Part 6 out of 6
Nycticorax caledonicus 1 2 3.
Ardetta flavicollis 1 2.
Ardetta stagnatilis 2 3.
Porphyrio melanota 3.
Rallus pectoralis 1 2 3.
Porzana leucophrys 3.
Tadorna radjah 1 2.
Anas superciliosa 1.
Anas punctata 1 2.
Xema jamesonii ? 1 2 3.
Sylochelidon strennuus 1 2.
Thalasseus pelecanoides 1 2 3.
Sterna gracilis 2.
Sterna melanauchen 1 2 3.
Sternula nereis 2 3.
Hydrochelidon fluviatilis 2.
Onychoprion fuliginosus 1 2 3.
Onychoprion panaya 1 2 3.
Anous stolidus 1 2 3.
Anous leucocapillus 1 2 3.
Puffinus sphenurus 1 3.
Phalacrocorax carboides 1.
Phalacrocorax melanoleucus 1 2 3.
Attagen ariel 1 2 3.
Phaeton phoenicurus 3.
Pelecanus conspicillatus 1 2 3.
Sula fusca 1 2 3.
Sula piscator 1 2 3.
ON THE MOLLUSCA COLLECTED BY MR. MACGILLIVRAY DURING THE VOYAGE OF THE
RATTLESNAKE, BY PROFESSOR EDWARD FORBES, F.R.S.
1. ON THE BATHYMETRICAL DISTRIBUTION OF MARINE TESTACEA ON THE EASTERN
COAST OF AUSTRALIA.
As in every instance the exact locality, depth and character of habitat
of species of Mollusc taken were carefully noted of at the time of
capture, much more valuable information elucidating the distribution of
shellfish in the Australian seas has been collected during this
expedition than was ever before obtained. Whilst new species are usually
sought after by collectors with eagerness, the habits and range of the
commoner or less conspicuous forms are passed over without observation.*
Hence every note on the habitat and mode of life of marine creatures from
the southern hemisphere becomes of no small value. Indeed, there is no
information more desirable at this time for the illustration of
geological phenomena, than such as may throw light on the distribution in
range and depth of the creatures inhabiting the sea of the Tropics, and
those living around the coasts of Australia and New Zealand. The
following notes will serve to record the more prominent facts bearing
upon the Bathymetrical distribution of the Testacea collected on the
northern coast of Australia, at Port Essington, and on the eastern coast
from Cape York to Bass Strait, including the northern ports of Van
(*Footnote. An extensive collection of landshells was made at Madeira.
They proved on examination to be all known species, including several of
the rarer forms, and not a few of those discovered by the Reverend Mr.
Lowe. They were compared with Madeiran specimens by Mr. Vernon Wollaston.
When the Rattlesnake touched at the Azores on the return voyage, a few
landshells were collected at Fayal. Among them was the Helix barbula, an
Asturian species, Helix pauperata, and Bulimus variatus, Madeiran or
Canarian forms. A considerable number of marine and terrestrial Testacea
were procured at Rio de Janeiro, not a few of them new and of great
interest. Terebratula rosea was dredged off Rio in thirteen fathoms
water, on a coarse sandy bottom. Collections were also made at the Cape
of Good Hope, at Mauritius and in the Falkland Isles. The radiata were
gathered with as much care and their habitats recorded with as much
attention as the Mollusca.)
It may here be remarked that the Molluscan fauna of the seas of North
Australia and of the north-east coast from Cape York southwards to Sandy
Cape, belongs to the great Indo-Pacific province, a zoological region
extending from the east coast of Africa (from Port Natal or a little
above, northwards to Suez) to Easter Island in the Pacific. But south of
Sandy Cape and onwards to Van Diemen's Land (and apparently including New
Zealand) we have a distinct (East)Australian province, marked by a
peculiar fauna in many respects, representative of the Senegal, and
perhaps also Lusitanian regions of the North Atlantic.
Proceeding in descending order we may first remark on the:
SHELLS OF SALT MARSHES.
As in the Northern hemisphere, Melampus or Convolvulus is the genus
represented in such localities. Thus Auricula australis prevails in salt
marshes at Brisbane Water, and an allied species in similar places in New
Zealand. In both instances we find this form accompanied by members of a
curious genus characteristic of the Australian province--Ampullacera, the
Ampullacera quoyana being the Brisbane Water species, and A. avellana,
that of New Zealand. In the latter case an Assiminea is its companion. A
very curious fact noted during the expedition was the presence of a Unio
living within the influence of salt water, in the River Brisbane.
SHELLS INHABIT MUD, ETC. AMONG MANGROVES.
These belong to the Indo-Pacific province. Some are found on the
mangroves themselves. Such are the Littorina scabra, on the trunks and
branches of mangroves among islets in Trinity Bay; a Phasianella
inhabiting the trunks and branches of Rhizophora at the Percy Isles; a
Littorina on the leaves of Aigaeceras fragrans at Port Curtis, Auricula
angulata, and rugulata on the trunks of mangroves at Port Essington, and
Monodonta viridis on their roots at Night Island; a new and very
beautiful Ostrea was found on the roots of mangroves among Low Islets in
Trinity Bay. In the last-named locality a Cytherea inhabited the mud
around their roots. At the Three Islets several new species of Melampus,
a Nerita and a Cyrena lived in a like habitat, and at Port Essington
Cerithium kieneri, was found in the same situation. The fine Cyrena
cyrenoides lives among the roots of mangroves in the Louisiade
Of the many living Gasteropoda taken in this region, very few are new
species. Of Patelloid forms we have a new Fissurella and Parmophorus
convexus at Port Dalrymple, accompanied by Haliotis naevosa, and species
of Patella and Siphonaria. In the more tropical regions, Haliotis asinina
and varia, another and distinct Patella, two Fissurellae and a Scutella
were collected. Of convolute shells the littoral species gathered were
all Indo-Pacific and inhabitants of mostly the coral-reef region, such as
Cypraea arabica, annulus, isabella, errones and oryza, Conus magus,
arenatus, achatinus, etc., Oliva cruentata, tremulina and ericinus, those
of the last-named genus often living in sand. Bulla cylindrica occurred
in sandy pools on the reef at Claremont Isles. Of Volutes, V. turneri
lives on coral blocks at Port Essington, and V. undulata partially buried
in sandbanks at Port Dalrymple. Conus maculosus is an inhabitant of the
last-named locality. The Mitras found in the Littoral zone were all on
the north-east coast, and well-known Indo-Pacific forms. A new Murex was
taken on mud at Port Curtis. Fasciolaria coronata, Fusus alveolatus, and
Triton verrucosus were found on the reefs at Port Dalrymple. Many species
of Nassa, all known forms, were collected, mostly on mud in the Littoral
zone, chiefly in the north-eastern province. Phos cyanostoma lives on
muddy sand in the Trinity Bay islets, where also in similar situations is
Terebra maculata and Pyramidella maculosa. Pyramidella auriscati is a
littoral shell among the reefs of the Claremont Isles. Several Purpurae
were taken on reefs and rocks at low-water; among them was P. textiliosa,
a Port Dalrymple species. A Quoya lives on rocks being high-water mark in
Lizard Island. Several Terebrae, including T. crenulata dimidiata and
affinis, inhabit muddy sand among Pipon's Islets. The well-known Strombus
luhuanus lives on sand among the reefs at Eagle Island. A Cerithium
inhabits mud-flats at Port Molle and Pipon's Islets. Of the holostomatous
gasteropods inhabiting the Littoral zone, the Naticae, mostly well-known
species, were taken in sandy localities on the north-east coast, and the
Neritae in the same province, mostly on rocks or reefs. Littorina
pyramidalis and mauritiana are inhabitants of the rocky headlands of
Broken Bay; other forms were collected at Port Curtis and at Port
Dalrymple. At the last-named locality, Turbo undulatus, a new Risella,
Monodonta constricta and buccata, and Trochus reticularis were taken on
reefs. Littoral species of the same genera occurred on the north-east
coast. A New Rissoa was found under stones at Night Island. Turbo
squamosus and Trochus lentiginosus are inhabitants of the shore at Port
Essington. In Broken Bay species of Bankivia and Scalaria were collected,
cast dead on the shore.
The Acephala found living in the Littoral zone of the south-east
Australian province were Cleidotherus chamoides, under rocks at low-water
in Port Jackson; Mytilus erosus on the mud of zostera flats at Port
Dalrymple, several species of Venus, Tapes, Cytherea in similar
localities; Arca globata in the same habitat at Brisbane; Arca fuscata in
reefs at Port Dalrymple; a new Tellina on mud at Port Phillip; another
with Donax epidermia in sand at Broken Bay, and Clavagella australis on
rocks at low-water, Port Jackson. Species of Pectunculus, Nucula,
Pandora, Anatinella, Venus, Tellina (decussata and deltoidalis) and
Mesodesma are thrown dead on the shores.
In the north and north-east Australian province the living littoral
Acephala are Solens of which two new species were taken at Port
Essington, Anomia australis, Anatina olerina, and another, new, in the
same locality; species of Mytilus, Meleagrina and Pinna, Ostrea and
Pecten (pyxidatus) Lima fragilis and squamosa, Hippopus and Tridacna, the
former detached on coral reefs, the latter embedded in the coral, Corbis
fimbriatus in sand among coral reefs; species of Venus, Cytherea, Circe,
and Tapes in mud, Artemis sculpta at Port Essington on sand, Lucinae on
sand or reefs, Crassatella on mudflats at Port Curtis, where Cypricardia
vellicata occupies the fissures of rocks with Carditae; several species
of Cardium in mud or sand, including C. fragum, C. subrugosum, and C.
unedo; Sanguinolaria rugosa at Dunk Island; species of Mesodesma in sand,
and Mactrae and Tellinae in mud; a new Psammobia at Port Essington as
also a new Pholas that bores into coral. Other species, members of the
same genera, are cast on shore dead.
REGION OF WEEDS EQUIVALENT TO THE LAMINARIAN REGION OF THE EUROPEAN SEAS.
Some seventeen or eighteen localities in this Bathymetrical province were
explored by means of the dredge, varying in depth from one to seventeen
fathoms. In the south-east Australian province the principal Gasteropoda
procured were Bulla brevis, at Port Jackson, in 6 fathoms; Cyprea oryza,
at Port Phillip, in 5 fathoms; Calyptraea connata, in 6 fathoms, Port
Jackson, with Nassa suturalis, and another, a new Terebra, Monotigma
casta, Mitra sordida, a Marginella, a Columbella, and Struthiolaria
oblita. A Phasianella was dredged in from 3 to 5 fathoms on sandy mud, at
Port Phillip, with Elenchus rutilus, Marginella fornicata, and Cerithium
granarium. In the North-east Australian province, a different set of
shells was dredged in similar depths, such as a Sigaretus, possibly new,
Fissurella calyculata, Mitra obeliscus, a Turritella, a Murex, Columbella
versicolor, and a new species off Cape York, Ranella pulchella, new,
several Nassae, Phos senticosa and blainvillei, and sculptilis, in 3 and
5 fathoms, off Cape York; Strombus campbelli, in mud off Cape Upstart;
Cerithium obeliscus, and a new species of the genus Obeliscus. In the
deeper localities Cypraea fimbriata occurred, dead, off Cape Capricorn;
and two species of Ranella, one being R. pusilla, in 17 fathoms, off the
Percy Isles. The univalves dredged among the Louisiade Islands in this
region of depth were mostly known forms, such as Conus betulinus, Oliva
sanguinolenta, Mitra exasperata, Terebra maculata, consors and labiata;
these were all taken in less than six fathoms water.
The bivalves of this region were but few. In the South Australian
province species of Mactra, Psammobia, Venus, Tapes and Pecten, all
peculiar, were taken. This is the region of the peculiar genus Myadora,
of which five species were dredged on sand in 6 fathoms at Port Jackson,
along with Myochama anomioides, Trigonia margaritacea, Lima bullata, and
Cardium radiatum. In the North-east Australian province we have species
of Donax, Mactra and Corbula, all apparently new, from the shallower
localities; Corbula tunicata, Pectunculus tenuicostatus, and another,
from 8 to 11 fathoms, off Cumberland Islands; species of Arca,
Pectunculus, Avicula, Pecten, Venus, Circe, Cardium, Cardita, and
Erycina, mostly new, from 15 to 17 fathoms in a sandy and shelly bottom
off Cape Capricorn.
Some dredgings in both North and South-eastern provinces, in depths
between twenty-seven and forty-five fathoms, give a slight idea of the
fauna of this important region. In the South-eastern province we find in
forty and forty-five fathoms on a muddy bottom in Bass Strait, Turritella
sinuata, Trochus nebulosus, a Pleurotoma, an Emarginula, a Dentalium, two
species of Cardita, a Cypricardia, a Venus, a Nucula, and Pectunculus
holosericeus. In the North-eastern province we find off Cumberland Island
in 27 fathoms, also on a muddy bottom, species of Murex, Nassa,
Turritella, Ranella pusilla, a Fusus, Cancellaria antiquata, a Terebra,
two Dentalia, a Natica, a Terebellum, a Scalaria, a Cardium, a Venus, a
Nucula, a Pecten, and a Spondylus.
It is evident from the comparative paucity of undescribed species
procured in the Littoral zone and the large proportion of new or doubtful
forms among those taken by the dredge, that a rich harvest has yet to be
reaped in the deeper regions of the southern seas. In the lower zones,
however, just as much as in the upper, the distinctions of province are
maintained. The explanation of this complete separation of the
South-eastern marine fauna of Australia from that of the North-eastern or
Indo-Pacific portion, may be explained by reference to the distribution
of currents along the Australian shores. In both, as in the Bathymetrical
regions of the South Atlantic, the Testacea of the depths are generally
smaller and less brightly coloured than those inhabiting the shallows.
During this voyage notes of the habitats of considerably more than a
thousand species of Mollusca and Echinodermata were carefully registered.
2. ENUMERATION OF TERRESTRIAL PULMONIFEROUS MOLLUSCA AS YET NOTICED IN
The following Catalogue is founded on the monograph of Helicidae by Dr.
Pfeiffer. To the species therein described are added certain new ones,
announced by Pfeiffer since the publication of his work, and others,
recorded for the first time in this volume. It will be seen that a great
part of the Australian land-shells is as yet unfigured. The exact
localities of not a few have to be determined; a precise record was kept
of the place and circumstances under with each was found during the
voyage of the Rattlesnake. From all we yet know the genus Helix is fairly
represented in New Holland, and presents some very remarkable and
peculiar forms; Bulimus has but few, and those (with the sole exception
of B. atomatus) not remarkable Australian members; a single Pupa, closely
resembling one of our commonest European species, is the only recorded
Australian one; and a very remarkable addition to the terrestrial
conchology of the southern hemisphere has been made in a Balea of a type
unlike any other member of the genus.
1. H. falconari, Reeve. (Conch. Syst. t. 163, f. 4).
Locality: Bellingen River, in the brushes (Macgillivray).
2. H. irradiata, Gould.
Locality: New South Wales.
3. H. australis, Menke.
Locality: Swan River.
4. H. georgiana, Quoy and Gaimard.
Locality: King George's Sound.
5. H. novae hollandiae, Gray.
Locality: Macquarie River.
6. H. jervisensis, Quoy and Gaimard. (Voyage Astr. 2 t. 10, f 26-30).
Locality: Jervis Bay (Quoy and Gaimard). Brisbane Water, under logs in
dry, stony, and scrubby ground (Macgillivray).
7. H. subgranosa, Le Guillou.
Locality: North Australia.
8. H. capillacea, Ferussac. (Hist. t. 82, f. 5).
Locality: Port Jackson (Ferussac).
9. H. jacksoniensis, Gray.
Locality: Port Jackson. May not this be H. nitida introduced ?
10. H. walkeri, Gray.
Locality: New Holland.
11. H. gilberti, Pfeiffer.
Locality: Darling Downs, East Australia (Gilbert). Brisbane Water, under
logs in the brushes (Macgillivray).
12. H. splendidula, Pfeiffer. (Chemnitz, ed. 2nd, t. 85, f. 1-3.)
Locality: Eastern Australia, near Torres Strait (Ince). Blackwood Bay,
and Restoration Island (Brit. Mus.)
13. H. ziczac, Gould.
Locality: New South Wales.
14. H. grayi, Pfeiffer.
Locality: East Australia.
15. H. macrodon, Menke. (Fer. as M. duclosiana. Hist. t. 51 A, f. 6).
Locality: New Holland.
16. H. vitracea, Ferussac. (Hist. t. 64, f. 5).
Locality: New Holland ? (Beck).
17. H. lessoni, Pfeiffer.
Locality: Under bark of Eucalypti, coming out after rain, at Port Curtis
18. H. tortulus, Ferussac. (Hist. t. 27, f. 3, 4).
Locality: New Holland. Port Essington and North-West coast of Australia
19. H. Dringi, Pfeiffer.
Locality: East Coast of Australia, near Torres Strait (Dring).
20. H. sinclairi, Pfeiffer.
Locality: Van Diemen's Land (Sinclair).
21. H. semicastanea, Pfeiffer. (Chemnitz, Ed. 2nd, t. 56, f. 3-5).
Locality: "Unknown, probably New Holland," Pfeiffer.
22. H. bipartita, Ferussac. (Hist. t. 75 A, f. 1).
Locality: At the roots of trees and bushes in Lizard Island, and at Cape
York (Macgillivray). Restoration Island (Brit. Mus.)
23. H. pomum, Pfeiffer. (Phil. Icon. Helix, t. 2. f. 8).
Locality: Port Essington, about roots of trees (Macgillivray). This
appears to be H. sphaeroidea, Le Guillou (H. urvillei, Homb. et Jacq.
Voyage au Pole Sud. Moll. t. 3, f. 1-3) of which Pfeiffer remarks, "an
24. H. janellei, Le Guillou.
Locality: North Australia.
25. H. leptogramma, Pfeiffer.
Locality: Cygnet Bay, in North Australia (Ince).
26. H. incei, Pfeiffer. (Phil. Icon. Helix, t. 7, f. 3).
Locality: Percy Isles, under bark; Port Molle, and Keppel's Isles, in
hollow trees (Macgillivray).
27. H. prunum, Ferussac. (Hist. t. 26, f. 7, 8).
Locality: Australia ?
28. H. pelodes, Pfeiffer. (Chemnitz, Ed. 2nd, t. 58, f. 6, 7).
Locality: Port Essington, on trunks of melaleuca trees (Macgillivray).
29. H. pedestris, Gould.
Locality: New South Wales.
30. H. similaris, Ferussac. (Hist. t. 25 B, f. 1-4).
Locality: Under decaying logs in the Frankland Isles, chiefly dead
(Macgillivruy). This species appears to be most widely diffused. It is
recorded from the West lndies and Brazil, Java, the Seychelles and
Mauritius, and Bengal and China! This is the first announcement of it as
an Australian shell. Does it make its way about on floating timber?
31. H. delessertiana, Le Guillou (H. torresii, Homb. et Jacq. Voyage au
Pole Sud. Moll. t. 4, f. 24-27).
Locality: Warrior Island, Torres Strait (Le Guillou, etc.) Nogo Island,
Endeavour Strait, at roots of grass (Macgillivray).
32. H. gulosa, Gould.
Locality: New South Wales.
33. H. tuckeri, Pfeiffer. (Chemnitz, Ed. 2nd, Helix, t. 79, f. 10-12).
Locality: Under dead leaves at roots of trees in Sunday Island
(Macgillivray). The original recorded habitat was Sir Charles Hardy's
Islands, where also Mr. Macgillivray round it in 1844. As Pfeiffer
suspects, H. cyclostomata of Le Guillou (H. strangulata, Homb. et Jacq.
Voyage au Pole Sud. Moll. t. 6, f. 1-4), is this species; from Warrior
Island, Torres Strait.
34. H. cunninghami, Gray. (Griffith, An. Kingd. t. 36, f. 4).
Locality: Darling Downs, New South Wales (Macgillivray); brushes near
Wide Bay (Strange).
35. H. taranaki, Gray. (Chemnitz, Ed. 2, t. 75, f. 4, 5).
Locality: Possession Island, Torres Strait (Ince).
The following are not enumerated as Australian in the first edition of
36. H. strangei, Pfeiffer.
Locality: At Brisbane Water, New South Wales, under logs in the brushes
37. H. dupuyana, Pfeiffer. (Chemnitz, Ed. 2nd, Helix, t. 124, f. 15, 16).
Locality: Bellingen River, in the brushes (Macgillivray).
38. H. pachystyla, Pfeiffer.
Locality: Facing Island, Port Curtis; Dunk Island; Cape Upstart, at roots
of bushes; Wide Bay, under bark of Eucalyptus resinifera (Macgillivray).
This fine species was originally recorded as a native of New Zealand; was
not the supposed habitat a mistake?
39. H. yulei, Forbes. (Voyage Rattlesnake, t. 2, f. 6).
Locality: Port Molle (Macgillivray).
40. H. iuloidea, Forbes. (Voyage Rattlesnake, t. 2, f. 4).
Locality: Port Molle (Macgillivray).
41. H. ptycomphala, Pfeiffer.
Locality: Roots of trees among dead leaves at Cape Upstart
42. H. dunkiensis, Forbes. (Voyage Rattlesnake, t. 2, f. 7.)
Locality: Dunk Island (Macgillivray).
43. H. macgillivrayi, Forbes. (Voyage Rattlesnake, t. 3, f. 1).
Locality: Frankland Isles (Macgillivray).
44. H. franklandiensis, Forbes. (Voyage Rattlesnake, t. 2, f. 2).
Locality: Frankland Isles and Lizard Island (Macgillivray).
45. H. inconspicua, Forbes. (Voyage Rattlesnake, t. 2, f. 3).
Locality: Islet in Trinity Bay (Macgillivray).
46. H. brevipila, Pfeiffer. (Chemnitz, Ed. 2, Helix t. 124, f. 28-30).
Locality: Under dead leaves at roots of trees in Sunday Island
47. H. fraseri, Gray. (Beechey's Voyage Zool. t. 38, f. 6).
Locality: Wide Bay and Clarence River, New South Wales, in the scrubs
(Macgillivray). The true locality of this species--first given by
Beck--is thus verified.
48. H. gaertneriana, Pfeiffer.
Locality: Night Island, on trunks and branches of a Bombax
49. H. sericatula, Pfeiffer.
Locality: Port Jackson (Strange).
1. B. faba, Martyn. (Reeve Conch. Syst. t. 175, f. 13, 14).
Locality: Australian Isles ? A Polynesian species.
2. B. tuckeri, Pfeiffer.
Locality: Inhabits most of the islands on the North-East coast of
Australia. Among dead leaves at the roots of trees and bushes in Fitzroy,
Sunday, and Lizard Islands, and at roots of grass in Sir Charles Hardy's
3. B. dufresnii, Leach. (Fer. Hist, t. 3. f. 1-3).
Locality: Van Diemen's Land. Under logs and stones (Macgillivray).
4. B. atomatus, Gray. (Reeve Conch. Icon. Bulimus, t. 30, f. 184).
Locality: New South Wales (Macgillivray). Western Australia (Brit. Mus.)
5. B. kingii, Gray. (Wood, Suppl. t. 7, f. 27).
Locality: Bald Head, King George Sound (King).
6. B. trilineatus, Quoy and Gaimard. (Voyage Astr. 2, t. 9, f. 1-3).
Locality: Bald Head, King George Sound (Quoy and Gaimard). "Varietas
praecedentis esse videtur." Pfeiffer.
7. B. rhodostomus, Gray.
Locality: New Holland ?
8. B. indutus, Menke.
Locality: Darling Range and Mount Eliza, Swan River (Priess).
9. B. melo, Quoy and Gaimard. Voyage Astr. 2 t. 9, f. 4-7.)
Locality: Bald Head, King George's Sound (Quoy and Gaimard).
10. B. bulla, Menke.
Locality: Darling Range, Western Australia (Priess.)
11. B. inflatus, Lamarck. (Delessert Recueil. t. 28, f. 1).
Locality: New Holland (Lamarck.) New Zealand (Beck).
12. B. obtusus, Reeve. (Conch. Icon. t. 79, f. 583).
1. P. pacifica, Pfeiffer.
Locality: "Sir Charles Hardy's Islands (Tucker)," Pfeiffer--where Mr.
Macgillivray also found it about roots of grass and bushes in 1844. Under
dead leaves at roots of trees in Sunday Island, and Lizard Island
1. B. australis, Forbes. (Voyage Ratt1esnake, t. 2, f. 9).
Locality: Port Molle (Macgillivray).
1. V. cuvieri, Ferussac. (Hist. t. 9, f. 8, and t. 9 A, f. 1, 2).
2. V. freycineti, Ferussac. (Hist. t. 9 A, f. 3, 4, 9, and t. 9 B, f. 2).
Locality: Port Jackson.
3. V. robusta, Gould.
Locality: East coast of New Holland.
4. V. nigra, Quoy and Gaimard. (Voyage Astr. 2 t. 11, f. 8, 9).
Locality: Port Western and King George Sound (Quoy and Gaimard).
5. V. strangei, Pfeiffer.
Locality: Under logs in the brushes at Brisbane Water, New South Wales
6. V. verreauxii, Pfeiffer.
Locality: Australia (Verreaux).
1. S. australis, Ferussac. (Hist. t. 11, f. 11).
Locality: Australian Isles. Van Diemen's Land (Quoy and Gaimard). Mount
Eliza, Swan River (Priess, apud Menke).
1. H. gouldiana, Forbes. (Voyage Ratt1esnake, t. 3, f. 3).
Locality: In the Two Isles on the North-East coast of Australia
1. P. bilinguis, Pfeiffer.
Locality: About roots of trees among leaves at Cape York (Macgillivray).
Blackwood Bay, and Restoration Island (Brit. Mus.)
2. P. thomsoni, Forbes. (Voyage Rattlesnake, t. 3, f. 2).
Locality: Fitzroy Island (Macgillivray).
1. C. australe, Gray.
Locality: New Holland.
2. C. vitreum, Less. (Sowerby, Thes. Conch. t. 30, f. 252).
Locality: Dunk Island, Frankland Isles, Green Island, on leaves and
trunks of trees (Macgillivray). New Ireland (Hinds).
3. C. bilabre, Menke.
Locality: East coast of New Holland (Lehmann).
4. C. fimbriatum, Lamarck. (Delessert Receuil. t. 29, f. 12).
Locality: New Holland.
5. C. multilabris, Lamarck. (Delessert Receuil. t. 29, f. 14).
Locality: New Holland. Sowerby considers this to be a monstrosity (of
3. DESCRIPTIONS OF S0ME NEW SPECIES OF SHELLS, DISCOVERED DURING THE
VOYAGE OF THE RATTLESNAKE.
Relu brumeriensis. Tab. 2 fig. 1. a, b.
Testa imperforata, globosa-conoidea, crassa, laevigata (sub lente
granulato-striata) alba, ad aperturam nigra; spira obtusa, conoidea;
anfractus 4, convexiusculi, rapide accrescentes, ultimus basi
subcompressus; apertura per-obliqua, oblonga, intus alba; peristoma late
reflexum, nigrum. Diam. maj. 28, min. 23, alt. 23, millem. (Mus. Brit.)
This remarkable shell resembles a dwarf H. haemastoma in shape; it is of
a porcelain white except at the aperture, which has a broad reflexed lip
of a deep brown-black hue, both within and without. It is a very
interesting species, indicative of the Indian affinities of the New
Guinea fauna. A single specimen was taken in August 1849, on a breadfruit
tree in Brumer Island, South-East coast of New Guinea.
Helix divisa. Tab. 2 fig. 5. a, b.
Testa obtecte perforata, lenticulari-depressa, orbicularis, carinata,
crassiuscula, superne fulva, radiato-striata, minutissime granulata,
carina acuta, superne subcrenulata, basi convexa, nitidissima,
griseo-albida, radiatim substriata ad umbilicum declivens; spira
convexiuscula; anfractus 5, planulati; apertura angulato-lunaris, intus
margaritacea; peristoma simplex, basi incrassatum, ad columellam
expansiusculum. Diam. maj. 23, min. 20, alt. 11, mill. (Mus. Brit.)
A Helix of the Caracolla section, allied to the C. panayensis of
Broderip. Found on the ground at the roots of trees, in the South-East
Island of the Louisiade Archipelago.
Helix louisiadensis. Tab. i. fig. 8. a, b.
Testa imperforata, globoso-turbinata, solidiuscula, sub lente rugosa,
albida, fasciis variis purpureo-fuscis ornata; spira conoidea, rubescens;
anfrac. 5 convexiusculi, ultimus magnus, paululum deflexus; apertura
ovata, intus nitide livida, peristoma expansum, reflexum, sordide
violaceum, margine externo sinuato, columellari incrassato, dilatato,
subsulcato. Diam. maj. 26, min. 21, alt. 20, mill. (Mus. Brit.)
This remarkable snail has a tendency towards a trochi-form contour. The
ground colour appears as a white band on the body whorl marking its most
prominent portion just below the centre. The sinuation of the outer lip
and impression of the whorl behind the peristome, give a slightly ringent
aspect to the mouth. It is very distinct from any known species; its
affinities are more with Australian than with Philippine forms. It was
taken on a tree in the South-East Island of the Louisiade Archipelago.
Helix yulei. Tab. n. fig. 6. a, b.
Testa profunde umbilicata, depresso-globosa, solida, striata, sub
epidermide fulvo-alba, fasciis castaneis cingulata; spira sub-depressa,
obtusa; anfractus 6 convexiusculi; apertura subcircularis; peristoma
nigrum, expansum, margine basali reflexo, columellari dilatato, umbilicum
subtegente. Diam. maj. 37, min. 27, alt. 25, mill. (Mus. Brit.)
This handsome species is of a rich fulvous hue, with dark chestnut bands
and a deep chestnut umbilicus, partly covered by the reflexion of the
nearly black lip. It is allied to the H. incei, a well known north-east
Australian species. It was found in hollow trees, and under logs and
stones at Port Molle, in the same region.
Helix macgillivrayi. Tab. 3 fig. 1.
Testa imperforata, trochiformis, carinata, striis minutis spiralibus
ornata, pallide fusco-carnea, punctis nigris albo-occellatis sparsa;
spira conica; anfractus 6 planati, ultimus carinatus, basi subplanatus;
apertura oblique oblonga, intus brunnea, margine externo bisinuato;
peristoma album, incrassatum, infra reflexum; columella basi rufescens.
Diam. maj. 23, min. 19, alt. 21, mill. (Mus. Brit. and Geol.)
Of all Australian Helices, this is perhaps the most curious. Its outline
and aspect are singularly like those of a Trochus of the Ziziphinus
group. The colour is also very singular, being a yellowish flesh hue
deepening on the base to rich brownish-yellow, and speckled irregularly
with minute black dots which are areolated with white, the white ring
being largest on the side towards the mouth. The fine striae that
encircle the body are also very curious. The outer lip of the aperture
seems as if it had been dented in two places. Behind the white thickened
peristome, intemaily is a dark brown band, which is seen through the
shell as a dark blackish green stripe. The edge of the outer lip declines
to join the body whorl a little below the keel. It was found on trunks
and branches of trees in the Frankland Isles.
Helix dunkiensis. Tab. 2 fig. 7. a, b.
Testa umbilicata, depresso-globosa, subcarinata, solida, radiato striata
et subtilissime granulata, flavida; spira late depressa, convexiuscula,
apice obtusa; anfractus 6 convexiusculi, ultimo obsolete carinato;
apertura lunaris, intus alba; peristoma superne rectum, margine basali
margine columellarique sub-reflexis, umbilicus profundus, conspicuus, vix
obtectus. Diam. maj. 24, min. 21, alt. 16, mill. (Mus. Brit.)
This snail strikingly resembles some Illyrian forms. It has affinities
with H. coriaria, a species said to be from Ceylon. It was taken under
stones and about roots of trees in Dunk Island, on the North-East coast
Helix franklandiensis. Tab. 2 fig. 2. a, b.
Testa aperte-umbilicata, tumido-depressa, nitidissima, superne radiatim
striata, cornea, fasciis angustis transversis distantibus fulvis; spira
angusta; anfractus 5 planiusculi, ultimus rotundatus, antice vix
descendentes; apertura rotundata; peristoma simplex, vix acutum, rectum,
margine columellari non reflexo. Diam. maj. 26, min. 21, alt. 14 mill.
This beautiful snail is of a brightly shining yellowish or greenish horn
colour. The whorls of its spire are small, but the body whorl, whilst
preserving a wide diameter throughout, gradually increases in
trumpet-like manner to the round mouth. It belongs to the same group with
H. olivetorum and H. nitida, and is allied to the Australian H.
ptycomphala. It occurs about the roots of trees in the Frankland and
Helix iuloidea. Tab. 2 fig. 4. a, b, c, d.
Testa late et perspective umbilicata, orbicularis, superne depressa seu
subconcava, rufo-cornea, regulariter costulata; anfractus 4 1/2
convexiusculi, ultimus tumidus, rotundatus; apertura lunaris; peristoma
simplex, acutum. Diam. maj. 4 1/2, min. 4, alt. 3 mill. (Mus. Brit. &
This curious little snail, resembling a rolled-up Iulus, and reminding us
of our own H. rotundata and its allies, was found under a stone at Port
Helix inconspicua. Tab. 2 fig. 3. a, b, c.
Testa perforata, depresso-convexa, laevigata, nitidiuscula, pallide
cornea, basi subcompressa; anfractus 6, planiusculi; spira obtusa;
apertura lunaris; peristoma rectum, simplex, margine columellari reflexo:
umbilicus minutus, subobtectus. Diam. maj. 8--min. 7--alt. 5 mill. (Mus.
A very inconspicuous ordinary-looking little shell, its upper surface
recalling the aspect of H. alliaria but with more convexity and no
lustre, and its base that of H. crystallina. It was found, apparently
gregarious, under dead leaves in an islet in Trinity Bay.
Balea australis. Tab. 2 fig. 9. a, b.
Testa dextrorsa, rimata, subcylindracea, turrita, decollata, dense
capillaceo-costulata, corneo-lutea, maculis obscuris flavidis; sutura
impressa; anfractus 11, convexiusculi; apertura pyriformis, columella
triplicata, plica inferior maxima, conspicua, elevata, acuta, spiralis;
peristoma continuum, solutum. Long. 18--Diam. 4--Apert 4 mill. (Mus.
Brit. & Geol.)
This very remarkable shell, the first of its genus discovered in
Australia, differs from all its congeners. It has exactly the aspect of a
Clausilia, but the mouth is not furnished with a clausium. It was found
under stones at Port Molle.
Pupina grandis. Tab. 2 fig. 10. a, b, c, d.
Testa ovato-subcylindrica, superne laevigata, inferne rugulosa,
sordide-rufa; spira obtusa; anfractus 6, secundus tumidus, obliquus,
ultimus super aperturam planatus; apertura rotundata; peristoma laete
aurantiacum, rimatum, crassum, dorsaliter canaliculatum, infra
columellari, profunde sinuatum et in canali contorto excavatum; canalis
alter minutus ad partem superiorem et externam aperturae; callus
columellaris expansus, appressus. Long. 30, Diam. 15, Apert. 7 mill.
(Mus. Brit. & Geol.).
This, the giant of its genus, is perhaps the most remarkable land-shell
discovered during the voyage. It differs from all other Pupinae in having
an unpolished surface. It was found in the South-East Island of the
Louisiade Archipelago, under dead leaves chiefly about the roots of
Pupina thomsoni. Tab. 3 fig. 2. a, b.
Testa ovata, polita, nitidissima, translucens, hyalina, solidiuscula;
spira obtusa; anfractus 5, duo ultimi majores; apertura orbicularis;
peristoma album, crassum, solutum, canalibus duobus interruptum; canalis
superior ad partem superiorem et externam aperturae, inferior major,
basalis, marginibus disjunctis et in dorsum anfractus prolongatis. Long.
7 1/2, diam. 4 1/2, apert. 2 mill. (Mus. Brit.)
This remarkable and beautiful little Pupina is most nearly allied to the
P. bilinguis of Cape York. From that species (which is larger) it
differs, however, very materially, most especially in the position of the
inferior or basal canal of the aperture which is here placed like the
canal of a whelk, but in P. bilinguis is very small and placed high up,
cutting as it were the columella. The curious manner in which the margins
of the canals are prolonged on the back of the body whorl like parallel
and somewhat diverging walls is also a singular feature of this species,
which is dedicated to Dr. Thomson, surgeon of the Rattlesnake, and an
excellent botanist. It was found among dead leaves at the roots of trees
in Fitzroy Island.
Helicina stanleyi. Tab. 3 fig. 4. a, b.
Testa lenticularis, superne inferneque convexa, orbicularis, acute
carinata, fusco-carnea, spiraliter striata; spira obtusa; anfractus 4 1/2
leviter convexiusculi; basis imperforata, centraliter laevigata, alba;
apertura oblique sublunata, angulata; peristoma simplex, tenue. Diam.
maj. 6 1/2, min. 6, alt. 5 mill. (Mus. Brit.)
Found on the leaves and trunks of trees and bushes (especially Scaevola
koenigii) in the Duchateau Isles, Louisiade Archipelago. Dedicated to the
late Captain Owen Stanley, R.N.
Helicina louisiadensis. Tab. 3 fig. 5. a, b.
Testa depresso-globosa, superne inferneque convexa, orbicularis, obsolete
sub-angulata, pallide aurantiaca, sub lente spiraliter striata; spira
obtusa; anfractus 4 1/2, vix convexiusculi; basis imperforata,
centraliter sub-impressa; apertura lunata, inferne subangulata; peristoma
incrassatum, aurantiacum, reflexum. Diam. maj. 4 1/2, min. 4, alt. 3
mill. (Mus. Brit.)
On Round Island in Coral Haven, Louisiade Archipelago, under stones. This
pretty little Helicina is nearly allied to some Philippine species.
Helicina gouldiana. Tab. 3 fig. 3. a, b.
Testa depresso-globosa, superne sub-conica, orbicularis, obsolete
subangulata, flava seu rufa, spiraliter striata; spira prominens;
anfractus 5, planati; basis imperforata; apertura sub-lunata, inferne
angulata; peristoma incrassatum, subreflexum, album. Diam. maj. 6, min. 5
1/4, alt. 4 1/2 mill. (Mus. Brit.)
Under the bark of Mimusops kaukii, in the Two Isles, on the North-East
coast of Australia. Dedicated to the indefatigable illustrator of
Ranella pulchella. Tab. 3 fig. 6. a, b.
Testa turrita, utroque alata, acute-caudata, alba; anfractus tumidi,
spiraliter striati, longitudinaliter noduloso-costati, costis crebris,
lateraliter varicosi, varices compressi, aliformes, crenulati, striati,
ad margines crenati; apertura ovato-rotunda, inferne longe-caudata;
peristoma solutum. Long. 20, diam. 14, apert. 4 mill. (Mus. Brit.)
This beautiful shell was dredged in from 8 to 11 fathoms water, on a
bottom of sand and shells between Cumberland Island 1.i, and Point Slade
(Latitude 21 degrees South Longitude 149 degrees 20 minutes East).
The spiral striae that cross its whorls are grouped in pairs; their
interstices are raised, and more or less finely crenulated; as they pass
out on the expanded and wing-like varices they diverge, and the lobe-like
projections that scallop the margins of the wings are separated from each
other by each pair of diverging striae. The fine ribs that cross the
whorls are not present on the wings, nor on the back; they are nodulated
at their decussation with the raised striae. The wing-like varices of the
whorls overlap each other alternately on each side of the shell. The only
species to which it has affinity is the R. pulchra.
Scalaria jukesiana. Tab. 3 fig. 7.
Testa lanceolato-turrita, gracilis, alba, laevis, nitida,
longitudinaliter costata, costis lamellosis, reflexis, simplicibus,
nnmerosis (in ult. anfrac. 20); anfractus 11, tumidi; sutura profunde
impressa; varices nulli; apertura orbicularis, margine laevi. Long. 13,
Diam. max. 14, apert 3 mill. (Mus. Brit.)
This beautiful little Scalaria is deserving of particular notice on
account of the analogy and representation which it exhibits with the S.
clathratulus of the seas of the Northern Hemisphere. It is dedicated to
the author of the Voyage of the Fly.
New Genus--MACGILLIVRAYIA, Forbes.
Shell spiral, dextral, globular, thin, corneous, transparent (in the only
known species smooth or marked by obscure lines of growth) imperforate;
spire not produced (with a sinistral nucleus ?). Aperture oblong, entire,
angulated below; peristome incomplete, thin, even-edged.
Operculum semicircular, horny, thin, composed of concentric layers with
faint traces of a spiral structure at the centro-lateral nucleus, which
is on the columellar side; from it there runs a strait rib or process
continued nearly to the outer margin, and indicated externally by a
depression or groove.
Animal ample, provided with four very long and rather broad linear rugose
(or ciliated ?) tentacula; mantle produced into a long siphon; foot very
large, expanded, truncate in front, bearing the operculum near its
posterior extremity, but not accompanied by filamentous processes or
lobes. A float. (Mus. Brit. and Geol.)
This very remarkable mollusk was taken in the towing net off Cape Byron,
on the east coast of Australia, in latitude 28 degrees 40 minutes South,
fifteen miles from the shore. It was floating and was apparently
gregarious. Mr. Macgillivray states that it is furnished with a float in
the manner of Ianthina. The largest specimens measure rather less than
two lines in diameter. The shell is of a yellow horn colour (as is also
the operculum) thin and transparent. It bears a striking resemblance to
our much more minute Jeffreysia opalina. The four tentacula and the form
of the very peculiar operculum also seem to indicate considerable
affinity with the genus Jeffreysia of Alder, and an examination of the
remains of the tongue extracted from a dried specimen showed an
arrangement and form of the lingual denticles very closely resembling
that exhibited by Jeffreysia. On the other hand, the very distinct and
long siphonal tube delineated in Mr. Macgillivray's drawing, taken when
the animal was alive, would seem to refer this genus to some family
probably near to Cancellaridae. It is certainly entirely distinct in
every respect from any known Gasteropod. It is a form of very great
interest to the geologist, for in it we see the nearest representation of
certain palaeozoic (especially Lower Silurian) univalves hitherto
referred to Littorina, but which, judging from their associates and the
indications afforded by the strata in which they are found, were
assuredly either inhabitants of deep water or floaters in a great ocean
like the Pacific.
I have dedicated this most interesting creature to my friend Mr.
Macgillivray, its discoverer, whose researches have been productive of so
much new and valuable contributions to all departments of zoological
I have named the species M. pelagica. Tab. 3 fig. 8. a, b, c, d. (Mus.
Brit. and Geol.)
New Genus--CHELETROPIS, Forbes.
Shell spiral, turbinate, dextral, imperforate, spirally ridged or
double-keeled and transversely wrinkled; spire prominent, its nucleus
sinistral; aperture ovate, canaliculated below, its outer margin
furnished with two claw-like lobes, the one central and formed by a
prolongation of the margin between the keels of the body whorl, the other
smaUer and nearer the canal; peristome thickened, reflexed, forming a
Operculum none ?
Animal unknown, but certainly floating, and probably pteropodous. This I
infer from its habits, and from the analogy of the shell with Spirialis.
(Mus. Brit. & Geol.)
The only known species, C. huxleyi (dedicated to Mr. Huxley, Assistant
Surgeon of the Rattlesnake, and now eminent for the admirable anatomical
researches among marine invertebrata which he conducted during the
voyage) is very minute, being not more than the 1/24th of an inch in
diameter. It is translucent and of a brownish-white hue. Its aspect is
that of a Turbo in miniature. The whorls are tumid, the spire prominent;
the body whorl is belted by two prominent keels, one of which is
continued on the whorls of the spire: between, above, and below these
keels are transverse membranous raised ridges, which in the central
division of the body whorl are curved forwards. This curvature
corresponds with the projection of the curious incurved claw-like lobe
that proceeds from thc central portion of the lower lip. Towards the base
of the aperture is a second and similar but smaller lobe, below which is
the short but broad and well-marked canal. The entire lip is marginated
by the thickened and reflected peristome. I believe this curious floating
shell will throw some light on the true nature and habits of several
palaeozoic types. It was taken in the towing net, gregarious, in the sea
off Cape Howe, the south-east corner of Australia. Tab. 3 fig. 9. a, b.
CONTENTS OF PLATES OF NEW SHELLS.
Fig. 1. Helix brumeriensis.
Fig. 2. Helix franklandiensis.
Fig. 3. Helix inconspicua.
Fig. 4. Helix iuloides.
Fig. 5. Helix divisa.
Fig. 6. Helix yulei.
Fig. 7. Helix dunkiensis.
Fig. 8. Helix louisiadensis.
Fig. 9. Balea australis.
Fig. 10. Pupina grandis.
Fig. 1. Helix macgillivrayi.
Fig. 2. Pupina Thomsoni.
Fig. 3. Helicina gouldiana.
Fig. 4. Helicina stanleyi.
Fig. 5. Helicina louisiadensis.
Fig. 6. Ranella pulchra.
Fig. 7. Scalaria jukesiana.
Fig. 8. Macgillivrayia pelagica.
Fig. 9. Cheletropis huxleyi.
DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME NEW SPECIES OF ANNULOSA COLLECTED BY MR.
MACGILLIVRAY DURING THE VOYAGE OF H.M.S. RATTLESNAKE, BY ADAM WHITE,
ESQUIRE, F.L.S., ASSISTANT ZOOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT, BRITISH MUSEUM.
Among the very numerous Insects and Crustacea, collected by Mr.
Macgillivray during the voyage of the Rattlesnake, the following have
been selected for illustration; references to and descriptions of some of
the Diptera, Homoptera, and Hemiptera, collected by him, have appeared in
the Catalogues of the British Museum drawn up hy Messrs. Walker and
Dallas, while the names and descriptions of others will appear in
catalogues in preparation. A fine species of the class Crustacea,
discovered by him, has been described and figured in the Illustrated
Proceedings of the Zoological Society. (Cancer [Galene] dorsalis, White.)
Chrysodema pistor, Laporte and Gory. Buprestidae, t. 6, f. 33.
Habitat: Australia (Cape Upstart). Mr. Macgillivray informs me, that the
specimens of this species were observed by him coming out of a dead tree
Pachyrhynchus stanleyanus.* Tab. 4 fig. 1, 2.
(*Footnote. In memoriam Owen Stanley, in classe Britannica Navarchi,
species haec distincta et peculiaris nominatur.)
Pachyrhynchus nigerrimus, maculis parvis squamosis plurimis
Habitat: Pariwara Islands, New Guinea. Four specimens.
Head between the eyes somewhat rugose, some of the rugose punctures with
pale greenish white scales; an abbreviated longitudinal impressed line
down the front. Beak short and thick (somewhat as in Pachyrhynchus
cumingii, Waterhouse). Thorax irregularly and somewhat coarsely
punctured, the sides somewhat wrinkled in front, the punctures scaled, a
triangular depression on the posterior part of thorax, the bottom is
covered with scales, at least in some specimens, and there are three
spots similarly scaled and placed somewhat transversely: the Elytra with
eight to ten punctured lines, running somewhat irregularly, especially
towards the sides, each elytra with ten, twelve, or more spots of scales,
arranged longitudinally in spots on the sides, and largest towards the
end. Underside of the mesothorax and metathorax with many greenish
scales. Legs thick, polished, and with scattered grey hairs proceeding
from the punctures.
I have named this somewhat mourning Pachyrhynchus after Captain Owen
Stanley and his father, the late venerable Bishop of Norwich and
President of the Linnean Society. Both of these gentlemen were fond of
natural history, especially the father, who was a good observer of the
habits of birds. The son, Captain Owen Stanley, was an accurate, though
not very practised draughtsman; and I recollect with pleasure his
pointing out to me, at one of the soirees at Brook Street, a volume of
sketches (coloured) made by him on one of his voyages, in which objects
of natural history were ably introduced. He encouraged natural history
Trigonalys compressus. Smith. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. 1. p. ----
pl. 16. f. 2.
Sphex compressa. De Geer. Mem. 3.
Trigonalys bipustulatus. Smith (olim) Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 7 1851.
Habitat: Nest of Polistes lanio. Brazil.
Among the Hymenoptera, few genera have created greater dispute than the
anomalous genus Trigonalys of Westwood. Mr. Macgillivray one day brought
to the British Museum the nest of a Brazilian Polistes. My friend, Mr.
Frederick Smith, is well known for his profound knowledge of the
Hymenoptera, Exotic and British, which, though he has studied them ONLY
fourteen years, are better known to him, perhaps, than to any other
living Entomologist; the instant that he looked at the nest, he
exclaimed, "Why, here is Trigonalys!" and certainly a large, black-headed
creature, not very like Polistes, protruded from one of the cells. Mr.
Smith, on the 7th April, 1851, communicated this piece of information to
the Entomological Society of London, and in their Transactions his brief
memoir was lately printed. I cannot do better than give it in Mr. Smith's
own words. Mr. Smith, subsequently to the reading of the paper,
ascertained that the species had been described in the great work of De
Geer, a book of which it would be well to have a condensed new edition.
Mr. Smith says:
"John Macgillivray, Esquire, Naturalist to Her Majesty's Ship
Rattlesnake, lately presented to the British Museum the nest of a South
American species of Polistes, which he says is very abundant at St.
Salvador, where even in the streets it attaches its nest under the eaves
of houses; the species is the Polistes lanio of Fabricius, and in all
probability the Vespa canadensis of Linnaeus; a specimen of the species
is preserved in the Banksian Cabinet. On examining the nest, I found it
consisted as usual of a single comb of cells, having in the centre at the
back a short footstalk, by which the nests are attached in their
position; the comb contained sixty-five cells, the outer ones being in an
unfinished state, whilst twenty-two of the central ones had remains of
exuviae in them, and one or two closed cells contained perfect insects
ready to emerge; about half a dozen of the wasps had the anterior portion
of their bodies buried in the cells, in the manner in which these insects
are said to repose. In one cell I observed the head of an insect
evidently of a different species, it being black and shining. On
extricating it, I discovered it to be a species of Trigonalys; I
subsequently carefully expanded the insect, and it proved to be the
Trigonalys bipustulatus, described by myself in the Ann. and Mag. of
Natural History, volume 7 2nd Series, 1851, from a specimen captured at
Para by Mr. Bates, now in the possession of William Wilson Saunders,
Esquire. The insect was not enveloped in any pellicle, nor had the cell
been closed in any way; the wings were crumpled up at its side, as is
usual in Hymenopterous insects which have not expanded them, proving
satisfactorily that it had never quitted the cell, and that Trigonalys is
the parasite of Polistes.
"This discovery is one of much interest, proving the relationship of the
insect to be amongst the pupivora, to which family it had been previously
assigned by Mr. Westwood, see Volume 3 Ent. Transactions page 270. The
specimen is seven lines in length, entirely black, the head shining, the
thorax and abdomen opaque, and having two white maculae touching the
apical margin of the basal segment above; the wings are smoky, the
antennae broken off. Of one of them I found subsequently seventeen
joints--the perfect insect in the possession of Mr. Saunders having
Drusilla myloecha, Tab. 4 fig. 3, 4.
This fine butterfly* was found flying in considerable plenty in the woods
of one of the islands of the Louisiade Archipelago; it forms a very
interesting addition to a genus, of which but few species are known, and
is allied to the Drusilla catops of Dr. Boisduval, described and figured
in the Voyage de l'Astrolabe. The upper sides of the wings of the
Drusilla myloecha are of pure white with a silky lustre, the front edge
of the fore wings margined with deep brown both above and below; in the
male there is a slender white line on the upper side running close to the
edge, and extending beyond the middle of it; the two discoidal veins in
the male are brown on the upper side, and the edge of the upper side of
the lower wings is brown. The under side of the lower wings has a dark
brown band at the base, widest close to the attachment of the wing and
narrowing to a large ocellus which it surrounds in the form of a narrow
brown ring; the black ocellus has a very small white pupil with a slight
bluish crescent on the inside, and is surrounded by a fulvous ring; thcre
is a second black ocellus nearer the hind edge than the middle, with a
small white pupil and a wideish fulvous ring, separated from the white of
the wing by a narrow brown ring; head, antennae, legs, and thorax in
front brown; palpi fulvous.
The figures are of the size of nature, and carefully drawn by Mr. Wing.
(*Footnote. Described (but not figured) by Mr. Westwood, in the
Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, New Series, Volume 1
page 175 1851, from Mr. M.'s specimens in the British Museum. Mr. W. felt
anxious to describe this striking Drusilla.)
Eusemia mariana, Tab. 4 fig. 5.
E. alis coerulescenti-nigris; anticis albo-fasciatis et maculatis,
(*Footnote. Filiae meae "Marian Frances White," speciem hanc pulchram
Upper wings black, with a slight bluish tinge; a wide band extends across
the wing before the middle; it is white with a slight yellowish tint, at
the lower edge of the wing it is abruptly narrowed; behind the middle of
the wing, and between it and the tip, are from five to six pale yellowish
white spots, the four or five outermost the smallest, and one or two of
them sometimes obsolete; between the base and the band a narrow bluish
grey line extends across the wing, and behind the band, at an equal
distance, there is another short, waved, bluish grey line running down to
the inner margin. The margins of the band and spots are bluish grey. The
lower wing is narrowly black at the base, with a transverse band of a
king's yellow colour; this is the widest on the inner edge, near its
outer end there is an angular black spot; the apical half of the wing is
black, with numerous king's yellow spots arranged in two lines, two spots
about the middle connected and notched with black. Head, thorax, and base
of abdomen black, rest of abdomen of a king's yellow colour.
Mr. Macgillivray took two specimens of this fine species. One flew on
board when the ship was to the north of Cape Weymouth; the other was
taken at Cape York: the figure is of the natural size.
Cocytia durvillii, Boisd. Monog. des Zygenides, t. 1, fig. 1.
This is an abundant species in the Louisiade Archipelago, flying on shore
in the daytime among trees (as D'Urville remarked it did in New Guinea);
and it frequently came on board the Rattlesnake, even when distant from
the shore two or three miles. It flies heavily like a moth, and is easily
caught. This beautiful insect is one of the finest found by Mr.
Macgillivray. Only three specimens are recorded: those discovered by
Admiral d'Urville, and described by Dr. Boisduval; Mr. M. brought home
two, deposited with the rest of his collection in the British Museum.
CRUSTACEA. MALACOSTRACA: DECAPODA.
Ommatocarcinus macgillivrayi. Tab. 5 fig. 1.
Carapace more than twice as wide as long; the sides in front extended
into a long slightly bent spine. The frontal portion between the pedicles
of the eyes is narrow, much as in Macrophthalmus, it slopes down towards
the mouth, and is deeply notched at the sides for the reception of the
eyes; the fore-edge is doubly notched in the middle, there being a slight
tooth between the emarginations. The epistome not so prominent as the
lower margin of the orbit; the inner antennae, with the basal joint, long
(the others broken off). The eye-pedicles very long and cylindrical,
thickest at the base, slightly bent, somewhat thickened towards the end,
so long, that, when bent back, the eye extends a little beyond the end of
the spine. Mouth formed nearly as in Gonoplax, the third joint of the
jaw-feet wider than long. Abdomen seven-jointed, the first joint scarcely
visible, shaped much as in Gonoplax, but rather wider, the base of the
terminal joint longer than the sides. Anterior legs two and a half times
as long as the Carapace, measuring it from spine to spine, the arm long
and triangular, the upper portion more or less thickly covered with small
papillae, and having a nearly obliterated spine about the middle; the
wrist smooth, roundish, with a large blunt tooth on the inside; hands
somewhat flattened, widest at the base of the claws, with a broad ridge
on the inside, the edge of it rough with small papillae; the upper edge
of hand rough with small papillae; the claws lap over each other at the
tips, and are irregularly toothed on the inside; the fixed claw of the
right hand bent at the base, so as to leave a considerable space when the
other is closed upon it; upper part of arm, hand, and movable claw pretty
thickly spotted with red, epistome orbits and greater part of the upper
surface of carapace spotted with red, sides and hind part of carapace
white; upper edge of the orbit covered with small papillae; a tolerably
prominent ridge extends across the carapace before the middle. Four hind
pairs of legs long, slender, compressed, the upper edges of the second
and third pairs fringed with hairs, as well as the lower edge of the two
terminal joints, the claws long, thin, and somewhat bent.
Habitat: Port Curtis. Shoal water, mudbanks.
This fine Crustacean is allied to Gonoplax and Curtonotus; and being one
of the most prominent species sent home by Mr. Macgillivray, is selected
for description here; the figure is of the size of nature.
Porcellanella triloba. Tab. 5 fig. 2.
Carapace somewhat flattened, the front produced into three large teeth or
lobes; the intermediate the widest and most prominent; the sides of the
outer lobes rounded before the eye; carapace longer than wide, widest a
little behind the insertion of the antennae, the upper surface smooth,
polished, with some transverse scratched lines, which are slight and
irregular, they are most observable in front and on the sides, behind it
is somewhat notched in the middle. External antennae long, longer than
twice the breadth of the carapace, inserted in a sinus behind the eye,
the basal portion formed of three joints, the first projecting beyond the
sides of the carapace, the second wider and longer than the first, third
short and thick at the end; the terminal part of antennae long,
thread-like, and formed of very numerous articulations; the eyes large,
and with a short pedicel. Anterior legs long and smooth, the pincers
overlapping each other at the end, their inner edge rough, scarcely
toothed; from before the base of the inside of the movable claw a
thickish line of hairs extends about halfway down the hands, which bulge,
and are rounded on the inside, but on the outside are straightish or
slightly waved, and rather sharply keeled; the second, third, and fourth
pairs of legs are somewhat compressed, and terminate in claws with four
longish hooks on the inside; posterior pair of legs folded over the back,
narrow, with the second joint somewhat bent upwards.
This curious species was dredged by Mr. Macgillivray off Cape Capricorn,
in latitude 23 degrees 25 minutes South longitude 151 degrees 12 minutes
East in 15 fathoms, the bottom being muddy sand and shells. It is allied
to the species of the second section of the genus Porcellana, as detailed
by Professor Milne Edwards in the second volume of the Histoire Naturelle
des Crustaces, but has characters sufficient to constitute a new
subgenus, to which may be applied the name Porcellanella. The figure
represents it of twice its natural size.
P.S. The figures have been carefully drawn from the originals by Mr.
William Wing, so well known as a Zoological Draughtsman, and will at once
explain my imperfect descriptions.