gown have its dues. It was an old
clergyman, who had wisdom and firmness enough to resist the panic which
seized his brethren, who was the means of rescuing a poor insane creature
from the cruel fate which would otherwise have overtaken her. The
accounts of the trials for witchcraft form one of the most deplorable
chapters in Scottish story.


Although canting heraldry is generally reprobated, it seems nevertheless
to have been adopted in the arms and mottos of many honourable families.
Thus the motto of the Vernons, Ver non semper viret, is a perfect pun,
and so is that of the Onslows, Festina lente. The Periissem ni per-iissem
of the Anstruthers is liable to a similar objection. One of that ancient
race, finding that an antagonist, with whom he had fixed a friendly
meeting, was determined to take the opportunity of assassinating him,
prevented the hazard by dashing out his brains with a battle-axe. Two
sturdy arms, brandishing such a weapon, form the usual crest of the
family, with the above motto, Periissem ni per-iissem--I had died, unless
I had gone through with it.


Mac-Donald of Barrisdale, one of the very last Highland gentlemen who
carried on the plundering system to any great extent, was a scholar and a
well-bred gentleman. He engraved on his broadswords the well-known

Hae tibi erunt artes pacisque imponere morem, Parcere subjectis, et
debellare superbos.

Indeed, the levying of black-mail was, before 1745, practised by several
chiefs of very high rank, who, in doing so, contended that they were
lending the laws the assistance of their arms and swords, and affording a
protection which could not be obtained from the magistracy in the
disturbed state of the country. The author has seen a Memoir of
Mac-Pherson of Cluny, chief of that ancient clan, from which it appears
that he levied protection-money to a very large amount, which was
willingly paid even by some of his most powerful neighbours. A gentleman
of this clan, hearing a clergyman hold forth to his congregation on the
crime of theft, interrupted the preacher to assure him, he might leave
the enforcement of such doctrines to Cluny Mac-Pherson, whose broadsword
would put a stop to theft sooner than all the sermons of all the
ministers of the synod.


The Town-guard of Edinburgh were, till a late period, armed with this
weapon when on their police-duty. There was a hook at the back of the
axe, which the ancient Highlanders used to assist them to climb over
walls, fixing the hook upon it and raising themselves by the handle. The
axe, which was also much used by the natives of Ireland, is supposed to
have been introduced into both countries from Scandinavia.


An adventure very similar to what is here stated actually befell the late
Mr. Abercromby of Tullibody, grandfather of the present Lord Abercromby,
and father of the celebrated Sir Ralph. When this gentleman, who lived to
a very advanced period of life, first settled in Stirlingshire, his
cattle were repeatedly driven off by the celebrated Rob Roy, or some of
his gang; and at length he was obliged, after obtaining a proper
safe-conduct, to make the cateran such a visit as that of Waverley to
Bean Lean in the text. Rob received him with much courtesy, and made many
apologies for the accident, which must have happened, he said, through
some mistake. Mr. Abercromby was regaled with collops from two of his own
cattle, which were hung up by the heels in the cavern, and was dismissed
in perfect safety, after having agreed to pay in future a small sum of
black-mail, in consideration of which Rob Roy not only undertook to
forbear his herds in future, but to replace any that should be stolen
from him by other freebooters. Mr. Abercromby said Rob Roy affected to
consider him as a friend to the Jacobite interest and a sincere enemy to
the Union. Neither of these circumstances were true; but the laird
thought it quite unnecessary to undeceive his Highland host at the risk
of bringing on a political dispute in such a situation. This anecdote I
received many years since (about 1792) from the mouth of the venerable
gentleman who was concerned in it.


This celebrated gibbet was, in the memory of the last generation, still
standing at the western end of the town of Crieff, in Perthshire. Why it
was called the kind gallows we are unable to inform the reader with
certainty; but it is alleged that the Highlanders used to touch their
bonnets as they passed a place which had been fatal to many of their
countrymen, with the ejaculation 'God bless her nain sell, and the Teil
tamn you!' It may therefore have been called kind, as being a sort of
native or kindred place of doom to those who suffered there, as in
fulfilment of a natural destiny.


The story of the bridegroom carried off by caterans on his bridal-day is
taken from one which was told to the author by the late Laird of Mac-Nab
many years since. To carry off persons from the Lowlands, and to put them
to ransom, was a common practice with the wild Highlanders, as it is said
to be at the present day with the banditti in the south of Italy. Upon
the occasion alluded to, a party of caterans carried off the bridegroom
and secreted him in some cave near the mountain of Schiehallion. The
young man caught the small-pox before his ransom could be agreed on; and
whether it was the fine cool air of the place, or the want of medical
attendance, Mac-Nab did not pretend to be positive; but so it was, that
the prisoner recovered, his ransom was paid, and he was restored to his
friends and bride, but always considered the Highland robbers as having
saved his life by their treatment of his malady.


This happened on many occasions. Indeed, it was not till after the total
destruction of the clan influence, after 1745, that purchasers could be
found who offered a fair price for the estates forfeited in 1715, which
were then brought to sale by the creditors of the York Buildings Company,
who had purchased the whole, or greater part, from government at a very
small price. Even so late as the period first mentioned, the prejudices
of the public in favour of the heirs of the forfeited families threw
various impediments in the way of intending purchasers of such property.


This sort of political game ascribed to Mac-Ivor was in reality played by
several Highland chiefs, the celebrated Lord Lovat in particular, who
used that kind of finesse to the uttermost. The Laird of Mac---was also
captain of an independent company, but valued the sweets of present pay
too well to incur the risk of losing them in the Jacobite cause. His
martial consort raised his clan and headed it in 1745. But the chief
himself would have nothing to do with king-making, declaring himself for
that monarch, and no other, who gave the Laird of Mac ---- 'half-a-guinea
the day and half-a-guinea the morn.'


In explanation of the military exercise observed at the Castle of
Glennaquoich, the author begs to remark that the Highlanders were not
only well practised in the use of the broadsword, firelock, and most of
the manly sports and trials of strength common throughout Scotland, but
also used a peculiar sort of drill, suited to their own dress and mode of
warfare. There were, for instance, different modes of disposing the
plaid, one when on a peaceful journey, another when danger was
apprehended; one way of enveloping themselves in it when expecting
undisturbed repose, and another which enabled them to start up with sword
and pistol in hand on the slightest alarm.

Previous to 1720 or thereabouts, the belted plaid was universally worn,
in which the portion which surrounded the middle of the wearer and that
which was flung around his shoulders were all of the same piece of
tartan. In a desperate onset all was thrown away, and the clan charged
bare beneath the doublet, save for an artificial arrangement of the
shirt, which, like that of the Irish, was always ample, and for the
sporran-mollach, or goat's-skin purse.

The manner of handling the pistol and dirk was also part of the Highland
manual exercise, which the author has seen gone through by men who had
learned it in their youth.


Pork or swine's flesh, in any shape, was, till of late years, much
abominated by the Scotch, nor is it yet a favourite food amongst them.
King Jamie carried this prejudice to England, and is known to have
abhorred pork almost as much as he did tobacco. Ben Jonson has recorded
this peculiarity, where the gipsy in a masque, examining the king's hand,

You should, by this line,

Love a horse and a hound, but no part of a swine.

The Gipsies Metamorphosed.

James's own proposed banquet for the Devil was a loin of pork and a poll
of ling, with a pipe of tobacco for digestion.


In the number of persons of all ranks who assembled at the same table,
though by no means to discuss the same fare, the Highland chiefs only
retained a custom which had been formerly universally observed throughout
Scotland. 'I myself,' says the traveller, Fynes Morrison, in the end of
Queen Elizabeth's reign, the scene being the Lowlands of Scotland, 'was
at a knight's house, who had many servants to attend him, that brought in
his meat with their heads covered with blue caps, the table being more
than half furnished with great platters of porridge, each having a little
piece of sodden meat. And when the table was served, the servants did sit
down with us; but the upper mess, instead of porridge, had a pullet, with
some prunes in the broth.'--Travels, p. 155.

Till within this last century the farmers, even of a respectable
condition, dined with their work-people. The difference betwixt those of
high degree was ascertained by the place of the party above or below the
salt, or sometimes by a line drawn with chalk on the dining-table. Lord
Lovat, who knew well how to feed the vanity and restrain the appetites of
his clansmen, allowed each sturdy Fraser who had the slightest
pretensions to be a Duinhewassel the full honour of the sitting, but at
the same time took care that his young kinsmen did not acquire at his
table any taste for outlandish luxuries. His lordship was always ready
with some honourable apology why foreign wines and French brandy,
delicacies which he conceived might sap the hardy habits of his cousins,
should not circulate past an assigned point on the table.


In the Irish ballads relating to Fion (the Fingal of Mac-Pherson) there
occurs, as in the primitive poetry of most nations, a cycle of heroes,
each of whom has some distinguishing attribute; upon these qualities, and
the adventures of those possessing them, many proverbs are formed, which
are still current in the Highlands. Among other characters, Conan is
distinguished as in some respects a kind of Thersites, but brave and
daring even to rashness. He had made a vow that he would never take a
blow without returning it; and having, like other heroes of antiquity,
descended to the infernal regions, he received a cuff from the Arch-fiend
who presided there, which he instantly returned, using the expression in
the text. Sometimes the proverb is worded thus--'Claw for claw, and the
devil take the shortest nails, as Conan said to the devil.'


The description of the waterfall mentioned in this chapter is taken from
that of Ledeard, at the farm so called, on the northern side of Lochard,
and near the head of the lake, four or five miles from Aberfoyle. It is
upon a small scale, but otherwise one of the most exquisite cascades it
is possible to behold. The appearance of Flora with the harp, as
described, has been justly censured as too theatrical and affected for
the lady-like simplicity of her character. But something may be allowed
to her French education, in which point and striking effect always make a
considerable object.


The author has been sometimes accused of confounding fiction with
reality. He therefore thinks it necessary to state that the circumstance
of the hunting described in the text as preparatory to the insurrection
of 1745 is, so far as he knows, entirely imaginary. But it is well known
such a great hunting was held in the Forest of Brae-Mar, under the
auspices of the Earl of Mar, as preparatory to the Rebellion of 1715; and
most of the Highland chieftains who afterwards engaged in that civil
commotion were present on this occasion.


A', all.

ABOON, abune, above.

ABY, abye, endure, suffer.

ACCOLADE, the salutation marking the bestowal of knighthood.

AIN, own.

ALANE, alone.

AN, if.

ANE, one.

ARRAY, annoy, trouble.

AULD, old.

AWEEL, well.

AYE, always.

BAILIE, a city magistrate in Scotland.

BAN, curse.

BAWTY, sly, cunning.

BAXTER, a baker.

BEES, in the, stupefied, bewildered.

BELIVE, belyve, by and by.

BEN, in, inside.

BENT, an open field.

BHAIRD, a bard.

BLACK-FISHING, fishing by torchlight poaching.

BLINKED, glanced.

BLUDE, braid, blood.

BLYTHE, gay, glad.

BODLE, a copper coin worth a third of an English penny.

BOLE, a bowl.

BOOT-KETCH, a boot-jack.

BRAE, the side of a hill.

BRISSEL-COCK, a turkey cock.

BREEKS, breeches.

BROGUES, Highland shoes.

BROKEN MEN, outlaws.

BROUGHT FAR BEN, held in special favor

BROWST, a brewing.

BRUIK, enjoy.

BUCKIE, a perverse or refractory person.

BULLSEGG, a gelded bull.

BURD, bird, a term of familiarity.

BURN, a brook.

BUSKING, dress, decoration.

BUTTOCK-MAIL, a fine for fornication.

BYDAND, awaiting.

CAILLIACHS, old women on whom devolved the duty of lamenting for the
dead, which the Irish call keening.

CALLANT, a young lad, a fine fellow.

CANNY, prudent, skillful, lucky.

CANTER, a canting, whining beggar.

CANTRIP, a trick.

CARLE, a churl, an old man.

CATERAN, a Highland irregular soldier, a freebooter.

CHAP, a customer.

CLACHAN, a hamlet.

CLAW FAVOUR, curry favour.

CLAYMORE, a broad sword.

CLEEK, a hook.

CLEIK the cunzie, steal the silver.

COB, beat.

COBLE, a small fishing boat.

COGS, wooden vessels.

COGUE, a round wooden vessel.

CONCUSSED, violently shaken, disturbed, forced.

CORONACH, a dirge.

CORRIE, a mountain hollow.

COVE, a cave.

CRAME, a booth, a merchant's shop.

CREAGH, an incursion for plunder, termed on the Borders a raid.

CROUSE, bold, courageous.

CRUMMY, a cow with crooked horns.

CUITTLE, tickle.

CURRAGH, a Highland boat.

DAFT, mad, foolish.

DEBINDED, bound down.

DECREET, an order of decree.

DEOCH AN DORUIS, the stirrup-cup or parting drink.

DERN, concealed, secret.

DINMONTS, wethers in the second year.

DOER, an agent, a manager.

DOON, doun, down.

DOVERING, dozing.

DUINHE-WASSEL, dunniewassal, a Highland gentleman, usually the cadet of a
family of rank.

EANARUICH, the regalia presented by Rob Roy to the Laird of Tullibody.

ENEUGH, eneuch, enough.

ERGASTULO, in a penitentiary.

EXEEMED, exempt.

FACTORY, stewardship.

FEAL AND DIVOT, turf and thatch.

FECK, a quantity.

FEIFTEEN, the Jacobite rebellion of 1715.

FENDY, good at making a shift.

FIRE-RAISING, setting an incendiary fire.

FLEMIT, frightened,

FRAE, from.

FU, full.

FULE, fool.

GABERLUNZIE, a kind of professional beggar.

GANE, gone.

GANG, go.

GAR, make.

GATE, gait, way.

GAUN, going.

GAY, gey, very.

GEAR, goods, property.

GILLFLIRT, a flirty girl.

GILLIE, a servant, an attendant.

GILLIE-WET-FOOT, a barefooted Highland lad.

GIMMER, a ewe from one to two years old.

GLISKED, glimpsed.

GRIPPLE, rapacious, niggardly.

GULPIN, a simpleton.

HA', hall.

HAG, a portion of copse marked off for cutting.

HAIL, whole.

HALLAN, a partition, a screen.

HAME, home.

HANTLE, a great deal.

HARST, harvest.

HERSHIPS, plunder.

HILDING, a coward.

HIRSTS, knolls.

HORNING, charge of, a summons to pay a debt, on pain of being pronounced
a rebel, to the sound of a horn.

HOWE, a hollow.

HOULERYING AND POULERYING, hustling and pulling.

HURLEY-HOUSE, a brokendown manor house.

ILK, same; of that ilk, of the same name or place.

ILKA, each, every.

IN THE BEES, stupefied.

INTROMIT, meddle with.

KEN, know.

KITTLE, tickle, ticklish.

KNOBBLER, a male deer in its second year.

KYLOE, a small Highland cow.

LAIRD, squire, lord of the manor.

LANG-LEGGIT, long-legged.

LAWING, a tavern reckoning.

LEE LAND, pasture land.

LIE, a word used in old Scottish legal documents to call attention to the
following word or phrase.

LIFT, capture, carry off by theft.

LIMMER, a jade.

LOCH, a lake.

LOON, an idle fellow, a lout, a rogue.

LUCKIE, an elderly woman.

LUG, an ear, a handle.

LUNZIE, the loins, the waist.

MAE, mair, more.

MAINS, the chief farm of an estate.

MALT ABUNE THE MEAL, the drink above the food, half-seas over.

MAUN, must.

MEAL ARK, a meal chest.

MERK, 13 1/3 pence in English money.

MICKLE, much, great.

MISGUGGLED, mangled, rumpled.

MONY, many.

MORN, the morn, tomorrow.

MORNING, a morning dram.

MUCKLE, much, great.

MUIR, moor.

NA, nae, no, not.

NAINSELL, own self.

NICE, simple.

NOLT, black cattle. ony, any.

ORRA, odd, unemployed.

ORRA-TIME, occasionally.

OWER, over.

PEEL-HOUSE, a fortified tower.

PENDICLE, a small piece of ground.

PINGLE, a fuss, trouble.

PLENISHING, furnishings.

PLOY, sport, entertainment.

PRETTY MEN, stout, warlike fellows.

REIFS, robberies.

REIVERS, robbers.

RIGGS, ridges, ploughed ground.

ROKELAY, a short cloak.

RUDAS, coarse, hag-like.

SAIN, mark with the sign of the cross, bless.

SAIR, sore, very.

SAUMON, salmon.

SAUT, salt.

SAY, a sample.

SCHELLUM, a rascal.

SCOUPING, scowping, skipping, leaping, running.

SEANNACHIE, a Highland antiquary.

SHEARING, reaping, harvest.

SHILPIT, weak, sickly.

SHOON, shoes.

SIC, siccan, such.

SIDIER DHU, black soldiers, independent companies raised to keep peace in
the Highlands; named from the tartans they wore.

SIDIER ROY, red soldiers, King George's men.

SIKES, small brooks.

SILLER, silver, money.

SIMMER, summer.

SLIVER, slice, slit.

SMOKY, suspicious.

SNECK, cut.

SNOOD, a fillet worn by young women.

SOPITE, quiet a brawl.

SORNERS, sornars, sojourners, sturdy beggars, especially those unwelcome
visitors who exact lodgings and victuals by force.

SORTED, arranged, adjusted.

SPEIR, ask, investigate.

SPORRAN-MOLLACH, a Highland purse of goatskin.

SPRACK, animated, lively.

SPRING, a cheerful tune.

SPURRZIE, spoil.

STIEVE, stiff, firm.

STIRK, a young steer or heifer.

STOT, a bullock.

STOUP, a jug, a pitcher.

STOUTHREEF, robbery.

STRAE, straw.

STRATH, a valley through which a river runs.

SYBOES, onions.

TA, the. TAIGLIT, harassed, loitered.

TAILZIE, taillie, a deed of entail.

TAPPIT-HEN, a pewter pot that holds three English quarts.

TAYOUT, tailliers-hors; in modern phrase, Tally-ho!

TEIL, the devil.

TEINDS, tithes.

TELT, told.

TILL, to. TOUN, a hamlet, a farm.

TREWS, trousers.

TROW, believe, suppose.

TWA, two.

TYKE, a dog, a snarling fellow.

UNCO, strange, very.

UNKENN'D, unknown.

USQUEBAUGH, whiskey.

WA', wall.

WARE, spend.

WEEL, well.

WHA, who.

WHAR, where.

WHAT FOR, why.

WHILK, which.

WISKE, whisk, brandish.

NOTES--Volume II.


The clan of Mac-Farlane, occupying the fastnesses of the western side of
Loch Lomond, were great depredators on the Low Country, and as their
excursions were made usually by night, the moon was proverbially called
their lantern. Their celebrated pibroch of Hoggil nam Bo, which is the
name of their gathering tune, intimates similar practices, the sense

We are bound to drive the bullocks,
All by hollows, hirsts, and hillocks,
Through the sleet, and through the rain.
When the moon is beaming low
On frozen lake and hills of snow,
Bold and heartily we go;
And all for little gain.


This noble ruin is dear to my recollection, from associations which have
been long and painfully broken. It holds a commanding station on the
banks of the river Teith, and has been one of the largest castles in
Scotland. Murdoch, Duke of Albany, the founder of this stately pile, was
beheaded on the Castle-hill of Stirling, from which he might see the
towers of Doune, the monument of his fallen greatness.

In 1745-46, as stated in the text, a garrison on the part of the
Chevalier was put into the castle, then less ruinous than at present. It
was commanded by Mr. Stewart of Balloch, as governor for Prince Charles;
he was a man of property near Callander. This castle became at that time
the actual scene of a romantic escape made by John Home, the author of
Douglas, and some other prisoners, who, having been taken at the battle
of Falkirk, were confined there by the insurgents. The poet, who had in
his own mind a large stock of that romantic and enthusiastic spirit of
adventure which he has described as animating the youthful hero of his
drama, devised and undertook the perilous enterprise of escaping from his
prison. He inspired his companions with his sentiments, and when every
attempt at open force was deemed hopeless, they resolved to twist their
bed-clothes into ropes and thus to descend. Four persons, with Home
himself, reached the ground in safety. But the rope broke with the fifth,
who was a tall, lusty man. The sixth was Thomas Barrow, a brave young
Englishman, a particular friend of Home's. Determined to take the risk,
even in such unfavourable circumstances, Barrow committed himself to the
broken rope, slid down on it as far as it could assist him, and then let
himself drop. His friends beneath succeeded in breaking his fall.
Nevertheless, he dislocated his ankle and had several of his ribs broken.
His companions, however, were able to bear him off in safety.

The Highlanders next morning sought for their prisoners with great
activity. An old gentleman told the author he remembered seeing the
commandant Stewart
Bloody with spurring, fiery red with haste,
riding furiously through the country in quest of the fugitives.


To go out, or to have been out, in Scotland was a conventional phrase
similar to that of the Irish respecting a man having been up, both having
reference to an individual who had been engaged in insurrection. It was
accounted ill-breeding in Scotland about forty years since to use the
phrase rebellion or rebel, which might be interpreted by some of the
parties present as a personal insult. It was also esteemed more polite,
even for stanch Whigs, to denominate Charles Edward the Chevalier than to
speak of him as the Pretender; and this kind of accommodating courtesy
was usually observed in society where individuals of each party mixed on
friendly terms.


The Jacobite sentiments were general among the western counties and in
Wales. But although the great families of the Wynnes, the Wyndhams, and
others had come under an actual obligation to join Prince Charles if he
should land, they had done so under the express stipulation that he
should be assisted by an auxiliary army of French, without which they
foresaw the enterprise would be desperate. Wishing well to his cause,
therefore, and watching an opportunity to join him, they did not,
nevertheless, think themselves bound in honour to do so, as he was only
supported by a body of wild mountaineers, speaking an uncouth dialect,
and wearing a singular dress. The race up to Derby struck them with more
dread than admiration. But it is difficult to say what the effect might
have been had either the battle of Preston or Falkirk been fought and won
during the advance into England.


Divisions early showed themselves in the Chevalier's little army, not
only amongst the independent chieftains, who were far too proud to brook
subjection to each other, but betwixt the Scotch and Charles's governor
O'Sullivan, an Irishman by birth, who, with some of his countrymen bred
in the Irish Brigade in the service of the King of France, had an
influence with the Adventurer much resented by the Highlanders, who were
sensible that their own clans made the chief or rather the only strength
of his enterprise. There was a feud, also, between Lord George Murray and
John Murray of Broughton, the Prince's secretary, whose disunion greatly
embarrassed the affairs of the Adventurer. In general, a thousand
different pretensions divided their little army, and finally contributed
in no small degree to its overthrow.


This circumstance, which is historical, as well as the description that
precedes it, will remind the reader of the war of La Vendee, in which the
royalists, consisting chiefly of insurgent peasantry, attached a
prodigious and even superstitious interest to the possession of a piece
of brass ordnance, which they called Marie Jeanne.

The Highlanders of an early period were afraid of cannon, with the noise
and effect of which they were totally unacquainted. It was by means of
three or four small pieces of artillery that the Earls of Huntly and
Errol, in James VI's time, gained a great victory at Glenlivat, over a
numerous Highland army, commanded by the Earl of Argyle. At the battle of
the Bridge of Dee, General Middleton obtained by his artillery a similar
success, the Highlanders not being able to stand the discharge of
Musket's Mother, which was the name they bestowed on great guns. In an
old ballad on the battle of the Bridge of Dee these verses occur:--

The Highlandmen are pretty men
For handling sword and shield,
But yet they are but simple men
To stand a stricken field.

The Highlandmen are pretty men
For target and claymore,
But yet they are but naked men
To face the cannon's roar.

For the cannons roar on a summer night
Like thunder in the air;
Was never man in Highland garb
Would face the cannon fair

But the Highlanders of 1745 had got far beyond the simplicity of their
forefathers, and showed throughout the whole war how little they dreaded
artillery, although the common people still attached some consequence to
the possession of the field-piece which led to this disquisition.


The faithful friend who pointed out the pass by which the Highlanders
moved from Tranent to Seaton was Robert Anderson, junior, of Whitburgh, a
gentleman of property in East Lothian. He had been interrogated by the
Lord George Murray concerning the possibility of crossing the uncouth and
marshy piece of ground which divided the armies, and which he described
as impracticable. When dismissed, he recollected that there was a
circuitous path leading eastward through the marsh into the plain, by
which the Highlanders might turn the flank of Sir John Cope's position
without being exposed to the enemy's fire. Having mentioned his opinion
to Mr. Hepburn of Keith, who instantly saw its importance, he was
encouraged by that gentleman to awake Lord George Murray and communicate
the idea to him. Lord George received the information with grateful
thanks, and instantly awakened Prince Charles, who was sleeping in the
field with a bunch of pease under his head. The Adventurer received with
alacrity the news that there was a possibility of bringing an excellently
provided army to a decisive battle with his own irregular forces. His joy
on the occasion was not very consistent with the charge of cowardice
brought against him by Chevalier Johnstone, a discontented follower,
whose Memoirs possess at least as much of a romantic as a historical
character. Even by the account of the Chevalier himself, the Prince was
at the head of the second line of the Highland army during the battle, of
which he says, 'It was gained with such rapidity that in the second line,
where I was still by the side of the Prince, we saw no other enemy than
those who were lying on the ground killed and wounded, though we were not
more than fifty paces behind our first line, running always as fast as we
could to overtake them.'

This passage in the Chevalier's Memoirs places the Prince within fifty
paces of the heat of the battle, a position which would never have been
the choice of one unwilling to take a share of its dangers. Indeed,
unless the chiefs had complied with the young Adventurer's proposal to
lead the van in person, it does not appear that he could have been deeper
in the action.


The death of this good Christian and gallant man is thus given by his
affectionate biographer, Doctor Doddridge, from the evidence of

'He continued all night under arms, wrapped up in his cloak, and
generally sheltered under a rick of barley which happened to be in the
field. About three in the morning he called his domestic servants to him,
of which there were four in waiting. He dismissed three of them with most
affectionate Christian advice, and such solemn charges relating to the
performance of their duty, and the care of their souls, as seemed plainly
to intimate that he apprehended it was at least very probable he was
taking his last farewell of them. There is great reason to believe that
he spent the little remainder of the time, which could not be much above
an hour, in those devout exercises of soul which had been so long
habitual to him, and to which so many circumstances did then concur to
call him. The army was alarmed by break of day by the noise of the
rebels' approach, and the attack was made before sunrise, yet when it was
light enough to discern what passed. As soon as the enemy came within
gun-shot they made a furious fire; and it is said that the dragoons which
constituted the left wing immediately fled. The Colonel at the beginning
of the onset, which in the whole lasted but a few minutes, received a
wound by a bullet in his left breast, which made him give a sudden spring
in his saddle; upon which his servant, who led the horse, would have
persuaded him to retreat, but he said it was only a wound in the flesh,
and fought on, though he presently after received a shot in his right
thigh. In the mean time, it was discerned that some of the enemy fell by
him, and particularly one man who had made him a treacherous visit but a
few days before, with great professions of zeal for the present

'Events of this kind pass in less time than the description of them can
be written, or than it can be read. The Colonel was for a few moments
supported by his men, and particularly by that worthy person
Lieutenant-Colonel Whitney, who was shot through the arm here, and a few
months after fell nobly at the battle of Falkirk, and by Lieutenant West,
a man of distinguished bravery, as also by about fifteen dragoons, who
stood by him to the last. But after a faint fire, the regiment in general
was seized with a panic; and though their Colonel and some other gallant
officers did what they could to rally them once or twice, they at last
took a precipitate flight. And just in the moment when Colonel Gardiner
seemed to be making a pause to deliberate what duty required him to do in
such circumstances, an accident happened, which must, I think, in the
judgment of every worthy and generous man, be allowed a sufficient
apology for exposing his life to so great hazard, when his regiment had
left him. He saw a party of the foot, who were then bravely fighting near
him, and whom he was ordered to support, had no officer to head them;
upon which he said eagerly, in the hearing of the person from whom I had
this account, "These brave fellows will be cut to pieces for want of a
commander," or words to that effect; which while he was speaking he rode
up to them and cried out, "Fire on, my lads, and fear nothing." But just
as the words were out of his mouth, a Highlander advanced towards him
with a scythe fastened to a long pole, with which he gave him so dreadful
a wound on his right arm, that his sword dropped out of his hand; and at
the same time several others coming about him while he was thus
dreadfully entangled with that cruel weapon, he was dragged off from his
horse. The moment he fell, another Highlander, who, if the king's
evidence at Carlisle may be credited (as I know not why they should not,
though the unhappy creature died denying it), was one Mac-Naught, who was
executed about a year after, gave him a stroke either with a broadsword
or a Lochaber-axe (for my informant could not exactly distinguish) on the
hinder part of his head, which was the mortal blow. All that his faithful
attendant saw farther at this time was that, as his hat was fallen off,
he took it in his left hand and waved it as a signal to him to retreat,
and added, what were the last words he ever heard him speak, "Take care
of yourself"; upon which the servant retired.'--Some Remarkable Passages
in the Life of Colonel James Gardiner. By P. Doddridge, D.D. London,
1747, P.187.

I may remark on this extract, that it confirms the account given in the
text of the resistance offered by some of the English infantry. Surprised
by a force of a peculiar and unusual description, their opposition could
not be long or formidable, especially as they were deserted by the
cavalry, and those who undertook to manage the artillery. But, although
the affair was soon decided, I have always understood that many of the
infantry showed an inclination to do their duty.


It is scarcely necessary to say that the character of this brutal young
Laird is entirely imaginary. A gentleman, however, who resembled
Balmawhapple in the article of courage only, fell at Preston in the
manner described. A Perthshire gentleman of high honour and
respectability, one of the handful of cavalry who followed the fortunes
of Charles Edward, pursued the fugitive dragoons almost alone till near
Saint Clement's Wells, where the efforts of some of the officers had
prevailed on a few of them to make a momentary stand. Perceiving at this
moment that they were pursued by only one man and a couple of servants,
they turned upon him and cut him down with their swords. I remember when
a child, sitting on his grave, where the grass long grew rank and green,
distinguishing it from the rest of the field. A female of the family then
residing at Saint Clement's Wells used to tell me the tragedy, of which
she had been an eye-witness, and showed me in evidence one of the silver
clasps of the unfortunate gentleman's waistcoat.


The name of Andrea de Ferrara is inscribed on all the Scottish
broadswords which are accounted of peculiar excellence. Who this artist
was, what were his fortunes, and when he flourished, have hitherto defied
the research of antiquaries; only it is in general believed that Andrea
de Ferrara was a Spanish or Italian artificer, brought over by James IV
or V to instruct the Scots in the manufacture of sword blades. Most
barbarous nations excel in the fabrication of arms; and the Scots had
attained great proficiency in forging swords so early as the field of
Pinkie; at which period the historian Patten describes them as 'all
notably broad and thin, universally made to slice, and of such exceeding
good temper that, as I never saw any so good, so I think it hard to
devise better.'--Account of Somerset's Expedition.

It may be observed that the best and most genuine Andrea Ferraras have a
crown marked on the blade.


The incident here said to have happened to Flora Mac-Ivor actually befell
Miss Nairne, a lady with whom the author had the pleasure of being
acquainted. As the Highland army rushed into Edinburgh, Miss Nairne, like
other ladies who approved of their cause, stood waving her handkerchief
from a balcony, when a ball from a Highlander's musket, which was
discharged by accident, grazed her forehead. 'Thank God,' said she, the
instant she recovered,'that the accident happened to me, whose principles
are known. Had it befallen a Whig, they would have said it was done on

NOTE 37, p. 185

The Author of Waverley has been charged with painting the young
Adventurer in colours more amiable than his character deserved. But
having known many individuals who were near his person, he has been
described according to the light in which those eye-witnesses saw his
temper and qualifications. Something must be allowed, no doubt, to the
natural exaggerations of those who remembered him as the bold and
adventurous Prince in whose cause they had braved death and ruin; but is
their evidence to give place entirely to that of a single malcontent?

I have already noticed the imputations thrown by the Chevalier Johnstone
on the Prince's courage. But some part at least of that gentleman's tale
is purely romantic. It would not, for instance, be supposed that at the
time he is favouring us with the highly wrought account of his amour with
the adorable Peggie, the Chevalier Johnstone was a married man, whose
grandchild is now alive; or that the whole circumstantial story
concerning the outrageous vengeance taken by Gordon of Abbachie on a
Presbyterian clergyman is entirely apocryphal. At the same time it may be
admitted that the Prince, like others of his family, did not esteem the
services done him by his adherents so highly as he ought. Educated in
high ideas of his hereditary right, he has been supposed to have held
every exertion and sacrifice made in his cause as too much the duty of
the person making it to merit extravagant gratitude on his part. Dr.
King's evidence (which his leaving the Jacobite interest renders somewhat
doubtful) goes to strengthen this opinion.

The ingenious editor of Johnstone's Memoirs has quoted a story said to be
told by Helvetius, stating that Prince Charles Edward, far from
voluntarily embarking on his daring expedition, was, literally bound hand
and foot, and to which he seems disposed to yield credit. Now, it being a
fact as well known as any in his history, and, so far as I know, entirely
undisputed, that the Prince's personal entreaties and urgency positively
forced Boisdale and Lochiel into insurrection, when they were earnestly
desirous that he would put off his attempt until he could obtain a
sufficient force from France, it will be very difficult to reconcile his
alleged reluctance to undertake the expedition with his desperately
insisting upon carrying the rising into effect against the advice and
entreaty of his most powerful and most sage partizans. Surely a man who
had been carried bound on board the vessel which brought him to so
desperate an enterprise would have taken the opportunity afforded by the
reluctance of his partizans to return to France in safety.

It is averred in Johnstone's Memoirs that Charles Edward left the field
of Culloden without doing the utmost to dispute the victory; and, to give
the evidence on both sides, there is in existence the more trustworthy
testimony of Lord Elcho, who states that he himself earnestly exhorted
the Prince to charge at the head of the left wing, which was entire, and
retrieve the day or die with honour. And on his counsel being declined,
Lord Elcho took leave of him with a bitter execration, swearing he would
never look on his face again, and kept his word.

On the other hand, it seems to have been the opinion of almost all the
other officers that the day was irretrievably lost, one wing of the
Highlanders being entirely routed, the rest of the army outnumbered,
outflanked, and in a condition totally hopeless. In this situation of
things the Irish officers who surrounded Charles's person interfered to
force him off the field. A cornet who was close to the Prince left a
strong attestation that he had seen Sir Thomas Sheridan seize the bridle
of his horse and turn him round. There is some discrepancy of evidence;
but the opinion of Lord Elcho, a man of fiery temper and desperate at the
ruin which he beheld impending, cannot fairly be taken in prejudice of a
character for courage which is intimated by the nature of the enterprise
itself, by the Prince's eagerness to fight on all occasions, by his
determination to advance from Derby to London, and by the presence of
mind which he manifested during the romantic perils of his escape. The
author is far from claiming for this unfortunate person the praise due to
splendid talents; but he continues to be of opinion that at the period of
his enterprise he had a mind capable of facing danger and aspiring to

That Charles Edward had the advantages of a graceful presence, courtesy,
and an address and manner becoming his station, the author never heard
disputed by any who approached his person, nor does he conceive that
these qualities are overcharged in the present attempt to sketch his

The following extracts corroborative of the general opinion respecting
the Prince's amiable disposition are taken from a manuscript account of
his romantic expedition, by James Maxwell of Kirkconnell, of which I
possess a copy, by the friendship of J. Menzies, Esq., of Pitfoddells.
The author, though partial to the Prince, whom he faithfully followed,
seems to have been a fair and candid man, and well acquainted with the
intrigues among the adventurer's council:--

'Everybody was mightily taken with the Prince's figure and personal
behaviour. There was but one voice about them. Those whom interest or
prejudice made a runaway to his cause could not help acknowledging that
they wished him well in all other respects, and could hardly blame him
for his present undertaking. Sundry things had concurred to raise his
character to the highest pitch, besides the greatness of the enterprise
and the conduct that had hitherto appeared in the execution of it.

'There were several instances of good nature and humanity that had made a
great impression on people's minds. I shall confine myself to two or

'Immediately after the battle, as the Prince was riding along the ground
that Cope's army had occupied a few minutes before, one of the officers
came up to congratulate him, and said, pointing to the killed, "Sir,
there are your enemies at your feet." The Prince, far from exulting,
expressed a great deal of compassion for his father's deluded subjects,
whom he declared he was heartily sorry to see in that posture.

'Next day, while the Prince was at Pinkie House, a citizen of Edinburgh
came to make some representation to Secretary Murray about the tents that
city was ordered to furnish against a certain day. Murray happened to be
out of the way, which the Prince hearing of called to have the gentleman
brought to him, saying, he would rather despatch the business, whatever
it was, himself than have the gentleman wait, which he did, by granting
everything that was asked. So much affability in a young prince flushed
with victory drew encomiums even from his enemies.

'But what gave the people the highest idea of him was the negative he
gave to a thing that very nearly concerned his interest, and upon which
the success of his enterprise perhaps depended. It was proposed to send
one of the prisoners to London to demand of that court a cartel for the
exchange of prisoners taken, and to be taken, during this war, and to
intimate that a refusal would be looked upon as a resolution on their
part to give no quarter. It was visible a cartel would be of great
advantage to the Prince's affairs; his friends would be more ready to
declare for him if they had nothing to fear but the chance of war in the
field; and if the court of London refused to settle a cartel, the Prince
was authorised to treat his prisoners in the same manner the Elector of
Hanover was determined to treat such of the Prince's friends as might
fall into his hands; it was urged that a few examples would compel the
court of London to comply. It was to be presumed that the officers of the
English army would make a point of it. They had never engaged in the
service but upon such terms as are in use among all civilised nations,
and it could be no stain upon their honour to lay down their commissions
if these terms were not observed, and that owing to the obstinacy of
their own Prince. Though this scheme was plausible, and represented as
very important, the Prince could never be brought into it, it was below
him, he said, to make empty threats, and he would never put such as those
into execution; he would never in cold blood take away lives which he had
saved in heat of action at the peril of his own. These were not the only
proofs of good nature the Prince gave about this time. Every day produced
something new of this kind. These things softened the rigour of a
military government which was only imputed to the necessity of his
affairs, and which he endeavoured to make as gentle and easy as

It has been said that the Prince sometimes exacted more state and
ceremonial than seemed to suit his condition; but, on the other hand,
some strictness of etiquette was altogether indispensable where he must
otherwise have been exposed to general intrusion. He could also endure,
with a good grace, the retorts which his affectation of ceremony
sometimes exposed him to. It is said, for example, that Grant of
Glenmoriston having made a hasty march to join Charles, at the head of
his clan, rushed into the Prince's presence at Holyrood with
unceremonious haste, without having attended to the duties of the toilet.
The Prince received him kindly, but not without a hint that a previous
interview with the barber might not have been wholly unnecessary. 'It is
not beardless boys,' answered the displeased Chief, 'who are to do your
Royal Highness's turn.' The Chevalier took the rebuke in good part.

On the whole, if Prince Charles had concluded his life soon after his
miraculous escape, his character in history must have stood very high. As
it was, his station is amongst those a certain brilliant portion of whose
life forms a remarkable contrast to all which precedes and all which
follows it.


The following account of the skirmish at Clifton is extracted from the
manuscript Memoirs of Evan Macpherson of Cluny, Chief of the clan
Macpherson, who had the merit of supporting the principal brunt of that
spirited affair. The Memoirs appear to have been composed about 1755,
only ten years after the action had taken place. They were written in
France, where that gallant chief resided in exile, which accounts for
some Gallicisms which occur in the narrative.

'In the Prince's return from Derby back towards Scotland, my Lord George
Murray, Lieutenant-General, cheerfully charg'd himself with the command
of the rear, a post which, altho' honourable, was attended with great
danger, many difficulties, and no small fatigue; for the Prince, being
apprehensive that his retreat to Scotland might be cut off by Marischall
Wade, who lay to the northward of him with an armie much superior to what
H.R.H. had, while the Duke of Comberland with his whole cavalrie followed
hard in the rear, was obliged to hasten his marches. It was not,
therefore, possible for the artilirie to march so fast as the Prince's
army, in the depth of winter, extremely bad weather, and the worst roads
in England; so Lord George Murray was obliged often to continue his
marches long after it was dark almost every night, while at the same time
he had frequent alarms and disturbances from the Duke of Comberland's
advanc'd parties.

'Towards the evening of the twentie-eight December 1745 the Prince
entered the town of Penrith, in the Province of Comberland. But as Lord
George Murray could not bring up the artilirie so fast as he wou'd have
wish'd, he was oblig'd to pass the night six miles short of that town,
together with the regiment of MacDonel of Glengarrie, which that day
happened to have the arrear guard. The Prince, in order to refresh his
armie, and to give My Lord George and the artilirie time to come up,
resolved to sejour the 29th at Penrith; so ordered his little army to
appear in the morning under arms, in order to be reviewed, and to know in
what manner the numbers stood from his haveing entered England. It did
not at that time amount to 5000 foot in all, with about 400 cavalrie,
compos'd of the noblesse who serv'd as volunteers, part of whom form'd a
first troop of guards for the Prince, under the command of My Lord
Elchoe, now Comte de Weems, who, being proscribed, is presently in
France. Another part formed a second troup of guards under the command of
My Lord Balmirino, who was beheaded at the Tower of London. A third part
serv'd under My Lord le Comte de Kilmarnock, who was likewise beheaded at
the Tower. A fourth part serv'd under My Lord Pitsligow, who is also
proscribed; which cavalrie, tho' very few in numbers, being all noblesse,
were very brave, and of infinite advantage to the foot, not only in the
day of battle, but in serving as advanced guards on the several marches,
and in patroling dureing the night on the different roads which led
towards the towns where the army happened to quarter.

'While this small army was out in a body on the 20th December, upon a
riseing ground to the northward of Penrith, passing review, Mons. de
Cluny, with his tribe, was ordered to the Bridge of Clifton, about a mile
to southward of Penrith, after having pass'd in review before Mons.
Pattullo, who was charged with the inspection of the troops, and was
likeways Quarter-Master-General of the army, and is now in France. They
remained under arms at the bridge, waiting the arrival of My Lord George
Murray with the artilirie, whom Mons. de Cluny had orders to cover in
passing the bridge. They arrived about sunset closly pursued by the Duke
of Comberland with the whole body of his cavalrie, reckoned upwards of
3000 strong, about a thousand of whom, as near as might be computed,
dismounted, in order to cut off the passage of the artilirie towards the
bridge, while the Duke and the others remained on horseback in order to
attack the rear.

'My Lord George Murray advanced, and although he found Mons. de Cluny and
his tribe in good spirits under arms, yet the circumstance appear'd
extremely delicate. The numbers were vastly unequall, and the attack
seem'd very dangerous; so My Lord George declin'd giving orders to such
time as he ask'd Mons. de Cluny's opinion. "I will attack them with all
my heart," says Mons. de Cluny, "if you order me." "I do order it then,"
answered My Lord George, and immediately went on himself along with Mons.
de Cluny, and fought sword in hand on foot at the head of the single
tribe of Macphersons. They in a moment made their way through a strong
hedge of thorns, under the cover whereof the cavalrie had taken their
station, in the struggle of passing which hedge My Lord George Murray,
being dressed en montagnard, as all the army were, lost his bonet and
wig; so continued to fight bare-headed during the action. They at first
made a brisk discharge of their firearms on the enemy, then attacked them
with their sabres, and made a great slaughter a considerable time, which
obliged Comberland and his cavalrie to fly with precipitation and in
great confusion; in so much that, if the Prince had been provided in a
sufficient number of cavalrie to have taken advantage of the disorder, it
is beyond question that the Duke of Comberland and the bulk of his
cavalrie had been taken prisoners.

'By this time it was so dark that it was not possible to view or number
the slain who filled all the ditches which happened to be on the ground
where they stood. But it was computed that, besides those who went off
wounded, upwards of a hundred at least were left on the spot, among whom
was Colonel Honywood, who commanded the dismounted cavalrie, whose sabre
of considerable value Mons. de Cluny brought off and still preserves; and
his tribe lykeways brought off many arms;--the Colonel was afterwards
taken up, and, his wounds being dress'd, with great difficultie
recovered. Mons. de Cluny lost only in the action twelve men, of whom
some haveing been only wounded, fell afterwards into the hands of the
enemy, and were sent as slaves to America, whence several of them
returned, and one of them is now in France, a sergeant in the Regiment of
Royal Scots. How soon the accounts of the enemies approach had reached
the Prince, H.R.H. had immediately ordered Mi-Lord le Comte de Nairne,
Brigadier, who, being proscribed, is now in France, with the three
batalions of the Duke of Athol, the batalion of the Duke of Perth, and
some other troups under his command, in order to support Cluny, and to
bring off the artilirie. But the action was entirely over before the
Comte de Nairne, with his command, cou'd reach nigh to the place. They
therefore return'd all to Penrith, and the artilirie marched up in good

'Nor did the Duke of Comberland ever afterwards dare to come within a
day's march of the Prince and his army dureing the course of all that
retreat, which was conducted with great prudence and safety when in some
manner surrounded by enemies.'


As the heathen deities contracted an indelible obligation if they swore
by Styx, the Scottish Highlanders had usually some peculiar solemnity
attached to an oath which they intended should be binding on them. Very
frequently it consisted in laying their hand, as they swore, on their own
drawn dirk; which dagger, becoming a party to the transaction, was
invoked to punish any breach of faith. But by whatever ritual the oath
was sanctioned, the party was extremely desirous to keep secret what the
especial oath was which he considered as irrevocable. This was a matter
of great convenience, as he felt no scruple in breaking his asseveration
when made in any other form than that which he accounted as peculiarly
solemn; and therefore readily granted any engagement which bound him no
longer than he inclined. Whereas, if the oath which he accounted
inviolable was once publicly known, no party with whom he might have
occasion to contract would have rested satisfied with any other.

Louis XI of France practised the same sophistry, for he also had a
peculiar species of oath, the only one which he was ever known to
respect, and which, therefore, he was very unwilling to pledge. The only
engagement which that wily tyrant accounted binding upon him was an oath
by the Holy Cross of Saint Lo d'Angers, which contained a portion of the
True Cross. If he prevaricated after taking this oath Louis believed he
should die within the year. The Constable Saint Paul, being invited to a
personal conference with Louis, refused to meet the king unless he would
agree to ensure him safe conduct under sanction of this oath. But, says
Comines, the king replied, he would never again pledge that engagement to
mortal man, though he was willing to take any other oath which could be
devised. The treaty broke oft, therefore, after much chaffering
concerning the nature of the vow which Louis was to take. Such is the
difference between the dictates of superstition and those of conscience.


A', all.

ABOON, abune, above.

AE, one.

AFF, off.

AFORE, before.

AHINT, behind.

AIN, own.

AITS, oats.

AMAIST, almost.

AMBRY, a cupboard, a pantry.

AN, if.

ANE, one.

ANEUCH, enough.

ARRAY, annoy, trouble.

ASSOILZIED, absolved, acquitted.

ASSYTHMENT, satisfaction.

AULD, old.

BAFF, a blow.

BAGGANET, a bayonet.

BAILIE, a city magistrate in Scotland.

BAIRN, a child.

BAITH, both.

BANES, bones.

BANG-UP, get up quickly, bounce.

BARLEY, a parley, a truce.

BAULD, bold.

BAULDER, bolder.

BAWBEE, a halfpenny.

BAWTY, sly, cunning.

BEES, in the, bewildered, stupefied.

BEFLUMM'D, flattered, cajoled.

BEGUNK, a trick, a cheat.

BEN, within, inside.

BENEMPT, named.

BICKER, a wooden dish.

BIDE, stay, endure.

BIELDY, affording shelter.

BIGGING, building.

BIRLIEMAN, a peace officer.

BLACK-COCK, the black grouse.

BLACK-FISHING, ashing by torchlight, poaching.

BLUDE, bluid, blood.

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