Part 4 out of 6
STATEMENT OF JACKEY-JACKEY.
MADE BY HIM ON BOARD THE ARIEL, AND WRITTEN DOWN BY DR. VALLACK.
I started with Mr. Kennedy from Weymouth Bay for Cape York, on the 13th
November, 1848, accompanied by Costigan, Dunn, and Luff, leaving eight
men at the camp, at Weymouth Bay. We went on till we came to a river
which empties itself into Weymouth Bay. A little further north we crossed
the river; next morning a lot of natives camped on the other side of the
river. Mr. Kennedy and the rest of us went on a very high hill and came
to a flat on the other side and camped there; I went on a good way next
day; a horse fell down a creek; the flour we took with us lasted three
days; we had much trouble in getting the horse out of the creek; we went
on, and came out, and camped on the ridges; we had no water. Next morning
went on and Luff was taken ill with a very bad knee; we left him behind,
and Dunn went back again and brought him on; Luff was riding a horse
named Fiddler; then we went on and camped at a little creek; the flour
being out this day we commenced eating horse-flesh, which Carron gave us
when we left Weymouth Bay; as we went on we came on a small river, and
saw no blacks there; as we proceeded we gathered nondas, and lived upon
them and the meat; we stopped at a little creek and it came on raining,
and Costigan shot himself; in putting his saddle under the tarpaulin, a
string caught the trigger and the ball went in under the right arm and
came out at his back under the shoulder; we went on this morning all of
us, and stopped at another creek in the evening, and the next morning we
killed a horse named Browney, smoked him that night and went on next day,
taking as much of the horse as we could with us, and went on about a mile
and then turned back again to where we killed the horse, because Costigan
was very bad and in much pain; we went back again because there was no
water; then Mr. Kennedy and I had dinner there, and went on in the
afternoon leaving Dunn, Costigan, and Luff at the creek. This was at
Pudding-pan Hill, near Shelburne Bay. Mr. Kennedy called it Pudding-pan
Hill. We left some horse-meat with the three men at Pudding-pan Hill, and
carried some with us on a packhorse. Mr. Kennedy wanted to make great
haste when he left this place, to get the doctor to go down to the men
that were ill. This was about three weeks after leaving Weymouth Bay. One
horse was left with the three men at Pudding-pan Hill, and we (Kennedy
and myself) took with us three horses. The three men were to remain there
until Mr. Kennedy and myself had gone to and returned from Cape York for
them. Mr. Kennedy told Luff and Dunn when he left them that if Costigan
died to come along the beach till they saw the ship, and then to fire a
gun; he told them he would not be long away, so it was not likely they
would move from there for some time. They stopped to take care of the man
that was shot, we (me and Mr. Kennedy) killed a horse for them before we
came away; having left these three men, we camped that night where there
was no water; next morning Mr. Kennedy and me went on with the four
horses, two packhorses and two saddle-horses; one horse got bogged in a
swamp. We tried to get him out all day, but could not, we left him there,
and camped at another creek. The next day Mr. Kennedy and I went on
again, and passed up a ridge very scrubby, and had to turn back again,
and went along gulleys to get clear of the creek and scrub. Now it
rained, and we camped; there were plenty of blacks here, but we did not
see them, but plenty of fresh tracks, and camps, and smoke. Next morning
we went on and camped at another creek, and on the following morning we
continued going on, and camped in the evening close to a scrub; it rained
in the night. Next day we went on in the scrub, but could not get
through, I cut and cleared away, and it was near sundown before we got
through the scrub--there we camped. It was heavy rain next morning, and
we went on in the rain, then I changed horses and rode a black colt, to
spell the other, and rode him all day, and in the afternoon we got on
clear ground, and the horse fell down, me and all; the horse lay upon my
right hip. Here Mr. Kennedy got off his horse and moved my horse from my
thigh; we stopped there that night, and could not get the horse up; we
looked to him in the morning and he was dead; we left him there; we had
some horse-meat left to eat, and went on that day and crossed a little
river and camped. The next day we went a good way; Mr. Kennedy told me to
go up a tree to see a sandy hill somewhere; I went up a tree, and saw a
sandy hill a little way down from Port Albany. That day we camped near a
swamp; it was a very rainy day. The next morning we went on, and Mr.
Kennedy told me we should get round to Port Albany in a day; we travelled
on all day till twelve o'clock (noon) and then we saw Port Albany; then
he said "There is Port Albany, Jackey--a ship is there--you see that
island there," pointing to Albany Island; this was when we were at the
mouth of Escape River; we stopped there a little while; all the meat was
gone; I tried to get some fish but could not; we went on in the afternoon
half a mile along the riverside, and met a good lot of blacks, and we
camped; the blacks all cried out "powad, powad," and rubbed their
bellies; and we thought they were friendly, and Mr. Kennedy gave them
fish-hooks all round; every one asked me if I had anything to give away,
and I said no; and Mr. Kennedy said, give them your knife, Jackey; this
fellow on board was the man I gave the knife to; I am sure of it; I know
him well; the black that was shot in the canoe was the most active in
urging all the others on to spear Mr. Kennedy; I gave the man on board my
knife; we went on this day, and I looked behind, and they were getting up
their spears, and ran all round the camp which we had left; I told Mr.
Kennedy that very likely those blackfellows would follow us, and he said,
"No, Jackey, those blacks are very friendly;" I said to him "I know those
blackfellows well, they too much speak;" we went on some two or three
miles and camped; I and Mr. Kennedy watched them that night, taking it in
turns every hour all night; by-and-by I saw the blackfellows; it was a
moonlight night; and I walked up to Mr. Kennedy, and said to him there is
plenty of blackfellows now; this was in the middle of the night; Mr.
Kennedy told me to get my gun ready; the blacks did not know where we
slept, as we did not make a fire; we both sat up all night; after this,
daylight came, and I fetched the horses and saddled them; then we went on
a good way up the river, and then we sat down a little while, and we saw
three blackfellows coming along our track, and they saw us, and one
fellow ran back as hard as he could run, and fetched up plenty more, like
a flock of sheep almost; I told Mr. Kennedy to put the saddles on the two
horses and go on, and the blacks came up, and they followed us all the
day; all along it was raining, and I now told him to leave the horses and
come on without them, that the horses made too much track. Mr. Kennedy
was too weak, and would not leave the horses. We went on this day till
towards evening, raining hard, and the blacks followed us all the day,
some behind, some planted before; in fact, blacks all around following
us. Now we went on into a little bit of a scrub, and I told Mr. Kennedy
to look behind always; sometimes he would do so, and sometimes he would
not look behind to look out for the blacks. Then a good many blackfellows
came behind in the scrub, and threw plenty of spears, and hit Mr. Kennedy
in the back first. Mr. Kennedy said to me, "Oh! Jackey, Jackey! shoot
'em, shoot 'em." Then I pulled out my gun and fired, and hit one fellow
all over the face with buckshot; he tumbled down, and got up again and
again and wheeled right round, and two blackfellows picked him up and
carried him away. They went away then a little way, and came back again,
throwing spears all around, more than they did before; very large spears.
I pulled out the spear at once from Mr. Kennedy's back, and cut out the
jag with Mr. Kennedy's knife; then Mr. Kennedy got his gun and snapped,
but the gun would not go off. The blacks sneaked all along by the trees,
and speared Mr. Kennedy again in the right leg, above the knee a little,
and I got speared over the eye, and the blacks were now throwing their
spears all ways, never giving over, and shortly again speared Mr. Kennedy
in the right side; there were large jags to the spears, and I cut them
out and put them into my pocket. At the same time we got speared, the
horses got speared too, and jumped and bucked all about, and got into the
swamp. I now told Mr. Kennedy to sit down, while I looked after the
saddlebags, which I did; and when I came back again, I saw blacks along
with Mr. Kennedy; I then asked him if he saw the blacks with him, he was
stupid with the spear wounds, and said "No;" then I asked him where was
his watch? I saw the blacks taking away watch and hat as I was returning
to Mr. Kennedy; then I carried Mr. Kennedy into the scrub, he said,
"Don't carry me a good way;" then Mr. Kennedy looked this way, very bad
(Jackey rolling his eyes). I said to him, "Don't look far away," as I
thought he would be frightened; I asked him often, "Are you well now?"
and he said, "I don't care for the spear wound in my leg, Jackey, but for
the other two spear wounds in my side and back," and said, "I am bad
inside, Jackey." I told him blackfellow always die when he got spear in
there (the back); he said, "I am out of wind, Jackey;" I asked him, "Mr.
Kennedy; are you going to leave me?" and he said, "Yes, my boy, I am
going to leave you;" he said, "I am very bad, Jackey; you take the books,
Jackey, to the captain, but not the big ones, the Governor will give
anything for them;" I then tied up the papers; he then said, "Jackey,
give me paper and I will write;" I gave him paper and pencil, and he
tried to write, and he then fell back and died, and I caught him as he
fell back and held him, and I then turned round myself and cried: I was
crying a good while until I got well; that was about an hour, and then I
buried him; I digged up the ground with a tomahawk, and covered him over
with logs, then grass, and my shirt and trousers; that night I left him
near dark; I would go through the scrub, and the blacks threw spears at
me, a good many, and I went back again into the scrub; then I went down
the creek which runs into Escape River, and I walked along the water in
the creek very easy, with my head only above water, to avoid the blacks,
and get out of their way; in this way I went half a mile; then I got out
of the creek, and got clear of them, and walked on all night nearly, and
slept in the bush without a fire; I went on next morning, and felt very
bad, and I spelled for two days; I lived upon nothing but salt water;
next day I went on and camped one mile away from where I left, and ate
one of the pandanus fruits; next morning I went on two miles, and sat
down there, and I wanted to spell a little there, and go on; but when I
tried to get up, I could not, but fell down again very tired and cramped,
and I spelled here two days; then I went on again one mile, and got
nothing to eat but one nonda; and I went on that day and camped, and on
again next morning, about half a mile, and sat down where there was good
water, and remained all day. On the following morning, I went a good way,
went round a great swamp and mangroves, and got a good way by sundown;
the next morning I went and saw a very large track of blackfellows; I
went clear of the track and of swamp or sandy ground; then I came to a
very large river, and a large lagoon; plenty of alligators in the lagoon,
about ten miles from Port Albany. I now got into the ridges by sundown,
and went up a tree and saw Albany Island; then next morning at four
o'clock, I went on as hard as I could go all the way down, over fine
clear ground, fine ironbark timber, and plenty of good grass; I went on
round the point (this was towards Cape York, north of Albany Island) and
went on and followed a creek down, and went on top of the hill and saw
Cape York; I knew it was Cape York, because the sand did not go on
further; I sat down then a good while; I said to myself, this is Port
Albany, I believe inside somewhere; Mr. Kennedy also told me that the
ship was inside, close up to the mainland; I went on a little way, and
saw the ship and boat; I met close up here two black gins and a good many
piccanninies; one said to me "powad, powad;" then I asked her for eggs,
she gave me turtles' eggs, and I gave her a burning-glass; she pointed to
the ship which I had seen before; I was very frightened of seeing the
black men all along here; and when I was on the rock cooeying, and murry
murry glad when the boat came for me.
DR. VALLACK'S STATEMENT.
A full account of proceedings taken by the Ariel, from the time of
Jackey's arrival at Cape York, on the 23rd December, 1848, up to the time
of her departure from Weymouth Bay, on the 31st December, 1848.
Saturday, 23rd December, 1848.
About eight o'clock A.M., Captain Dobson called down to me, saying that
he thought Mr. Kennedy was arrived, as there was a black on shore with a
shirt on and trousers. On going upon deck, the Captain had left in the
dinghy for the mainland, where the black was standing, I observed with
the glass and the naked eye, the black first standing, then walking very
lame, then sitting down on a rock on the mainland. The dinghy made there,
and took him on board. It turned out to be Jackey, of Mr. Kennedy's
party, who looked very haggard and told a woeful tale. After being on
board I wished to take down depositions, fearing anything might happen to
him from over-excitement. Depositions were taken, before which he became
faint, and a glass of wine revived him, which he told us afterwards, made
him budgeree (that is, well again.) I consulted with the Captain as to
what should be done, and it was immediately determined upon to leave Port
Albany with all possible speed, to save the surviving parties at
Pudding-pan Hill and Weymouth Bay, three men at the former place, and the
rest at the latter. It being necessary to take the sheep with us, they
were all but three shipped in the evening, and prompt orders given for
the vessel to be got ready for a start in the morning the first thing. In
the meantime I went on shore with the Captain to get the bullock in to
kill, Barrett, as well, on horseback, and we found it was impossible to
get him in--he was so wild: he was therefore shot at the far and south
end of the island, with the intention of bringing as much as possible of
the carcass away. It getting late in the evening, however, none was taken
away, nor is there time now to do so, and to do also an act of duty and
humanity to the yet living human beings.
Sunday, 24th December.
Before ten A.M., a dead calm; at turn of tide or rather before, weighed
anchor, but the tide took us towards Cape York a mile; the tide now
turned, and a gentle breeze took us through the strait. The breeze
continued, and at sundown we anchored five miles south of Point Shadwell,
Mount Adolphus bearing North-North-West, seven leagues; employed during
the day conversing with Jackey, taking down in pencil what he had to say,
changing the subject now and then by speaking of his comrades at Jerry's
Plains. I did so as he told me what kept him awake all last night was
thinking about Mr. Kennedy. Saw three native fires on our voyage here,
one on this south end of Albany Island, one between it and here, and one
on shore abreast of us.
December 25th, Monday.
At daylight in the morning a dead calm, and the hottest day we have had,
the sun was so glaring that the altitude could not be taken. At about a
quarter before ten A.M. a light breeze came on and we left our anchorage,
the breeze increased a little, before eleven; saw what appeared to be an
island at first; on nearing, found it to be a canoe, about fifteen feet
long, with seven or eight natives in it, shearing about, sometimes in one
direction, sometimes in another. After a little we heard them calling
out, "paoud," "whappee," "chauca," some of them standing up. I named to
the Captain that I thought they must be from Cape York, from their words,
and that it would be at least desirable to glean information from them,
if possible, concerning Mr. Kennedy. The Captain said, "We will not call
out paoud," (which means peace) but occasionally the words chauca
(tobacco) biskey (biscuit) were called out from the ship. They from this
drew close to the vessel, very wary, however, in doing so. Jackey was
placed in the fore-top, and word came that Jackey knew all these fellows,
that they were the party who speared Mr. Kennedy. One black was allowed
to come on board, and whilst he was partly in the ship, word came to me
by Parker (a seaman) that Jackey wanted to speak to me. On going to
Jackey, he said, "That fellow," pointing to the one named, "is the fellow
that speared Mr. Kennedy; I gave him a knife, keep him, bale (don't) let
him go. All those fellows threw spears at Mr. Kennedy." This native was
immediately secured. He struggled hard, and it was as much as three men
could do to secure him. The other blacks in the canoe now jumped
overboard, and observing now that the native secured had a part of a
bridle round his arm, and a piece of sinew, or tendon of a horse, and
Jackey being so positive as to identity, it was determined to examine the
canoe, and an order was given to fire over their heads, whilst they (the
blacks) were endeavouring to recover their canoe. The ship's long-boat
was sent after the canoe, but in the meantime the blacks had recovered
it, and a hard chase took place, the blacks paddling away towards the
shore. The boat overhauled them, when a shot was fired from the boat, and
as the boat closed upon them I saw the blacks jump overboard again, and
afterwards the ship's boat bring back the canoe. During this time several
shots were fired over them, and near them, from the ship. The boat
returned in about twenty minutes from the time of leaving, with the
canoe. Barrett said to me when alongside that he was speared, and that he
had shot the black who had speared him, and who was now in the canoe
nearly dead. It appears that one black had stuck to his canoe, and on the
ship's boat nearing it, had thrown a spear into Barret's arm, and was on
the eve of throwing another at him, when Barrett shot him. I went into
the canoe, and examined the black, and found the ball had gone through
his body, entering on the one side and coming out on the other side. The
ball must have gone through the stomach, from its direction. He was now
dying--nearly dead. The canoe was chopped up, and, with the black,
disappeared a short time afterwards. I dressed Barrett's wounds, three of
them, of a triangular shape, in the lower and fleshy part of the forearm.
From the canoe were brought the leg part of a pair of trousers, three
spears, a piece of iron of a saddle, hooks and lines, etc.; and a piece
of moleskin was taken off the native's leg, which Jackey says was part of
his trousers, which he tied round Mr. Kennedy's head when he buried him,
Jackey being sure that they had dug up Mr. Kennedy. I observed at the
time that the native was nearly on board, the moment the blacks saw
Jackey, they looked at each other as if everything was not right.
Previously to their jumping overboard, when Jackey showed the native the
spear wound over his eye, he would quickly turn away and not look him in
the face. Whilst the native was being secured, after being removed to the
fore part of the vessel, a mutton bone with meat was offered him which he
grappled at and ate voraciously, saying, "paoud, paoud." The wind
increased and was fair, and Jackey pointed out a hill ahead of us which
he said was like Pudding-pan Hill, near which the three men were left.
This Hill was Pudding-pan Hill, according to the chart. As we neared
Pudding-pan Hill, Jackey said, that is not the place, that he had been
mistaken, and, on continually looking at it, he became the more confirmed
and positive, and said it was no use whatever to land there, but that we
must go further on; we passed the hill; in the meantime, the Captain and
I consulted as to what should be done, knowing this was the only
Pudding-pan Hill on the chart; but Jackey, who had been placed on the
fore-top, became more and more positive, saying at length, "Do you think
I am stupid?--Mr. Kennedy sent me from the camp to look out the coast, so
that I might know it again when I came back in the ship, and I will tell
you when we come to it, the ship must go on that way further," pointing
to the south. Proceeding on, towards evening, off Hannibal Bay, we saw
numerous native fires, and in one spot I observed about forty natives.
Before sundown a canoe was making off to us, but after sunset we
gradually lost sight of it, and some time after this we anchored.
Tuesday, 26th December, 1848.
At twenty minutes to six A.M., got underweigh with a light breeze; in the
centre of Hannibal Bay, Risk Point ahead. In about ten minutes we struck
on a coral reef, and soon got off again; we anchored this day in
Shelburne Bay, opposite where Jackey wished us to proceed to recover the
three men; he was sure this was the place, seeing the mountain which Mr.
Kennedy called Pudding-pan Hill, and other mountains there, which were
wanting at the Pudding-pan Hill of the chart; he was perfectly confident
as to this being the right place and it may be here stated that this hill
is the very facsimile of the Pudding-pan Hill of the chart. In sailing in
the bay we found the water getting very shallow, from three to four, and
lastly, when we anchored, two and a half fathoms, and this unfortunately,
was a long way off from the land, say three or four miles; after
consultation with the Captain and Jackey, our main guide, we determined
on going on shore at the place pointed out by Jackey before daylight on
the following morning; during this afternoon several fires, about five,
were in sight along the coast in the bay, and not many natives seen; I
saw five; after a time it had been determined who should be the party to
go to recover the three men. The Captain, Jackey, Barrett, Thomas (the
sailor), and myself, formed the party. The evening was employed in
getting our guns in good order for the morrow. The Captain thought he
observed on shore natives with wearing apparel on.
Wednesday, 27th December, 1848.
At three o'clock A.M., the Captain called me, and such had been the
preparation last night that in a quarter of an hour we were in the
longboat, steering for the shore, and just as daylight was peeping we
were near the shore in shallow water, and a fire sprung up nearly in
front of us a little way in from the beach. The boat struck on the
ground, and we waded through the water for about a hundred yards or more
knee deep. Jackey took the lead, the Captain and I following, Barrett and
Tom behind, and mounted the low scrubby cliff about two hundred yards
from where we saw the fire. On we trudged through dense scrub inland for
about an hour, When Jackey said we must go further up that way, pointing
more in the south part of the bay; that is where I want to go, said he,
and that we had better cross there in the boat and recommence the trip.
On reaching the coast we hailed the boat, which was anchored off a
little, and waded out to it. Having seen a great smoke last evening and
apparently one this morning, some distance beyond where Jackey wished us
to land, he was asked if we should go first to this native fire and camp,
and see if they have anything there belonging to the three men, and
Jackey said, yes. We proceeded there, a distance of about four miles to
the southernmost part of the bay, and landed, but could discover only the
remains of a bushfire and no camp; we now left this part and proceeded to
exactly where Jackey pointed out on the beach, more in the central part
of the bay, some three miles across, and landed, telling the men in the
boat to anchor a little higher up to the north, where Jackey said we
should come out at by-and-bye. We left word with the men in the boat that
we might be away for three hours or more, and that we should fire a gun
on our return, which was to be answered by them.
Jackey was now head and leading man in every sense of the word, and away
we went in a westerly direction, for about, say, five or six miles;
Jackey telling us to look out behind and all about for the blacks. After
proceeding some four miles of the distance, we came to a creek where we
stopped for a few minutes; Jackey was evidently tired, not recovered, and
could not walk fast, and although we went off at first at a good pace,
Jackey was getting lame, and had been obliged to sit down three times on
the journey. About two miles beyond this creek Jackey got up into a tree,
and returned saying he could see the mountain near which the camp was,
but that it was a long way off, that we could not get there to-night, but
that we must camp in the bush, and get there to-morrow. It here became
necessary to pause. The ship was left with two hands only in her,
anchored in shallow water, and the Captain said promptly that he could
not proceed farther without great risk of losing the ship, either from
its coming on to blow, or that natives may attack her in their canoes;
(here I may say what has been omitted, namely, that in the early part of
the morning we saw and examined a canoe close to where we first landed,
and found part of a cloak in it, which Jackey immediately pronounced as
belonging to the white men at the camp) and it was determined, well
considering all circumstances, to return to the ship, which we did,
coming out on the beach under mangroves, at the very spot we told Jackey
to come out at on our leaving. We arrived at the ship at twelve minutes
before four P.M. During our absence the men in the boat had seen on the
beach from fifty to one hundred natives. We saw none. The day has been
very hot, and we are in a fix, surrounded by reefs, and some little
anxiety is existing as to how we shall get out again. We have determined
to proceed to Weymouth Bay, and in so doing I have taken everything into
consideration. We have eight men to attend to at Weymouth Bay. In all
probability the three men here are dead, for when Jackey left them,
Costigan was nearly dead, and Luff was very ill. The cloak taken from the
canoe shows that the blacks have found their camp, and had we gone on
there, which would have taken a day or two at least more, we should only
have found, I verily believe, as Jackey says, "bones belonging to
whitefellows." After getting on board, Jackey went to sleep, thoroughly
done up. He fell asleep also in coming off in the boat.
Thursday, December 28.
This has been a day of anxiety. We left a little after daylight, not
without feelings of disappointment and dissatisfaction at not having been
successful in rescuing the men, who it was possible might be yet alive.
We were surrounded by reefs, a light breeze, and fair depth of
water--called out by the leadsman, 2, 2 1/2, 2, 3 fathoms, until after
some time we got into deeper water, and passed out of the Bay in safety.
Not a fire had been seen on the shore all night, nor was there a native
to be seen this morning from the vessel. We passed numerous islands,
until the Piper Islands came in sight. We calculated upon making them for
our anchorage, but a squall came on, and the wind shifted, and we were
compelled to anchor at half-past seven P.M., in fifteen fathoms water,
near a reef. Some native fires were seen on the coast to-day. I find the
native on board understands and speaks the same language as the Port
Albany blacks, and repeats all their names to me. He eats and drinks
heartily, and lends apparently a most willing hand towards securing
himself with the leather straps.
Friday, 29th December.
Left our anchorage at daylight in the morning; passed between the Piper
Islands and Bald Head. When off Fair Cape saw a smoke on the shore, and
three natives, who immediately disappeared in the scrub and were seen no
more. On rounding the Cape it became a dead calm, and it was intensely
hot; we saw a smoke and a large fire ahead of us. Jackey recognised the
land and said the smoke was at the mouth of a river which Mr. Kennedy and
he had crossed after leaving the camp. The land where the camp and eight
men were Jackey pointed out ahead of us, opposite to Weymouth Bay; a
heavy squall and thunderstorm with rain came on very suddenly, and beyond
the mouth of the river, with the camping-hill ahead of us, we came to an
anchor, between two and three o'clock P.M.; could not see any flagstaff
on the hill pointed out by Jackey, and which hill is very conspicuous and
bald, nor could we see any symptom of living beings along the coast in
the bay. It was too great a distance to land to-night, and the Captain
said if it came on to blow the boat could not be got back again. Employed
the other part of the day in looking through the glass and with the naked
eye to see the flagstaff and flag, or any other sign (Jackey having
informed us they would have a flag on the top of the hill) but none was
to be seen, not a native, and I have reason to believe every one of the
eight have been sacrificed; it looks suspicious not seeing a native, for
Jackey says they used to bring fish to the camp, and there were plenty of
them. The Captain is to take the ship in as near as possible to the hill,
and it is determined to go on shore with the same party who assisted us
at Shelburne Bay, and go up to the camp to-morrow well armed. All this
evening a solemn, silent, inexpressible gloom; no rockets, no gun, no
fire, to-morrow will tell a tale.
Saturday, 30th December, 1848.
At daylight this morning the ship was got underweigh, and sailed nearer
in towards the hill which Jackey had pointed out as being the hill where
"camp sit down," and anchored in about two fathoms of water about half a
mile off the land. Five canoes were now seen creeping off towards us from
under the mangroves, with from five to ten natives in each (there was yet
no flag or any token of white people on the hill); the canoes gradually
neared in a string, and one came cautiously alongside, making signs and
saying "ferraman, ferraman," "white man, white man," and pointing towards
Jackey's mountain. We were at first doubtful whether they were disposed
to be friendly or not, and afterwards seeing some children with them and
one or two females, we concluded they were disposed to be friendly, and
that they knew the parties at the camp. A few lines were written to the
party at the camp, stating a vessel was in the bay, and the bearer, one
of the natives, would take them to it. This was given to one of the
natives in the first canoe, and Jackey, whom the natives recognised,
beckoned and motioned to them to take the note to the camp. In the
meantime the Captain and I had determined as soon as the boat could be
got ready, to proceed according to Jackey's instructions to the camp. The
boat left with our party, and Jackey directed us some distance off in the
wake of the canoes, there being nothing but a mangrove swamp on the shore
near us. We landed beside of a creek knee-deep in water, among some
mangroves. Here we got out of the boat, Jackey, the Captain, Barrett, and
myself, Tom, the sailor, who had accompanied us before, saying he could
not go, that he had a bad leg. We were a little disappointed here, but
said nothing, and proceeded, Jackey leading, myself, the Captain, and
Barrett following, through a mangrove swamp, for some considerable
distance, all well armed. Getting out of the swamp we came upon a
beautiful flat, and followed up a creek which Jackey said would lead up
to the camp. After getting on (keeping a good lookout) for about two
miles, Jackey doubled his pace, and all at once said with great emphasis,
"I see camp." "Well done, Jackey," I think was exclaimed by all of us at
the same moment. Jackey, still going on at a sharp pace, stopped for a
moment and said, "I not sure, I believe it is hole through tree," and
suddenly, with greater excitement than before, he exclaimed, "See two
whitefellows sit down, and camp." We were now on one side of the creek:
down the creek we went, and up on the other side in double-quick time,
and a scene presented itself. On the side of the hill, not two hundred
yards from us, were two men sitting down, looking towards us, the tent
and fire immediately behind them; and on coming up to them, two of the
most pitiable creatures imaginable were sitting down. One had sufficient
strength to get up; the other appeared to be like a man in the very last
stage of consumption. Alas! alas! they were the only two left of the
eight, the remainder having died from starvation. Whilst here we were
considering what was best to be done, when natives in great numbers were
descried watching our movements. Jackey said, "Doctor," calling me aside,
"now I tell you exactly what to do, you see those blackfellows over
there" (and in pointing to them I saw a great number, some eight hundred
yards away, peeping from behind trees) "you leave him tent, everything,
altogether there, and get the two whitefellows down to the boat quick."
Jackey was exceedingly energetic, and grave as well. Get away as quick as
possible, was resounded by all, but what was to be done--two men almost
dead to walk two or three miles. We looked over the tent, asked Carron
for what important things there were, and each laid hold of what appeared
to be of most value, the Captain taking two sextants, other parties
firearms, etc., etc. "Come along," again and again Jackey called out, and
the Captain too, whilst they were halfway down towards the creek, and
Barrett and I loaded ourselves. I took a case of seeds, some papers of
Carron's, a double gun and pistol, which, together with my own double gun
and brace of pistols, thermometer, and my pockets full of powder and
shot, was as much as I could manage. Seeing Carron could not get along, I
told him to put his hands on my shoulders, and in this way he managed to
walk down, as far as nearly through the mangrove swamp, towards the
water's edge, when he could not in that way possibly get any further, and
Barrett, with his disabled arm, carried him down to the edge of the
water. Goddard, the other survivor, was just able to walk down, spoke,
and looked exceedingly feeble. They were brought on board at noon, and
attended to according to my instructions. Carron's legs were dreadfully
swollen, about three times their natural size, from oedema. In the
afternoon both reviving and thanking God for their deliverance. I was for
some time afraid of Carron. At ten P.M.--they are both doing well, and, I
trust, will be enabled to tell their own tale, which renders it
unnecessary for me to write it down here. I told the Captain to proceed
direct on to Sydney. Jackey, Carron, and Goddard, and the Captain,
stating it would be running too great a risk to go to recover anything
from the tent, moreover, with so small a party as the Captain, Jackey,
and myself (Barrett really being unfit to go) and the sailors all
refusing to go. I consider the Captain deserves considerable credit for
his actions throughout in exerting himself to rescue the survivors.
Sunday, December 31.
At daylight got underweigh and took our departure from Weymouth Bay for
Sydney. Carron and Goddard were some considerable time in getting better;
the former being subject to daily fits of ague, etc., etc.
Thursday, January 11, 1849.
The black native had made his escape during the night, whilst it was
raining and blowing hard; we were at this time anchored about one and a
half or two miles from Turtle Reef, and a distance of eight miles from
Cape Bedford, the nearest part of the mainland; made search on the reef,
but saw no marks of him; a strong current was making towards Cape
Bedford, and he might have taken that direction. Two large sharks were
seen about the ship this morning; it is our impression the man can never
have reached the land; the black was seen by Parker, on deck, at two
A.M., whilst it was thundering, lightning, and raining, but was never
From the private log of T. BECKFORD SIMPSON, master of the brig Freak,*
giving an account of her proceedings when employed in searching for the
papers, etc., connected with the late Mr. Kennedy's exploring party.
(*Footnote. Under contract with the Colonial Government to call (on her
way to Port Essington) at Shelburne Bay and Escape River, to ascertain,
if possible, the fate of the three men left at the former place, and
recover the papers of Mr. Kennedy secreted by Jackey-Jackey, who went in
the Freak to point out the localities.)
Wednesday, May 2, 1849.
In the night fresh breezes from North-East with rain; at daylight weighed
and made sail, the Harbinger in company; shaped a course to pass between
Cape Direction and the low sandy island which lies off it; passed close
to the latter; I observed the reef extending from the North-East end
further than laid down on the chart; after passing it, and giving Cape
Direction a good berth, shaped a course for Restoration Island. At 9 A.M.
dense masses of rain-clouds to the east and north-east. The weather
became thick and rainy, shortened sail to the topsails. At 10.30 A.M.,
the weather clearing a little, saw Restoration and Cape Weymouth; when
close to the former we had heavy squalls with rain, which prevented our
seeing the land; hove-to with the vessel's head to the North-East;
shortly after the weather clearing a little so as to enable us to see the
land, bore up and stood in for Weymouth Bay. The rain now descended in
torrents, lowered topsails on the cap, feeling our way cautiously with
the lead; finding the water shoaling, anchored in twelve fathoms; at 0.30
P.M., the weather clearing a little, saw Restoration, bearing
South-South-East 1/2 East, and a small island distant about a mile west.
At 3.30 P.M. fine, and finding we were a long distance out, weighed and
ran in under the jib, the Harbinger following our example; as we
approached the bottom of the bay the water shoaled gradually, and when
the haze lifted Jackey pointed out the hill at the foot of which was the
camp where Mr. Kennedy had left eight of the party, and from whence
Carron and Goddard had been rescued. We stood into five fathoms, and at 5
P.M. anchored about 1 1/2 miles from the shore; the Harbinger brought up
close to us. Made up my mind to visit the camp in the morning, and
endeavour to find if there were any papers which might have been left and
Thursday, May 3.
During the night moderate breeze from the south with light showers. At
five A.M., Captain Sampson came alongside, he wishing to join our party,
and visit the camp. Having well manned and armed the large whaleboat,
pulled on shore, and landed at the entrance of a small river, on a little
sand patch, the place having been pointed out by Jackey; it was the only
clear landing-place I saw. A dense mangrove swamp extended some distance
beyond high-water mark. We had no sooner landed than the rain fell in
torrents, and continued for three hours, so much so that we could not
load our guns. It was about high-water when we landed, and in the
mangrove scrub through which we had to go, the water was nearly up to our
waists. We had, therefore, no alternative but to remain patiently until
the tide fell, and the rain ceased.
On searching the place where we landed, part of a blanket was found,
marked B (arrow pointing up) O, a part of a tarpaulin, a piece of canvas,
apparently a portion of a tent, and a small tin dish, with a name
scratched on its back. These articles were evidently part of the pillage
from the camp. A little way up the creek we found three canoes, very
rudely made, with outriggers on both sides. We searched and found some
small pieces of iron, which we took, being also pillage from the
exploring party. At ten A.M., less rain, got some of our pieces blown off
with difficulty, they being drenched with rain.
At eleven A.M., having some of our guns in a state to be trusted, we took
to our boats and pulled a short distance up the creek in order to avoid
in some measure the crossing of the mangrove swamp. We started, Jackey
taking the lead, leaving a party to look after the boats. We walked for a
short distance in the mangrove swamp, and came out on an open spot where
we found a native camp, which from appearances had been but recently
abandoned, the ashes of the fire being still warm: we made a strict
search, but found nothing; we proceeded, passed through a small belt of
mangroves, and came on an open plain; here Jackey and Tommy being the
leading men, saw five natives, about fifty yards from us, planted behind
trees, each had a bundle of spears, they were evidently watching us,
Jackey levelled his gun at the nearest, and off they ran and disappeared
immediately; Jackey seemed very desirous to shoot them, but I told him
not to fire, as I wished to speak to them.
From the recent heavy rain the plain was very nearly knee-deep with
water, nearly the whole distance we travelled the water was over our
ankles, making walking very fatiguing. After crossing the plain we came
to a band of trees and bushes, among them I was surprised to find some
very fine banana plants; I observed also a fine specimen of the red cedar
(the only tree I had hitherto seen was the Melaleuca) here we crossed a
small creek, and came on fine forest land. After proceeding some
distance, Jackey pointed out the place where the party first camped, and
where Mr. Kennedy left the eight men; they subsequently removed to the
opposite side of the creek; near this place on a tree was carved in large
letters K. LXXX., which I suppose meant the eightieth station. On coming
to the creek found it running too strong for us to ford it; went along by
its side a short distance, and were fortunate to find a tree extending
across it, upon which we got over; found the grass as high as our
shoulders, crossed a small gully and ascended a slight acclivity, which
brought us to the site of the camp; a bare spot of ground indicated the
exact locality; this spot was strewed with portions of books, all of a
religious or scientific character; found no manuscripts; parts of
harness, leather belts, pieces of cedar boxes in leather covers were also
found; one or two tins for carrying water, a camp stool, and part of a
table, and piece of a tent pole, the bones, skulls, and part of the
feathers of birds, etc.; specimens of natural history, all destroyed. I
observed the bones of a horse, and the skull of a dog; a piece of torn
calico with a portion of a chart adhering to it was picked up; I thought
I could make out the words River Mitchell on it. I found among the pieces
of books, a portion of Leichhardt's journey overland.
I was some time before I could find the remains of Wall and Niblet, who
were the last men that died, and had not been buried, the survivors being
too weak. I placed myself at the camp, and looked about for the likeliest
place to which a corpse would be taken under the circumstances. I went
down into a small gully, about sixty yards from the camp; under some
small bushes, in about two feet of water, I found their bones, two skulls
and some of the larger bones, the smaller ones having most probably been
washed away by the flood; the bones were all carefully collected and
taken on board. From the position in which these bones were found,
agreeing with the description given me by Mr. Carron, I feel confident
they are the remains of Wall and Niblet.
I was rather surprised to find some cabbage-palm trees growing in the
vicinity of the camp; the tops are very nutritious, and would be very
desirable for men in a starving state, had they been aware of it. I
picked up part of a key belonging to a chronometer. After having a good
look round, we returned to the boats, all tired, from our drenching and
wading through so much mud and water, and we unfortunately had no
provisions of any kind, and had eaten nothing all day. When we pulled to
the entrance of the river it was low-water, and there was a bank dry
outside of us for upwards of half a mile; we had no alternative but to
wait until the tide flowed. At half past three P.M., got on board,
hoisted the boat in, and prepared to start in the morning.
Friday, May 4.
At daylight, weighed, with a light breeze from the southward; steered to
give Fair Cape a berth. I observed the entrance of a large river at the
north end of Weymouth Bay. At half-past ten A.M., passed Piper's Islands,
and steered for Young Island; could not make it out for some time, when
we did see it, found it only a small reef above water, not worthy the
name of an island; such a misnomer is likely to mislead; hauled up for
the reef M. At noon, abreast of Haggerstone Island, steered to give Sir
Everard Home's Isles a berth; saw natives on Cape Grenville; hauled in
for Sunday Island; the wind light from the eastward; passed Thorpe Point,
and hauled in for Round Point. At five P.M., anchored in six fathoms,
mud. Bearings at anchor, North Sand Hill, D (conical hill) South-East 1/2
East; South Wind Hillock (a saddle hill) South 3/4 East; the remarkable
sand patch, South-West 1/2 West; Jackey's Pudding-pan Hill, West 1/4
North. Got the whaleboat and crew ready to start at daylight for
On consulting Jackey about going to the camp where the three men were
left, he said it was no use going there; the distance was great, and the
country scrubby, and that he was sure if any of the men were alive, they
would be on the seacoast. Dunn, one of the men, told him, if Costigan
died, he should come down to the beach directly. I therefore considered
all that we could do would be to thoroughly examine the coast with the
whaleboat, close in shore, and the brig as near as she prudently could
At daylight despatched the whaleboat, in charge of the second officer,
with four seamen, Jackey, and his two companions, with particular orders
to keep close to the beach, and to land occasionally, to examine all the
native camping places and canoes; to make strict search for anything that
might tend to point out the fate of the unfortunate men. At 6.30 A.M.
weighed, with a light breeze from the southward, and steered to pass
between the Bird and Macarthur Islands; at noon abreast of the latter;
P.M., after passing Hannibal Isles, hauled in for the shore, for the
purpose of picking up the whaleboat. At 5.30 P.M., having shoaled our
water rather suddenly to 3 1/2 fathoms, hard bottom, anchored about a
mile off shore. Saw a canoe and a few natives on the beach. Bearings at
anchor--Risk Point, South 1/2 East; the centre of the Hannibal Isles,
South-East by East 1/2 East. At eight P.M. the boat returned. The second
officer made the following Report:
I kept close along the beach all day, landed three times; first, near the
creek where the Ariel's boat landed, saw no indication there of
Europeans. I landed again some distance further on, where I saw a native
camp and a canoe. In the latter I found a leather pistol holster, marked
34, which Jackey recognised as belonging to the party. Three natives were
seen by Jackey, who, on perceiving the boat, ran into the bush. At the
third place I landed I saw no indication of men. I was close to the beach
all along, and occasionally fired a musket.
Jackey appears confident that the men left have been killed by the
blacks. He said he had hopes of finding Dunn, he being a man that "knew
blackfellow well, and used to go along blackfellow."
Sunday, May 6th, 1849.
At daylight sent the boat on shore, manned as before, with instructions
to land at the place where I saw natives last night. At 6.30 A.M.,
weighed and set the topsail to a light breeze from the southward, steered
North by East 1/2 East, hauling out a little from the land. At seven
heard a rumbling noise, looked over the vessel's side and saw we were in
shoal water, the vessel gradually losing her way, but still continued
forging ahead a little; lowered the boat and sounded round, found more
water ahead, thirteen and fourteen feet; inshore, about half a cable's
length found five and six fathoms; to seaward, eleven and eleven and a
half feet. Set the foresail: having a flowing tide the vessel went ahead
and deepened our water; after going ahead about two or three ship's
lengths touched again slightly, and immediately after got into five and
six fathoms. The sea being smooth at the time, and the after part of the
keel being the only part of the vessel that touched, she cannot have
received any material damage. This shoal appeared to be of small extent,
composed of sand and coral; it is not laid down in the chart, but is very
dangerous, not being visible from the masthead. I went aloft after
crossing it, and could perceive no indication of shoal water. The
bearings I got when on the shoal were, the outer or larger Hannibal
Island, South-East 1/2 East, the inner one (only a solitary tree visible)
South by East 1/2 East.
At eleven A.M. passed Cairncross Island, running under easy sail and
keeping as near the shore as prudent to keep the boat in sight. I have
given instructions to the officers in charge to make a signal if anything
was discovered. At half-past four hauled in for Fern Island; at five
anchored under the lee in three fathoms, mud; bearings, the highest part
of Fern Island South by East, the entrance to Escape River, North-West by
West 1/2 West, hoisted the recall for the boat, on the return of which
the officer reported as follows:
I ran along close to the shore all day. I landed a little to the
southward of Orfordness. We met about thirty natives on the beach, who
came up to us without hesitation, and appeared very friendly; they shook
hands with all of us, and brought us water. Jackey at first thought he
recognised the native who escaped from the Ariel among them; he got a
little excited, and wanted to shoot him, when he approached nearer he was
satisfied he was not the same individual. At another place where I landed
I found part of the lower mast of a vessel about 400 tons, and pieces of
wreck; saw no natives or indication of them on the beach.
The schooner remained at anchor, and from the fact of her doing so, I
came to the conclusion it could be no other vessel than the Coquette;*
seeing her so far from her station, I imagined there was something wrong,
or that she had heard the unfortunate termination of the expedition, and
was preparing to leave; I determined to communicate with her before
proceeding up Escape River; at half-past eight A.M., saw four natives on
(*Footnote. Which had been sent from Sydney to await the arrival of
Kennedy's Expedition at Port Albany, the period for which the Ariel had
been chartered for that purpose having expired.)
At nine A.M., I left in the whaleboat for the schooner--the small boat
employed watering. At half past eleven A.M. I boarded the Coquette;
Captain Elliott had heard by the Sea Nymph, from Hobart Town, the fate of
the expedition, and was about leaving for Sydney. She reported the ship
Lord Auckland, from Hobart Town, with horses, having been aground on the
X reef for several days; she subsequently got off, and had proceeded on
her voyage, not having sustained any very material damage; she had lost
four anchors, and the Coquette was going to try to pick them up. Having
explained to Captain Elliott my intention of proceeding up the Escape
River in the morning, he volunteered to accompany me, and to supply two
hands, which enabled me to man my two boats, thus making a most
At daylight made preparations for starting. I took the five-oared
whaleboat, and the second officer, accompanied by Captain Elliott, went
in the small boat, both well armed and manned. At half-past six A.M. we
left and ran before a strong breeze from the South-East, and stood in for
the entrance of Escape River. At half-past seven hauled in round the
south head (Point Shadwell): in crossing the bar, least water three
fathoms, the tide being about first quarter spring flood.
After entering the river perceived a bay, with small sandy beaches, one
of which Jackey pointed out as the place where Mr. Kennedy first met the
hostile natives; from this place we observed some of them launching a
canoe for the purpose of speaking us, but as we could not afford to lose
either the time or the tide I deferred communicating with them until our
return. After steering west about five or six miles, the river began
gradually to wind to the northward, and afterwards South-South-East; the
river six or seven miles from the entrance was upwards of a mile in
width, both banks were covered by a dense impenetrable mangrove swamp;
after the river trended to the southward we had to lower our sail and
pull; after pulling some four or five miles the river became gradually
narrower. I observed several branches of it trending to the northward and
westward; we remained on the southernmost branch, the principal one; as
we proceeded on the left hand side of the river we came to a clear place
free of mangroves, the only one we had seen; here we landed, and Jackey
pointed it out as the place where Mr. Kennedy had come down on the
morning of the day when he was killed; it was here Jackey advised him to
abandon the horses and swim the river, about thirty yards wide. Jackey
pointed out the tree where he made the horses fast whilst they went down
to the river and searched in vain for oysters, they having had nothing to
eat all that day.
We again proceeded, the river becoming gradually narrower as we advanced,
and the water perfectly fresh. After going about two or three miles, the
river became so narrow that our oars could not be used. We were compelled
to haul the boats along, against a strong stream, by the overhanging
branches of the trees, frequently coming across fallen trees, over which
we had to launch our boats, running the risk of staving them; and again
obliged to force them under others. A better spot could not have been
selected by the natives for cutting us off, had they been so disposed--a
narrow creek, and a dense scrub on either side. We still proceeded till
the boats could get no further. We had traced the Escape River to its
source--a small freshwater creek. As we advanced the belt of mangroves
became thinner. We landed on a clear place, on the right of the creek. We
went a short distance inland; saw an extensive plain, with numerous large
ant-hills on it, which Jackey knew as the place he had crossed the day
Mr. Kennedy was killed. Jackey went a short distance further to
reconnoitre, and presently returned, having perfectly satisfied himself
as to our locality.
After making a hasty meal we proceeded, leaving four hands in charge of
the boats; we walked some distance across a swamp, still following the
course of the creek. In the swamp I saw a great many of the Nepenthes
distillatoria, or pitcher-plant; they were not exactly of the same
description I have seen on the Pellew Islands, and other places; nearly
all of them wanted the graceful turn in the stem, for which those elegant
plants are so justly celebrated. We traced the creek for nearly a mile,
looking out for a crossing-place, when Jackey pointed out on the other
side the place where he had secreted the saddlebags. At length we came to
a tree which had fallen and formed a kind of bridge, over which we passed
with difficulty, and returned to the place where Jackey said the
saddlebags were planted. Jackey then showed us the place where "horse
tumble down creek" after being speared. Some horse-dung was found on the
top of the bank close to this place, which confirmed Jackey's statement;
he then took us a few yards into the scrub to look for the saddlebags,
and told us to look about for a broken twig, growing over a thick bush;
the place was found, but the saddlebags were gone; on searching under the
bush among the leaves, the horizon glass of a sextant was found, a strong
proof that Jackey had found the right place.
Jackey then took us through a dense scrub for some distance, when we came
on open swampy ground about half a mile wide; on the opposite side there
was more scrub, close to which there were three large ant-hills; Jackey
took us up to the centre one, five yards from which poor Kennedy fell;
against this ant-hill Jackey placed him when he went after the
saddlebags. Jackey told us to look about for broken spears; some pieces
were found; he then took us to a place about sixty yards from the
ant-hill, where he put Mr. Kennedy, who then told him not to carry him
far. About a quarter of a mile from this place, towards the creek, Jackey
pointed out a clear space of ground, near an angle of a very small
running stream of fresh water, close to three young pandanus trees, as
the place where the unfortunate gentleman died. Jackey had taken him here
to wash his wounds and stop the blood. It was here, when poor Kennedy
found he was dying, that he gave Jackey instructions about the papers,
when Jackey said, "Why do you talk so: you are not going to leave me?"
Jackey then led the way to a dense tea-tree scrub, distant about three or
four hundred yards, where he had carried the body and buried it. When we
came to the edge of the scrub, Jackey was at a loss where to enter, as he
said when he was carrying the corpse he did not look behind--all the
objects in front being nearly alike he did not get a good mark. Into the
midst of this scrub we went, divided ourselves and searched in every
direction, but could not find the place: Jackey had not made the spot too
conspicuous, fearing the blacks might find it, he had only bent down two
twigs across each other; the scrub was not very extensive but exceedingly
Jackey led the way to a creek, and pointed out the place where he had
crossed. Jackey said "I threw him down one fellow compass somewhere
here." It was immediately found, it was one of Kater's prismatic
compasses, the name Chislett, London, engraved on the back. Jackey then
went to a place where he "plant him sextant," but the flood had been over
the spot and washed it away. When returning I found the trough for an
artificial horizon washed upon the banks of the creek, this had been left
with the sextant. Jackey crossed the creek, and found a small wooden
bottle of quicksilver in the same place where he had left it.
We returned to the scrub where Mr. Kennedy was buried, when we came to it
I placed the party (eleven in number) five yards asunder, and traversed
it this way in all directions, but without success. I then took Jackey to
the plain where the poor gentleman died, and told him to go towards the
scrub in the same manner he did when he was carrying the corpse, and not
to look back, which he did, telling me the manner in which he carried it,
and where he shifted it from one shoulder to the other. In this manner he
entered the scrub, and I have no doubt he took us very near the exact
place where the body was buried; we sounded the ground all round with our
ramrods, but without success. After taking another good look we
reluctantly gave up the search, as the night was rapidly approaching, and
returned to the boats.
My opinion is, that the remains of the unfortunate gentleman have not
been exhumed; if they had, we should have seen some indication of them;
the natives would not have taken the trouble to fill the grave, or take
away the bones. The soil where he was buried was of a light sandy nature,
and the small mound Jackey rose over the grave had been washed down by
the heavy rains. The only clue that gave rise to the supposition that the
natives had found the body, was the fact that part of Mr. Kennedy's
trousers was found in the canoe taken by the schooner Ariel. Jackey said
there were other trousers in the saddlebag, exactly like those he had on
at the time of his death. The saddlebags, there is not the slightest
doubt, have been found by the natives. Poor Jackey was very quiet, but
felt, and felt deeply, during the day. When pointing out the spot where
Mr. Kennedy died, I saw tears in his eyes, and no one could be more
indefatigable in searching for the remains. His feelings against the
natives were bitter, and had any of them made their appearance at the
time, I could hardly have prevented him from shooting them.
When we got back to the boats, we immediately proceeded down the creek,
being anxious to get clear of the intricate navigation before dark. We
succeeded in getting into the open river with difficulty, the numerous
snags and branches of trees in the creek, together with the strong
current, requiring great precaution to prevent our boats being stove.
A few yards above the place pointed out by Jackey in the morning, where
Mr. Kennedy came down to the river for the purpose of crossing, we found
the water very shallow, not ankle deep, right across, and had they waited
until low-water they might have crossed without difficulty; as we pulled
down the river we found numerous shoals, our boat constantly grounding;
in fact Escape River is not a river, but an estuary, terminating in
At eleven we arrived at the entrance of the river, where I camped for the
night, on a sandy beach not far from Point Shadwell, having determined to
examine the native camp at daybreak. Set a watch, but made no fire, as I
wanted to take the natives by surprise.
Wednesday, May 9th, 1849.
Blowing very hard all night from South-East; passed a miserable
night--the mosquitoes devouring us. At break of day launched our boats
and pulled towards the camp where we had seen natives the day before.
Some of the party went along the beach. On arriving at the camp found it
had very recently been abandoned; one of Jackey's companions saw one
native, who ran into the bush and was seen no more.
I went with Jackey some distance into the bush, he showed me the place
where a native threw a spear at him the day before Mr. Kennedy's death;
Jackey fired, but missed him. I forgot to mention that the master of the
Coquette had seen a native at Port Albany, who had, apparently, been
wounded in the face with large shot, and as he answered the exact
description given by Jackey, there is little doubt that he was the same
individual mentioned in his statement as shot by him.
We searched the camp, found a small piece of red cloth, which Jackey
recognised as part of the lining of Mr. Kennedy's cloak, also a piece of
painted canvas; a canoe on the beach we destroyed. Finding nothing more
could be done, we pulled out of the river, and got on board about ten
A.M., after a very hard pull against both a head wind and tide.
Found the brig riding very uneasy in consequence of the heavy sea, and as
Jackey said the other papers, called by him the small ones, and which I
conceive to be the most important, as he was particularly instructed to
take them to the Governor, were secreted at the head of another river,
about eight miles further to the northward, and finding the vessel could
not ride any longer here with safety, I determined, when the tide ceased,
to weigh and seek some more secure anchorage.
At half-past twelve P.M. weighed, the Coquette in company, and stood to
the northward. At half-past four hard squalls and heavy rain; rounded the
Tree Island Reef and anchored in five fathoms, about one and a half miles
from the north end of Albany Island.
I do not intend going into Port Albany, as the tides run very strong
there; outside is quite as safe at this season. In the evening went on
shore on Albany Island. Saw four or five natives, who knew Captain
Elliott; they were very anxious to get biscuit and tobacco. They seem to
be the same class of men as those at Port Essington, but the language is,
I think, different.
Thursday, May 10.
All night blowing hard, and squally. At daylight same weather; no chance
of the boat getting to the southward today. At ten went on shore, for the
purpose of selecting a spot to inter the remains of Messrs. Wall and
Niblet. Saw the horse left by the Ariel; he seemed in good condition, but
rather shy; no chance, I fear, of catching him. Took some corn and meal
in a bucket for him.
At three P.M. the weather rather more moderate. Both vessels got
underweigh, and worked close inshore. At 4.30 anchored in three and
three-quarters fathoms, mud: Tree Island North-East by East half East;
Pile Island West half South; north extreme of Albany Island South by East
half East; within a short half mile of the shore.
Got all ready for a start in the morning, should the weather be moderate.
Should the weather continue bad, I proposed to Jackey to try the overland
route. He said the distance was too great, and the country very bad to
travel through; that it would take several days.
Friday, May 11th, 1849.
All night fresh breeze and squally, at daylight rather more moderate, at
half-past six despatched the whaleboat, fully manned and armed and
provisioned for two days, and Jackey and his two companions. I gave
charge of the boat to Macnate, my chief officer. I did not think there
was any necessity to go myself, as Jackey said they were not likely to
fall in with any natives. Captain Elliot volunteered his services and
accompanied the party. Employed watering ship, found water very abundant
all over Albany Island.
Saturday, May 12th, 1849.
At half-past one P.M. the whaleboat returned, having got the papers,
etc., secreted by Jackey in a hollow tree. A rat or some animal had
pulled them out of the tree, and they were saturated with water, and I
fear nearly destroyed; they consisted of a roll of charts and some
memorandum books. The charts with care may be deciphered. The following
is Mr. Macnate's statement:
At eight A.M. we rounded Fly Point, set sail and steered South by West,
the boat going about five knots, just laying along the shore. At ten A.M.
crossed a bank with only nine feet of water on it, passed a reef about
three miles from Fly Point, and half a mile from the shore; from former
shoal had three and four fathoms to the entrance of the river. At
half-past eleven A.M. entered the mouth of a river, near the centre of
Newcastle Bay; here we lost sight of Albany Island, making the distance
from it about fourteen miles; the entrance of this river is about one
mile and a half wide; on the northern half of the entrance the water is
deep, three fathoms; on the southern side there is a sandbank, nearly dry
From the entrance we went South-South-West five miles, when the river
narrowed to about the third of a mile, we had from six to two and a half
fathoms all the way in. From here we went into the branch of the river
that ran about south, the main river going west. The entrance to the
branch is about two cables' lengths wide, we went in a southerly
direction about six miles, when the river narrowed to forty feet; here we
landed at half-past three P.M. Leaving two hands in charge of the boat,
walked about two and a half miles, where Jackey found the papers, they
had been pulled out of the hollow trunk where he had placed them, and
were much damaged, being saturated with water. We then went half a mile
to where Jackey had camped, to look for a pair of compasses he had left;
could not find them, but found a notebook that Jackey had been drawing
sketches in; from here we went to another camp to look for the compasses,
but did not find them. At half-past five came back to the boat and camped
for the night, none of us could sleep on account of the mosquitoes and
At six A.M. started down the river; at eight calm, got into the main
river, had breakfast. At half-past eight, a light breeze from the
eastward. At eleven passed within half a mile of two native canoes with
seven men in each, stood towards them, they immediately paddled away. At
one rounded Fly Point, and at half-past one got alongside the brig.
Sunday, May 13, 1849.
Fresh breeze from South-East and fine all day. At eight A.M. both vessels
hoisted the ensign half-mast. At three P.M. having put the remains of
Messrs. Wall and Niblet in a coffin, left the ship in the two boats with
nearly all the ship's crew cleaned, and pulled to the southern end of
Albany Island, landed and went up to the highest hill on that part of the
island, and on the top, a clear open place, we dug a grave and interred
the remains of the unfortunate individuals Thomas Wall and Charles
Niblet, reading the funeral service over them; about ten or twelve of the
natives were present, and we fully explained to them what we were doing,
they conducted themselves with propriety when the funeral service was
being read. Poor Jackey was much affected, and could not refrain from
The spot I selected is the most conspicuous on the island, and would be
an excellent site for the erection of a monument to the memory of the
unfortunate men who perished on the late ill-fated expedition.* At each
end of the grave I planted two large bushes, and on the top were placed
several large stones. A bottle was suspended over the grave, with a paper
in it, stating who was interred, with the date, etc.; and at sunset we
returned on board.
(*Footnote. A tombstone with suitable inscription was afterwards erected
by Captain Stanley, and two young coconut trees were planted near the
I cannot close my extracts without mentioning the exemplary conduct of
Jackey-Jackey. Since he came on board I have always found him quiet,
obliging, and very respectful; when on shore he was very attentive,
nothing could abstract him from his object; the sagacity and knowledge he
displayed in traversing the trackless wilderness were astonishing; when
he found the places he went in search of, he was never flushed with
success, but invariably maintained his quiet, unobtrusive behaviour; he
was much concerned at not being able to find the remains of his late
unfortunate master, to whom he was sincerely attached; his two
companions* also conducted themselves well, and were very useful on
(*Footnote. Aboriginal blacks of his own tribe.)
COMPARATIVE VOCABULARY OF TWO OF THE LANGUAGES OF THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF
A few words procured at Cape York and Port Lihou are given in the Voyage
of the Fly, and most of those which I have been able to identify belong
to the language spoken by the Kowrarega tribe, inhabiting the Prince of
Wales Islands, and frequently visiting Cape York.
For the materials composing the present Kowrarega Vocabulary, I am almost
entirely indebted to Mrs. Thomson. Unfortunately, however, her total want
of education prevented her from acquiring any idea of the construction of
the language; nor could she always be made to understand the meaning of a
question--however simple in its form--framed to elicit information on
this point. Even by carefully sifting at leisure hours the mass of crude
materials obtained from her and written down at each interview, day by
day, I did not make sufficient progress in the grammar of the language to
enable me to pursue the subject further, until her value as an authority
had so far declined that it was prudent to reject it altogether. Nearly
all the words originally procured from Mrs. Thomson were subsequently
verified either by herself or by our Kowrarega visitors.
The Gudang Vocabulary was formed at Cape York, and the chief contributor
to it was the black named Paida, mentioned above, to whom I latterly was
able to make myself tolerably well understood upon most subjects, through
the medium of the Kowrarega language, which he knew thoroughly. As
several dialects are spoken at this place,* I took care to reject all
such words as were not given me expressly as Gudang.
(*Footnote. Two examples will suffice to show the differences in the five
languages which I have heard spoken at Cape York.
Dog = ing-godinya (Gudang and Yagulle), ngyomo (Kachialaiga), Inyomo
(Induyamo), umai (Kowrarega).
Smoke = ekura (Gudang and Induyamo), rong-gura (Yagulle and Kachialaiga),
The following rules have been adopted in the Vocabularies:
[The vowels are sounded as follows:
a as in hard.
a as in hat.
e as in there.
e as in bet.
e as in French meme.
i as in eel.
i as in bit.
o as in hole.
o as in not.
u as in cool.
u as in cut.
ai as in eye.
ei not represented in English.]
G is always hard, as in get; ch soft, as in church.
The letters in italics are sometimes omitted.
The numbers appended to some words point out similarities and
1. NATURAL OBJECTS.*
(*Footnote. To form the plural of a noun or adjective, the rule appears
to be to add le as a postfix, sometimes previously supplying a terminal
vowel if required: Example: geta = hand becomes getale in the plural:
kuku = foot, kukule: kutai = yam, kutaile: ipi = wife, ipile: kerne = lad
undergoing a certain ceremony, kernele: makaow = mat, makaowle: bom =
fruit of pandanus, bomale. There are exceptions however; mari = shell
ornament, makes marurre in the plural: gul = canoe, gulai: tawpei =
short, tawpeingh: all nouns ending in ra have the plural in re, as kowra
= ear, kowrare and all ending in kai gain jille in the plural, as ipikai
= woman, ipikaijille.
Regarding the allusion to a terminal vowel, it may be mentioned here that
as most Kowrarega words end in a vowel, its absence when a vowel
commences the following word is commonly owing to elision. Example: udzu
umai = my dog becomes udz'umai. When the last consonant in a word is the
same as the first in the following word, one of the letters is omitted.
Example: apa pirung = soft ground becomes ap'irung. There are numerous
other contractions, as ai for aidu = food: aiye for aiyewel = come here:
mue utsem = the fire has gone out, for mue utsimem etc.)
COLUMN 1: ITEM NUMBER.
COLUMN 2: ENGLISH.
COLUMN 3: KOWRAREGA.
COLUMN 4: GUDANG.
1 : Sky : je : -.
2 : Sun : gariga : inga.
3 : Cloud : dapar : otera.
4 : Cloud, heavy, cumulus : markei : -.
5 : Cloud, driving, scud : ras : -.
6 : Moon : kissuri : aikana.
7 : Moon, new : kainidung (634) : kichia.
8 : Moon, full : mullpal : ichara.
9 : Moonlight : kapi kissurri (612.6) : -.
10 : Star : titure : onbi, unbi.
11 : Star, falling : titure udzarizhe (10.745) : -.
12 : Star, morning : gariga titure (2.10) : -.
13 : Jupiter ? : dogei : -.
14 : Pleiades : kusali* : -.
(*Footnote. The frequency of words having different meanings may perhaps
lead some to suppose that they may have originated in error on my part.
Some have a figurative connexion as upu = a series of waterholes, also a
blister; kusali = the constellation of the Pleiades, also a plant with
bunches of seeds which become white and glittering by exposure to the
sun: others have no obvious community of meaning, as ari = rain, also a
louse; gi = laughter, also ripe, &tc.)
15 : Darkness, night : inur : yulpalga.
16 : Shadow, shade : yirada : moda.
17 : Wind : guba : alba.
18 : Rain : ari : apura.
19 : Rainbow : oripara : ung-gebanya.
20 : Dew : urma : -.
21 : Fog : wunu : -.
22 : Thunder : duyuma : wagel (526).
23 : Lightning : baguma : omba.
24 : Heat, steam : kaman : -.
25 : Sea : wur : -.
26 : Salt water : adabu : ung-onya.
27 : Saltwater creek : kassur : -.
28 : Saltwater swamp : gowada : gawata.
29 : Deep water : mal : -.
30 : Shoal water : gata : -.
31 : Wave : baow : -.
32 : Foam : tsika : -.
33 : High-water : wur pusakuradun (746) : -.
34 : Low-water : wur nuremizinghi : -.
35 : Tide, flood : wur kamizinghi : -.
36 : Tide, ebb : wur nurezinghi : -.
37 : Salt : - : ? bawa.
38 : Fresh water : nuki : epi.
39 : Spring : dana nuki (443) : -.
40 : Well, hole dug in ground : marama : akanya.
41 : Stream of fresh water : bubbu : epitaba (38).
42 : Stream, bed of : kassa : artaba.
43 : Chain of ponds : upu (529) : -.
44 : Land : laga (370) : -.
45 : Sand, sandy beach : butu : aigi.
46 : Island : kowra (455) : unbonya.
47 : Reef : madji : -.
48 : Flat, plain : bowa : -.
49 : Hill, wooded : pada : pada.
50 : Hill, stony : baradi (56) : -.
51 : Ground, soil : apa : ampa.
52 : Mud : barrudder : -.
53 : Mangrove swamp : tugga : -.
54 : Stone, rock : kula, kola : olpa.
55 : Cave, hole in rock : sakai : -.
56 : Any remarkable rock : adi : -.
57 : Cliff : thi : -.
58 : Sandstone : iba-eba : -.
59 : Quartz : us : elpowa.
60 : Pumice : maat : meta.
61 : Ochre, red : parma : anto.
62 : Ochre, yellow : daoma : -.
63 : Fire, wood : mue : yoko.
64 : Flame : buyeli : -.
65 : Smoke : tuo : ekora, ekura.
66 : Ashes : kunur : buro-buro.
67 : Charcoal : burker : onta.
68 : Path : yabu : alka.
69 : Summer, dry season : aibow : -.
70 : Winter, rainy season : kuki* : adara.
(*Footnote. Also applied to north-west wind then prevailing.)
71 : Spring and Autumn : malgui : -.
72 : Turtling season : sulangi : -.
73 : Tail of quadruped : koba : opo.
74 : Bat, large : sapur : -.
75 : Bat, young of : kugi : -.
76 : Bat, harpy : - : tumidumi.
77 : Bat, small : ararapa : mali.
78 : Native cat : - : kute.
79 : Dog : umai : ing-godinya.
80 : Bandicoot : - : walkundunya.
81 : Kangaroo : usur* : epama.
(*Footnote. The sounds of s and z are wanting in Gudang, and when
occurring in a foreign language are represented by ch or ty. Example: The
Kowrarega words usur = kangaroo, makutz = mouse, surka = megapodius, susu
= breasts, if pronounced by a Gudang black are rendered by uchur,
makutcha, tyurka, tyu-tyu.)
82 : Opossum : barit : -.
83 : Mouse : makutz : makutcha.
84 : Whale : bidu : -.
85 : Dugong : dung-ula : wattei.
86 : Dugong, tail of : sun-na (149) : -.
87 : Bird, insect, shell, etc. : ure : wuroi.
88 : Wing : buta : ngaga.
89 : Tail : kupa-luba (478) : kopagoba.
90 : Quill : kai-kai : aikunya, eikunya.
91 : Down : palissa : -.
92 : Nest : padama : untinya (242).
93 : Egg (or of reptile) : kakuru (499) : achina (499).
94 : Eagle : agaleg : -.
95 : Eagle, quill of : baba* (418) : -.
(*Footnote. Literally the father (of feathers); it is much prized as an
ornament both for the persan and to deck graves with.)
96 : Hawk : - : kartam.
97 : Owl : - : tuitru.
98 : Goatsucker : biya : ngoko.
99 : Laughing jackass : kowru : unbunya.
100 : Kingfisher, long-tailed : - : quatawur.
101 : Kingfisher, yellow-billed : - : poditti.
102 : Swamp pheasant : - : pura-pura.
103 : Swift : - : ebundyara.
104 : Parson-bird, thrush : - : weya.
105 : Bower-bird : - : yewinya.
106 : Dragoon-bird : - : eipura.
107 : Fork-tailed flycatcher : - : trokaru.
108 : Small thrush : - : chechurri.
109 : Rifle-bird : - : yagunya.
110 : Starling : - : muter.
111 : Wood swallow : - : kartaquiko.
112 : Small flycatcher : - : kopota.
113 : Sun-bird : - : teredirri.
114 : Many small birds : - : inchanya.
115 : Leather-head : quako : kakua.
116 : Black macaw : - : peuntu.
117 : Cockatoo : weama : aira.
118 : Cockatoo, crest of : yelai (493) : -.
119 : Parrot, blue mountain : kerissa : inbere.
120 : Parrot, rosella : - : wong-inya.
121 : Pigeon, white : gainowa : gainowa.
122 : Pigeon, green : waranis : belbucku.
123 : Dove, ground : ku-u-rug : kudrogo.
124 : Dove, green : - : waraba (257).
125 : Cassowary of New Guinea : sam (597) : -.
126 : Emu : - : nichulka.
127 : Brush turkey : raon : araunya.
128 : Megapodius : surka : utema.
129 : Megapodius, mound of : surka pada (49) : -.
130 : Quail : - : gururu.
131 : Native companion : aporega : aporega.
132 : Heron, night : - : wang-go.
133 : Heron, blue : karbai : -.
134 : Heron, white : krem : -.
135 : Godwit : - : ku-urri.
136 : Sandpiper : - : tyuri.
137 : Frigate-bird : - : owmer.
138 : Gull : keki : keake.
139 : Tern : - : chara.
140 : Teal : - : ropagama.
141 : White duck : diggi-diggi : -.
142 : Turtle (general) : waru : waru.
143 : Turtle, soft eggs : oebada : -.
144 : Turtle, hawksbill : unao : -.
145 : Turtle, green : sulur : -.
146 : Turtle, logger-head : urza : -.
147 : Turtle, small kind : kidu : waru.
148 : Turtle, fore fin : puye : -.
149 : Turtle, hind fin : suna suro (86).
150 : Turtle, : belly atta : -.
151 : Turtle, back : agu : -.
152 : Tortoiseshell : todi : wanawa.
153 : Frog : kang-gu : kartakutta.
154 : Crocodile : ibara : -.
155 : Lizard, large : gang-ura : murunya.
156 : Lizard, middle-sized : - : rauntinya.
157 : Lizard, small : indyura : dudyuroko.
158 : Snake, brown : karomat : kanurra.
159 : Snake, black : piroan : -.
160 : Snake, green : - : wachi.
161 : Fish : wawpi : wawpi.
162 : Fin : - : merta.
163 : Tail : mabi : chana.
164 : Breast : pel : -.
165 : Gills : - : ananaji.
166 : Shark : beidum : wandi.
167 : Sting-ray : aona : waki.
168 : Pelates : dzaram : -.
169 : Diacope 8 lineata : tanigi : -.
170 : Scatophagus multifasciatus : karmoi : tora.
171 : Lethrinus : djaga, dyaga : -.
172 : Parrot-fish : bila : uburu.
173 : Mullet : piwer : -.
174 : Whiting (Silago) : kopuru (475 ?) : -.
175 : Flathead : - : tobu.
176 : Freshwater herring : wila : anburo.
177 : Toad-fish : badar (530): -.
178 : Sucking-fish : gapu : -.
e. INSECTS, ETC.
179 : Crab, blue : kowturri : paka.
180 : Crab, small : gurba : -.
181 : Crab, large : getalli : getalla.
182 : Crayfish : kayer : lang-gunya.
183 : Beetle, small : - : orona.
184 : Beetle, water : - : neke.
185 : Humble bee : - : boro.
186 : Honey* : utu : untere.
(*Footnote. This and the next are made by a small stingless bee which
builds its nest in hollow trees.)
187 : Wax : yerka : alpanya.
188 : Small wasp : garur : elpiri.
189 : Ant-hill and ant : mugu : mong-go.
190 : Ant, bronzed : dupu (532) : -.
191 : Ant, small black : tumi : -.
192 : Ant, green : musu : eipunya.
193 : Ant, large red : kaguda.
194 : Ant, small, white, wood : - : benje.
195 : Cicada : edyena : intere.
196 : Fly : buli : wampa.
197 : Fly, horse (Haematopoda) : burugo : burogo.
198 : Mosquito : iwi : uma, oma.
199 : Butterfly : - : tewinya, tawinya.
200 : Grub in dead wood : oka : etimunya.
201 : Grub in living wood : tolo.
202 : Louse : ari (18) : ako.
203 : Scorpion : idi-idi, diwi : -.
204 : Spider : enti : tamburra.
205 : Worm : kurtur : -.
f. SHELLS, ETC.
206 : Cuttlefish : sug-gu : -.
207 : Barnacle on turtle : yetu : yetu.
208 : Clamshell (Tridacna) : miya : miya.
209 : Cyrena : akula : onti.
210 : Oyster : ita : umpeda.
211 : Sanguinolaria : tiki : teki.
212 : Fusus proboscidiferus : boa : mabur.
213 : Melon-shell : alopa : ang-kowa.
214 : Murex : - : weloro.
215 : Egg-cowrie : buboam : -.
216 : Olive : - : waraji.
217 : Ear-shell : - : tepur.
218 : Periwinkle, small : budi : budi.
219 : Periwinkle, large : - : yarawura.
220 : Natica : - : modul.
221 : Auricula judae : - : ngaanbamedi.
222 : Snail, large : - : tetuka.
223 : Snail, small : - : keno.
224 : Coral : yammar (branched) : wardyo-orge (massive).
g. VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS.
225 : Tree (general term) : prue : pure.
226 : Log : watur : -.
227 : Driftwood : bete : -.
228 : Touchwood* and its charcoal : kubi : -.
(*Footnote. The charcoal used for painting the body is made from this.)
229 : Small stick : saragi : cheragi.
230 : Bark : purur : rang-a.
231 : Branch : mang : -.
232 : Leaf : nissa : etrara.
233 : Flower : kowsur : erora.
234 : Seed : kawp : -.
235 : Root : quiku (433) : -.
236 : Root, of grass : - : nontya.
237 : Root, of a tree : - : yalida (493 ?).
238 : Seaweed : - : tawar.
239 : Seaweed (food of dugong) : - : purada.
240 : Mushroom : - : achari.
241 : Fern : - : ganda.
242 : Grass : burda : untinya (92).
243 : Grass, coarse : - : bagudda.
244 : Sugarcane : garu : -.
245 : Bamboo : marapi ? : marapi.
246 : Calladium esculentum : bua : -.
247 : Pandanus spiralis : gara : burwa.
248 : Pandanus, cluster of fruit : bom : -.
249 : Pandanus, fruit, singly : abul, abal : -.
250 : Pandanus, kernel : abul dan' (443) : -.
251 : Pandanus pedunculata : kowsar : quatyerra.
252 : Seaforthia palm, large : lulko : akarinya.
253 : Seaforthia palm, small : utu : -.
254 : Caryota palm : - : damaraba.
255 : Rattan : kuchi : -.
256 : Cabbage palm (Corypha) : muru, moro : watu (251 ?).
257 : Coconut : uraba : waraba.
258 : Sago palm of New Guinea : bisi : -.
259 : White lily (Crinum) : ? gurabi : korobo.
260 : Banana : - : katamurra.
261 : Hellenia coerulea* : - : kera-kera.
(*Footnote. The root of this is eaten raw.)
262 : Flag (Philydrum) : tagur : dyaimura.
263 : Rush : - : akomba.
264 : Rush, ? (with edible roots) : - : rewino.
265 : Sedge : - : opolga.
266 : Sedge : - : gwanda.
267 : Yam, wild (Dioscorea) : derabu : worng-ura.
268 : Yam, fibrous, (Dioscorea) : kutai : perut.
269 : Yam, (do.) : dawb : -.
270 : Yam, (do.) : sowar : -.
271 : Yam, purple (Convolvulus ?) : bizar : -.
272 : Yam, : sagu : -.
273 : Yam, (Convolvulus ?) : tapan : -.
274 : Sweet-potato : rugabu : -.
275 : Cane (Flagellaria) : buji : budya, bodya.
276 : Dracontium : - : epuanoma.
277 : Fig : - : atara.
278 : Fig, (with large edible fruit) : uguru.
279 : Fig : - : awida.
280 : She-oak (Casuarina) : gaibur : burbura.
281 : Cotton-tree (Cochlospermum) : - : paotu.
282 : Cotton-tree (Bombax) : wapada, goguta : wapada.
283 : Cotton-tree, cotton of : - : maye.
284 : Waterlily (Nymphaea) : ? rumbadi : rumbadi, rombadi.
285 : Wormia alata : - : maartitta.
286 : Cashew nut : dua : leara, liara.
287 : Grevillea : - : yuwurra.
288 : Parinarium : wibu : elari.
289 : Acacia : - : garragurra.
290 : Large bean* : kalapi, kulapi : umpira, umbera.
(*Footnote. Eaten with Biyu--the produce of a vine-like climber with
legumes a foot in length.)
291 : Coral-tree (Erythrina) : - : pinura, penura.
292 : Abrus precatorius : timikapul : -.
293 : Blue pea-flower : - : waalkuda.
294 : Mimusops kaukii : ubur : wobar.
295 : Convolvulus (with edible roots) : chawur : atiar.
296 : Vitex macrophylla : - : oroida.
297 : Avicennia tomentosa ? : - : dyang-a.
298 : Scaevola koenigii : dela : dyara.
299 : Mangrove : taga : teang-gunya.
300 : Mangrove : - : korad-da.
301 : Mangrove : kuiyur : inchencheiya.
302 : Mangrove : biyu : biyu.
303 : Tea-tree (Melaleuca) : - : agura.
304 : Tea-tree (Melaleuca) : ubu, wobu : unera.
305 : Tea-tree (Melaleuca) : - : elembi.
306 : Tea-tree (Melaleuca) : - : adoya, aduya.
307 : Gumtree (Eucalyptus) : - : keru.
308 : Apple, red (Eugenia) : kuai : apiga, apega.
309 : Apple, white (Eugenia) : kupa : bang-gadi.
310 : Cherry (Eugenia) : - : arondyi.
311 : Sciadophyllum : - : lang-gula.
312 : Cedar (Cedrela) : - : kerum.
313 : Vine (Cissus) : - : mangko.
314 : Creeper* : wali : -.
(*Footnote. Used in making one kind of fishing line.)
315 : Heritiera* : meker : -.
(*Footnote. The leaf of this rolled up into a cylinder is used to distend
the hole in the lobe of the ear.)
316 : Tree : passei* : -.
(*Footnote. Large tree with very light wood used for making outrigger
floats and paddles.)
317 : Tree : - : ung-kunya.
318 : Tree : sira-sira* : -.
(*Footnote. The bark of this is made into large fishing lines.)
319 : Tree : koper : baguntinya.
320 : Resin : yirka* : -.
(*Footnote. Used in fixing the heads and joints of spears and
321 : Bark of which daje is made : mae : -.
322 : Xerotes banksii : walchi : noyo, noyu.
323 : Tobacco : suguba : choka.
324 : Wood, hard, used for spears : - : era.
325 : Wood, soft, used for spears : - : mang-ga.
2. ARTICLES OF FOREIGN ORIGIN.
326 : Iron : turika : gere.
327 : Glass, bottle : talpura : talpura.
328 : Gun : tarika : tida.
329 : Axe : aga : aga.
330 : Clothes : dumawk : dumawk.
331 : Hat : - : walapa.
332 : Knife : gi, gi-turik : -.
3. UTENSILS, ORNAMENTS, WEAPONS, etc.
333 : Canoe : gul : ang-ganya.
334 : Bow : bua, buai : oimpa.
335 : Stern : menir : kona.
336 : Stern, ornaments of* : - : koikochupa.
(*Footnote. One central and two lateral poles ornamented with streamers
337 : Raised gunwale : bada (530) : bada.
338 : Platform : tamu : tamo.
339 : Netting : sari : chari.
340 : Outrigger poles : togo : togo.
341 : Outrigger float : sarima : charima.
342 : Outrigger float, pegs of : sarim' pati : -.
343 : Paddle : karaba : karaba.
344 : Mast : raba : mulgoburra.
345 : Poles of sails, etc. : suru : malela.
346 : Backstays : buzu : -.
347 : Backstays, grommets on : queada : -.
348 : Sail, mat of any kind : rab'waku (344) waku : abara.
349 : Rope, cable : uro : chichaluro.
350 : Stone for anchor : yadi : -.
351 : Women's covering : awash : -.
352 : Petticoat : daje : -.
353 : Petticoat, band of : wakaow : -.
354 : Petticoat, small : mue-daje : -.
355 : Petticoat, long : urge-daje, tabom : -.
356 : Nose-stick : guba : taiko.
357 : Round shell ornament* : mari : meri.
(*Footnote. Of the mother-of-pearl shell--worn by a string round the
358 : Small* : dibi-dibi : -.
(*Footnote. The top of a cone ground flat.)
359 : Necklace of cordage : soger : -.
360 : Necklace of reeds : - : anchi.
361 : Fillet (general term) : quik'uro (438, 349) : -.
362 : Fillet of mother-of-pearl : - : karakopo.
363 : Armlet, bracelet (general) : musuri : petu.
364 : Armlet, narrow : - : ungkinya.
365 : Armlet, broad : - : maiagu.
366 : Leg ornaments* : maka : puara.
(*Footnote. Circular, narrow and twisted--worn round the leg above the
calf, from 5 to 30 together.
367 : Anklet : dana-kuk'uro (443, 438, 349) : -.
368 : Any painting on the body : menara : -.
369 : Camp, camping-place : mudu : -.
370 : Hut : laga (44) : eikuwa.
371 : Windbreak of bushes, etc. : maak : baalkulka.
372 : Basket : li, le : akomi.
373 : Basket, water : lulko (252) : rolko.
374 : Sticks for producing fire : salgai : -.
375 : Oven : ammai : yarte.
376 : Needle (of bone) : saka : -.
377 : Thread : ketal : -.
378 : Tobacco-pipe : suguba-marapi (323, 245) : marapi (245).
379 : Fishing line : ariga : -.
380 : Fish-hook : tudi, todi (152) : neang-gunya.
381 : Stick for digging : pottur : -.
382 : Spear (general) : kalaka : alka (68).
383 : Spear, plain (for fishing) : rada : ainti.
384 : Spear, large, barbed : tuna : tona.
385 : Spear, 3 or 4-headed : taku : tako.
386 : Throwing-stick : kobai : ekara.
387 : Shell handle : - : atara.
388 : Peg at top : kobai piti (386, 446) : ekar' eye (386, 446).
389 : Dugong peg : kuyur : -.
390 : Dugong shaft : wapu : -.
391 : Dugong line : amu : -.
392 : Bow : gugure : -.
393 : Arrow : terig : -.
394 : Gauntlet : kadik : kadik.
395 : Bamboo knife, large : upi : -.
396 : Bamboo knife, small : hupi : -.
397 : Cane loop : sringi : -.
398 : Stone-headed club : bagabogub : -.
399 : Drum : warup : warupa.
400 : Grave : kaga : -.
401 : Cairn of stones : agu : -.
4. MAN, RELATIONSHIP, ETC.
402 : Man, white, ghost : markai : umboypu.
403 : Man, black : garkai* : amma.
(*Footnote. From this is derived garkaije = a tribe, or collection of
men, women, and children.)
404 : Man, a : turkekai : unbamo.
405 : Man, old : ke'turkekai (625, 405) : -.
406 : Man, young (until married) : kaowquiku (438) : -.
407 : Boy, male child : turkekai kaje (405, 412) : -.
408 : Woman : ipikai (431) : undamo. : -
409 : Woman, old : ke'ipikai (625, 408) : -.
410 : Woman, young (until married) : nerawkai : -.
411 : Girl, female child : ipikai kaje (408, 412) : -.
412 : Child : kaje : ang-gora, ung-kura.
413 : Infant : muggi' kaje (647, 412) : -.
414 : Son : netur kaje (412) : -.
415 : Grandchild : nep : -.
416 : Grandfather : bobata : bobata.
417 : Grandmother : kaieda : kaieda.
418 : Father (or his brother) : baba (addressing him) : epada.
419 : Father : tati* (speaking of him) : -.
(*Footnote. A father and his brothers are equally represented by this
word: distinctive appellations according to age are indicated by
prefixing the adjectives ke' = great and muggi' = small to tati.)
420 : Father's sister : rebata : -.
421 : Mother (or her sister) : amma (addressing her) : atinya.
422 : Mother (or her sister) : apu (speaking of her) : -.
423 : Mother brother : adoama : -.
424 : Brother, sister : barabata (if of one sex) : aigodinya elpowa,
425 : Brother, sister, addressing them : tukeap (if of different sexes) :
426 : Brother, sister, eldest : kukule.
427 : Brother, sister, second : quiquig.
428 : Brother, sister, third : dadaig.
429 : Brother, sister, fourth, or youngest : kutaig* : -.
(*Footnote. There may be several of this name at one time, distinguished
by ke' and muggi.)
430 : Husband : allai : anba.
431 : Wife : ipi : onda.
432 : Father- or mother-in-law : ira : -.
433 : Namesake : nattam : -.
434 : Sweetheart : rugeiga : -.
435 : Friend, associate : keimagi : -.
436 : Term expressing affection : kawki (if male to female) : -.
437 : Term expressing affection : kami (if female to male) : -.
5. PARTS OF HUMAN BODY, etc.
438 : Head : quiku : pada.
439 : Head, fore : paru : epunya.
440 : Head, top of : ? quai : -.
441 : Head, back of : quateya : -.
442 : Temples : daka : aintra.
443 : Eye : dana : dana.
444 : Eyelashes : samudana : chamudana.
445 : Eyebrow : beibassam : emeri.
446 : Nose, bill of bird : piti : eye.
447 : Nostrils : ngursaka, karabu (55) : eye'pandya (446, 817).
448 : Hole in septum : piti-tarte (446, 817) : -.
449 : Mouth : guda : angka.
450 : Lips : ira-guda : angka.
451 : Tongue : nai, nei : untara.
452 : Teeth : danga : ampo, ampu.
453 : Cheek : baga : baga.
454 : Chin, lower jaws : ibu : ebu.
455 : Ear : kowra (46) : ewunya, ewonya.
456 : Ear, holes in margin* : kowra tarte (46, 817) : ewunya' pandya
(*Footnote. Minute holes all round the margin of the ear, into which
short pieces of stick, grass, etc. are stuck.)
457 : Ear, pendulous portion : muti : -.
458 : Throat : karta : nanu.
459 : Neck : mudul : yuro.
460 : Shoulder : dzogo : wondo, wontu.
461 : Armpit : narang-i : amunya, amonya.
462 : Upper arm : ? udu : enta, enda.
463 : Elbow : kudulo : yurtu.
464 : Forearm, wrist : udu : terapi.
465 : Hand, finger : geta : arta.
466 : Hand, back : kal : art'onto (465, 476).
467 : Hand, palm : wier : art'apa (465, 477).
468 : Thumb : kaba-geta : -.
469 : Nails (of fingers or toes) and claws of bird : tara : tetur.
470 : Chest : - : rondura.
471 : Breasts : susu : yong-o.
472 : Nipple : susu nur (471) : yong' ampo (471, 452).
473 : Milk : ikai : -.
474 : Belly : maita : -.
475 : Navel : kupar : kopurra.
476 : Back, upper part : kibu : onto.
477 : Back, lower part : kibu : apa.
478 : Hip : kupa : openya.
479 : Thigh : kapi : etena.
480 : Popliteal space : - : ilkanya.
481 : Knee : kulu, kolu : eng-go.
482 : Leg, ankle : tirra, ngar : utronya.
483 : Leg, calf : bru-madu (508) : -.
484 : Shinbone : bru-rida (507) : -.
485 : Foot, toes : kuku : oquarra.
486 : Foot, upper part : - : oquar' onto (485, 476).
487 : Foot, sole : saan : oquar' apa (485, 477).
488 : Heel : pokoko : omo.
489 : Toes : - : dyuro.
490 : Great toe : kei' kuku (625, 485) : -.
491 : Beard : yeta : yeta.
492 : Moustache : guda mageda (449) : yeta.
493 : Hair of head : yal : odye.
494 : Hair of body : - : ang-a.
495 : Hair of groin : mageda : nadula.
496 : Anus : - : opinya.
497 : Penis : ini : achanya.
498 : Scrotum : - : untonya, ngtonya.
499 : Testicles : kakuru : achina.
500 : Pudendum : mada : mon-na.
501 : Skin : purra : equora.
502 : Cicatrices : us : guri.
503 : Cicatrices on shoulder : - : kaimai.
504 : Cicatrices, horned, on breast : sadeo : chedow.
505 : Cicatrices, straight, on breast : - : rondro guri (470, 502).
506 : Cicatrices on belly : - : kopur guri (475, 502).
507 : Bone : rida : atira.
508 : Flesh : madu : egondi.
509 : Fat : idi-idi : bujer.
510 : Vein : kerer : kerur.
511 : Blood : kulka : etyunya.
512 : Heart : nganakapo : epa.
513 : Liver : sibu : -.
514 : Stomach : wera : -.
515 : Intestines : akur : elpe.
516 : Brain : - : urua.
517 : Skull : - : pad' atira (438, 507).
518 : Spine : garu rida (244, 507) : -.
519 : Collarbone : kalum rida (507) : kanulu.
520 : Lungs : saaka (55) : chaka.
521 : Saliva : mawcha : agai.
522 : Tears : nudi : -.
523 : Perspiration : murrag : -.
524 : Dung : - : on-na.
525 : Urine : - : ombo.
526 : Abscess, boil : gaima : oro.
527 : Pus : bagur : -.
528 : Snot, white of an egg : nurse : -.
529 : Blister : upu (43) : kodje.
530 : Sore : bada (337) : unti, anti.
531 : Bunions in old people : kowruta : -.
532 : Ague : dupu (190) : -.
533 : Toothache : dangakikire (452, 635) : -.
534 : I, me : ngatu* ngai : eipana, yoba.
(*Footnote. These two sets of personal pronouns are not used
indiscriminately, but the examples of their use which I collected are too
few to generalize upon. However, ngatu and the three next under it,
appear to be used only with a certain class of verbs of which an example
is afforded by the sentence ngatu nudu matumina = I struck him; and the
use of the second set of these pronouns is illustrated by ngai nue (not
ngatu nudu) mulem', etc. = I told him, etc.)
535 : Thou, thee : ngidu ngi : untoba, doba.
536 : He, him : nudu nue : -.
537 : She, her : nadu na : -.
538 : We two, us two : albei : -.
539 : We, us : arri : aku.
540 : You two : ngipel (593) : -.
541 : You : ngi-tana : -.
542 : They two : pale : -.
543 : They : tana : inyaba.
544 : Me, my : ana* : -.
(*Footnote. I do not understand the EXACT meaning of this and the two
next, so give an example of each; ana gamu lupeipa = my body is shaking
(or I have the ague): aikeka mule = tell me: nu'abepa chena wir = give
that to him.)
545 : For myself : ngai-aikeka : -.
546 : For himself : nu'abepa : -.
547 : For ourselves : albi nipa, arri nipa : -.
548 : For themselves : pale nipa, tane nipa : -.
549 : Who? : ngadu, nga : -.
550 : Whose? : nganu : -.
551 : What? : eimi : -.
552 : What? which? : mida : -.
553 : This : ina : -.
554 : This, these : nabing : -.
555 : That, those : chena : noba.
556 : Let us two, shall we two? : aba* : -.
(*Footnote. Example: aba nudu gasumeipa = let us two seize him.)
557 : Let us, shall we? : alpa* : -.
(*Footnote. Example: alpa pongeipa? = shall we sail?)
558 : Mine : ngow (if a male) udzu (if a female) : -.
559 : Thine : yinu : -.
560 : His : nunue : -.
561 : Her : nanue : -.
562 : Our (dual) : abane (566)* : -.
(*Footnote. Includes the person addressed: the mother speaking to the
father of their child would say abane kaje = our child.)
563 : Our (dual) : albeine (538)* : -.
(*Footnote. Excludes the person addressed: in answer to kaje chena
ngipeine? = is that your child? the father or mother, BOTH BEING PRESENT,
and one pointing to the other, would say to a third person, albeine kaje
= the child is ours. These forms are Polynesian also as I have since
564 : Our (plural) : arrien : -.
565 : Your (dual) : ngipeine (540) : -.
566 : Your (plural) : ngitanaman (541) (568) : -.
567 : Their (dual) : palaman (542) : -.
568 : Their (plural) : tanaman (543) : -.
569 : One : warapune (580) : epiamana.
570 : Two : quassur : elabaiu.
571 : Three : uquassur-warapune : dama*.
(*Footnote. After careful investigation I am inclined to think that the
Gudang blacks have no words to express definite numbers beyond three.
Dama is generally used for higher numbers, and occasionally unora.)
572 : Four : uquassur-uquassur : -.
573 : Five : uquassur-uquassur-warapune : -.
574 : Six : uquassur-warapune-uquassur-warapune : -.
575 : Seven : uquassur-warapune-uquassur-warapune-warapune : -.
576 : Eight : uquassur or ipel uquassur repeated 4 times : -.
(*Footnote. The formation of many adjectives can be clearly traced: in
fact, one of the most obvious features of the language--imperfectly as it
is understood--is the facility with which many nouns may be converted
into either adjectives or verbs. Thus, mapei = a bite, becomes mapeile =
capable of biting, and is the root of the verb mapeipa = to bite. The
positive adjunct leg, and its negative aige (802, 803), are also used to
convert nouns into adjectives: the former follows the same rules as those
before given for forming the plural: gizu = sharpness, becomes either
gizule = sharp, or gizuge = blunt, literally: sharpness-possessing, or,
possessing not : from nuki = water, we get the form nukile maram = the
well contains water, or, nukegi maram = the well is dry: danagi = blind,
literally means, eye-possessing not : as a further example, I may give,
ipikai ajirge wap' ina badale mapeip = the shameless woman eats this
577 : Afraid : akan : -.
578 : Alive : danaleg (443, 804) : anading.
579 : All, the whole : muro : -.
580 : Another : wara (569) : inyana.
581 : Ashamed : ajiran (823) : -.
582 : Bad, ugly : wate : -.
583 : Bad-smelling : wate ganule(826) : -.
584 : Bad-tasted : wate mitale (827) : -.
585 : Bald : guele : -.
586 : Bent : balbai : -.
587 : Bitter : tera : -.
588 : Black : kubi-kubi thung (228, 629) : -.
589 : Blind : danagi (443, 804) beagi (when addressing one blind) : -.
590 : Bloody : kulkale (511) : -.
591 : Blunt : dugung, gizuge (824) : -.
592 : Boiling : zurana : -.