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Voyages of Samuel de Champlain, Vol. 1 by Samuel de Champlain

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leagues. [198] Then they enter another lake some four or five leagues long.
[199] After reaching the end of this, they pass five other falls, [200] the
distance from the first to the last being about twenty-five or thirty
leagues. Three of these they pass by carrying their canoes, and the other
two by dragging them in the water, the current not being so strong nor bad
as in the case of the others. Of all these falls, none is so difficult to
pass as the one we saw. Then they come to a lake some eighty leagues long,
[201] with a great many islands; the water at its extremity being fresh and
the winter mild. At the end of this lake they pass a fall, [202] somewhat
high and with but little water flowing over. Here they carry their canoes
overland about a quarter of a league, in order to pass the fall, afterwards
entering another lake [203] some sixty leagues long, and containing very
good water. Having reached the end, they come to a strait [204] two leagues
broad and extending a considerable distance into the interior. They said
they had never gone any farther, nor seen the end of a lake [205] some
fifteen or sixteen leagues distant from where they had been, and that those
relating this to them had not seen any one who had seen it; that since it
was so large, they would not venture out upon it, for fear of being
surprised by a tempest or gale. They say that in summer the sun sets north
of this lake, and in winter about the middle; that the water there is very
bad, like that of this sea. [206]

I asked them whether from this last lake, which they had seen, the water
descended continuously in the river extending to Gaspé. They said no; that
it was from the third lake only that the water came to Gaspé, but that
beyond the last fall, which is of considerable extent, as I have said, the
water was almost still, and that this lake might take its course by other
rivers extending inland either to the north or south, of which there are a
large number there, and of which they do not see the end. Now, in my
judgment, if so many rivers flow into this lake, it must of necessity be
that, having so small a discharge at this fall, it should flow off into
some very large river. But what leads me to believe that there is no river
through which this lake flows, as would be expected, in view of the large
number of rivers that flow into it, is the fact that the savages have not
seen any river taking its course into the interior, except at the place
where they have been. This leads me to believe that it is the south sea
which is salt, as they say. But one is not to attach credit to this opinion
without more complete evidence than the little adduced.

This is all that I have actually seen respecting this matter, or heard from
the savages in response to our interrogatories.


178. Isle Plat, and at least ten other islets along the share before
reaching the Verchères.--_Vide_ Laurie's Chart.

179. The reader will observe that the catalogue of fruits, trees, and
animals mentioned above, include, only such as are important in
commerce. They are, we think, without an exception, of American
species, and, consequently, the names given by Champlain are not
accurately descriptive. We notice them in order, and in italics give
the name assigned by Champlain in the text.

Grapes. _Vignes_, probably the frost grape. _Vitis
cordifolia_.--Pickering's _Chronological History of Plants_ p. 875.

Walnuts. _Noir_, this name is given in France to what is known in
commerce as the English or European walnut, _Juglans rigia_, a Persian
fruit now cultivated in most countries in Europe. For want of a
better, Champlain used this name to signify probably the butternut,
_Juglans cinerea_, and five varieties of the hickory; the shag-bark.
_Carya alba_, the mocker-nut, _Carya tontentofa_, the small-fruited
_Carya microcarpa_, the pig-nut, _Carya glatra_, bitter-nut. _Carya
amara_, all of which are exclusively American fruits, and are still
found in the valley of the St Lawrence.--_MS. Letter of J. M. Le
Maine_, of Quebec; Jeffrie's _Natural History of French Dominions in
America_, London. 1760, p.41.

Hazel-nuts, _noysettes_. The American filbert or hazel-nut, _Corylus
Americana_. The flavor is fine, but the fruit is smaller and the shell
thicker than that of the European filbert.

"Kind of fruit resembling chestnuts." This was probably the chestnut,
_Caftanea Americana_. The fruit much resembles the European, but is
smaller and sweeter.

Cherries, _cerises_. Three kinds may here be included, the wild red
cherry, _Prunus Pennsylvanica_, the choke cherry. _Prunus Virginiana_,
and the wild black cherry, _Prunus serotina_.

Oaks, _chesnes_. Probably the more noticeable varieties, as the white
oak, _Quercus alba_, and red oak, Quercus _rubra_.

Aspens, _trembles_. The American aspen, _Populus tremuloides_.

Poplar, _pible_. For _piboule_, as suggested by Laverdière. a variety
of poplar.

Hops, _houblon_. _Humulus lupulus_, found in northern climates,
differing from the hop of commerce, which was imported from Europe.

Ash. _fresne_. The white ash, _Fraxinus Americana_, and black ash,
_Fraxinus sambucifolia_.

Maple, _érable_. The tree here observed was probably the rock or sugar
maple, _Acer faccharinum_. Several other species belong to this

Beech, _hestre_. The American beech, _Fagus ferruginea_, of which
there is but one species.--_Vide_, Vol. II. p. 113, note 205.

Cypress, _cyprez_.--_Vide antea_ note 35.

Strawberry, _fraises_. The wild strawberry, _Fragaria vesca_, and
_Fragaria Virginiana_, both species, are found in this region.--_Vide_
Pickering's _Chronological History of Plants_, p. 873.

Raspberries _framboises_. The American raspberry, _Rubis strigosus_.

Currants, red, green, and blue, _groizelles rouges, vertes and
bleues_. The first mentioned is undoubtedly the red currant of our
gardens. _Ribes rubrum_. The second may have been the unripe fruit of
the former. The third doubtless the black currant, _Ribes nigrum_,
which grows throughout Canada.--_Vide Chronological History of
Plants_, Pickering. p. 871; also Vol. II. note 138.

_Orignas_, so written in the original text. This is, I think, the
earliest mention of this animal under this Algonquin name. It was
written, by the French, sometimes _orignac, orignat_, and
_orignal_.--_Vide Jesuit Relations_, 1635, p. 16; 1636, p. 11, _et
passim_; Sagard, _Hist. du Canada_, 1636, p. 749; _Description de
l'Amerique_, par Denys. 1672, p. 27. _Orignac_ was used
interchangeably with _élan_, the name of the elk of northern Europe,
regarded by some as the same spccies.--_Vide Mammals_, by Spenser F.
Baird. But the _orignac_ of Champlain was the moose. _Alce
Americanus_, peculiar to the northern latitudes of America. Moose is
derived from the Indian word _moosoa_. This animal is the largest of
the _Cervus_ family. The males are said to attain the weight of eleven
or twelve hundred pounds. Its horns sometimes weigh fifty or sixty
pounds. It is exceedingly shy and difficult to capture.

Stags, _cerfs_. This is undoubtedly a reference to the caribou,
_Cervus tarandus_. Sagard (1636) calls it _Caribou ou asne Sauuages_,
caribou or wilde ass.--_Hist. du Canada_, p. 750. La Hontan, 1686,
says harts and caribous are killed both in summer and winter after the
same manner with the elks (mooses), excepting that the caribous, which
are a kind of wild asses, make an easy escape when the snow is hard by
virtue of their broad feet (Voyages, p. 59). There are two varieties,
the _Cervus tarandus arcticus_ and the _Cervus tarandus sylvestris_.
The latter is that here referred to and the larger and finer animal,
and is still found in the forests of Canada.

Hinds, _biches_, the female of _cerfs_, and does, _dains_, the female
of _daim_, the fallow deer. These may refer to the females of the two
preceding species, or to additional species as the common red deer,
_Cervus Virginianus_, and some other species or variety. La Hontan in
the passage cited above speaks of three, the _elk_ which we have shown
to be the moose, the well-known _caribou_, and the _hart_, which was
undoubtedly the common red deer of this region, _Cervus Virginianus_.
I learn from Mr. J. M. LeMoine of Quebec, that the Wapiti, _Elaphus
Canadensis_ was found in the valley of the St. Lawrence a hundred and
forty years ago, several horns and bones having been dug up in the
forest, especially in the Ottawa district. It is now extinct here, but
is still found in the neighborhood of Lake Winnipeg and further west.
Cartier, in 1535, speaks of _dains_ and _cerfs_, doubtless referring
to different species.--_Vide Brief Récit_, D'Avezac ed. p. 31 _verso_.

Bears. _ours_. The American black bear, _Ursus Americanus_. The grisly
bear. _Ursus ferox_, was found on the Island of Anticosti.--_Vide
Hist. du Canada_, par Sagard, 1636, pp. 148, 750. _La Hontan's
Voyages_. 1687, p. 66.

Porcupines. _porcs-espics_. The Canada porcupine, _Hystrix pilosus_. A
nocturnal rodent quadruped, armed with barbed quills, his chief
defence when attacked by other animals.

Hares, _lapins_. The American hare, _Lepus Americanus_.

Foxes, _reynards_. Of the fox. _Canis vulpes_, there are several
species in Canada. The most common is of a carroty red color, _Vulpes
fulvus_. The American cross fox. _Canis decussatus_, and the black or
silver fox. _Canis argentatus_, are varieties that may have been found
there at that period, but are now rarely if ever seen.

Beavers, _castors_. The American beaver, _Castor Americanus_. The fur
of the beaver was of all others the most important in the commerce of
New France.

Otters, _loutres_. This has reference only to the river otter, _Lutra
Canadensis_. The sea otter, _Lutra marina_, is only found in America
on the north-west Pacific coast.

Muskrat, _rats musquets_. The musk-rat, _Fiber zibethecus_, sometimes
called musquash from the Algonquin word, _m8sk8éss8_, is found in
three varieties, the black, and rarely the pied and white. For a
description of this animal _vide Le Jeune, Jesuit Relations_, 1635,
pp. 18, 19.

180. The Verchères.

181. Summits of the Green Mountains.

182. From the Verchères to Montreal, the St. Lawrence is full of islands,
among them St. Thérèse and nameless others.

183. This was the Island of St Hélène, a favorite name given to several
other places. He subsequently called it St Hélène, probably from
Hélène Boullé, his wife. Between it and the mainland on the north
flows the _Rapide de Ste. Marie.--Vide Lauru's Chart_.

184. This landing was on the present site of the city of Montreal, and the
little island, according to Laverdière, is now joined to the mainland
by quays.

185. The island of Montreal, here referred to, not including the isle
Jésus, is about thirty miles long and nine miles in its greatest

186. The Isle Perrot is about seven or eight miles long and about three
miles wide.

187. Island of St Paul, sometimes called Nuns' Island.

188. Round Island, situated just below St. Hélène's, on the east, say about
fifty yards distant.

189. The mountain in the rear of the city of Montreal, 700 feet in height,
discovered in October, 1535. by Jacques Cartier, to which he gave the
name after which the city is called. "Nous nomasmes la dicte montaigne
le mont Royal."--_Brief Récit_, 1545, D'Avezac's ed. p. 23. When
Cartier made his visit to this place in 1535, he found on or near the
site of the present city of Montreal the famous Indian town called
_Hochelaga_. Champlain does not speak of it in the text, and it had of
course entirely disappeared.--_Vide_ Cartier's description in _Brief
Récit_, above cited.

190. Rivière St Pierre. This little river is formed by two small streams
flowing one from the north and the other from the south side of the
mountain. Bellin and Charlevoix denominate it _La Petite Rivière_.
These small streams do not appear on modern maps, and have probably
now entirely disappeared.--_Vide Charlevoix's Carte de l'Isle de
Montreal; Atlas Maritime_, par Sieur Bellin; likewise _Atlas of the
Dominion of Canada_, 1875.

191. The River St. Lambert, according to Laverdière, a small stream from
which by a short portage the Indian with his canoe could easily reach
Little River, which flows into the basin of Chambly, the lake referred
to by Champlain. This was the route of the Algonquins, at least on
their return from their raids upon the Iroquois.--_Vide_ Vol. II. p.

192. Laverdière supposes this insignificant stream to be La Rivière de la

193. The Falls of St. Louis, or the Lachine rapids.

194. Lachine Rapids.

195. Passing through Lake St. Louis, they come to the River Ottawa,
sometimes called the River of the Algonquins.

196. The Cascades, Cèdres and Rapids du Coteau du Lac with subdivisions.
_Laverdière_. La Hontan mentions four rapids between Lake St. Louis
and St Francis, as _Cascades, Le Cataracte du Trou, Sauts des Cedres_,
and _du Buisson_.

197. Lake St. Francis, about twenty-five miles long.

198. Long Saut.

199. Hardly a lake but rather the river uninterrupted by falls or rapids.

200. The smaller rapids, the Galops, Point Cardinal, and others.--_Vide_
La Hontan's description of his passage up this river, _New Voyages to
N. America_, London, 1735. Vol. I. p. 30.

201. Lake Ontario. It is one hundred and eighty miles long.--_Garneau_.

202. Niagara Falls. Champlain does not appear to have obtained from the
Indians any adequate idea of the grandeur and magnificence of this
fall. The expression, _qui est quelque peu éleué, où il y a peu d'eau,
laquelle descend_, would imply that it was of moderate if not of an
inferior character. This may have arisen from the want of a suitable
medium of communication, but it is more likely that the intensely
practical nature of the Indian did not enable him to appreciate or
even observe the beauties by which he was surrounded. The immense
volume of water and the perpendicular fall of 160 feet render it
unsurpassed in grandeur by any other cataract in the world. Although
Champlain appears never to have seen this fall, he had evidently
obtained a more accurate description of it before 1629.--_Vide_ note
No. 90 to map in ed. 1632.

203. Lake Erie, 250 miles long.--_Garneau_.

204. Detroit river, or the strait which connects Lake Erie and Lake St.
Clair.--_Atlas of the Dominion of Canada_.

205. Lake Huron, denominated on early maps _Mer Douce_, the sweet sea of
which the knowledge of the Indian guides was very imperfect.

206. The Indians with whom Champlain came in contact on this hasty visit in
1603 appear to have had some notion of a salt sea, or as they say
water that is very bad like the sea, lying in an indefinite region,
which neither they nor their friends had ever visited. The salt sea to
which they occasionally referred was probably Hudson's Bay, of which
some knowledge may have been transmitted from the tribes dwelling near
it to others more remote, and thus passing from tribe to tribe till it
reached, in rather an indefinite shape, those dwelling on the St.



We set out from the fall on Friday, the fourth of June, [207] and returned
the same day to the river of the Iroquois. On Sunday, the sixth of June, we
set out from here, and came to anchor at the lake. On Monday following, we
came to anchor at the Trois Rivières. The same day, we made some four
leagues beyond the Trois Rivières. The following Tuesday we reached Quebec,
and the next day the end of the island of Orleans, where the Indians, who
were encamped on the mainland to the north, came to us. We questioned two
or three Algonquins, in order to ascertain whether they would agree with
those whom we had interrogated in regard to the extent and commencement of
the River of Canada.

They said, indicating it by signs, that two or three leagues after passing
the fall which we had seen, there is, on the northern shore, a river in
their territory; that, continuing in the said great river, they pass a
fall, where they carry their canoes; that they then pass five other falls
comprising, from the first to the last, some nine or ten leagues, and that
these falls are not hard to pass, as they drag their canoes in the most of
them, except at two, where they carry them. After that, they enter a river
which is a sort of lake, comprising some six or seven leagues; and then
they pass five other falls, where they drag their canoes as before, except
at two, where they carry them as at the first; and that, from the first to
the last, there are some twenty or twenty-five leagues. Then they enter a
lake some hundred and fifty leagues in length, and some four or five
leagues from the entrance of this lake there is a river [208] extending
northward to the Algonquins, and another towards the Iroquois, [209] where
the said Algonquins and the Iroquois make war upon each other. And a little
farther along, on the south shore of this lake, there is another river,
[210] extending towards the Iroquois; then, arriving at the end of this
lake, they come to another fall, where they carry their canoes; beyond
this, they enter another very large lake, as long, perhaps, as the first.
The latter they have visited but very little, they said, and have heard
that, at the end of it, there is a sea of which they have not seen the end,
nor heard that any one has, but that the water at the point to which they
have gone is not salt, but that they are not able to judge of the water
beyond, since they have not advanced any farther; that the course of the
water is from the west towards the east, and that they do not know whether,
beyond the lakes they have seen, there is another watercourse towards the
west; that the sun sets on the right of this lake; that is, in my judgment,
northwest more or less; and that, at the first lake, the water never
freezes, which leads me to conclude that the weather there is moderate.
[211] They said, moreover, that all the territory of the Algonquins is low
land, containing but little wood; but that on the side of the Iroquois the
land is mountainous, although very good and productive, and better than in
any place they had seen. The Iroquois dwell some fifty or sixty leagues
from this great lake. This is what they told me they had seen, which
differs but very little from the statement of the former savages.

On the same day we went about three leagues, nearly to the Isle aux
Coudres. On Thursday, the tenth of the month, we came within about a league
and a half of Hare Island, on the north shore, where other Indians came to
our barque, among whom was a young Algonquin who had travelled a great deal
in the aforesaid great lake. We questioned him very particularly, as we had
the other savages. He told us that, some two or three leagues beyond the
fall we had seen, there is a river extending to the place where the
Algonquins dwell, and that, proceeding up the great river, there are five
falls, some eight or nine leagues from the first to the last, past three of
which they carry their canoes, and in the other two drag them; that each
one of these falls is, perhaps, a quarter of a league long. Then they enter
a lake some fifteen leagues in extent, after which they pass five other
falls, extending from the first to the last some twenty to twenty-five
leagues, only two of which they pass in their canoes, while at the three
others they drag them. After this, they enter a very large lake, some three
hundred leagues in length. Proceeding some hundred leagues in this lake,
they come to a very large island, beyond which the water is good; but that,
upon going some hundred leagues farther, the water has become somewhat bad,
and, upon reaching the end of the lake, it is perfectly salt. That there is
a fall about a league wide, where a very large mass of water falls into
said lake; that, when this fall is passed, one sees no more land on either
side, but only a sea so large that they have never seen the end of it, nor
heard that any one has; that the sun sets on the right of this lake, at the
entrance to which there is a river extending towards the Algonquins, and
another towards the Iroquois, by way of which they go to war; that the
country of the Iroquois is somewhat mountainous, though very fertile, there
being there a great amount of Indian corn and other products which they do
not have in their own country. That the territory of the Algonquins is low
and fertile.

I asked them whether they had knowledge of any mines. They told us that
there was a nation called the good Iroquois, [212] who come to barter for
the articles of merchandise which the French vessels furnish the
Algonquins, who say that, towards the north, there is a mine of pure
copper, some bracelets made from which they showed us, which they had
obtained from the good Iroquois; [213] that, if we wished to go there, they
would guide those who might be deputed for this object.

This is all that I have been able to ascertain from all parties, their
statements differing but little from each other, except that the second
ones who were interrogated said that they had never drunk salt water;
whence it appears that they had not proceeded so far in said lake as the
others. They differ, also, but little in respect to the distance, some
making it shorter and others longer; so that, according to their statement,
the distance from the fall where we had been to the salt sea, which is
possibly the South Sea, is some four hundred leagues. It is not to be
doubted, then, according to their statement, that this is none other than
the South Sea, the sun setting where they say.

On Friday, the tenth of this month, [214] we returned to Tadoussac, where
our vessel lay.


207. As they were at Lake St Peter on the 29th of June, it is plain that
this should read July.

208. This river extending north from Lake Ontario is the river-like Bay of

209. The Oswego River.

210. The Genesee River, after which they come to Niagara Falls.

211. We, can easily recognize Lake Ontario, Lake Erie and Niagara Falls,
although this account is exceedingly confused and inaccurate.

212. Reference is here made to the Hurons who were nearly related to the
Iroquois. They were called by the French the good Iroquois in
distinction from the Iroquois in the State of New York, with whom they
were at war.

213. A specimen of pure copper was subsequently presented to Champlain.--
Vol. II. p. 236: _Vide_ a brochure on _Prehistoric Copper Implements_,
by the editor, reprinted from the New England Historical and
Genealogical Register for Jan. 1879; also reprinted in the Collections
of Wis. Hist. Soc., Vol. VIII. 1880.

214. Friday, July 11th.



At once, after arriving at Tadoussac, we embarked for Gaspé, about a
hundred leagues distant. On the thirteenth day of the month, we met a troop
of savages encamped on the south shore, nearly half way between Tadoussac
and Gaspé. The name of the Sagamore who led them is Armouchides, who is
regarded as one of the most intelligent and daring of the savages. He was
going to Tadoussac to barter their arrows and orignac meat [215] for
beavers and martens [216] with the Montagnais, Etechemins, and Algonquins.

On the 15th day of the month we arrived at Gaspé, situated on the northern
shore of a bay, and about a league and a half from the entrance. This bay
is some seven or eight leagues long, and four leagues broad at its
entrance. There is a river there extending some thirty leagues inland.
[217] Then we saw another bay, called Moluës Bay [218] some three leagues
long and as many wide at its entrance. Thence we come to Isle Percée, [219]
a sort of rock, which is very high and steep on two sides, with a hole
through which shallops and boats can pass at high tide. At low tide, you
can go from the mainland to this island, which is only some four or five
hundred feet distant. There is also another island, about a league
southeast of Isle Percée, called the Island of Bonaventure, which is,
perhaps, half a league long. Gaspé, Moluës Bay, and Isle Percée are all
places where dry and green fishing is carried on.

Beyond Isle Percée there is a bay, called _Baye de Chaleurs_, [220]
extending some eighty leagues west-southwest inland, and some fifteen
leagues broad at its entrance. The Canadian savages say that some sixty
leagues along the southern shore of the great River of Canada, there is a
little river called Mantanne, extending some eighteen leagues inland, at
the end of which they carry their canoes about a league by land, and come
to the Baye de Chaleurs, [221] whence they go sometimes to Isle Percée.
They also go from this bay to Tregate [222] and Misamichy. [223]

Proceeding along this coast, you pass a large number of rivers, and reach a
place where there is one called _Souricoua_, by way of which Sieur Prevert
went to explore a copper mine. They go with their canoes up this river for
two or three days, when they go overland some two or three leagues to the
said mine, which is situated on the seashore southward. At the entrance to
the above-mentioned river there is an island [224] about a league out, from
which island to Isle Percée is a distance of some sixty or seventy leagues.
Then, continuing along this coast, which runs towards the east, you come to
a strait about two leagues broad and twenty-five long. [225] On the east
side of it is an island named _St. Lawrence_, [226] on which is Cape
Breton, and where a tribe of savages called the _Souriquois_ winter.
Passing the strait of the Island of St. Lawrence, and coasting along the
shore of La Cadie, you come to a bay [227] on which this copper mine is
situated. Advancing still farther, you find a river [228] extending some
sixty or eighty leagues inland, and nearly to the Lake of the Iroquois,
along which the savages of the coast of La Cadie go to make war upon the

One would accomplish a great good by discovering, on the coast of Florida,
some passage running near to the great lake before referred to, where the
water is salt; not only on account of the navigation of vessels, which
would not then be exposed to so great risks as in going by way of Canada,
but also on account of the shortening of the distance by more than three
hundred leagues. And it is certain that there are rivers on the coast of
Florida, not yet discovered, extending into the interior, where the land is
very good and fertile, and containing very good harbors. The country and
coast of Florida may have a different temperature and be more productive in
fruits and other things than that which I have seen; but there cannot be
there any lands more level nor of a better quality than those we have seen.

The savages say that, in this great Baye de Chaleurs, there is a river
extending some twenty leagues into the interior, at the extremity of which
is a lake [229] some twenty leagues in extent, but with very little water;
that it dries up in summer, when they find in it, a foot or foot and a half
under ground, a kind of metal resembling the silver which I showed them,
and that in another place, near this lake, there is a copper mine.

This is what I learned from these savages.


215. _Orignac_. Moose.--_Vide antea_, note 179.

216. Martens, _martres_. This may include the pine-marten, _Mustela
martes_, and the pecan or fisher, _Mustela Canadenfis_, both of which
were found in large numbers in New France.

217. York River.

218. Molues Bay, _Baye des Moluès_. Now known as Mal-Bay, from _morue_,
codfish, a corruption from the old orthography _molue_ and _baie_,
codfish bay, the name having been originally applied on account of the
excellent fish of the neighborhood. The harbor of Mal-Bay is enclosed
between two points, Point Peter on the north, and a high rocky
promontory on the south, whose cliffs rise to the height of 666
feet.--_Vide Charts of the St. Lawrence by Captain H. W. Bayfield_.

219. _Isle Percée.--Vide_ Vol. II, note 290.

220. _Baye de Chaleurs_. This bay was so named by Jacques Cartier on
account of the excessive heat, _chaleur_, experienced there on his
first voyage in 1634.--_Vide Voyage de Jacques Cartier_, Mechelant,
ed. Paris, 1865, p. 50. The depth of the bay is about ninety miles and
its width at the entrance is about eighteen. It receives the
Ristigouche and other rivers.

221. By a portage of about three leagues from the river Matane to the
Matapedia, the Bay of Chaleur may be reached by water.

222. _Tregaté_, Tracadie. By a very short portage Between Bass River and
the Big Tracadie River, this place may be reached.

223. _Misamichy_, Miramichi. This is reached by a short portage from the
Nepisiguit to the head waters of the Miramichi.

224. It is obvious from this description that the island above mentioned is
Shediac Island, and the river was one of the several emptying into
Shediac Bay, and named _Souricoua_, as by it the Indians went to the
Souriquois or Micmacs in Nova Scotia.

225. The Strait of Canseau.

226. _St. Lawrence_. This island had then borne the name of the _Island of
Cape Breton_ for a hundred years.

227. The Bay of Fundy.

228. The River St John by which they reached the St Lawrence, and through
the River Richelieu the lake of the Iroquois. It was named Lake
Champlain in 1609. _Vide_ Vol. II. p. 223.

229. By traversing the Ristigouche River, the Matapediac may be reached,
the lake here designated.



We set out from Isle Percée on the nineteenth of the month, on our return
to Tadoussac. When we were some three leagues from Cape Évêque [230]
encountered a tempest, which lasted two days, and obliged us to put into a
large cove and wait for fair weather. The next day we set out from there
and again encountered another tempest. Not wishing to put back, and
thinking that we could make our way, we proceeded to the north shore on the
28th of July, and came to anchor in a cove which is very dangerous on
account of its rocky banks. This cove is in latitude 51 deg. and some
minutes. [231]

The next day we anchored near a river called St. Margaret, where the depth
is some three fathoms at full tide, and a fathom and a half at low tide. It
extends a considerable distance inland. So far as I observed the eastern
shore inland, there is a waterfall some fifty or sixty fathoms in extent,
flowing into this river; from this comes the greater part of the water
composing it. At its mouth there is a sand-bank, where there is, perhaps,
at low tide, half a fathom of water. All along the eastern shore there is
moving sand; and here there is a point some half a league from the above
mentioned river, [232] extending out half a league, and on the western
shore there is a little island. This place is in latitude 50 deg. All these
lands are very poor, and covered with firs. The country is somewhat high,
but not so much so as that on the south side.

After going some three leagues, we passed another river, [233] apparently
very large, but the entrance is, for the most part, filled with rocks. Some
eight leagues distant from there, is a point [234] extending out a league
and a half, where there is only a fathom and a half of water. Some four
leagues beyond this point, there is another, where there is water enough.
[235] All this coast is low and sandy.

Some four leagues beyond there is a cove into which a river enters. [236]
This place is capable of containing a large number of vessels on its
western side. There is a low point extending out about a league. One must
sail along the eastern side for some three hundred paces in order to enter.
This is the best harbor along all the northern coast; yet it is very
dangerous sailing there on account of the shallows and sandbanks along the
greater part of the coast for nearly two leagues from the shore.

Some six leagues farther on is a bay, [237] where there is a sandy island.
This entire bay is very shoal, except on the eastern side, where there are
some four fathoms of water. In the channel which enters this bay, some four
leagues from there, is a fine cove, into which a river flows. There is a
large fall on it. All this coast is low and sandy. Some five leagues
beyond, is a point extending out about half a league, [238] in which there
is a cove; and from one point to the other is a distance of three leagues;
which, however, is only shoals with little water.

Some two leagues farther on, is a strand with a good harbor and a little
river, in which there are three islands, [239] and in which vessels could
take shelter.

Some three leagues from there, is a sandy point, [240] extending out about
a league, at the end of which is a little island. Then, going on to the
Esquemin, [241] you come to two small, low islands and a little rock near
the shore. These islands are about half a league from the Esquemin, which
is a very bad harbor, surrounded by rocks and dry at low tide, and, in
order to enter, one must tack and go in behind a little rocky point, where
there is room enough for only one vessel. A little farther on, is a river
extending some little distance into the interior; this is the place where
the Basques carry on the whale-fishery. [242] To tell the truth, the harbor
is of no account at all.

We went thence to the harbor of Tadoussac, on the third of August. All
these lands above-mentioned along the shore are low, while the interior is
high. They are not so attractive or fertile as those on the south shore,
although lower.

This is precisely what I have seen of this northern shore.


230. _Évesque_ This cape cannot be identified.

231. On passing to the northern shore of the St. Lawrence, they entered,
according to the conjecture of Laverdière, Moisie Bay. It seems to us,
however, more likely that they entered a cove somewhere among the
Seven Islands, perhaps near the west channel to the Seven Islands Bay,
between Point Croix and Point Chassé, where they might have found good
anchorage and a rocky shore. The true latitude is say, about 50 deg.
9'. The latitude 51 deg., as given by Champlain, would cut the coast
of Labrador, and is obviously an error.

232. This was probably the river still bearing the name of St. Margaret.
There is a sandy point extending out on the east and a peninsula on
the western shore, which may then have been an island formed by the
moving sands.--_Vide Bayfield's charts_.

233. Rock River, in latitude 50 deg. 2'.

234. Point De Monts. The Abbé Laverdière, whose opportunities for knowing
this coast were excellent, states that there is no other point between
Rock River and Point De Monts of such extent, and where there is so
little water. As to the distance, Champlain may have been deceived by
the currents, or there may have been, as suggested by Laverdière, a
typographical error. The distance to Point De Monts is, in fact,
eighteen leagues.

235. Point St Nicholas.--_Laverdière_. This is probably the point referred
to, although the distance is again three times too great.

236. The Manicouagan River.--_Laverdière_. The distance is still excessive,
but in other respects the description in the text identifies this
river. On Bellin's map this river is called Rivière Noire.

237. Outard Bay. The island does not now appear. It was probably an island
of sand, which has since been swept away, unless it was the sandy
peninsula lying between Outard and Manicouagan Rivers. The fall is
laid down on Bayfield's chart.

238. Bersimis Point Walker and Miles have _Betsiamites_, Bellin,
_Bersiamites_ Laverdière, _Betsiams_, and Bayfield, _Bersemis_. The
text describes the locality with sufficient accuracy.

239. Jeremy Island. Bellin, 1764, lays down three islands, but Bayfield,
1834, has but one. Two of them appear to have been swept away or
united in one.

240. Three leagues would indicate Point Colombier. But Laverdière suggests
Mille Vaches as better conforming to the description in the text,
although the distance is three times too great.

241. _Esquemin_. Walker and Miles have _Esconmain_, Bellin, _Lesquemin_,
Bayfield, _Esquamine_, and Laverdière, _Escoumins_. The river half a
league distant is now called River Romaine.

242. The River Lessumen, a short distance from which is _Anse aux Basques_,
or Basque Cove. This is probably the locality referred to in the text.



Upon arriving at Tadoussac, we found the savages, whom we had met at the
River of the Iroquois, and who had had an encounter at the first lake with
three Iroquois canoes, there being ten of the Montagnais. The latter
brought back the heads of the Iroquois to Tadoussac, there being only one
Montagnais wounded, which was in the arm by an arrow; and in case he should
have a dream, it would be necessary for all the ten others to execute it in
order to satisfy him, they thinking, moreover, that his wound would thereby
do better. If this savage should die, his relatives would avenge his death
either on his own tribe or others, or it would be necessary for the
captains to make presents to the relatives of the deceased, in order to
content them, otherwise, as I have said, they would practise vengeance,
which is a great evil among them.

Before these Montagnais set out for the war, they all gathered together in
their richest fur garments of beaver and other skins, adorned with beads
and belts of various colors. They assembled in a large public place, in the
presence of a sagamore named Begourat, who led them to the war. They were
arranged one behind the other, with their bows and arrows, clubs, and round
shields with which they provide for fighting. They went leaping one after
the other, making various gestures with their bodies, and many snail-like
turns. Afterwards they proceeded to dance in the customary manner, as I
have before described; then they had their _tabagie_, after which the women
stripped themselves stark naked, adorned with their handsomest
_matachiats_. Thus naked and dancing, they entered their canoes, when they
put out upon the water, striking each other with their oars, and throwing
quantities of water at one another. But they did themselves no harm, since
they parried the blows hurled at each other. After all these ceremonies,
the women withdrew to their cabins, and the men went to the war against the

On the sixteenth of August we set out from Tadoussac, and arrived on the
eighteenth at Isle Percée, where we found Sieur Prevert of St. Malo, who
came from the mine where he had gone with much difficulty, from the fear
which the savages had of meeting their enemies, the Almouchicois, [243] who
are savages of an exceedingly strange form, for their head is small and
body short, their arms slender as those of a skeleton, so also the thighs,
their legs big and long and of uniform size, and when they are seated on
the ground, their knees extend more than half a foot above the head,
something strange and seemingly abnormal. They are, however, very agile and
resolute, and are settled upon the best lands all the coast of La Cadie;
[244] so that the Souriquois fear them greatly. But with the assurance
which Sieur de Prevert gave them, he took them to the mine, to which the
savages guided him. [245] It is a very high mountain, extending somewhat
seaward, glittering brightly in the sunlight, and containing a large amount
of verdigris, which proceeds from the before-mentioned copper mine. At the
foot of this mountain, he said, there was at low water a large quantity of
bits of copper, such as he showed us, which fall from the top of the
mountain. Going on three or four leagues in the direction of the coast of
La Cadie one finds another mine; also a small river extending some distance
in a Southerly direction, where there is a mountain containing a black
pigment with which the savages paint themselves. Then, some six leagues
from the second mine, going seaward about a league, and near the coast of
La Cadie, you find an island containing a kind of metal of a dark brown
color, but white when it is cut. This they formerly used for their arrows
and knives, which they beat into shape with stones, which leads me to
believe that it is neither tin nor lead, it being so hard; and, upon our
showing them some silver, they said that the metal of this island was like
it, which they find some one or two feet under ground. Sieur Prevert gave
to the savages wedges and chisels and other things necessary to extract the
ore of this mine, which they promised to do, and on the following year to
bring and give the same to Sieur Prevert.

They say, also, that, some hundred or hundred and twenty leagues distant,
there are other mines, but that they do not dare to go to them, unless
accompanied by Frenchmen to make war upon their enemies, in whose
possession the mines are.

This place where the mine is, which is in latitude 44 deg. and some
minutes, [246] and some five or six leagues from the coast of La Cadie, is
a kind of bay some leagues broad at its entrance, and somewhat more in
length, where there are three rivers which flow into the great bay near the
island of St John, [247] which is some thirty or thirty-five leagues long
and some six leagues from the mainland on the south. There is also another
small river emptying about half way from that by which Sieur Prevert
returned, in which there are two lake-like bodies of water. There is also
still another small river, extending in the direction of the pigment
mountain. All these rivers fall into said bay nearly southeast of the
island where these savages say this white mine is. On the north side of
this bay are the copper mines, where there is a good harbor for vessels, at
the entrance to which is a small island. The bottom is mud and sand, on
which vessels can be run.

From this mine to the mouth of the above rivers is a distance of some sixty
or eighty leagues overland. But the distance to this mine, along the
seacoast, from the outlet between the Island of St. Lawrence and the
mainland is, I should think, more than fifty or sixty leagues. [248]

All this country is very fair and flat, containing all the kinds of trees
we saw on our way to the first fall of the great river of Canada, with but
very little fir and cypress.

This is an exact statement of what I ascertained from Sieur Prevert.


243. _Almouchiquois_. Champlain here writes _Armouchicois_. The account
here given to Prevert, by the Souriquois or Micmacs, as they have been
more recently called, of the Almouchicois or Indians found south of
Saco, on the coast of Massachusetts, if accurately reported, is far
from correct. _Vide_ Champlain's description of them, Vol. II. p. 63,
_et passim_.

244. _Coast of La Cadie_. This extent given to La Cadie corresponds with
the charter of De Monts, which covered the territory from 40 deg.
north latitude to 46 deg. The charter was obtained in the autumn of
this same year, 1603, and before the account of this voyage by
Champlain was printed.--_Vide_ Vol. 11. note 155.

245. Prevert did not make this exploration, personally, although he
pretended that he did. He sent some of his men with Secondon, the
chief of St. John, and others. His report is therefore second-hand,
confused, and inaccurate. Champlain exposes Prevert's attempt to
deceive in a subsequent reference to him. Compare Vol. II. pp. 26, 97,

246. _44 deg. and some minutes_. The Basin of Mines, the place where the
copper was said to be, is about 45 deg. 30'.

247. _Island of St. John_. Prince Edward Island. It was named the island of
St. John by Cartier, having been discovered by him on St. John's Day,
the 24th of June, 1534.--_Vide Voyage de Jacques Cartier_, 1534,
Michelant, ed. Paris, 1865, p. 33. It continued to be so called for
the period of _two hundred and sixty-five_ years, when it was changed
to Prince Edward Island by an act of its legislature, in November,
1798, which was confirmed by the king in council, Feb. 1, 1799.

248. That is, from the Strait of Canseau round the coast of Nova Scotia to
the Bay of Mines.



There is, moreover, a strange matter, worthy of being related, which
several savages have assured me was true; namely, near the Bay of Chaleurs,
towards the south, there is an island where a terrible monster resides,
which the savages call _Gougou_, and which they told me had the form of a
woman, though very frightful, and of such a size that they told me the tops
of the masts of our vessel would not reach to his middle, so great do they
picture him; and they say that he has often devoured and still continues to
devour many savages; these he puts, when he can catch them, into a great
pocket, and afterwards eats them; and those who had escaped the jaws of
this wretched creature said that its pocket was so great that it could have
put our vessel into it. This monster makes horrible noises in this island,
which the savages call the _Gougou_; and when they speak of him, it is with
the greatest possible fear, and several have assured me that they have seen
him. Even the above-mentioned Prevert from St. Malo told me that, while
going in search of mines, as mentioned in the previous chapter, he passed
so near the dwelling-place of this frightful creature, that he and all
those on board his vessel heard strange hissings from the noise it made,
and that the savages with him told him it was the same creature, and that
they were so afraid that they hid themselves wherever they could, for fear
that it would come and carry them off. What makes me believe what they say
is the fact that all the savages in general fear it, and tell such strange
things about it that, if I were to record all they say, it would be
regarded as a myth; but I hold that this is the dwelling-place of some
devil that torments them in the above-mentioned manner. [249] This is what
I have learned about this Gougou.

Before leaving Tadoussac on our return to France, one of the sagamores of
the Montagnais, named _Bechourat_, gave his son to Sieur Du Pont Gravé to
take to France, to whom he was highly commended by the grand sagamore,
Anadabijou, who begged him to treat him well and have him see what the
other two savages, whom we had taken home with us, had seen. We asked them
for an Iroquois woman they were going to eat, whom they gave us, and whom,
also, we took with this savage. Sieur de Prevert also took four savages: a
man from the coast of La Cadie, a woman and two boys from the Canadians.

On the 24th of August, we set out from Gaspé, the vessel of Sieur Prevert
and our own. On the 2d of September we calculated that we were as far as
Cape Race, on the 5th, we came upon the bank where the fishery is carried
on; on the 16th, we were on soundings, some fifty leagues from Ouessant; on
the 20th we arrived, by God's grace, to the joy of all, and with a
continued favorable wind, at the port of Havre de Grâce.


249. The description of this enchanted island is too indefinite to invite a
conjecture of its identity or location. The resounding noise of the
breaking waves, mingled with the whistling of the wind, might well lay
a foundation for the fears of the Indians, and their excited
imaginations would easily fill out and complete the picture. In
Champlain's time, the belief in the active agency of good and evil
spirits, particularly the latter, in the affairs of men, was
universal. It culminated in this country in the tragedies of the Salem
witchcraft in 1692. It has since been gradually subsiding, but
nevertheless still exists under the mitigated form of spiritual
communications. Champlain, sharing the credulity of his times, very
naturally refers these strange phenomena reported by the savages,
whose statements were fully accredited and corroborated by the
testimony of his countryman, M. Prevert, to the agency of some evil
demon, who had taken up his abode in that region in order to vex and
terrify these unhappy Indians. As a faithful historian, he could not
omit this story, but it probably made no more impression upon his mind
than did the thousand others of a similar character with which he must
have been familiar He makes no allusion to it in the edition of 1613,
when speaking of the copper mines in that neighborhood, nor yet in
that of 1632, and it had probably passed from his memory.






A. _Baye des Isles_. [1]

B. _Calesme_. [2]

C. _Baye des Trespasses_.

D. _Cap de Leuy_. [3]

E. _Port du Cap de Raye_, where the cod-fishery is carried on.

F. The north-west coast of Newfoundland, but little known.

G. Passage to the north at the 52d degree. [4]

H. _Isle St. Paul_, near Cape St Lawrence

I. _Isle de Sasinou_, between Monts Déserts and Isles aux Corneilles. [5]

K. _Isle de Mont-réal_, at the Falls of St. Louis, some eight or nine
leagues in circuit. [6]

L. _Riuière Jeannin_. [7]

M. _Riuière St. Antoine_, [8]

N. Kind of salt water discharging into the sea, with ebb and flood,
abundance of fish and shell-fish, and in some places oysters of not very
good flavor. [9]

P. _Port aux Coquilles_, an island at the mouth of the River St. Croix,
with good fishing. [10]

Q. Islands where there is fishing. [11]

R. _Lac de Soissons_. [12]

S. _Baye du Gouffre_. [13]

T. _Isle de Monts Déserts_, very high.

V. _Isle S. Barnabe_, in the great river near the Bic.

X. _Lesquemain_, where there is a small river, abounding in salmon and
trout, near which is a little rocky islet, where there was formerly a
station for the whale fishery. [14]

Y. _La Pointe aux Allouettes_, where, in the month of September, there are
numberless larks, also other kinds of game and shell-fish.

Z. _Isle aux Liéures_, so named because some hares were captured there when
it was first discovered. [15]

2. _Port à Lesquille_, dry at low tide, where are two brooks coming from
the mountains. [16]

3. _Port au Saulmon_, dry at low tide. There are two small islands here,
abounding, in the season, with strawberries, raspberries, and _bluets_.
[17] Near this place is a good roadstead for vessels, and two small brooks
flowing into the harbor.

4. _Riuière Platte_, coming from the mountains, only navigable for canoes.
It is dry here at low tide a long distance out. Good anchorage in the

5. _Isles aux Couldres_, some league and a half long, containing in their
season great numbers of rabbits, partridges, and other kinds of game. At
the southwest point are meadows, and reefs seaward. There is anchorage here
for vessels between this island and the mainland on the north.

6. _Cap de Tourmente_, a league from which Sieur de Champlain had a
building erected, which was burned by the English in 1628. Near this place
is Cap Bruslé, between which and Isle aux Coudres is a channel, with eight,
ten, and twelve fathoms of water. On the south the shore is muddy and
rocky. To the north are high lands, &c.

7. _Isle d'Orléans_, six leagues in length, very beautiful on account of
its variety of woods, meadows, vines, and nuts. The western point of this
island is called Cap de Condé.

8. _Le Sault de Montmorency_, twenty fathoms high, [18] formed by a river
coming from the mountains, and discharging into the St. Lawrence, a league
and a half from Quebec.

9. _Rivière S. Charles_, coming from Lac S. Joseph, [19] very beautiful
with meadows at low tide. At full tide barques can go up as far as the
first fall. On this river are built the churches and quarters of the
reverend Jésuit and Récollect Fathers. Game is abundant here in spring and

10. _Rivière des Etechemins_, [20] by which the savages go to Quinebequi,
crossing the country with difficulty, on account of the falls and little
water. Sieur de Champlain had this exploration made in 1628, and found a
savage tribe, seven days from Quebec, who till the soil, and are called the

11. _Rivière de Champlain_, near that of Batisquan, north-west of the

12. _Rivière de Sauvages_ [21]

13. _Isle Verte_, five or six leagues from Tadoussac. [22]

14. _Isle de Chasse_.

15. _Rivière Batisquan_, very pleasant, and abounding in fish.

16. _Les Grondines_, and some neighboring islands. A good place for hunting
and fishing.

17. _Rivière des Esturgeons & Saulmons_, with a fall of water from fifteen
to twenty feet high, two leagues from Saincte Croix, which descends into a
small pond discharging into the great river St. Lawrence. [23]

18. _Isle de St. Eloy_, with a passage between the island and the mainland
on the north. [24]

19. _Lac S. Pierre_, very beautiful, three to four fathoms in depth, and
abounding in fish, surrounded by hills and level tracts, with meadows in
places. Several small streams and brooks flow into it.

20. _Rivière du Gast_, very pleasant, yet containing but little water. [25]

21. _Rivière Sainct Antoine_. [26]

22. _Rivière Saincte Suzanne_. [27]

23. _Rivière des Yrocois_, very beautiful, with many islands and meadows.
It comes from Lac de Champlain, five or fix days' journey in length,
abounding in fish and game of different kinds. Vines, nut, plum, and
chestnut trees abound in many places. There are meadows and very pretty
islands in it. To reach it, it is necessary to pass one large and one small
fall. [28]

24. _Sault de Rivière du Saguenay_, fifty leagues from Tadoussac, ten or
twelve fathoms high. [29]

25. _Grand Sault_, which falls some fifteen feet, amid a large number of
islands. It is half a league in length and three leagues broad. [30]

26. _Port au Mouton_.

27. _Baye de Campseau_.

28. _Cap Baturier_, on the Isle de Sainct Jean.

29. A river by way of which they go to the Baye Françoise. [31]

30. _Chasse des Eslans_. [32]

31. _Cap de Richelieu_, on the eastern part of the Isle d'Orléans. [33]

32. A small bank near Isle du Cap Breton.

33. _Rivière des Puans_, coming from a lake where there is a mine of pure
red copper. [34]

34. _Sault de Gaston_, nearly two leagues broad, and discharging into the
Mer Douce. It comes from another very large lake, which, with the Mer
Douce, have an extent of thirty days' journey by canoe, according to the
report of the savages. [35]

_Returning to the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Coast of La Cadie_.

35. _Riuière de Gaspey_. [36]

36. _Riuière de Chaleu_. [37]

37. Several Islands near Miscou and the harbor of Miscou, between two

38. _Cap de l'Isle Sainct Jean_. [38]

39. _Port au Rossignol_.

40. _Riuière Platte_. [39]

41. _Port du Cap Naigré_. On the bay by this cape there is a French
settlement, where Sieur de la Tour commands, from whom it was named Port la
Tour. The Reverend Récollect Fathers dwelt here in 1630. [40]

42. _Baye du Cap de Sable_.

43. _Baye Saine_. [41]

44. _Baye Courante_, with many islands abounding in game, good fishing, and
places favorable for vessels. [42]

45. _Port du Cap Fourchu_, very pleasant, but very nearly dry at low tide.
Near this place are many islands, with good hunting.

47. _Petit Passage de Isle Longue_. Here there is good cod-fishing.

48. _Cap des Deux Bayes_. [43]

49. _Port des Mines_, where, at low tide, small pieces of very pure copper
are to be found in the rocks along the shore. [44]

50. _Isles de Bacchus_, very pleasant, containing many vines, nut,
plum, and other trees. [45]

51. Islands near the mouth of the river Chouacoet.

52. _Isles Assez Hautes_, three or four in number, two or three leagues
distant from the land, at the mouth of Baye Longue. [46]

53. _Baye aux Isles_, with suitable harbors for vessels. The country is
very good, and settled by numerous savages, who till the land. In these
localities are numerous cypresses, vines, and nut-trees. [47]

54. _La Soupçonneuse_, an island nearly a league distant from the land.

55. _Baye Longue_. [49]

56. _Les Sept Isles_. [50]

57. _Riuière des Etechemins_. [51] _The Virginias, where the English are
settled, between the 36th and 37th degrees of latitude. Captains Ribaut and
Laudonnière made explorations 36 or 37 years ago along the coasts adjoining
Florida, and established a settlement_. [52]

58. Several rivers of the Virginias, flowing into the Gulf.

59. Coast inhabited by savages who till the soil, which is very good.

60. _Poincte Confort_. [53]

61. _Immestan_. [54]

62. _Chesapeacq Bay_.

63. _Bedabedec_, the coast west of the river Pemetegoet. [55]

64. _Belles Prairies_.

65. Place on Lac Champlain where the Yroquois were defeated by Sieur
Champlain in 1606. [56]

66. _Petit Lac_, by way of which they go to the Yroquois, after passing
over that of Champlain. [57]

67. _Baye des Trespassez_, on the island of Newfoundland.

68. _Chappeau Rouge_.

69. _Baye du Sainct Esprit_.

70. _Les Vierges_.

71. _Port Breton_, near Cap Sainct Laurent, on Isle du Cap Breton.

72. _Les Bergeronnettes_, three leagues from Tadoussac.

73. _Le Cap d'Espoir_, near Isle Percée. [58]

74. _Forillon_, at Poincte de Gaspey.

75. _Isle de Mont-réal_, at the Falls of St. Louis, in the River St.
Lawrence. [59]

76. _Riuière des Prairies_, coming from a lake at the Falls of St. Louis,
where there are two islands, one of which is Montreal For several years
this has been a station for trading with the savages. [60]

77. _Sault de la Chaudière_, on the river of the Algonquins, some
eighteen feet high, and descending among rocks with a great roar. [61]

78. _Lac de Nibachis_, the name of a savage captain who dwells here and
tills a little land, where he plants Indian corn. [62]

79. Eleven lakes, near each other, one, two, and three leagues in extent,
and abounding in fish and game. Sometimes the savages go this way in order
to avoid the Fall of the Calumets, which is very dangerous. Some of these
localities abound in pines, yielding a great amount of resin. [63]

80. _Sault des Pierres à Calunmet_, which resemble alabaster.

81. _Isle de Tesouac_, an Algonquin captain (_Tesouac_) to
whom the savages pay a toll for allowing them passage to Quebec. [64]

82. _La Riuière de Tesouac_, in which there are five falls. [65]

83. A river by which many savages go to the North Sea, above the Saguenay,
and to the Three Rivers, going some distance overland. [66]

84. The lakes by which they go to the North Sea.

85. A river extending towards the North Sea.

86. Country of the Hurons, so called by the French, where there are
numerous communities, and seventeen villages fortified by three palisades
of wood, with a gallery all around in the form of a parapet, for defence
against their enemies. This region is in latitude 44 deg. 30', with a
fertile soil cultivated by the savages.

87. Passage of a league overland, where the canoes are carried.

88. A river discharging into the _Mer Douce_. [67]

89. Village fortified by four palisades, where Sieur de Champlain went in
the war against the Antouhonorons, and where several savages were taken
prisoners. [68]

90. Falls at the extremity of the Falls of St. Louis, very high, where many
fish come down and are stunned. [69]

91. A small river near the Sault de la Chaudière, where there is a
waterfall nearly twenty fathoms high, over which the water flows in such
volume and with such velocity that a long arcade is made, beneath which the
savages go for amusement, without getting wet. It is a fine sight. [70]

92. This river is very beautiful, with numerous islands of various sizes.
It passes through many fine lakes, and is bordered by beautiful meadows. It
abounds in deer and other animals, with fish of excellent quality. There
are many cleared tracts of land upon it, with good soil, which have been
abandoned by the savages on account of their wars. It discharges into Lake
St. Louis, and many tribes come to these regions to hunt and obtain their
provision for the winter. [71]

93. Chestnut forest, where there are great quantities of chestnuts, on the
borders of Lac St Louis. Also many meadows, vines, and nut-trees. [72]

94. Lake-like bodies of salt water at the head of Baye François, where the
tide ebbs and flows. Islands containing many birds, many meadows in
different localities, small rivers flowing into these species of lakes, by
which they go to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, near Isle S. Jean. [73]

95. _Isle Haute_, a league in circuit, and flat on top. It contains fresh
water and much wood. It is a league distant from Port aux Mines and Cap des
Deux Bayes. It is more than forty fathoms high on all sides, except in one
place, where it slopes, and where there is a pebbly point of a triangular
shape. In the centre is a pond with salt water. Many birds make their nests
in this island.

96. _La Riuière des Algommequins_, extending from the Falls of St Louis
nearly to the Lake of the Bissereni, containing more than eighty falls,
large and small, which must be passed by going around, by rowing, or by
hauling with ropes. Some of these falls are very dangerous, particularly in
going down. [74]

_Gens de Petun_. This is a tribe cultivating this herb (_tobacco_), in
which they carry on an extensive traffic with the other tribes. They have
large towns, fortified with wood, and they plant Indian corn.

_Cheveux Releuez_. These are savages who wear nothing about the loins, and
go stark naked, except in winter, when they clothe themselves in robes of
skins, which they leave off when they quit their houses for the fields.
They are great hunters, fishermen, and travellers, till the soil, and plant
Indian corn. They dry _bluets_ [75] and raspberries, in which they carry on
an extensive traffic with the other tribes, taking in exchange skins,
beads, nets, and other articles. Some of these people pierce the nose, and
attach beads to it They tattoo their bodies, applying black and other
colors. They wear their hair very straight, and grease it, painting it red,
as they do also the face.

_La Nation Neutre_. This is a people that maintains itself against all the
others. They engage in war only with the Assistaqueronons. They are very
powerful, having forty towns well peopled.

_Les Antouhonorons_. They consist of fifteen towns built in strong
situations. They are enemies of all the other tribes, except Neutral
nation. Their country is fine, with a good climate, and near the river St.
Lawrence, the passage of which they forbid to all the other tribes, for
which reason it is less visited by them. They till the soil, and plant
their land. [76] _Les Yroquois_. They unite with the Antouhonorons in
making war against all the other tribes, except the Neutral nation.

_Carantouanis_. This is a tribe that has moved to the south of the
Antouhonorons, and dwells in a very fine country, where it is securely
quartered. They are friends of all the other tribes, except the above named
Antouhonorons, from whom they are only three days' journey distant. Once
they took as prisoners some Flemish, but sent them back again without doing
them any harm, supposing that they were French. Between Lac St. Louis and
Sault St. Louis, which is the great river St Lawrence, there are five
falls, numerous fine lakes, and pretty islands, with a pleasing country
abounding in game and fish, favorable for settlement, were it not for the
wars which the savages carry on with each other.

_La Mer Douce_ is a very large lake, containing a countless number of
islands. It is very deep, and abounds in fish of all varieties and of
extraordinary size, which are taken at different times and seasons, as in
the great sea. The southern shore is much pleasanter than the northern,
where there are many rocks and great quantities of caribous.

_Le Lac des Bisserenis_ is very beautiful, some twenty-five leagues in
circuit, and containing numerous islands covered with woods and meadows.
The savages encamp here, in order to catch in the river sturgeon, pike, and
carp, which are excellent and of very great size, and taken in large
numbers. Game is also abundant, although the country is not particularly
attractive, it being for the most part rocky.

[NOTE.--The following are marked on the map as places where the French have
had settlements: 1. Grand Cibou; 2. Cap Naigre; 3. Port du Cap Fourchu; 4.
Port Royal; 5. St. Croix; 6. Isle des Monts Deserts; 7. Port de Miscou; 8.
Tadoussac; 9. Quebec; 10. St. Croix, near Quebec.]


1. It is to be observed that some of the letters and figures are not found
on the map. Among the rest, the letter A is wanting. It is impossible of
course to tell with certainty to what it refers, particularly as the
places referred to do not occur in consecutive order. The Abbé
Laverdière thinks this letter points to the bay of Boston or what we
commonly call Massachusetts Bay, or to the Bay of all Isles as laid down
by Champlain on the eastern coast of Nova Scotia.

2. On the southern coast of Newfoundland, now known as _Placentia Bay_.

3. Point Levi, opposite Quebec.

4. The letter G is wanting, but the reference is plainly to the Straits of
Belle Isle, as may be seen by reference to the map.

5. This island was somewhere between Mount Desert and Jonesport; not
unlikely it was that now known as Petit Manan. It was named after
Sasanou, chief of the River Kennebec. _Vide_ Vol. II. p. 58.

6. The underestimate is so great, that it is probable that the author
intended to say that the length of the island is eight or nine leagues.

7. The Boyer, east of Quebec. It appears to have been named after the
President Jeannin. _Vide antea_, p.112.

8. A river east of the Island of Orleans now called Rivière du Sud.

9. N is wanting.

10. A harbor at the north-eastern extremity of the island of Campobello.
_Vide_ Vol II. p. 100.

11. Q is wanting. The reference is perhaps to the islands in Penobscot Bay.

12. Lac de Soissons So named after Charles de Bourbon, Count de Soissons, a
Viceroy of New France in 1612. _Vide antea_, p 112. Now known as the
Lake of Two Mountains.

13. A bay at the mouth of a river of this name now called St. Paul's Bay,
near the Isle aux Coudres. _Vide_ Vol. II. note 305.

14. _Vide antea_, note 241.

15. An island in the River St Lawrence west of Tadoussac, still called Hare
Island. _Vide antea_, note 148.

16. Figure 2 is not found on the map, and it is difficult to identify the
place referred to.

17. Bluets, _Vaccinium Canadense_, the Canada blueberry. Champlain says it
is a small fruit very good for eating. _Vide_ Quebec ed. Voyage of
1615, p. 509.

18. _Vide_ Vol. II. p. 176.

19. For _Lac S. Joseph_, read Lac S. Charles.

20. Champlain here calls the Chaudière the River of the Etechemins,
notwithstanding he had before given the name to that now known as the
St. Croix. _Vide_ Vol. II. pp. 30, 47, 60. There is still a little east
of the Chaudière a river now known as the Etechemin; but the channel of
the Chaudière would be the course which the Indians would naturally
take to reach the head-waters of the Kennebec, where dwelt the

21. River Verte, entering the St. Lawrence on the south of Green Island,
opposite to Tadoussac.

22. Green Island.

23. Jacques Cartier River.

24. Near the Batiscan.

25. Nicolet. _Vide_ Laverdière's note, Quebec ed. Vol. III. p. 328.

26. River St. Francis.

27. Rivière du Loup.

28. River Richelieu.

29. This number is wanting.

30. The Falls of St Louis, above Montreal. The figures are wanting.

31. One of the small rivers between Cobequid Bay and Cumberland Strait.

32. Moose Hunting, on the west of Gaspé.

33. Argentenay.--_Laverdière_.

34. Champlain had not been in this region, and consequently obtained his
information from the savages. There is no such lake as he represents on
his map, and this island producing pure copper may have been Isle
Royale, in Lake Superior.

35. The Falls of St. Mary.

36. York River.

37. The Ristigouche.

38. Now called North Point.

39. Probably Gold River, flowing into Mahone Bay.

40. Still called Port La Tour.

41. Halifax Harbor. _Vide_ Vol. II. note 266.

42. _Vide_ Vol. II. note 192.

43. Now Cape Chignecto, in the Bay of Fundy.

44. Advocates' Harbor.

45. Richmond Island _Vide_ note 42 Vol. I. and note 123 Vol. II. of this

46. The Isles of Shoals. _Vide_ Vol. II. note 142.

47. Boston Bay.

48. Martha's Vineyard _Vide_ Vol. II. note 227.

49. Merrimac Bay, as it may be appropriately called stretching from Little
Boar's Head to Cape Anne.

50. These islands appear to be in Casco Bay.

51. The figures are not on the map. The reference is to the Scoudic,
commonly known as the River St Croix.

52. There is probably a typographical error in the figures. The passage
should read "66 or 67 years ago."

53. Now Old Point Comfort.

54. Jamestown, Virginia.

55. _Vide_ Vol. II. note 95.

56. This should read 1609. _Vide_ Vol. II. note 348.

57. Lake George _Vide antea_, note 63. p. 93.

58. This cape still bears the same name.

59. This number is wanting.

60. This river comes from the Lake of Two Mountains, is a branch of the
Ottawa separating the Island of Montreal from the Isle Jésus and flows
into the main channel of the Ottawa two or three miles before it
reaches the eastern end of the Island of Montreal.

61. The Chaudière Falls are near the site of the city of Ottawa. _Vide
antea_, p. 120.

62. Muskrat Lake.

63. This number is wanting on the map. Muscrat Lake is one of this
succession of lakes, which extends easterly towards the Ottawa.

64. Allumette Island, in the River Ottawa, about eighty-five miles above
the capital of the Dominion of Canada.

65. That part of the River Ottawa which, after its bifurcation, sweeps
around and forms the northern boundary of Allumette Island.

66. The Ottawa beyond its junction with the Matawan.

67. French River.

68. _Vide antea_, note 83, p. 130.

69. Plainly Lake St. Louis, now the Ontario, and not the Falls of St Louis.
The reference is here to Niagara Falls.

70. The River Rideau.

71. The River Trent discharges into the Bay of Quinte, an arm of Lake
Ontario or Lac St Louis.

72. On the borders of Lake Ontario in the State of New York.

73. The head-waters of the Bay of Fundy.

74. The River Ottawa, here referred to, extends nearly to Lake Nipissing,
here spoken of as the lake of the _Bissèreni_.

75. The Canada blueberry, Vaccanium Canadense. The aborigines of New
England were accustomed to dry the blueberry for winter's use. _Vide
Josselyn's Rarities_, Tuckerman's ed., Boston, 1865, p. 113.

76. This reference is to the Antouoronons, as given on the map.


[Seal Inscription: In Memory of Thomas Prince]




_Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives, in General
Court assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows_:

SECTION I. John Ward Dean, J. Wingate Thornton, Edmund F. Slafter, and
Charles W. Tuttle, their associates and successors, are made a corporation
by the name of the PRINCE SOCIETY, for the purpose of preserving and
extending the knowledge of American History, by editing and printing such
manuscripts, rare tracts, and volumes as are mostly confined in their use
to historical students and public libraries.

SECTION 2. Said corporation may hold real and personal estate to an amount
not exceeding thirty thousand dollars.

SECTION 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage.

Approved March 18, 1874.

* * * * *

NOTE.--The Prince Society was organized on the 25th of May, 1858. What was
undertaken as an experiment has proved successful. This ACT OF
INCORPORATION has been obtained to enable the Society better to fulfil its
object, in its expanding growth.



ARTICLE I.--This Society Shall be called THE PRINCE SOCIETY; and it Shall
have for its object the publication of rare works, in print or manuscript,
relating to America.

ARTICLE II--The officers of the Society shall be a President, four
Vice-Presidents, a Corresponding Secretary, a Recording Secretary, and a
Treasurer; who together shall form the Council of the Society.

ARTICLE III.--Members may be added to the Society on the recommendation of
any member and a confirmatory vote of a majority of the Council.

Libraries and other Institutions may hold membership, and be represented by
an authorized agent.

All members shall be entitled to and shall accept the volumes printed by
the Society, as they are issued from time to time, at the prices fixed by
the Council; and membership shall be forfeited by a refusal or neglect to
accept the said volumes.

Any person may terminate his membership by resignation addressed in writing
to the President; provided, however, that he shall have previously paid for
all volumes issued by the Society after the date of his election as a

ARTICLE IV.--The management of the Society's affairs shall be vested in the
Council, which shall keep a faithful record of its proceedings, and report
the same to the Society annually, at its General Meeting in May.

ARTICLE V.--On the anniversary of the birth of the Rev. Thomas
Prince,--namely, on the twenty-fifth day of May, in every year (but if this
day shall fall on Sunday or a legal holiday, on the following day),--a
General Meeting shall be held at Boston, in Massachusetts, for the purpose
of electing officers, hearing the report of the Council, auditing the
Treasurer's account, and transacting other business.

ARTICLE VI.--The officers shall be chosen by the Society annually, at the
General Meeting; but vacancies occurring between the General Meetings may
be filled by the Council.

ARTICLE VII.--By-Laws for the more particular government of the Society may
be made or amended at any General Meeting.

ARTICLE VIII.--Amendments to the Constitution may be made at the General
Meeting in May, by a three-fourths vote, provided that a copy of the same
be transmitted to every member of the Society, at least two weeks previous
to the time of voting thereon.



1. The Society shall be administered on the mutual principle, and solely in
the interest of American history.

2. A volume shall be issued as often as practicable, but not more
frequently than once a year.

3. An editor of each work to be issued shall be appointed, who shall be a
member of the Society, whose duty it shall be to prepare, arrange, and
conduct the same through the press; and, as he will necessarily be placed
under obligations to scholars and others for assistance, and particularly
for the loan of rare books, he shall be entitled to receive ten copies, to
enable him to acknowledge and return any courtesies which he may have

4. All editorial work and official service shall be performed gratuitously.

5. All contracts connected with the publication of any work shall be laid
before the Council in distinct specifications in writing, and be adopted by
a vote of the Council, and entered in a book kept for that purpose; and,
when the publication of a volume is completed, its whole expense shall be
entered, with the items of its cost in full, in the same book. No member of
the Council shall be a contractor for doing any part of the mechanical work
of the publications.

6. The price of each volume shall be a hundredth part of the cost of the
edition, or as near to that as conveniently may be; and there shall be no
other assessments levied upon the members of the Society.

7. A sum, not exceeding one thousand dollars, may be set apart by the
Council from the net receipts for publications, as a working capital; and
when the said net receipts shall exceed that sum, the excess shall be
divided, from time to time, among the members of the Society, by remitting
either a part or the whole cost of a volume, as may be deemed expedient.

8. All moneys belonging to the Society shall be deposited in the New
England Trust Company in Boston, unless some other banking institution
shall be designated by a vote of the Council; and said moneys shall be
entered in the name of the Society, subject to the order of the Treasurer.

9. It shall be the duty of the President to call the Council together,
whenever it may be necessary for the transaction of business, and to
preside at its meetings.

10. It shall be the duty of the Vice-Presidents to authorize all bills
before their payment, to make an inventory of the property of the Society
during the month preceding the annual meeting and to report the same to the
Council, and to audit the accounts of the Treasurer.

11. It shall be the duty of the Corresponding Secretary to issue all
general notices to the members, and to conduct the general correspondence
of the Society.

12. It shall be the duty of the Recording Secretary to keep a complete
record of the proceedings both of the Society and of the Council, in a book
provided for that purpose.

13. It shall be the duty of the Treasurer to forward to the members bills
for the volumes, as they are issued; to superintend the sending of the
books; to pay all bills authorized and indorsed by at leaft two
Vice-Presidents of the Society; and to keep an accurate account of all
moneys received and disbursed.

14. No books shall be forwarded by the Treasurer to any member until the
amount of the price fixed for the same shall have been received; and any
member neglecting to forward the said amount for one month after his
notification, shall forfeit his membership.






_Corresponding Secretary_.


_Recording Secretary_.






The Hon. Charles Francis Adams, LL.D. Boston, Mass.
Samuel Agnew, Esq. Philadelphia, Pa.
Thomas Coffin Amory, A.M. Boston, Mass.
William Sumner Appleton, A.M. Boston, Mass.
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Samuel L. M. Barlow, Esq. New York, N Y.
The Hon. Charles H. Bell, A.M. Exeter, N.H.
John J. Bell, A.M. Exeter, N.H.
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The Hon. James Ware Bradbury, LL.D. Augusta, Me.
J. Carson Brevoort, LL.D. Brooklyn, N.Y.
Sidney Brooks, A.M. Boston, Mass.
Mrs. John Carter Brown. Providence, R.I.
John Marshall Brown, A.M. Portland, Me.
Joseph O. Brown, Esq. New York, N.Y.
Philip Henry Brown, A.M. Portland, Me.
Thomas O. H. P. Burnham, Esq. Boston, Mass.
George Bement Butler, Esq. New York, N.Y.
The Hon. Mellen Chamberlain, A.M. Chelsea, Mass.
William Eaton Chandler, A.M. Concord, N.H.
George Bigelow Chase, A.M. Concord, Mass.
Clarence H. Clark, Esq. Philadelphia, Pa.
Gen. John S. Clark, Auburn, N.Y.
Ethan N. Coburn, Esq. Charlestown, Mass.
Jeremiah Colburn, A.M. Boston, Mass.
Joseph J. Cooke, Esq. Providence, R.I.
Deloraine P. Corey, Esq. Boston, Mass.
Erastus Corning, Esq. Albany, N.Y.
Ellery Bicknell Crane, Esq. Worcester, Mass.
Abram E. Cutter, Esq. Charlestown, Mass.
The Rev. Edwin A. Dalrymple, S.T.D. Baltimore, Md.
William M. Darlington, Esq. Pittsburg, Pa.
John Ward Dean, A.M. Boston, Mass.
Charles Deane, LL.D. Cambridge, Mass.
Edward Denham, Esq. New Bedford, Mass.
Prof. Franklin B. Dexter, A.M. New Haven, Ct.
The Rev. Henry Martyn Dexter, D.D. Boston, Mass.
Samuel Adams Drake, Esq. Melrose, Mass.
Henry Thayer Drowne, Esq. New York, N.Y.
Henry H. Edes, Esq. Charlestown, Mass.
Jonathan Edwards, A.B., M.D. New Haven, Ct.
Janus G. Elder, Esq. Lewiston, Me.,
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Alfred Langdon Elwyn, M.D. Philadelphia, Pa.
James Emott, Esq. New York, N.Y.
The Hon. William M. Evarts, LL.D. New York, N.Y.
Joseph Story Fay, Esq. Woods Holl, Mass.
John S. H. Fogg, M.D. Boston, Mass.
The Rev. Henry W. Foote, A.M. Boston, Mass.
Samuel P. Fowler, Esq. Danvers, Mass.
James E. Gale, Esq. Haverhill, Mass.
Marcus D. Gilman, Esq. Montpelier, Vt.
The Hon. John E. Godfrey Bangor, Me.
Abner C. Goodell, Jr., A.M. Salem, Mass.
Elbridge H. Goss, Esq. Boston, Mass.
The Hon. Chief Justice Horace Gray, L.L.D. Boston, Mass.
William W. Greenough, A.B. Boston, Mass.
Isaac J. Greenwood, A.M. New York, N.Y.
Charles H. Guild, Esq. Somerville, Mass.
The Hon. Robert S. Hale, LL.D. Elizabethtown, N.Y.
C. Fiske Harris, A.M. Providence, R.I.
David Greene Haskins, Jr., A.M. Cambridge, Mass.
The Hon. Francis B. Hayes, A.M. Boston, Mass.
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, A.M. Cambridge, Mass.
W. Scott Hill, M.D. Augusta, Me.
James F. Hunnewell, Esq. Charlestown, Mass.
Theodore Irwin, Esq. Oswego, N.Y.
The Hon. Clark Jillson Worcester, Mass.
Mr. Sawyer Junior Nashua, N.H.
George Lamb, Esq. Boston, Mass.
Edward F. de Lancey, Esq. New York, N.Y.
William B. Lapham, M.D. Augusta, Me.
Henry Lee, A.M. Boston, Mass.
John A. Lewis, Esq. Boston, Mass.
Orsamus H. Marshall, Esq. Buffalo, N.Y.
William T. R. Marvin, A.M. Boston, Mass.
William F. Matchett, Esq. Boston, Mass.
Frederic W. G. May, Esq. Boston, Mass.
The Rev. James H. Means, D.D. Boston, Mass.
George H. Moore, LL.D. New York, N.Y.
The Hon. Henry C. Murphy, LL.D. Brooklyn, N.Y.
The Rev. James De Normandie, A.M. Portsmouth, N.H.
The Hon. James W. North. Augusta, Me.
Prof. Charles E. Norton, A.M. Cambridge, Mass.
John H. Osborne, Esq. Auburn, N.Y.
George T. Paine, Esq. Providence, R.I.
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Daniel Parish, Jr., Esq. New York, N. Y.
Francis Parkman, LL.D. Boston, Mass.
Augustus T. Perkins, A.M. Boston, Mass.
The Rt. Rev. William Stevens Perry, D.D., LL.D. Davenport, Iowa.
William Frederic Poole, A.M. Chicago, Ill.
George Prince, Esq. Bath, Me.
Capt. William Prince, U.S.A. New Orleans, La.
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The Hon. John Phelps Futnam, A.M. Boston, Mass.
Edward Ashton Rollins, A.M. Philadelphia, Pa.
The Hon. Mark Skinner Chicago, Ill.
The Rev. Carlos Slafter, A.M. Dedham, Mass.
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Charles C. Smith, Esq. Boston, Mass.
Samuel T. Snow, Esq. Boston, Mass.
Oliver Bliss Stebbins, Esq. Boston, Mass.
George Stevens, Esq. Lowell, Mass.
The Hon. Edwin W. Stoughton. New York, N.Y.
William B. Trask, Esq. Boston, Mass.
The Hon. William H. Tuthill. Tipton, Iowa.
Charles W. Tuttle, Ph.D. Boston, Mass.
The Rev. Alexander Hamilton Vinton, D.D. Pomfret, Ct.
Joseph B. Walker, A.M. Concord, N.H.
William Henry Wardwell, Esq. Boston, Mass.
Miss Rachel Wetherill Philadelphia, Pa.
Henry Wheatland, A.M., M.D. Salem, Mass.
John Gardner White, A.M. Cambridge, Mass.
William Adee Whitehead, A.M. Newark, N.J.
William H. Whitmore, A.M. Boston, Mass.
Henry Austin Whitney, A.M. Boston, Mass.
The Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, Ph.D. Boston, Mass.
Henry Winsor, Esq. Philadelphia, Pa.
The Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, LL.D. Boston, Mass.
Charles Levi Woodbury, Esq. Boston, Mass.
Ashbel Woodward, M.D. Franklin, Ct.
J. Otis Woodward, Esq. Albany, N.Y.


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