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Types of Children's Literature by Edited by Walter Barnes

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well off then, especially in the big Eastern cities, lived too
luxuriously, took to billiards as his chief innocent recreation, and
felt small shame in his inability to take part in rough pastimes and
field-sports. Nowadays, whatever other faults the son of rich parents
may tend to develop, he is at least forced by the opinion of all his
associates of his own age to bear himself well in manly exercises and
to develop his body--and therefore, to a certain extent, his character--
in the rough sports which call for pluck, endurance, and physical

Of course boys who live under such fortunate conditions that they have
to do either a good deal of outdoor work or a good deal of what might
be called natural outdoor play do not need the athletic development. In
the Civil War the soldiers who came from the prairie and the backwoods
and the rugged farms where stumps still dotted the clearings, and who
had learned to ride in their infancy, to shoot as soon as they could
handle a rifle, and to camp out whenever they got the chance, were
better fitted for military work than any set of mere school or college
athletes could possibly be. Moreover, to mis-estimate athletics is
equally bad whether their importance is magnified or minimized. The
Greeks were famous athletes, and as long as their athletic training had
a normal place in their lives, it was a good thing. But it was a very
bad thing when they kept up their athletic games while letting the
stern qualities of soldiership and statesmanship sink into disuse. Some
of the younger readers of this book will certainly sometime read the
famous letters of the younger Pliny, a Roman who wrote, with what seems
to us a curiously modern touch, in the first century of the present
era. His correspondence with the Emperor Trajan is particularly
interesting; and not the least noteworthy thing in it is the tone of
contempt with which he speaks of the Greek athletic sports, treating
them as the diversions of an unwarlike people which it was safe to
encourage in order to keep the Greeks from turning into anything
formidable. So at one time the Persian kings had to forbid polo,
because soldiers neglected their proper duties for the fascinations of
the game. We cannot expect the best work from soldiers who have carried
to an unhealthy extreme the sports and pastimes which would be healthy
if indulged in with moderation, and have neglected to learn as they
should the business of their profession. A soldier needs to know how to
shoot and take cover and shift for himself--not to box or to play
football. There is, of course, always the risk of thus mistaking means
for ends. Fox-hunting is a first-class sport; but one of the most
absurd things in real life is to note the bated breath which certain
excellent fox-hunters, otherwise quite healthy minds, speak of this
admirable, but not over-important pastime. They tend to make it almost
as much of a fetich as, in the last century, the French and German
nobles made the chase of the stag, when they carried hunting and game-
preserving to a point which was ruinous to the national life. Fox-
hunting is very good as a pastime, but it is about as poor a business
as can be followed by any man of intelligence. Certain writers about it
are fond of quoting the anecdote of the fox-hunter who, in the days of
the English civil war, was discovered pursuing his favorite sport just
before a great battle between the Cavaliers and the Puritans, and right
between their lines as they came together. These writers apparently
consider it a merit in this man that when his country was in a death-
grapple, instead of taking arms and hurrying to the defense of the
cause he believed right, he should have placidly gone about his usual
sports. Of course, in reality the chief serious use of fox-hunting is
to encourage manliness and vigor, and to keep men hardy, so that at
need they can show themselves fit to take part in work or strife for
their native land. When a man so far confuses ends and means as to
think that fox-hunting, or polo, or football, or whatever else the
sport may be, is to be itself taken as the end, instead of the mere
means of preparation to do work that counts when the time arises, when
the occasion calls--why, that man had better abandon sport altogether.

No boy can afford to neglect his work, and with a boy work, as a rule,
means study. Of course there are occasionally brilliant successes in
life where a man has been worthless as a student when a boy. To take
these exceptions as examples would be as unsafe as it would be to
advocate blindness because some blind men have won undying honor by
triumphing over their physical infirmity and accomplishing great
results in the world. I am no advocate of senseless and excessive
cramming in studies, but a boy should work, and should work hard, at
his lessons--in the first place, for the sake of what he will learn and
in the next place, for the sake of the effect upon his own character of
resolutely settling down to learn it. Shiftlessness, slackness,
indifference in studying, are almost certain to mean inability to get
on in other walks of life. Of course, as a boy grows older it is a good
thing if he can shape his studies in the direction toward which he has
a natural bent; but whether he can do this or not, he must put his
whole heart into them. I do not believe in mischief-doing in school
hours, or in the kind of animal spirits that results in making bad
scholars; and I believe that these boys who take part in rough, hard
play outside of school will not find any need for horse-play in school.
While they study they should study just as hard as they play football
in a match game. It is wise to obey the homely old adage, "Work while
you work; play while you play."

A boy needs both physical and moral courage. Neither can take the place
of the other. When boys become men they will find out that there are
some soldiers very brave in the field who have proved timid and
worthless as politicians, and some politicians who show an entire
readiness to take chances and assume responsibilities in civil affairs,
but who lack the fighting edge when opposed to physical danger. In each
case, with soldiers and politicians alike, there is but half a virtue.
The possession of the courage of the soldier does not excuse the lack
of courage in the statesman, and even less does the possession of the
courage of the statesman excuse shrinking on the field of battle. Now,
this is all just as true of boys. A coward who will take a blow without
returning it is a contemptible creature; but after all, he is hardly as
contemptible as the boy who does not stand up for what he deems right
against the sneers of his companions who are themselves wrong. Ridicule
is one of the favorite weapons of wickedness, and it is sometimes
incomprehensible how good and brave boys will be influenced for evil by
the jeers of associates who have no one quality that calls for respect,
but who affect to laugh at the very traits which ought to be peculiarly
the cause for pride.

There is no need to be a prig. There is no need for a boy to preach
about his own conduct and virtue. If he does he will make himself
offensive and ridiculous. But there is urgent need that he should
practice decency; that he should be clean and straight, honest and
truthful, gentle and tender, as well as brave. If he can once get to a
proper understanding of things, he will have a far more hearty contempt
for the boy who has begun a course of feeble dissipation, or who is
untruthful, or mean, or dishonest, or cruel, than this boy and his
fellows can possibly, in return, feel for him. The very fact that the
boy should be manly and able to hold his own, that he should be ashamed
to submit to bullying without instant retaliation, should, in return,
make him abhor any form of bullying, cruelty, or brutality.

There are two delightful books, Thomas Hughes's "Tom Brown at Rugby"
and Aldrich's "Story of a Bad Boy," which I hope every boy still reads;
and I think American boys will always feel more in sympathy with
Aldrich's story, because there is in it none of the fagging, and the
bullying which goes with fagging, the account of which, and the
acceptance of which, always puzzles an American admirer of Tom Brown.

There is the same contrast between two stories of Kipling's. One,
called "Captains Courageous," describes in the liveliest way just what
a boy should be and do. The hero is painted in the beginning as the
spoiled, over-indulged child of wealthy parents, of a type which we do
sometimes unfortunately see, and than which there exist few things more
objectionable on the face of the broad earth. This boy is afterward
thrown on his own resources, amid wholesome surroundings, and is forced
to work hard among boys and men who are real boys and real men doing
real work. The effect is invaluable. On the other hand, if one wishes
to find types of boys to be avoided with utter dislike, one will find
them in another story by Kipling, called "Stalky & Co.," a story which
ought never to have been written, for there is hardly a single form of
meanness which it does not seem to extol, or of school mismanagement
which it does not seem to applaud. Bullies do not make brave men; and
boys or men of foul life cannot become good citizens, good Americans,
until they change; and even after the change scars will be left on
their souls.

The boy can best become a good man by being a good boy--not a goody-
goody boy, but just a plain good boy. I do not mean that he must love
only the negative virtues; I mean he must love the positive virtues
also. "Good," in the largest sense, should include whatever is fine,
straightforward, clean, brave, and manly. The best boys I know--the
best men I know--are good at their studies or their business, fearless
and stalwart, hated and feared by all that is wicked and depraved,
incapable of submitting to wrongdoing, and equally incapable of being
aught but tender to the weak and helpless. A healthy-minded boy should
feel hearty contempt for the coward, and even more hearty indignation
for the boy who bullies girls or small boys, or tortures animals. One
prime reason for abhorring cowards is because every good boy should
have it in him to thrash the objectionable boy as the need arises.

Of course the effect that a thoroughly manly, thoroughly straight and
upright boy can have upon the companions of his own age, and upon those
who are younger, is incalculable. If he is not thoroughly manly,
then they will not respect him, and his good qualities will count for
but little; while, of course, if he is mean, cruel, or wicked, then his
physical strength and force of mind merely make him so much the more
objectionable a member of society. He cannot do good work if he is not
strong and does not try with his whole heart and soul to count in any
contest; and his strength will be a curse to himself and to every one
else if he does not have thorough command over himself and over his own
evil passions, and if he does not use his strength on the side of
decency, justice, and fair dealing.

In short, in life, as in a football game, the principle to follow is:
Hit the line hard; don't foul and don't shirk, but hit the line hard!



Patrick Henry

Mr. President: No man thinks more highly than I do of the patriotism,
as well as abilities, of the very worthy gentlemen who have just
addressed the house. But different men often see the same subject in
different lights; and, therefore, I hope it will not be thought
disrespectful to those gentlemen, if, entertaining as I do, opinions of
a character very opposite to theirs, I shall speak forth my sentiments
freely and without reserve. This is no time for ceremony. The question
before this house is one of awful moment to the country. For my own
part, I consider it as nothing less than a question of freedom or
slavery; and in proportion to the magnitude of the subject ought to be
the freedom of the debate. It is only in this way that we can hope to
arrive at truth, and fulfill the great responsibility which we hold to
God and to our country. Should I keep back my opinions at such a time,
through fear of giving offense, I would consider myself as guilty of
treason toward my country, and of an act of disloyalty toward the
Majesty of Heaven, which I revere above all earthly kings.

Mr. President, It is natural to man to indulge in the illusions of
hope. We are apt to shut our eye's against a painful truth, and listen
to the song of that siren till she transforms us into beasts. Is this
the part of wise men, engaged in a great and arduous struggle for
liberty? Are we disposed to be of the number of those who, having eyes,
see not, and having ears, hear not, the things which so nearly concern
their temporal salvation? For my part, whatever anguish of spirit it
may cost, I am willing to know the whole truth; to know the worst and
to provide for it.

I have but one lamp by which my feet are guided; and that is the lamp
of experience. I know of no way of judging of the future but by the
past. And judging by the past, I wish to know what there has been in
the conduct of the British ministry for the last ten years, to justify
those hopes with which gentlemen have been pleased to solace themselves
and the house. Is it that insidious smile with which our petition has
been lately received? Trust it not, sir; it will prove a snare to your
feet. Suffer not yourselves to be betrayed with a kiss. Ask yourselves
how this gracious re--ception of our petition comports with those
warlike preparations which cover our waters and darken our land. Are
fleets and armies necessary to a work of love and reconciliation? Have
we shown ourselves so unwilling to be reconciled that force must be
called in to win back our love? Let us not deceive ourselves, sir.
These are the implements of war and subjugation; the last arguments to
which kings resort. I ask gentlemen, sir, what means this martial
array, if its purpose be not to force us to submission? Can gentlemen
assign any other possible motive for it? Has Great Britain any enemy in
this quarter of the world, to call for all this accumulation of navies
and armies? No, sir, she has none. They are meant for us; they can be
meant for no other. They are sent over to bind and rivet upon us those
chains which the British Ministry have been so long forging. And what
have we to oppose to them? Shall we try argument? Sir, we have been
trying that for the last ten years. Have we anything new to offer upon
the subject? Nothing. We have held the subject up in every light of
which it is capable; but it has been all in vain. Shall we resort to
entreaty and humble supplication? What terms shall we find, which have
not been already exhausted? Let us not, I beseech you, sir, deceive
ourselves longer. Sir, we have done everything that could be done, to
avert the storm which is now coming on. We have petitioned; we have
remonstrated; we have supplicated; we have prostrated ourselves before
the throne, and have implored its interposition to arrest the
tyrannical hands of the Ministry and Parliament. Our petitions have
been slighted; our remonstrances have produced additional violence and
insult; our supplications have been disregarded; and we have been
spurned with contempt from the foot of the throne. In vain, after these
things, may we indulge the fond hope of peace and reconciliation. There
is no longer any room for hope. If we wish to be free--if we mean to
preserve inviolate those inestimable privileges for which we have been
so long contending--if we mean not basely to abandon the noble struggle
in which we have been so long engaged, and which we have pledged
ourselves never to abandon until the glorious object of our contest
shall be obtained--we must fight! I repeat it, sir, we must fight! An
appeal to arms and to the God of Hosts is all that is left us!

They tell us, sir, that we are weak; unable to cope with so formidable
an adversary. But when shall we be stronger? Will it be the next week,
or the next year? Will it be when we are totally disarmed, and when a
British guard shall be stationed in every house? Shall we gather
strength by irresolution and inaction? Shall we acquire the means of
effectual resistance by lying supinely on our backs, and hugging the
delusive phantom of hope, until our enemies shall have bound us hand
and foot? Sir, we are not weak if we make a proper use of those means
which the God of nature hath placed in our power. Three millions of
people, armed in the holy cause of liberty, and in such a country as
that which we possess, are invincible by any force which our enemy can
send against us. Besides, we shall not fight our battles alone. There
is a just God who presides over the destinies of nations, and who will
raise up friends to fight our battles for us. The battle, sir, is not
to the strong alone; it is to the vigilant, the active, the brave.
Besides, sir, we have no election. If we were base enough to desire it,
it is now too late to retire from the contest. There is no retreat but
in submission and slavery! Our chains are forged! Their clanking may be
heard on the plains of Boston! The war is inevitable--and let it come!
I repeat it, sir, LET IT COME!

It is vain, sir, to extenuate the matter. Gentlemen may cry peace,
peace--but there is no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale
that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of
resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we
here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is
life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of
chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course
others may take; but, as for me, GIVE ME LIBERTY OR GIVE ME DEATH!


Daniel Webster

Sink or swim, live or die, survive or perish, I give my hand and my
heart to this vote. It is true, indeed, that, in the beginning, we
aimed not at independence. But

There's a divinity which shapes our ends.

The injustice of England has driven us to arms; and, blinded to her own
interest for our good, she has obstinately persisted, till independence
is now within our grasp. We have but to reach forth to it, and it is
ours. Why, then, should we defer the Declaration?

Is any man so weak as now to hope for a reconciliation with England,
which shall leave either safety to the country and its liberties, or
safety to his own life or his own honor? Are not you, Sir, who sit in
that chair, is not he, our venerable colleague near you, are you not
both already the proscribed and predestined objects of punishment and
vengeance? Cut off from all hope of royal clemency, what are you, what
can you be, while the power of England remains, but outlaws? If we
postpone independence, do we mean to carry on, or give up, the war? Do
we mean to submit to the measures of Parliament, Boston Port Bill and
all? Do we mean to submit, and consent that we ourselves shall be
ground to powder, and our country and its rights trodden down in the
dust? I know we do not mean to submit. We never shall submit. Do we
intend to violate that most solemn obligation ever entered into by men,
that plighting, before God, of our sacred honor to Washington, when,
putting him forth to incur the dangers of war, as well as the political
hazards of the times, we promised to adhere to him, in every extremity,
with our fortunes and our lives? I know there is not a man here, who
would not rather see a general conflagration sweep over the land, or an
earthquake sink it, than one jot or tittle of that plighted faith fall
to the ground. For myself, having, twelve months ago, in this place,
moved you that George Washington be appointed commander of the forces
raised, or to be raised, for the defense of American liberty, may my
right hand forget her cunning, and my tongue cleave to the roof my
mouth, if I hesitate or waver in the support I give him.

The war, then, must go on. We must fight it through. And if the war
must go on, why put off longer the Declaration of Independence? That
measure will strengthen us. It will give us character abroad. The
nations will then treat with us, which they never can do while we
acknowledge ourselves subjects, in arms against our sovereign. Nay, I
maintain that England herself will sooner treat for peace with us on
the footing of independence, than consent, by repealing her acts, to
acknowledge that her whole conduct toward us has been a course of
injustice and oppression. Her pride will be less wounded by submitting
to that course of things which now predestinates our independence, than
by yielding the points in controversy to her rebellious subjects. The
former she would regard as the result of fortune; the latter, she would
feel as her own deep disgrace. Why then, why then, Sir, do we not as
soon as possible change this from a civil to a national war? And since
we must fight it through, why not put ourselves in a state to enjoy all
the benefits of victory, if we gain the victory?

If we fail, it can be no worse for us. But we shall not fail. The cause
will raise up armies; the cause will create navies. The people, the
people, if we are true to them, will carry us, and will carry
themselves, gloriously, through this struggle. I care not how fickle
other people have been found. I know the people of these Colonies, and
I know that resistance to British aggression is deep and settled in
their hearts, and cannot be eradicated. Every Colony, indeed, has
expressed its willingness to follow, if we but take the lead. Sir, the
Declaration will inspire the people with increased courage. Instead of
a long and bloody war for the restoration of privileges, for redress of
grievances, for chartered immunities, held under a British king, set
before them the glorious object of entire independence, and it will
breathe into them anew the spirit of life. Read this Declaration at the
head of the army; every sword will be drawn, and the solemn vow
uttered, to maintain it, or perish on the bed of honor. Publish it from
the pulpit; religion will approve it, and the love of religious liberty
will cling around it, resolved to stand with it, or fall with it. Send
it to the public halls; proclaim it there; let them hear it who heard
the first roar of the enemy's cannon; let them see it who saw their
brothers and their sons fall on the field of Bunker Hill and in the
streets of Lexington and Concord, and the very walls will cry out in
its support.

Sir, I know the uncertainty of human affairs, but I see, I see clearly
through this day's business. You and I, indeed, may rue it. We may not
live to see the time when this Declaration shall be made good. We may
die; die colonists; die slaves; die, it may be, ignominiously and on
the scaffold. Be it so. Be it so. If it be the pleasure of Heaven that
my country shall require the poor offering of my life, the victim shall
be ready at the appointed hour of sacrifice, come when that hour may.
But while I do live, let me have a country, or at least the hope of a
country, and that a free country.

But whatever may be our fate, be assured, be assured that this
Declaration will stand. It may cost treasure, and it may cost blood;
but it will stand, and it will richly compensate for both. Through the
thick gloom of the present I see the brightness of the future, as the
sun in heaven. We shall make this a glorious, an immortal day. When we
are in our graves, our children will honor it. They will celebrate it
with thanksgiving, with festivity, with bonfires, and illuminations. On
its annual return they will shed tears, copious, gushing tears, not of
subjection and slavery, not of agony and distress, but of exultation,
of gratitude, and of joy. Sir, before God, I believe the hour is come.
My judgment approves this measure, and my whole heart is in it. All
that I have, and all that I am, and all that I hope, in this life, I am
now ready here to stake upon it; and I leave off as I began, that, live
or die, survive or perish, I am for the Declaration. It is my living
sentiment, and, by the blessing of God, it shall be my dying sentiment;
independence _now_, and INDEPENDENCE FOREVER.


Abraham Lincoln

Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this
continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the
proposition that all men are created equal.

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation,
or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are
met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a
portion of that field, as a final resting-place for those who here gave
their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and
proper that we should do this.

But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate--we can not consecrate--we
can not hallow--this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who
struggled here have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or
detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say
here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the
living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they
who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to
be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us,--that from
these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which
they gave the last full measure of devotion--that we here highly
resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain--that this nation,
under God, shall have a new birth of freedom--and that government of
the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the


In this Appendix are given lists of masterpieces of children's
literature which, for reasons stated in the Preface, could not be
included in this collection. The editor has attempted to limit the lists
of books to those which, in his judgment, are undoubted masterpieces,
yet at the same time to include the books in the different types with
which students in normal school and college classes in children's
literature need to be familiar. These books should be in the reference
library at the disposal of the students, and reports and conferences on
them should form a part of the course in children's literature.

A brief bibliography of books dealing with literature for children
is appended. The teacher of the class in children's literature should
know some of these books, and perhaps use one as a text to guide
his work.


ELIOT, C. W. _The Junior Classics_. 8 vols. P. F. Collier & Sons,
New York.

SCUDDER, H. E. _The Children's Book_. 1 vol. Houghton Mifflin
Company, Boston.

TAPPAN, E. M. The Children's Hour. 10 vols. Houghton Mifflin Company,

Among school readers, the _Heart of Oak_ series, edited by Charles
Eliot Norton (D. C. Heath & Co., New York), is the most profuse in
literary masterpieces.


HALLIWELL, J. O. _The Nursery Rhymes of England_. Frederick Warne
& Co., New York.

LANG, A. _The Nursery Rhyme Book_. Frederick Warne & Co., New York.

SAINTSBURY, G. E. B. _National Rhymes of the Nursery_. Frederick A.
Stokes Company, New York.

WELSH, C. _Mother Goose: A Book of Nursery Rhymes_. D. C. Heath &
Co., New York.

WHEELER, W. _A. Mother Goose's Melodies_. Houghton Mifflin Company,


In addition to the children's poets represented on pages 13-36, the
following books of children's poems should be in the school library:

BROWN, A. F. _A Pocketful of Posies_. Houghton Mifflin Company,

GARY, A. and P. _Poems for Children_. Houghton Mifflin Company,
Boston, (In _Cary's Poetical Works_.)

DODGE, M. _Rhymes and Jingles._ Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

DOWD. _The Owl and the Bobolink._ Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

EARLS, M. _Ballads of Childhood._ Benziger Brothers, New York.

FIELD, E. _Songs of Childhood._ Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

LAMB, C. _Poetry for Children._ E. P. Button & Co., New York.
(Volume 8 of Works of Charles Lamb.)

PEABODY, J. P. _The Book of the Little Past._ Houghton Mifflin
Company, Boston.

RICHARDS, L. E. _In My Nursery._ Little, Brown & Co., Boston.

RILEY, J. W. _Rhymes of Childhood._ Bobbs-Merjill Company,

SHERMAN, F. D. _Little-Folk Lyrics._ Houghton Mifflin Company,

TAGORE, R. _The Crescent Moon._ Macmillan Company, New York.

WELLS, C. _The Jingle Book._ Macmillan Company, New York.


CHISHOLM, L. _The Golden Staircase._ G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York.

HAZARD, B. _Three Years with the Poets._ Houghton Mifflin Company,

HENLEY, W. E. _Lyra Heroica._ Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

LUCAS, E. V. _A Book of Verses for Children._ Henry Holt & Co.,
New York.

PALGRAVE, F. _Children's Treasury of English Song._ Macmillan
Company, New York.

REPPLIER, A. _A Book of Famous Verse._ Houghton Mifflin Company,

STEVENSON, B. _The Home Book of Verse for Young Folks._ Henry Holt
& Co., New York.

THACHER, L. W. _The Listening Child._ Macmillan Company, New York.

WIGGIN, K. D., and SMITH, N. A. _Golden Numbers._ McClure Company,
New York.

ANONYMOUS. _Our Children's Songs._ Harper and Brothers, New York.


In addition to the collections of fairy stories mentioned in the notes,
the following collections contain first-rate material:

Folk Tales

JACOBS, J. _More English Fairy Tales and Celtic Fairy Tales._ G. P.
Putnam's Sons, New York.

LANG, A. _The Blue Fairy Book and The Green Fairy Book._ Longmans,
Green & Co., New York.

RHYS, E. _The English Fairy Book._ Frederick A. Stokes Company, New

SCUDDER, H. E. _Book of Fables and Folk Stories._ Houghton Mifflin
Company, Boston.

WIGGIN, K. D., and SMITH, N. A. _The Fairy Ring._ McClure Company,
New York,


HARRIS, J. C. _Nights with Uncle Remus_ and _Uncle Remus and His
Friends_. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.


BARRIE, J. M. _Peter Pan_. Silver, Burdett & Co., Boston.

CARROLL, L. _Alice's Adventures in Wonderland_ and _Through the
Looking-Glass_. Macmillan Company, New York.

COLLODI, C. _Adventures of Pinocchio_. Ginn & Co., Boston.

INGELOW, J. _Mopsa the Fairy_. J. B. Lippincott Company,
Philadelphia. _Three Fairy Tales_. D. C. Heath & Co., New York.

KINGSLEY, C. _Water Babies_. E. P. Dutton & Co., New York.

LANG, A. _Prince Prigio_. Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York.

MAETERLINCK, M. _The Blue Bird for Children_. Silver, Burdett &
Co., Boston.

MACDONALD, G. _The Princess and the Goblin_. J. B. Lippincott
Company, Philadelphia.

ROSTAND, E. _The Story of Chanticleer_. Frederick A. Stokes
Company, New York.

STOCKTON, F. R. _Fanciful Tales and The Floating Prince_. Charles
Scribner's Sons, New York.

THACKERAY, W. M. _The Rose and the Ring_. D. C. Heath & Co., New


No selection from the classic stories of Homer have been included in the
present collection, having been ruled out by the principle that nothing
but complete units must be presented. But every child must be exposed to
the charm of the wonderful story-teller of Greece. If the child prefers
verse--and Homer's stories are at their best in good verse--Bryant's
translation should be used (Students' Edition, 2 vols. Houghton Mifflin
Company, Boston). Perhaps the best prose translation is that of Palmer
(Houghton Mifflin Company).


In addition to the Kingsley and Hawthorne stories of the Greek myths and
legends, the child's library should contain Mrs. Peabody's _Old Greek
Folk Stories_ (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston).


Preeminent among the stories in which the chief element of interest is
that which arises from the deeds of heroic characters, are the Robin
Hood and the King Arthur stories. The Robin Hood tales contain material
unusually interesting and valuable for children; but, though they have
been told and retold times without number, there is but one version that
may properly be called a "masterpiece." This is the Howard Pyle version,
_Merry Adventures of Robin Hood_ (Charles Scribner's Sons, New York).
A less expensive edition is called _Some Merry Adventures of Robin

The King Arthur cycle is at its best in the Malory version (_Le Morte
d'Arthur_, by Sir Thomas Malory. _Everyman's_ series. E. P. Dutton
& Co., New York). This, however, is somewhat too diffuse and too
difficult for any child but a bookish one. Sidney Lanier's version of
the stories (_The Boy's King Arthur_, Charles Scribner's Sons, New
York) is a masterpiece of narration for youthful readers, and it is
faithful to the atmosphere and spirit of the Malory stories.

The hero stories in Plutarch are among the choicest of stories in this
type. Edwin Ginn's edition (Ginn & Co., Boston) is an admirable one. It
is based on the Clough translation, which was based, in turn, on the
so-called Dryden version.


BURROUGHS, J. _Wake Robin_. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

KIPLING, R. _Jungle Book_ and _Just-So Stories_. Century
Company, New York.

LONG, W. J. _A Little Brother to the Bear_. Ginn & Co., Boston.

MILLER, J. _True Bear Stories_. Rand-McNally & Co., Chicago.

Mum, J. _Stickeen._ Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. A most
charming and thrilling story of a dog.

ROBERTS, C. G. D. _Kindred of the Wild_. Grosset & Dunlap, New

SEGUR, S. Story of a Donkey. D. C. Heath & Co., New York.

SETON THOMPSON, E. _Wild Animals I Have Known_. Charles Scribner's
Sons, New York.


(Chiefly Fiction)

ALCOTT, L. M. _Little Men and Little Women_. Little, Brown & Co.,

ALDRICH, T. B. _Story of a Bad Boy_. Houghton Mifflin Company,

BLACKMORE, R. D. _Lorna Doone_. Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New

BUNYAN, J. _Pilgrim's Progress_. Ginn & Co., Boston.

CLEMENS, S. L. _Tom Sawyer_, _Huckleberry Finn_, and _The
Prince and the Pauper_. Harper and Brothers, New York.

COOPER, J. F. _Deerslayer_ and _Last of the Mohicans_. G. P.
Putnam's Sons, New York.

DEFOE, D. _Robinson Crusoe_. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

FRANKLIN, B. _Autobiography_. D. C. Heath & Co., New York.

HALE, E. E. _The Man Without a Country_. Ginn & Co., Boston.

HALE, L. _Peterkin Papers_. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

HUGHES, T. _Tom Brown's School Days_. Rand-McNally & Co., Chicago.

SCOTT, W. _Quentin Durward and Ivanhoe_. Dana Estes & Co., Boston.

STEVENSON, R. L. _Treasure Island_. Charles Scribner's Sons, New

SWIFT, J. _Gulliver's Travels_. D. C. Heath & Co., New York.


BARNES, W. _English in the Country School_. Row, Peterson & Co.,

CARPENTER, BAKER, and SCOTT. _The Teaching of English_. Longmans,
Green & Co., New York.

CHUBB, P. _Teaching of English_ (elementary school edition).
Macmillan Company, New York.

COLBY, J. R. _Literature and Life in the School_. Houghton Mifflin
Company, Boston.

COX, J. H. _Literature in the Common Schools_. Little, Brown & Co.,

FIELD, W. T. _Fingerposts to Children's Reading_. A. C. McClurg &
Co., Chicago.

HUNT. _What Shall We Read to the Children_? Houghton Mifflin
Company, Boston.

LEE, G. S. _The Child and the Book_. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New

LOWE. _Literature for Children_. Macmillan Company, New York.

MACCLINTOCK, P. L. _Literature in the Elementary School_.
University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

OLCOTT, F. J. _The Children's Reading_. Houghton Mifflin Company,


Page 1. Attention is directed to the classification of the Nursery
Jingles as indicated in the Contents. Several classifications of the
Jingles, from one standpoint or another, have been made, that by J. O.
Halliwell being the most elaborate, and that by the late Charles Welsh
being, perhaps, the most logical. The present classification is to
indicate more clearly the content, the source, the point, the
"intrinsic motive" of the Jingles. It is hoped that this new
classification will at least make conspicuous the scope and variety,
and the widely varying sources and themes, of the verses that children
have been selecting and scholars have been collecting under the generic
name of Nursery Jingles or Mother Goose Verses.

There are, of course, different versions of the Jingles, as there are
of any truly "popular" form of literature. Of not many Jingles can it
be said that any version is the oldest, the authoritative, the real
version. The editor, therefore, despairing of finding the most accurate
version, has endeavored to find the best. In many instances the best
seemed the one he had heard in childhood rather than the one printed in
any of the collections. The collection found most useful is Lang's
_The Nursery Rhyme Book_ (Frederick Warne & Co., London, 1897).
The editor has tried to select those specimens that would give teacher
and class as many characteristic Mother Goose elements, touches,
rhythms, and styles as possible. Many of the Jingles in this collection
have not been printed before--at least, not to the editor's knowledge.
He believes, however, that they are all genuine Folk Jingles, and he
hopes that their quaintness and novelty will justify their appearance

Page 13. The poems from Blake are from _Poetical Works_ (George
Bell & Sons, London, 1909). The three poems are from the series called
_Songs of Innocence_.

Page 15. Christina Rossetti's poems are from _Sing-Song_
(Macmillan & Co., London, 1907). The poems are not given titles in
this, the authoritative edition.

Page 17. Stevenson's poems are from _Complete Poems_ (Charles
Scribner's Sons, New York, 1912). The poems reprinted here are all from
the series called _A Child's Garden of Verses_. There are many
good editions of the _Child's Garden_, the Scribner edition being
one of the most beautiful.

Page 20. The Lucy Larcom pieces are from _Childhood Songs_
(Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1874), and are here used by
permission of Houghton Mifflin Company.

Page 22. The four poems of the Taylors' are from E. V. Lucas's edition
of _The Original Poems and Others_ (Wells, Gardner, Darton & Co.,
London, 1903). The readings given here follow the last revision by Ann
Taylor, some years after the death of Jane. In the case of "The Star"
the more familiar version seemed, to the present editor, the better,
but he felt that he should conform to the reading that seems to have
the strongest authority. No attempt is made to discriminate between the
poems of the two sisters; all the poems are here ascribed to them

Page 26. The first two poems of Watts' are from _Divine Songs for
Children_; the third poem, from _Moral Songs_, or, to give it
its full title, _A Slight Specimen of Moral Songs, such as I wish
some happy and condescending genius would undertake for the use of
children, and perform much better_. The two collections of poems for
children are to be found in Watts's _Horæ Lyricæ_ (Little, Brown &
Co., Boston, 1864). The advertisement to this edition states that "the
volume is reprinted, with many corrections," from the quarto edition of
Watts's entire works, published in 1753. Stanzas 5-10 and stanzas 12
and 14 have been omitted from the text of "A Cradle Hymn." They are
given here, that the student may have before him an illustration of how
necessary it is occasionally to expurgate material set before children.

5. Blessed babe! what glorious features,
Spotless fair, divinely bright!
Must he dwell with brutal creatures?
How could angels bear the sight!

6. Was there nothing but a manger
Cursed sinners could afford,
To receive the heavenly Stranger?
Did they thus affront their Lord?

7. Soft, my child; I did not chide thee,
Though my song might sound too hard;
'Tis thy mother sits beside thee,
And her arms shall be thy guard.

8. Yet to read the shameful story,
How the Jews abus'd their King,
How they serv'd the Lord of Glory,
Makes me angry while I sing.

9. See the kinder shepherds round him,
Telling wonders from the sky;
There they sought him, there they found him,
With his virgin mother by.

10. See the lovely babe a-dressing;
Lovely infant, how he smil'd!
When he wept, the mother's blessing
Sooth'd and hush'd the holy child.

12. 'Twas to save thee, child, from dying,
Save my dear from burning flame,
Bitter groans and endless crying,
That thy blest Redeemer came.

14. I could give thee thousand kisses,
Hoping what I most desire;
Not a mother's fondest wishes
Can to greater joys aspire.

Page 28. Lewis Carroll's poems reprinted here are from _The Hunting
of the Snark, and Other Poems_ (Harper & Brothers, New York, 1903).
"Father William" is from _Alice's Adventures in Wonderland_; the
others are from _Through the Looking-Glass_. All three poems are
much better fun when read in their original setting.

Page 33. Edward Lear's poems are from _Nonsense Books_ (Little,
Brown & Co., Boston, 1888). This includes all four of the Nonsense
books by Lear: _Book of Nonsense_, 1846; _Nonsense Songs,
Stories, etc._, 1871; _More Nonsense Pictures_, etc., 1872;
and _Laughable Lyrics: A Fresh Book of Nonsense, etc._, 1877.

Page 37. The ballad of "Bonny Barbara Allan" is from Percy's _Reliques
of Ancient English Poetry_ (Frederick Warne & Co., New York, 1880).
The spelling is modernized. Stanzas 5-8 have been inserted. They were
discovered in Buchanan County, Virginia, by Professor C. Alphonso
Smith, of the University of Virginia, and printed in his monograph,
_Ballads Surviving in the United States_ (G. Schirmer, New York,
1916). This and dozens of other "popular" ballads are still sung in
the mountains of the Southern states; undoubtedly they have been
transmitted orally for generations.

Page 38. "Sir Patrick Spence" is from Percy's _Reliques_, the
edition above mentioned. In the editor's opinion, this is the most
effective of the several versions of this beautiful ballad.

Page 40. This version of "Robin Hood and Allin a Dale" is from
Sargent and Kittredge's _English and Scottish Popular Ballads_
(Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1904).

Page 43. "Kinmont Willie" is from _The Poetical Works of Sir Walter
Scott, together with The Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border_ (J. B.
Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 1880). Sir Walter, in his
introduction to the ballad, states that because the piece had been
"much mangled by reciters," "some conjectural emendations have been
absolutely necessary to render it intelligible." As no other version of
the ballad has ever been discovered, no one knows just how many
"conjectural emendations" Sir Walter made. It is safe to say, however,
that the poet's taste and antiquarian interests would prevent his
taking unwarrantable liberties with the original. In its present form
it is one of the finest of the ballads, whatever change it may have
suffered in passing through Scott's hands.

Page 49. This poem of Longfellow's and "A Psalm of Life," page 83, are
from _Complete Poetical Works_ (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston,
1893). They are used by permission.

Page 52. "La Belle Dame sans Merci" and the Keats poem on page 75 are
from _Complete Poetical Works and Letters_ (Houghton Mifflin
Company, Boston, 1899). Lord Houghton's version, as given in _Life,
Letters, and Literary Remains_, has some important variant readings.

Page 53. The Campbell poem is taken from the _Complete Poetical
Works_ (Phillips, Samson & Co., Boston, 1857).

Page 55. "Lochinvar" comes from the _Poetical Works_ (Thomas Y.
Crowell Company, New York, 1894).

Page 56. This spirited poem of Browning's is from the _Complete
Poetic and Dramatic Works_ (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1895).

Page 58. The three poems by Tennyson in this collection are from
_Poetic and Dramatic Works_ (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

Page 63. This version of "America" is from the facsimile reproduction
of the hymn in the author's handwriting found in _A History of
Newton, Massachusetts_, by S. F. Smith, D.D. (published, 1880, by
The American Logotype Company, Boston). The original copy of "America,"
according to all the evidence, is the one in Dr. Smith's handwriting
contained on a slip of waste paper which is now kept in the treasure
room of the Harvard Library. In this original version the two notable
points of difference from that given here are the reading "breathes"
for "breathe" in the third stanza, and "Our God" for "Great God" in the
fourth stanza.

Page 64. This well-known passage is the first stanza of Canto VI of
Scott's _The Lay of the Last Minstrel_ (_Poetical Works_
above described).

Page 64. Miller's "Columbus" is from the Bear Edition of Miller's poems
(Harr Wagner Publishing Company, San Francisco, 1909).

Page 65. Mrs. Hemans' poem is from _Complete Works_ (D. Appleton &
Co., New York, 1847).

Page 67. The "Concord Hymn" and "The Rhodora," page 74, are from the
_Poems_ (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1899).

Page 67. This poem of Holmes' and "The Chambered Nautilus," page 77,
are from the _Poetical Works_ (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston,
1895). The latter poem appeared originally in _The Autocrat of the
Breakfast Table_.

Page 68. "O Captain! My Captain!" is from _Leaves of Grass_ (David
McKay, Philadelphia, 1900).

Page 70. "To Lucasta" is from _Epodes, Odes, Sonnets, Songs, etc.,
etc., to which is added Aramantha, a Pastoral, by Richard Lovelace,
Esq. A New Edition_ (Chiswick: from the Press of C. Whittingham,

Page 70. Byron's poem is from _Hebrew Melodies_ (London, printed
for John Murray, 1815).

Page 71. "A Red, Red Rose" is from _Complete Poetical Works_
(Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1897).

Page 72. "The Greenwood Tree" is from _As You Like It_ (New
Variorum Edition, 1890).

Page 72. This well-known sea song by Cunningham is from _The Songs of
Scotland, Ancient and Modern_, Vol. IV (printed for John Taylor,
London, 1825).

Page 73. "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud", or "The Daffodils," as it is
often called, is from _Complete Poetical Works_ (Thomas Y. Crowell
Company, New York, n. d.). The text is that of the edition of 1857.

Page 74. "To the Fringed Gentian" is from _Poetical Works_ (D.
Appleton & Co., New York, 1909). "To a Waterfowl," page 76, is from the

Page 79. "The Noble Nature" is from the volume of Ben Jonson's poems in
_The Canterbury Poets_, edited by William Sharp (published by the
Walter Scott Publishing Company, London and Newcastle, n. d.).

Page 79. This poem of Wotton's is from _Reliquæ Wottoniæ_, etc.,
London, (printed by Thomas Maxey for R. Marriot, G. Bedel, and T.
Garthwait, 1651). The meaning of the third stanza is obscure. In this
edition it runs as follows:

Who envies none that Chance doth raise,
Nor Vice hath ever understood;
How deepest wounds are given by praise,
Nor rules of State, but rules of good.

Page 80. This inspiring poem by Clough is found in _Poetical
Works_ (George Routledge & Sons, London, n. d.).

Page 80. "For A' That an' A' That" is from _The Edinburgh Book of
Scottish Verse_ (Meiklejohn and Holden, London, 1910).

Page 82. The poem by Henley is from _Echoes_ (published by David
Nutt, London, 1908). This poem is the fourth of the forty-seven poems
in _Echoes._ The title "Invictus" is not in the original.

Page 82. "Opportunity" is from _Poems by Edward Rowland Sill_
(Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1888).

Pages 85-86. These six fables are from _The Fables of Æsop_,
translated into English by Samuel Croxall, with new applications,
morals, etc., by the Rev. George Fyler Townsend (Frederick Warne & Co.,
London, 1869). This is the second edition. There are, of course, scores
of versions of the Æsopian fables. The one selected is approved by
Greek scholars for the fidelity of the translation, while its literary
value is unusually high. The tagged-on morals and applications have
been pruned away from the text.

Pages 87-88. The two fables of Bidpai are to be found in _The
Tortoise and the Geese, and Other Fables of Bidpai_, retold by Maude
Barrows Dutton (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1908). They are
reprinted here by permission of the publishers.

Page 89. These two metrical fables are from _Fables of La
Fontaine,_ translated by Elizur Wright, Jr. (Worthington Company,
New York, 1889). The French writer's fables, though usually not
original in content, are clever and keen and shrewd, and this
translation represents faithfully their thought and spirit.

Page 91. Both "The Old Woman and Her Pig" and "The Three Little Pigs"
are from _English Fairy Tales_, third edition (G. P. Putnam's
Sons, New York, 1910). The stories are from Halliwell's _Nursery
Rhymes and Tales_, but are retold by Jacobs, who, as usual, improves
the original without sinning against the mood and spirit of the
"popular" story.

Page 95. "Hans in Luck" and "The Frog-Prince," are from the translation
of Edgar Taylor, London, 1823. This, so far as the editor could
determine, was the first translation into English, and it remains one
of the best.

Page 98. "The Valiant Little Tailor" and "The Elves," are from
_Grimms Household Tales_, translated by Margaret Hunt (George Bell
& Sons, London, 1913). The two volumes of Miss Hunt's translation are,
together with her notes and Andrew Lang's introduction, an important
contribution to the folklore of the "popular" Fairy Story and Nursery

Page 105. "Cinderella" and "Blue Beard," are from _The Tales of
Mother Goose_, translated from the French by Charles Welsh (D. C.
Heath & Co., New York, 1901). They are reprinted in this collection by
permission of the publishers. _The Tales of Mother Goose_ were
published in 1697. There have been dozens of translations, but Welsh's
version is perhaps the most satisfactory.

Page 110. This version of "Whittington" is from _Amusing Prose Chap-
Books, chiefly of Last Century_, edited by Robert Hays Cunningham
(Hamilton, Adams & Co., London, 1889). The version is strikingly
similar to the one given by Jacobs in _English Fairy Tales_,
which, Jacobs says, was "cobbled up out of three chapbook versions."

Page 117. "The Ugly Duckling" is from _Fairy Tales and Stories_,
translated by H. W. Dulcken (Rand-McNally & Co., Chicago, n. d.). The
Dulcken translation published by A. L. Burt Company, New York, n. d.,
contains the same stories as the Rand-McNally translation, and eleven

Page 125. "The Flax" is from the translation of Caroline Peachey,
_Danish Fairy Legends and Tales_ (George Bell & Sons, London,
1881). This is the "third edition, enlarged." It contains fifty-seven

Neither of the Andersen stories used for this collection is a folk
story--though, for tradition's sake, they are here placed with genuine
folk stories. Of the fifty-seven stories in the Peachey translation,
all but ten are entirely original with Andersen, and all of these ten
he worked over to suit his purpose. Andersen, then, unlike Grimm,
Jacobs, Lang, and others, is not a collector and teller of fairy
stories, but a maker of fairy stories--if, indeed, they should be
called fairy stories at all. In spirit and purpose and method Andersen
belongs with the modern writers of fairy stories--with Macdonald,
Stockton, Ingelow, and Barrie, rather than with the "dealers in the
genuine article."

Page 133. This version of "Jack and the Beanstalk" is from Jacobs'
_English Fairy Tales_ above cited. Jacobs states that this telling
came from Australia. It is the best version known to the editor--in
fact, the only possible change to be desired is in the flippant ending,
"The ogre fell down and broke his crown." This is too serious a matter
for such lightness!

Page 142. The only story of Asbjornsen reprinted in this collection is
from _Fairy Tales from the Far North_ (A. L. Burt Company, New
York, n. d.). The translator is H. L. Braekstad. Asbjornsen's stories
are sterling folk tales, but somewhat too gross and crude for the
delicate stomach of the modern child.

Page 146. This Negro folk tale is from _Told by Uncle Remus_
(Grosset & Dunlap, New York, 1905. Copyright 1903-1904-1905 by Joel
Chandler Harris). Reproduced here by courtesy of Doubleday, Page & Co.

Page 155. Mrs. Craik's story is the first tale in _The Adventures of
a Brownie_ (Rand-McNally & Co., Chicago, 1911); it is printed here
by permission of the publishers. The text, according to the editor,
agrees with the standard text (Samson, Low, Marston, Low, and Searle,
London, 1872).

Page 161. The text of "The King of the Golden River" is that found in
_Ruskin's Works_ (American Publishers Corporation, New York, n.
d.). The versions commonly found in readers have been sadly mangled by
editors--largely on the theory, it would seem, that children cannot
understand the meaning of a word of more than two syllables.

Page 183. "Aladdin" is from _The Arabian Nights Entertainments_,
translated by Jonathan Scott (printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, &
Brown, London, 1811). The translation is based on Galland's French
translation, the first translation into any European language; but Dr.
Scott states that the stories are "carefully revised and occasionally
corrected from the Arabic." Of the many editions of _The Arabian
Nights_--several of them excellent--this has always seemed, to the
editor, the best.

The name in Scott's edition is spelled "Alla ad Deen," but the editor
has thought it best to use the name most familiar to the English
translations. The story has been altered slightly in that part which
relates the circumstances following the marriage of the princess and
the vizier's son. Quotation marks have been inserted throughout.

Page 267. "The Gorgon's Head" is from _The Wonder Book_ (Houghton
Mifflin Company, Boston, 1881).

Page 286. "Theseus" is from _The Heroes_ (_Kingsley's Works_,
Macmillan & Co., London, 1879). One obvious blunder in spelling has
been corrected.

Page 311. "Thor Goes a-Fishing" is from Mabie's _Norse Stories_
(Rand-McNally & Co., Chicago, 1902. Copyright, 1900, 1901, by Dodd,
Mead & Co.). It is printed here through special arrangement with the
holders of the copyright.

Page 315. "Baldur" is Chapter VI of _The Heroes of Asgard_,
revised and abridged by Charles H. Morss (Macmillan Company, New York,
1909). The preface states that "this volume is really an abridgment of
Keary's _The Heroes of Asgard_, adapting it to classroom use for
pupils of about the fourth and fifth grades." The selection is
presented here as a splendid specimen of "made-over" literature, as
well as, in its own right, a masterpiece of story-telling for children.

Page 327. The story of William Wallace is from _The Tales of a
Grandfather_ (Adam and Charles Black, Edinburgh, 1889). This edition
is "reprinted from the latest edition published in the lifetime of Mr.
Lockhart, and probably under his immediate supervision."

Page 339. "The Tempest" is from _Tales from Shakespeare_, with
introductions and additions by F. J. Furnivall (Raphael Tuck & Sons,
London, 1901). The "Tales" are very uneven in merit, the Comedies being
superior, in the editor's opinion, to the Tragedies, and "The Tempest"
being considerably the best of the Comedies. It is generally understood
that it was Mary Lamb who told the Comedies and Charles who had charge
of the Tragedies.

Page 349. "The Purple Jar" is from "Rosamond" in a volume entitled
_Frank, Rosamond, Harry, and Lucy_ (Frederick Warne & Co., London,
n. d.). This is an inexpensive volume containing all of Miss
Edgeworth's good stories except those in _The Parent's Assistant_.
One may not care for tales of this sort; but they have their value,
both as morality and literature, and "The Purple Jar" is one of the
most effective specimens of its kind.

Pages 354, 356. The two didactic stories by Aiken and Barbauld are from
_Evenings at Home; or, the Juvenile Budget opened: consisting of a
variety of miscellaneous pieces for the instruction and amusement of
young persons_ (Henry Washbourne, London, 1847). This edition is
described as "newly arranged." "Eyes and No Eyes" has been admired and
praised by thousands of readers of past generations, among whom Oliver
Wendell Holmes and Charles Kingsley are preeminent.

Page 363. "Rab and His Friends" is the first sketch in _Horæ
Subsecivæ_, First Series (Frederick A. Stokes Company, New York,
1893). An accurate and inexpensive edition is that in the Canterbury
Classics (Rand-McNally & Co., Chicago). It is one of the most pathetic
stories in all literature, conforming precisely to Ruskin's theory that
a child's story should be "sad and sweet."

Page 375. Mrs. Miller's story of the blue jay is one of the most
charming of the stories in _True Bird Stories_ (Houghton Mifflin
Company, Boston, 1903). It is reprinted in this collection with the
permission of the publishers.

Page 378. "A Cry in the Night" is the second story in _Wood Folk at
School_ (Ginn & Co., Boston, 1903). It is printed here by special
arrangement with the publishers. Mr. Long's studies of wild animal life
are among the few distinctive contributions to children's literature
within this generation.

Page 389. The selections from the Bible are from the King James
Version. The verse divisions in this version have been ignored in this
reprint, as having little literary significance, and the paragraphs
indicated by the paragraph marks in the original have been used as the
natural units of thought--though the paragraphing does not always
represent the thought divisions. Quotation marks have been inserted

From the story of Joseph, Genesis 37-50, it has been thought best to
omit the following: all of Chapter 38, Chapter 39: 7-19; Chapter 46: 8-
27; Chapter 49; 1-28. From the story of Samson, Judges 13:24 to end of
Chapter 17, one clause in the first verse of Chapter 16 has been
omitted. From the Sermon on the Mount, Matthew 5:1-7:29, verses 27-32
from Chapter 5 have been omitted. The discourse of Paul on Charity,
First Corinthians, Chapter 13, has been separated into paragraphs.

Page 421. The letter of Lewis Carroll is from _Life and Letters of
Lewis Carroll_, by S. Dodgson Collingwood (T. Fisher Unwin, London,
1898). Hood's letter is from _Thomas Hood: His Life and Times_
(London, 1907). Dickens's letter is from _Letters of Charles
Dickens_ (London, 1880).

Page 425. Irving's essay on "Indian Character" is reprinted from _The
Sketch Book_, Author's Revised Edition (G. P. Putnam's Sons, New
York, 1888).

Page 434. "Of Studies" is from _The Essays of Francis Bacon_
(Longmans, Green & Co., London, 1907). The text is that of Aldis
Wright, but the spelling and punctuation have been modernized.

Page 435. Theodore Roosevelt's spirited and characteristic essay on
"The American Boy" is to be found among the essays and addresses in
_The Strenuous Life_ (Century Company, New York, 1911), and is
here used by permission of author and publisher.

Page 441. Patrick Henry's celebrated oration is from _Sketches of the
Life of Patrick Henry_, by William Wirt, third edition, corrected by
the author, Philadelphia, 1818, which is the first printed version of
the speech. No one really knows how much of it is Henry's, how much is
Wirt's. Wirt gives much of the oration in the third person, with many
"he said's." It is here given in the first person, following almost
precisely the version given in Tyler's _Patrick Henry_ (Houghton
Mifflin Company, Boston, 1898), which, of course, is based on Wirt's
version. All the evidence bears out the contention that Wirt's account
of the oration is authentic.

Page 443. The "Supposed Speech of John Adams" is taken from the
_Works of Daniel Webster_ (Little, Brown & Co., Boston, 1853). The
speech is really a portion of Webster's oration on Adams and Jefferson,
delivered in Faneuil Hall, Boston, August 2, 1826, less than a month
after the death of Adams and Jefferson. The "Supposed Speech" is
Webster's conception of how Adams might have answered a speaker who had
argued against the passing of the Declaration of Independence.

Page 446. This reading of the "Gettysburg Address" is taken,
punctuation and all, from the autographed copy of the address written
for the Baltimore Fair and signed November 19, 1863. The facsimile
lithographed copy of this is to be found in _Autograph Leaves of Our
Country's Authors_ (Cushings & Bailey, Baltimore, 1864). A full and
accurate account of the three versions of the address is found in the
_Century_ magazine for February, 1894.

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