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Types of Children's Literature by Edited by Walter Barnes

Part 10 out of 11

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rustlings in the underbrush, and then the unmistakable crack of a twig
under a deer's foot. The mother had winded me; she was now following
and circling down wind to find out whether her lost fawn were with me.
As yet she knew not what had happened. The bear had frightened her into
extra care of the one fawn of whom she was sure. The other had simply
vanished into the silence and mystery of the great woods.

Where the path turned downward, in sight of the lake, I saw her for a
moment plainly, standing half hid in the underbrush, looking intently
at my old canoe. She saw me at the same instant and bounded away,
quartering up the hill in my direction. Near a thicket of evergreen
that I had just passed, she sounded her hoarse _K-a-a-h, k-a-a-h!_
and threw up her flag. There was a rush within the thicket; a sharp
_K-a-a-h!_ answered hers. Then the second fawn burst out of the
cover where she had hidden him, and darted along the ridge after her,
jumping like a big red fox from rock to rock, rising like a hawk over
the windfalls, hitting her tracks wherever he could, and keeping his
little nose hard down to his one needful lesson of following the white



And Jacob dwelt in the land wherein his father was a stranger, in the
land of Canaan. These are the generations of Jacob. Joseph, being
seventeen years old, was feeding the flock with his brethren; and the
lad was with the sons of Bilhah, and with the sons of Zilpah, his
father's wives; and Joseph brought unto his father their evil report.
Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his children, because he was the
son of his old age: and he made him a coat of many colors. And when his
brethren saw that their father loved him more than all his brethren,
they hated him, and could not speak peaceably unto him.

And Joseph dreamed a dream, and he told it his brethren: and they hated
him yet the more. And he said unto them, "Hear, I pray you, this dream
which I have dreamed: For, behold, we were binding sheaves in the
field, and, lo, my sheaf arose, and also stood upright; and, behold,
your sheaves stood round about, and made obeisance to my sheaf." And
his brethren said to him, "Shalt thou indeed reign over us? or shalt
thou indeed have dominion over us?" And they hated him yet the more for
his dreams, and for his words.

And he dreamed yet another dream, and told it his brethren, and said,
"Behold, I have dreamed a dream more; and, behold, the sun and the moon
and the eleven stars made obeisance to me." And he told it to his
father, and to his brethren: and his father rebuked him, and said unto
him, "What is this dream that thou hast dreamed? Shall I and thy mother
and thy brethren indeed come to bow down ourselves to thee to the
earth?" And his brethren envied him; but his father observed the

And his brethren went to feed their father's flock in Shechem. And
Israel said unto Joseph: "Do not thy brethren feed the flock in
Shechem? come, and I will send thee unto them." And he said to him:
"Here am I." And he said to him: "Go, I pray thee, see whether it be
well with thy brethren, and well with the flocks; and bring me word
again." So he sent him out of the vale of Hebron, and he came to

And a certain man found him, and, behold, he was wandering in the
field: and the man asked him, saying, "What seekest thou?" And he said:
"I seek my brethren; tell me, I pray thee, where they feed their
flocks." And the man said: "They are departed hence; for I heard them
say, 'Let us go to Dothan.'" And Joseph went after his brethren, and
found them in Dothan. And when they saw him afar off, even before he
came near unto them, they conspired against him to slay him. And they
said one to another: "Behold, this dreamer cometh. Come now, therefore,
and let us slay him, and cast him into some pit, and we will say, 'Some
evil beast hath devoured him:' and we shall see what will become of his
dreams." And Reuben heard it, and he delivered him out of their hands,
and said: "Let us not kill him." And Reuben said unto them, "Shed no
blood, but cast him into this pit that is in the wilderness, and lay no
hand upon him "--that he might rid him out of their hands, to deliver
him to his father again.

And it came to pass, when Joseph was come unto his brethren, that they
stripped Joseph out of his coat, his coat of many colors that was on
him; and they took him, and cast him into a pit: and the pit was empty,
there was no water in it. And they sat down to eat bread: and they
lifted up their eyes and looked, and, behold, a company of Ishmaelites
came from Gilead, with their camels bearing spicery and balm and myrrh,
going to carry it down to Egypt. And Judah said unto his brethren,
"What profit is it if we slay our brother, and conceal his blood? Come,
and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites, and let not our hand be upon
him; for he is our brother and our flesh." And his brethren were
content. Then there passed by Midianites, merchant-men; and they drew
and lifted up Joseph out of the pit, and sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites
for twenty pieces of silver: and they brought Joseph into Egypt.

And Reuben returned unto the pit; and, behold, Joseph was not in the
pit; and he rent his clothes.

And he returned unto his brethren, and said, "The child is not; and I,
whither shall I go?" And they took Joseph's coat, and killed a kid of
the goats, and dipped the coat in the blood; and they sent the coat of
many colors, and they brought it to their father, and said, "This have
we found: know now whether it be thy son's coat or no." And he knew it,
and said, "It is my son's coat; an evil beast hath devoured him; Joseph
is without doubt rent in pieces." And Jacob rent his clothes, and put
sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned for his son many days. And all
his sons and all his daughters rose up to comfort him; but he refused
to be comforted; and he said, "For I will go down into the grave unto
my son mourning." Thus his father wept for him. And the Midianites sold
him into Egypt unto Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh's, and a captain of
the guard.

* * * * *

And Joseph was brought down to Egypt; and Potiphar, an officer of
Pharaoh, captain of the guard, an Egyptian, bought him of the hands of
the Ishmaelites, and which had brought him down thither. And the Lord
was with Joseph, and he was a prosperous man; and he was in the house
of his master the Egyptian. And his master saw that the Lord was with
him, and that the Lord made all that he did to prosper in his hand. And
Joseph found grace in his sight, and he served him: and he made him
overseer over his house, and all that he had he put into his hand. And
it came to pass from the time that he had made him overseer in his
house, and over all that he had, that the Lord blessed the Egyptian's
house for Joseph's sake; and the blessing of the Lord was upon all that
he had in the house, and in the field. And he left all that he had in
Joseph's hand; and he knew not ought he had, save the bread which he
did eat. And Joseph was a goodly person, and well favored. And it came
to pass that his master's wife falsely accused Joseph. And Joseph's
master took him, and put him into the prison, a place where the king's
prisoners were bound; and he was there in the prison.

But the Lord was with Joseph, and showed him mercy, and gave him favor
in the sight of the keeper of the prison. And the keeper of the prison
committed to Joseph's hand all the prisoners that were in the prison;
and whatsoever they did there, he was the doer of it. The keeper of the
prison looked not to any thing that was under his hand; because the
Lord was with him, and that which he did, the Lord made it to prosper.

And it came to pass after these things, that the butler of the king of
Egypt and his baker had offended their lord the king of Egypt. And
Pharaoh was wroth against two of his officers, and against the chief of
the butlers, and against the chief of the bakers. And he put them in
ward in the house of the captain of the guard, into the prison, the
place where Joseph was bound. And the captain of the guard charged
Joseph with them, and he served them; and they continued a season in

And they dreamed a dream both of them, each man his dream in one night,
each man according to the interpretation of his dream, the butler and
the baker of the king of Egypt, which were bound in the prison. And
Joseph came in unto them in the morning, and looked upon them, and,
behold, they were sad. And he asked Pharaoh's officers that were with
him in the ward of his lord's house, saying: "Wherefore look ye so
sadly today?" And they said unto him: "We have dreamed a dream, and
there is no interpreter of it." And Joseph said unto them, "Do not
interpretations belong to God? Tell me them, I pray you." And the chief
butler told his dream to Joseph, and said to him, "In my dream, behold
a vine was before me. And in the vine were three branches; and it was
as though it budded and her blossoms shot forth, and the clusters
thereof brought forth ripe grapes. And Pharaoh's cup was in my hand;
and I took the grapes and pressed them into Pharaoh's cup, and I gave
the cup into Pharaoh's hand." And Joseph said unto him, "This is the
interpretation of it: the three branches are three days. Yet within
three days shall Pharaoh lift up thine head, and restore thee unto thy
place; and thou shalt deliver Pharaoh's cup into his hand, after the
former manner when thou wast his butler. But think on me when it shall
be well with thee, and show kindness, I pray thee, unto me, and make
mention of me unto Pharaoh, and bring me out of this house. For indeed
I was stolen away out of the land of the Hebrews, and here also have I
done nothing that they should put me into the dungeon." When the chief
baker saw that the interpretation was good, he said unto Joseph, "I
also was in my dream, and behold I had three white baskets on my head.
And in the uppermost basket there was of all manner of bakemeats for
Pharaoh, and the birds did eat them out of the basket upon my head."
And Joseph answered and said, "This is the interpretation thereof: the
three baskets are three days. Yet within three days shall Pharaoh lift
up thy head from off thee, and shall hang thee on a tree, and the birds
shall eat thy flesh from off thee."

And it came to pass the third day, which was Pharaoh's birthday, that
he made a feast unto all his servants; and he lifted up the head of the
chief butler and of the chief baker among his servants. And he restored
the chief butler unto his butlership again; and he gave the cup into
Pharaoh's hand; but he hanged the chief baker, as Joseph had
interpreted to them. Yet did not the chief butler remember Joseph, but
forgat him.

And it came to pass at the end of two full years, that Pharaoh dreamed;
and, behold, he stood by the river. And, behold, there came up out of
the river seven well-favored kine and fat-fleshed; and they fed in a
meadow. And, behold, seven other kine came up after them out of the
river, ill-favored and lean-fleshed; and stood by the other kine upon
the brink of the river. And the ill-favored and lean-fleshed kine did
eat up the seven well-favored and fat kine. So Pharaoh awoke.

And he slept and dreamed the second time; and, behold, seven ears of
corn came up upon one stalk, rank and good. And, behold, seven thin
ears and blasted with the east wind sprung up after them. And the seven
thin ears devoured the seven rank and full ears. And Pharaoh awoke,
and, behold, it was a dream.

And it came to pass in the morning that his spirit was troubled; and he
sent and called for all the magicians of Egypt, and all the wise men
thereof: and Pharaoh told them his dream; but there was none that could
interpret them unto Pharaoh.

Then spake the chief butler unto Pharaoh, saying, "I do remember my
faults this day: Pharaoh was wroth with his servants, and put me in
ward in the captain of the guard's house, both me and the chief baker:
and we dreamed a dream in one night, I and he: we dreamed each man
according to the interpretation of his dream. And there was there with
us a young man, a Hebrew, servant to the captain of the guard; and we
told him, and he interpreted to us our dreams; to each man according to
his dream he did interpret. And it came to pass, as he interpreted to
us, so it was; me he restored unto mine office, and him he hanged."

Then Pharaoh sent and called Joseph, and they brought him hastily out
of the dungeon: and he shaved himself, and changed his raiment, and
came in unto Pharaoh. And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, "I have dreamed a
dream, and there is none that can interpret it: and I have heard say of
thee that thou canst understand a dream to interpret it." And Joseph
answered Pharaoh, saying, "It is not in me: God shall give Pharaoh an
answer of peace." And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, "In my dream, behold, I
stood upon the bank of the river: and, behold, there came up out of the
river seven kine, fat-fleshed and well-favored; and they fed in a
meadow; and, behold, seven other kine came up after them, poor and very
ill-favored and lean-fleshed, such as I never saw in all the land of
Egypt for badness; and the lean and the ill-favored kine did eat up the
first seven fat kine; and when they had eaten them up, it could not be
known that they had eaten them; but they were still ill-favored, as at
the beginning. So I awoke. And I saw in my dream, and, behold, seven
ears came up in one stalk, full and good; and, behold, seven ears,
withered, thin, and blasted with the east wind, sprung up after them;
and the thin ears devoured the seven good ears: and I told this unto
the magicians; but there was none that could declare it to me."

And Joseph said unto Pharaoh: "The dream of Pharaoh is one: God hath
showed Pharaoh what he is about to do. The seven good kine are seven
years; and the seven good ears are seven years: the dream is one. And
the seven thin and ill-favored kine that came up after them are seven
years; and the seven empty ears blasted with the east wind shall be
seven years of famine. This is the thing which I have spoken unto
Pharaoh: what God is about to do he showeth unto Pharaoh. Behold, there
come seven years of great plenty throughout all the land of Egypt; and
there shall arise after them seven years of famine; and all the plenty
shall be forgotten in the land of Egypt, and the famine shall consume
the land; and the plenty shall not be known in the land by reason of
that famine following; for it shall be very grievous. And for that the
dream was doubled unto Pharaoh twice; it is because the thing is
established by God, and God will shortly bring it to pass. Now
therefore let Pharaoh look out a man discreet and wise, and set him
over the land of Egypt. Let Pharaoh do this, and let him appoint
officers over the land, and take up the fifth part of the land of Egypt
in the seven plenteous years. And let them gather all the food of those
good years that come, and lay up corn under the hand of Pharaoh, and
let them keep food in the cities. And that food shall be for store to
the land against the seven years of famine, which shall be in the land
of Egypt; that the land perish not through famine."

And the thing was good in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of all
his servants. And Pharaoh said unto his servants, "Can we find such a
one as this is, a man in whom the spirit of God is?" And Pharaoh said
unto Joseph, "Forasmuch as God hath showed thee all this, there is none
so discreet and wise as thou art: Thou shalt be over my house, and
according unto thy word shall all my people be ruled: only in the
throne will I be greater than thou." And Pharaoh said unto Joseph,
"See, I have set thee over all the land of Egypt." And Pharaoh took off
his ring from his hand, and put it upon Joseph's hand, and arrayed him
in vestures of fine linen, and put a gold chain about his neck; and he
made him to ride in the second chariot which he had, and they cried
before him, "Bow the knee": and he made him ruler over all the land of
Egypt. And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, "I am Pharaoh, and without thee
shall no man lift up his hand or foot in all the land of Egypt." And
Pharaoh called Joseph's name Zaphnath-paaneah; and he gave him to wife
Asenath, the daughter of Poti-pherah, priest of On. And Joseph went out
over all the land of Egypt.

And Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh king of
Egypt. And Joseph went out from the presence of Pharaoh, and went
throughout all the land of Egypt. And in the seven plenteous years the
earth brought forth by handfuls. And he gathered up all the food of the
seven years, which were in the land of Egypt, and laid up the food in
the cities: the food of the field, which was round about every city,
laid he up in the same. And Joseph gathered corn as the sand of the
sea, very much, until he left numbering; for it was without number. And
unto Joseph were born two sons, befare the years of famine came, which
Asenath, the daughter of Poti-pherah, priest of On, bare unto him. And
Joseph called the name of the firstborn Manasseh: "For God," said he,
"hath made me forget all my toil, and all my father's house." And the
name of the second called he Ephraim: "For God hath caused me to be
fruitful in the land of my affliction."

And the seven years of plenteousness that was in the land of Egypt were
ended. And the seven years of dearth began to come, according as Joseph
had said: and the dearth was in all lands; but in all the land of Egypt
there was bread. And when all the land of Egypt was famished, the
people cried to Pharaoh for bread: and Pharaoh said unto all the
Egyptians, "Go unto Joseph; what he saith to you, do." And the famine
was over all the face of the earth: and Joseph opened all the
storehouses, and sold unto the Egyptians; and the famine waxed sore in
the land of Egypt. And all countries came into Egypt to Joseph for to
buy corn; because that the famine was so sore in all lands.

Now when Jacob saw that there was corn in Egypt, Jacob said unto his
sons: "Why do ye look one upon another?" And he said, "Behold, I have
heard that there is corn in Egypt; get you down thither, and buy for us
from thence; that we may live, and not die."

And Joseph's ten brethren went down to buy corn in Egypt. But Benjamin,
Joseph's brother, Jacob sent not with his brethren; for he said, "Lest
peradventure mischief befall him." And the sons of Israel came to buy
corn among those that came; for the famine was in the land of Canaan.
And Joseph was the governor over the land, and he it was that sold to
all the people of the land; and Joseph's brethren came, and bowed down
themselves before him with their faces to the earth. And Joseph saw his
brethren, and he knew them, but made himself strange unto them, and
spake roughly unto them; and he said unto them: "Whence come ye?" And
they said: "From the land of Canaan to buy food." And Joseph knew his
brethren, but they knew not him. And Joseph remembered the dreams which
he dreamed of them, and said unto them: "Ye are spies; to see the
nakedness of the land ye are come." And they said unto him: "Nay, my
lord, but to buy food are thy servants come. We are all one man's sons;
we are true men, thy servants are no spies." And he said unto them:
"Nay, but to see the nakedness of the land ye are come." And they said:
"Thy servants are twelve brethren, sons of one man in the land of
Canaan; and, behold, the youngest is this day with our father, and one
is not." And Joseph said unto them: "That is it that I spake unto you,
saying, 'Ye are spies:' hereby ye shall be proved: by the life of
Pharaoh ye shall not go forth hence, except your youngest brother come
hither. Send one of you, and let him fetch your brother, and ye shall
be kept in prison, that your words may be proved, whether there be any
truth in you; or else by the life of Pharaoh surely ye are spies." And
he put them all together into ward three days. And Joseph said unto
them the third day:

"This do, and live; for I fear God: if ye be true men, let one of your
brethren be bound in the house of your prison; go ye, carry corn for
the famine of your houses; but bring your youngest brother unto me; so
shall your words be verified, and ye shall not die." And they did so.

And they said one to another: "We are verily guilty concerning our
brother, in that we saw the anguish of his soul, when he besought us,
and we would not hear; therefore is this distress come upon us." And
Reuben answered them, saying, "Spake I not unto you, saying, 'Do not
sin against the child;' and ye would not hear? therefore, behold, also
his blood is required." And they knew not that Joseph understood them;
for he spake unto them by an interpreter. And he turned himself about
from them, and wept; and returned to them again, and communed with
them, and took from them Simeon, and bound him before their eyes.

Then Joseph commanded to fill their sacks with corn, and to restore
every man's money into his sack, and to give them provision for the
way: and thus did he unto them. And they laded their asses with the
corn and departed thence. And as one of them opened his sack to give
his ass provender in the inn, he espied his money; for behold it was in
his sack's mouth. And he said unto his brethren, "My money is restored;
and, lo, it is even in my sack:" and their heart failed them, and they
were afraid, saying one to another, "What is this that God hath done
unto us?"

And they came unto Jacob their father unto the land of Canaan, and told
him all that befell unto them, saying: "The man who is the lord of the
land spoke roughly to us and took us for spies of the country. And we
said unto him, 'We are true men; we are no spies; we be twelve
brethren, sons of our father; one is not and the youngest is this day
with our father in the land of Canaan.' And the man, the lord of the
country, said unto us: 'Hereby shall I know that ye are true men:
leave one of your brethren here with me, and take food for the famine
of your households, and be gone; and bring your youngest brother unto
me, then shall I know that ye are no spies but that ye are true men; so
will I deliver you your brother and ye shall traffick in the land.'"

And it came to pass as they emptied their sacks, that, behold, every
man's bundle of money was in his sack; and when both they and their
father saw the bundles of money, they were afraid. And Jacob their
father said unto them: "Me have ye bereaved of my children: Joseph is
not, and Simeon is not, and ye will take Benjamin away; all these
things are against me." And Reuben spake unto his father, saying: "Slay
my two sons, if I bring him not to thee; deliver him into my hand, and
I will bring him to thee again." And he said: "My son shall not go down
with you; for his brother is dead, and he is left alone; if mischief
befall him by the way in the which ye go, then shall ye bring down my
gray hairs with sorrow to the grave."

And the famine was sore in the land. And it came to pass, when they had
eaten up the corn which they had brought out of Egypt, their father
said unto them: "Go again, buy us a little food." And Judah spake unto
him saying:

"The man did solemnly protest unto us saying, 'Ye shall not see my
face, except your brother be with you.' If thou wilt send our brother
with us, we will go down and buy thee food. But if thou wilt not send
him, we will not go down; for the man said unto us, 'Ye shall not see
my face, except your brother be with you.'" And Israel said: "Wherefore
dealt ye so ill with me as to tell the man whether ye had yet a
brother?" And they said, "The man asked us straitly of our state and of
our kindred, saying, 'Is your father yet alive? Have ye another
brother?' And we told him according to the tenor of these words. Could
we certainly know that he would say, 'Bring your brother down?'" And
Judah said unto Israel his father, "Send the lad with me, and we will
arise and go; that we may live and not die, both we and thou and also
our little ones. I will be surety for him: if I bring him not unto thee
and set him before thee, then let me bear the blame forever. For except
we had lingered, surely now we had returned this second time." And
their father Israel said unto them, "If it must be so now, do this:
take of the best fruits in the land in your vessels, and carry down the
man a present, a little balm, and a little honey, spices and myrrh,
nuts and almonds; and take double money in your hand; and the money
that was brought again in the mouth of your sacks, carry it again in
your hand; peradventure it was an oversight. Take also your brother,
and arise, go again unto the man; and God Almighty give you mercy
before the man, that he may send away your other brother and Benjamin.
If I be bereaved of my children, I am bereaved."

And the men took that present, and they took double money in their
hand, and Benjamin; and rose up, and went down to Egypt, and stood
before Joseph. And when Joseph saw Benjamin with them, he said to the
ruler of his house, "Bring these men home, and slay, and make ready;
for these men shall dine with me at noon." And the man did as Joseph
bade; and the man brought the men into Joseph's house. And the men were
afraid, because they were brought into Joseph's house; and they said,
"Because of the money that was returned in our sacks at the first time
are we brought in; that he may seek occasion against us, and fall upon
us, and take us for bondmen, and our asses." And they came near to the
steward of Joseph's house, and they communed with him at the door of
the house, and said, "O sir, we came indeed down at the first time to
buy food; and it came to pass, when we came to the inn, that we opened
our sacks, and, behold; every man's money was in the mouth of his sack,
our money in full weight; and we have brought it again in our hand. And
other money have we brought down in our hands to buy food; we cannot
tell who put our money in our sacks." And he said: "Peace be to you,
fear not; your God, and the God of your father, hath given you treasure
in your sacks; I had your money." And he brought Simeon out unto them.
And the man brought the men into Joseph's house, and gave them water,
and they washed their feet; and he gave their asses provender. And they
made ready the present against Joseph came at noon; for they heard that
they should eat bread there.

And when Joseph came home, they brought him the present which was in
their hand into the house, and bowed themselves to him to the earth.
And he asked them of their welfare, and said: "Is your father well, the
old man of whom ye spake? Is he yet alive?" And they answered: "Thy
servant our father is in good health, he is yet alive." And they bowed
down their heads, and made obeisance. And he lifted up his eyes, and
saw his brother Benjamin, his mother's son, and said: "Is this your
younger brother, of whom ye spake unto me?" And he said, "God be
gracious unto thee, my son." And Joseph made haste; for his bowels did
yearn upon his brother; and he sought where to weep; and he entered
into his chamber, and wept there. And he washed his face, and went out,
and refrained himself, and said, "Set on bread." And they set on for
him by himself, and for them by themselves, and for the Egyptians,
which did eat with him, by themselves; because the Egyptians might not
eat bread with the Hebrews; for that is an abomination unto the
Egyptians. And they sat before him, the firstborn according to his
birthright, and the youngest according to his youth; and the men
marveled one at another. And he took and sent messes unto them from
before him, but Benjamin's mess was five times as much as any of
theirs. And they drank, and were merry with him.

And he commanded the steward of his house, saying: "Fill the men's
sacks with food, as much as they can carry, and put every man's money
in his sack's mouth. And put my cup, the silver cup, in the sack's
mouth of the youngest, and his corn money." And he did according to the
word that Joseph had spoken. As soon as the morning was light, the men
were sent away, they and their asses. And when they were gone out of
the city, and not yet far off, Joseph said unto his steward, "Up,
follow after the men; and when thou dost overtake them, say unto them,
'Wherefore have ye rewarded evil for good? Is not this it in which my
lord drinketh, and whereby indeed he divineth? ye have done evil in so

And he overtook them, and he spake unto them these same words. And they
said unto him, "Wherefore saith my lord these words? God forbid that
thy servants should do according to this thing: behold, the money,
which was found in our sacks' mouths, we brought again unto thee out of
the land of Canaan: how then should we steal out of thy lord's house
silver or gold? With whosoever of thy servants it be found, both let
him die, and we also will be my lord's bondmen." And he said, "Now also
let it be according unto your words: he with whom it is found shall be
my servant; and ye shall be blameless." Then they speedily took down
every man his sack to the ground, and opened every man his sack. And he
searched, and began at the eldest and left at the youngest: and the cup
was found in Benjamin's sack. Then they rent their clothes, and laded
every man his ass, and returned to the city.

And Judah and his brethren came to Joseph's house, for he was yet
there; and they fell before him on the ground. And Joseph said unto
them: "What deed is this that ye have done? wot ye not that such a man
as I can certainly divine?" And Judah said: "What shall we say unto my
lord? what shall we speak? or how shall we clear ourselves? God hath
found out the iniquity of thy servants; behold, we are my lord's
servants, both we, and he also with whom the cup is found." And he
said: "God forbid that I should do so; but the man in whose hand the
cup is found, he shall be my servant; and as for you, get you up in
peace unto your father."

Then Judah came near unto him, and said: "Oh my lord, let thy servant,
I pray thee, speak a word in my lord's ears, and let not thine anger
burn against thy servant, for thou art even as Pharaoh. My lord asked
his servants, saying, 'Have ye a father, or a brother?' And we said
unto my lord, 'We have a father, an old man, and a child of his old
age, a little one; and his brother is dead, and he alone is left of his
mother, and his father loveth him.' And thou saidst unto thy servants,
'Bring him down unto me, that I may set mine eyes upon him.' And we
said unto my lord, 'The lad cannot leave his father; for if he should
leave his father, his father would die.' And thou saidst unto thy
servants, 'Except your youngest brother came down with you, ye shall
see my face no more.' And it came to pass when we came up unto thy
servant my father, we told him the words of my lord. And our father
said, 'Go again, and buy us a little food.' And we said, 'We cannot go
down. If our youngest brother be with us, then will we go down; for we
may not see the man's face except our youngest brother be with us!' And
thy servant my father said to us, 'Ye know that my wife bare me two
sons; and the one went out from me, and I said, "Surely he is torn in
pieces," and I saw him not since. And if ye take this also from me and
mischief befall him, ye shall bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to
the grave.' Now therefore when I come to thy servant my father, and the
lad be not with us, seeing that his life is bound up in the lad's life,
it shall come to pass, when he seeth that the lad is not with us, that
he will die: and thy servants shall bring down the gray hairs of thy
servant our father with sorrow to the grave. For thy servant became
surety for the lad unto my father, saying, 'If I bring him not unto
thee, then I shall bear the blame to my father forever.' Now therefore,
I pray thee, let thy servant abide instead of the lad a bondman to my
lord, and let the lad go up with his brethren. For how shall I go up to
my father, and the lad be not with me? lest peradventure I see the evil
that shall come on my father."

Then Joseph could not refrain himself before all them that stood by
him; and he cried, "Cause every man to go out from me." And there stood
no man with him, while Joseph made himself known unto his brethren. And
he wept aloud: and the Egyptians and the house of Pharaoh heard. And
Joseph said unto his brethren, "I am Joseph; doth my father yet live?"
And his brethren could not answer him; for they were troubled at his
presence. And Joseph said unto his brethren, "Come near to me, I pray
you." And they came near. And he said, "I am Joseph your brother, whom
ye sold into Egypt. Now therefore be not grieved, nor angry with
yourselves, that ye sold me hither: for God did send me before you to
preserve life. For these two years hath the famine been in the land:
and yet there are five years, in the which there shall neither be
earing nor harvest. And God sent me before you to preserve you a
posterity in the earth, and to save your lives by a great deliverance.
So now it was not you that sent me hither, but God; and he hath made me
a father to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and a ruler throughout
all the land of Egypt. Haste ye, and go up to my father, and say unto
him, 'Thus said thy son Joseph, God hath made me lord of all Egypt:
come down unto me, tarry not: and thou shalt dwell in the land of
Goshen, and thou shalt be near unto me, thou, and thy children, and thy
children's children, and thy flocks, and thy herds, and all that thou
hast; and there will I nourish thee; for yet there are five years of
famine; lest thou, and thy household, and all that thou hast, come to
poverty.' And, behold, your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother
Benjamin, that it is my mouth that speaketh unto you. And ye shall tell
my father of all my glory in Egypt, and of all that ye have seen; and
ye shall haste and bring down my father hither." And he fell upon his
brother Benjamin's neck, and wept; and Benjamin wept upon his neck.
Moreover, he kissed all his brethren, and wept upon them, and after
that his brethren talked with him.

And the fame thereof was heard in Pharaoh's house, saying, "Joseph's
brethren are come;" and it pleased Pharaoh well, and his servants. And
Pharaoh said unto Joseph: "Say unto thy brethren, 'This do ye; lade
your beasts, and go, get you unto the land of Canaan; and take your
father and your households, and come unto me, and I will give you the
good of the land of Egypt, and ye shall eat the fat of the land.' Now
thou art commanded, this do ye; take you wagons out of the land of
Egypt for your little ones, and for your wives, and bring your father,
and come.' Also regard not your stuff; for the good of all the land of
Egypt is yours." And the children of Israel did so; and Joseph gave
them wagons, according to the commandment of Pharaoh, and gave them
provision for the way. To all of them he gave each man changes of
raiment; but to Benjamin he gave three hundred pieces of silver, and
five changes of raiment. And to his father he sent after this manner;
ten asses laden with the good things of Egypt, and ten she asses laden
with corn and bread and meat for his father by the way. So he sent his
brethren away, and they departed; and he said unto them, "See that ye
fall not out by the way."

And they went up out of Egypt, and came into the land of Canaan unto
Jacob their father, and told him, saying, "Joseph is yet alive, and he
is governor over all the land of Egypt." And Jacob's heart fainted, for
he believed them not. And they told him all the words of Joseph, which
he had said unto them: and when he saw the wagons which Joseph had sent
to carry him, the spirit of Jacob their father revived: and Israel
said, "It is enough; Joseph my son is yet alive: I will go and see him
before I die."

And Israel took his journey with all that he had, and came to Beer-
sheba, and offered sacrifices unto the God of his father Isaac. And God
spake unto Israel in the visions of the night, and said, "Jacob,
Jacob." And he said, "Here am I." And he said, "I am God, the God of
thy father: fear not to go down into Egypt; for I will there make of
thee a great nation: I will go down with thee into Egypt; and I will
also surely bring thee up again: and Joseph shall put his hand upon
thine eyes." And Jacob rose up from Beer-sheba: and the sons of Israel
carried Jacob their father, and their little ones, and their wives, in
the wagons which Pharaoh had sent to carry him. And they took their
cattle, and their goods, which they had gotten in the land of Canaan,
and came into Egypt, Jacob, and all his seed with him: his sons, and
his sons' sons with him, his daughters, and his sons' daughters, and
all his seed brought he with him into Egypt.

And he sent Judah before him unto Joseph, to direct his face unto
Goshen; and they came into the land of Goshen. And Joseph made ready
his chariot, and went up to meet Israel his father, to Goshen, and
presented himself unto him; and he fell on his neck, and wept on his
neck a good while. And Israel said unto Joseph: "Now let me die, since
I have seen thy face, because thou art yet alive." And Joseph said unto
his brethren, and unto his father's house: "I will go up, and show
Pharaoh, and say unto him, 'My brethren, and my father's house, which
were in the land of Canaan, are come unto me; and the men are
shepherds, for their trade hath been to feed cattle; and they have
brought their flocks, and their herds, and all that they have.' And it
shall come to pass, when Pharaoh shall call you, and shall say, 'What
is your occupation?' that ye shall say, 'Thy servants' trade hath been
about cattle from our youth even until now, both we, and also our
fathers:' that ye may dwell in the land of Goshen; for every shepherd
is an abomination unto the Egyptians."

Then Joseph came and told Pharaoh, and said: "My father and my
brethren, and their flocks, and their herds, and all that they have,
are come out of the land of Canaan; and, behold, they are in the land
of Goshen." And he took some of his brethren, even five men, and
presented them unto Pharaoh. And Pharaoh said unto his brethren: "What
is your occupation?" And they said unto Pharaoh: "Thy servants are
shepherds, both we, and also our fathers." They said moreover unto
Pharaoh, "For to sojourn in the land are we come; for thy servants have
no pasture for their flocks; for the famine is sore in the land of
Canaan: now therefore, we pray thee, let thy servants dwell in the land
of Goshen." And Pharaoh spake unto Joseph, saying: "Thy father and thy
brethren are come unto thee: the land of Egypt is before thee; in the
best of the land make thy father and brethren to dwell; in the land of
Goshen let them dwell: and if thou knowest any men of activity among
them, then make them rulers over my cattle." And Joseph brought in
Jacob his father, and set him before Pharaoh: and Jacob blessed
Pharaoh. And Pharaoh said unto Jacob, "How old art thou?" And Jacob
said unto Pharaoh, "The days of the years of my pilgrimage are an
hundred and thirty years: few and evil have the days of the years of my
life been, and have not attained unto the days of the years of the life
of my fathers in the days of their pilgrimage." And Jacob blessed
Pharaoh, and went out from before Pharaoh.

And Joseph placed his father and his brethren, and gave them a
possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land
of Rameses, as Pharaoh had commanded. And Joseph nourished his father
and his brethren, and all his father's household, with bread, according
to their families.

And there was no bread in all the land; for the famine was very sore,
so that the land of Egypt and all the land of Canaan fainted by reason
of the famine. And Joseph gathered up all the money that was found in
the land of Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, for the corn which they
bought; and Joseph brought the money into Pharaoh's house. And when
money failed in the land of Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, all the
Egyptians came unto Joseph, and said, "Give us bread, for why should we
die in thy presence? for the money faileth." And Joseph said, "Give
your cattle, and I will give you for your cattle, if money fail." And
they brought their cattle unto Joseph; and Joseph gave them bread in
exchange for horses, and for the flocks, and for the cattle of the
herds, and for the asses; and he fed them with bread for all their
cattle for that year. When that year was ended, they came unto him the
second year, and said unto him, "We will not hide it from my lord, how
that our money is spent; my lord also hath our herds of cattle; there
is not aught left in the sight of my lord, but our bodies, and our
lands. Wherefore shall we die before thine eyes, both we and our land?
buy us and our land for bread, and we and our land will be servants
unto Pharaoh; and give us seed, that we may live, and not die, that the
land be not desolate."

And Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh; for the Egyptians
sold every man his field, because the famine prevailed over them. So
the land became Pharaoh's. And as for the people, he removed them to
cities from one end of the borders of Egypt even to the other end
thereof. Only the land of the priests bought he not; for the priests
had a portion assigned them of Pharaoh, and did eat their portion which
Pharaoh gave them. Wherefore they sold not their lands. Then Joseph
said unto the people: "Behold, I have bought you this day and your land
for Pharaoh; lo, here is seed for you, and ye shall sow the land. And
it shall come to pass in the increase, that ye shall give the fifth
part unto Pharaoh, and four parts shall be your own, for seed of the
field, and for your food, and for them of your households, and for food
for your little ones." And they said: "Thou hast saved our lives: let
us find grace in the sight of my lord, and we will be Pharaoh's
servants." And Joseph made it a law over the land of Egypt unto this
day, that Pharaoh should have the fifth part; except the land of the
priests only, which became not Pharaoh's. And Israel dwelt in the land
of Egypt, in the country of Goshen; and they had possessions therein,
and grew, and multiplied exceedingly. And Jacob lived in the land of
Egypt seventeen years; so the whole age of Jacob was an hundred forty
and seven years. And the time drew nigh that Israel must die, and he
called his son Joseph, and said unto him, "If now I have found grace in
thy sight, put, I pray thee, thy hand under my thigh, and deal kindly
and truly with me; bury me not, I pray thee, in Egypt; but I will lie
with my fathers, and thou shalt carry me out of Egypt, and bury me in
their burying-place." And he said, "I will do as thou hast said." And
he said, "Swear unto me." And he sware unto him. And Israel bowed
himself upon the bed's head.

And it came to pass after these things, that one told Joseph, "Behold,
thy father is sick;" and he took with him his two sons, Manasseh and
Ephraim. And one told Jacob, and said, "Behold, thy son Joseph cometh
unto thee;" and Israel strengthened himself, and sat upon the bed. And
Jacob said unto Joseph, "God Almighty appeared unto me at Luz in the
land of Canaan, and blessed me, and said unto me, 'Behold, I will make
thee fruitful, and multiply thee, and I will make of thee a multitude
of people; and will give this land to thy seed after thee for an
everlasting possession.'

"And now thy two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, which were born unto thee
in the land of Egypt before I came unto thee into Egypt, are mine; as
Reuben and Simeon, they shall be mine. And thy issue, which thou
begettest after them, shall be thine, and shall be called after the
name of their brethren in their inheritance. And as for me, when I came
from Padan, Rachel died by me in the land of Canaan in the way, when
yet there was but a little way to come unto Ephrath: and I buried her
there in the way of Ephrath; the same is Beth-lehem." And Israel beheld
Joseph's sons, and said, "Who are these?" And Joseph said unto his
father, "They are my sons, whom God hath given me in this place." And
he said, "Bring them, I pray thee, unto me, and I will bless them." Now
the eyes of Israel were dim for age, so that he could not see. And he
brought them near unto him; and he kissed them, and embraced them. And
Israel said unto Joseph, "I had not thought to see thy face, and, lo,
God hath showed me also thy seed." And Joseph brought them out from
between his knees, and he bowed himself with his face to the earth. And
Joseph took them both, Ephraim in his right hand toward Israel's left
hand, and Manasseh in his left hand toward Israel's right hand, and
brought them near unto him. And Israel stretched out his right hand,
and laid it upon Ephraim's head, who was the younger, and his left hand
upon Manasseh's head, guiding his hands wittingly; for Manasseh was the

And he blessed Joseph, and said, "God, before whom my fathers Abraham
and Isaac did walk, the God which fed me all my life long unto this
day, the Angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads; and let
my name be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac;
and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth." And when
Joseph saw that his father laid his right hand upon the head of
Ephraim, it displeased him; and he held up his father's hand, to remove
it from Ephraim's head unto Manasseh's head. And Joseph said unto his

"Not so, my father, for this is the firstborn; put thy right hand upon
his head." And his father refused, and said, "I know it, my son, I know
it; he also shall become a people, and he also shall be great; but
truly his younger brother shall be greater than he, and his seed shall
become a multitude of nations." And he blessed them that day, saying,
"In thee shall Israel bless, saying, 'God make thee as Ephraim and as
Manasseh;'" and he set Ephraim before Manasseh. And Israel said unto
Joseph, "Behold, I die; but God shall be with you, and bring you again
unto the land of your fathers. Moreover, I have given to thee one
portion above thy brethren, which I took out of the hand of the Amorite
with my sword and with my bow."

And Jacob called unto his sons and blessed them; every one according to
his blessing he blessed them. And he charged them, and said unto them:

"I am to be gathered unto my people. Bury me with my fathers in the
cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite, in the cave that is in
the field of Machpelah, which is before Mamre, in the land of Canaan,
which Abraham bought with the field of Ephron the Hittite for a
possession of a buryingplace. There they buried Abraham and Sarah his
wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and there I buried
Leah. The purchase of the field and of the cave that is therein was
from the children of Heth."

And when Jacob had made an end of commanding his sons, he gathered up
his feet into the bed, and yielded up the ghost, and was gathered unto
his people.

And Joseph fell upon his father's face, and wept upon him, and kissed
him. And Joseph commanded his servants the physicians to embalm his
father; and the physicians embalmed Israel. And forty days were
fulfilled for him; for so are fulfilled the days of those which are
embalmed; and the Egyptians mourned for him threescore and ten days.
And when the days of his mourning were past, Joseph spake unto the
house of Pharaoh, saying, "If now I have found grace in your eyes,
speak, I pray you, in the ears of Pharaoh, saying, 'My father made me
swear, saying, "Lo, I die: in my grave which I have digged for me in
the land of Canaan, there shalt thou bury me." Now therefore let me go
up, I pray thee, and bury my father, and I will come again.'" And
Pharaoh said, "Go up, and bury thy father, according as he made thee

And Joseph went up to bury his father; and with him went up all the
servants of Pharaoh, the elders of his house, and all the elders of the
land of Egypt. And all the house of Joseph, and his brethren, and his
father's house; only their little ones, and their flocks, and their
herds, they left in the land of Goshen. And there went up with him both
chariots and horsemen: and it was a very great company. And they came
to the threshingfloor of Atad, which is beyond Jordan, and there they
mourned with a great and very sore lamentation; and he made a mourning
for his father seven days. And when the inhabitants of the land, the
Canaanites, saw the mourning in the floor of Atad, they said, "This is
a grievous mourning to the Egyptians;" wherefore the name of it was
called Abel-mizraim, which is beyond Jordan. And his sons did unto him
according as he commanded them; for his sons carried him into the land
of Canaan, and buried him in the cave of the field of Machpelah, which
Abraham bought with the field for a possession of a buryingplace of
Ephron the Hittite, before Mamre.

And Joseph returned into Egypt, he, and his brethren, and all that went
up with him to bury his father, after he had buried his father. And
when Joseph's brethren saw that their father was dead, they said,
"Joseph will peradventure hate us, and will certainly requite us all
the evil which we did unto him." And they sent a messenger unto Joseph,
saying, "Thy father did command before he died, saying: 'So shall ye
say unto Joseph, "Forgive, I pray thee now, the trespass of thy
brethren, and their sin; for they did unto thee evil."' And now, we
pray thee, forgive the trespass of the servants of the God of thy
father." And Joseph wept when they spake unto him. And his brethren
also went and fell down before his face; and they said," Behold, we be
thy servants." And Joseph said unto them, "Fear not; for am I in the
place of God? But as for you, ye thought evil against me; but God meant
it unto good, to bring to pass, as it is this day, to save much people
alive. Now therefore fear ye not. I will nourish you, and your little
ones." And he comforted them, and spake kindly unto them.

And Joseph dwelt in Egypt, he, and his father's house; and Joseph lived
an hundred and ten years. And Joseph saw Ephraim's children of the
third generation; the children also of Machir the son of Manasseh were
brought up upon Joseph's knees. And Joseph said unto his brethren, "I
die; and God will surely visit you, and bring you out of this land unto
the land which he sware to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob." And Joseph
took an oath of the children of Israel, saying, "God will surely visit
you, and ye shall carry up my bones from hence." So Joseph died, being
an hundred and ten years old. And they embalmed him, and he was put in
a coffin in Egypt.


And the woman bare a son, and called his name Samson: and the child
grew, and the Lord blessed him. And the Spirit of the Lord began to
move him at times in the camp of Dan between Zorah and Eshtaol.

And Samson went down to Timnath, and saw a woman in Timnath of the
daughters of the Philistines. And he came up, and told his father and
his mother, and said, "I have seen a woman in Timnath of the daughters
of the Philistines: now therefore get her for me to wife."

Then his father and his mother said unto him, "Is there never a woman
among the daughters of thy brethren, or among all my people, that thou
goest to take a wife of the uncircumcised Philistines? "And Samson said
unto his father," Get her for me; for she pleaseth me well."

But his father and his mother knew not that it was of the Lord, that he
sought an occasion against the Philistines: for at that time the
Philistines had dominion over Israel.

Then went Samson down, and his father and his mother, to Timnath, and
came to the vineyards of Timnath: and, behold, a young lion roared
against him. And the Spirit of the Lord came mightily upon him, and he
rent him as he would have rent a kid, and he had nothing in his hand:
but he told not his father or his mother what he had done. And he went
down, and talked with the woman; and she pleased Samson well.

And after a time he returned to take her, and he turned aside to see
the carcass of the lion: and, behold, there was a swarm of bees and
honey in the carcass of the lion. And he took thereof in his hands, and
went on eating, and came to his father and mother, and he gave them,
and they did eat: but he told not them that he had taken the honey out
of the carcass of the lion.

So his father went down unto the woman: and Samson made there a feast;
for so used the young men to do. And it came to pass, when they saw
him, that they brought thirty companions to be with him.

And Samson said unto them, "I will now put forth a riddle unto you: if
ye can certainly declare it me within the seven days of the feast, and
find it out, then I will give you thirty sheets and thirty change of
garments: But if ye cannot declare it me, then shall ye give me thirty
sheets and thirty change of garments." And they said unto him, "Put
forth thy riddle, that we may hear it." And he said unto them, "Out of
the eater came forth meat, and out of the strong came forth sweetness."
And they could not in three days expound the riddle. And it came to
pass on the seventh day, that they said unto Samson's wife, "Entice thy
husband, that he may declare unto us the riddle, lest we burn thee and
thy father's house with fire: have ye called us to take that we have?
is it not so?" And Samson's wife wept before him, and said, "Thou dost
but hate me, and lovest me not: thou hast put forth a riddle unto the
children of my people, and hast not told it me." And he said unto her,
"Behold, I have not told it my father nor my mother, and shall I tell
it thee?" And she wept before him the seven days, while their feast
lasted: and it came to pass on the seventh day, that he told her,
because she lay sore upon him: and she told the riddle to the children
of her people. And the men of the city said unto him on the seventh day
before the sun went down, "What is sweeter than honey? and what is
stronger than a lion?" And he said unto them, "If ye had not plowed
with my heifer, ye had not found out my riddle."

And the Spirit of the Lord came upon him, and he went down to Ashkelon,
and slew thirty men of them, and took their spoil, and gave change of
garments unto them which expounded the riddle. And his anger was
kindled, and he went up to his father's house. But Samson's wife was
given to his companion, whom he had used as his friend.

But it came to pass within a while after, in the time of wheat harvest,
that Samson visited his wife with a kid; and he said, "I will go in to
my wife into the chamber." But her father would not suffer him to go
in. And her father said, "I verily thought that thou hadst utterly
hated her; therefore I gave her to thy companion: is not her younger
sister fairer than she? take her, I pray thee, instead of her."

And Samson said concerning them, "Now shall I be more blameless than
the Philistines, though I do them a displeasure." And Samson went and
caught three hundred foxes, and took firebrands, and turned tail to
tail, and put a firebrand in the midst between two tails. And when he
had set the brands on fire, he let them go into the standing corn of
the Philistines, and burnt up both the shocks, and also the standing
corn, with the vineyards and olives.

Then the Philistines said, "Who hath done this?" And they answered,
"Samson, the son-in-law of the Timnite, because he had taken his wife,
and given her to his companion." And the Philistines came up, and burnt
her and her father with fire.

And Samson said unto them, "Though ye have done this, yet will I be
avenged of you, and after that I will cease." And he smote them hip and
thigh with a great slaughter: and he went down and dwelt in the top of
the rock Etam.

Then the Philistines went up, and pitched in Judah, and spread
themselves in Lehi. And the men of Judah said, "Why are ye come up
against us?" And they answered, "To bind Samson are we come up, to do
to him as he hath done to us." Then three thousand men of Judah went to
the top of the rock Etam, and said to Samson, "Knowest thou not that
the Philistines are rulers over us? what is this that thou hast done
unto us?" And he said unto them, "As they did unto me, so have I done
unto them." And they said unto him, "We are come down to bind thee,
that we may deliver thee into the hand of the Philistines." And Samson
said unto them, "Swear unto me, that ye will not fall upon me
yourselves." And they spake unto him, saying, "No; but we will bind
thee fast, and deliver thee into their hand: but surely we will not
kill thee." And they bound him with two new cords, and brought him up
from the rock.

And when he came unto Lehi, the Philistines shouted against him: and
the Spirit of the Lord came mightily upon him, and the cords that were
upon his arms became as flax that was burnt with fire, and his bands
loosed from off his hands. And he found a new jawbone of an ass, and
put forth his hand, and took it, and slew a thousand men therewith. And
Samson said, "With the jawbone of an ass, heaps upon heaps, with the
jaw of an ass have I slain a thousand men." And it came to pass, when
he had made an end of speaking, that he cast away the jawbone out of
his hand, and called that place Ramath-lehi.

And he was sore athirst, and called on the Lord, and said, "Thou hast
given this great deliverance into the hand of thy servant: and now
shall I die for thirst, and fall into the hand of the uncircumcised?"
But God clave a hollow place that was in the jaw, and there came water
thereout; and when he had drunk, his spirit came again, and he revived:
wherefore he called the name thereof Enhakkore, which is in Lehi unto
this day. And he judged Israel in the days of the Philistines twenty

Then went Samson to Gaza. And it was told the Gazites, saying, "Samson
is come hither." And they compassed him in, and laid wait for him all
night in the gate of the city, and were quiet all the night, saying,
"In the morning, when it is day, we shall kill him." And Samson lay
till midnight, and arose at midnight, and took the doors of the gate of
the city, and the two posts, and went away with them, bar and all, and
put them upon his shoulders, and carried them up to the top of a hill
that is before Hebron.

And it came to pass afterward, that he loved a woman in the valley of
Sorek, whose name was Delilah. And the lords of the Philistines came up
unto her, and said unto her, "Entice him, and see wherein his great
strength lieth, and by what means we may prevail against him, that we
may bind him to afflict him: and we will give thee every one of us
eleven hundred pieces of silver."

And Delilah said to Samson, "Tell me, I pray thee, wherein thy great
strength lieth, and wherewith thou mightest be bound to afflict thee."
And Samson said unto her, "If they bind me with seven green withes that
were never dried, then shall I be weak, and be as another man." Then
the lords of the Philistines brought up to her seven green withes which
had not been dried, and she bound him with them. Now there were men
lying in wait, abiding with her in the chamber. And she said unto him,
"The Philistines be upon thee, Samson." And he brake the withes, as a
thread of tow is broken when it toucheth the fire. So his strength was
not known. And Delilah said unto Samson, "Behold, thou hast mocked me,
and told me lies: now tell me, I pray thee, wherewith thou mightest be
bound." And he said unto her, "If they bind me fast with new ropes that
never were occupied, then shall I be weak, and be as another man."
Delilah therefore took new ropes, and bound him therewith, and said
unto him, "The Philistines be upon thee, Samson." And there were liers
in wait abiding in the chamber. And he brake them from off his arms
like a thread. And Delilah said unto Samson, "Hitherto thou hast mocked
me, and told me lies: tell me wherewith thou mightest be bound." And he
said unto her," If thou weavest the seven locks of my head with the
web." And she fastened it with the pin, and said unto him," The
Philistines be upon thee, Samson." And he awaked out of his sleep, and
went away with the pin of the beam, and with the web.

And she said unto him, "How canst thou say, 'I love thee,' when thine
heart is not with me? Thou hast mocked me these three times, and hast
not told me wherein thy great strength lieth." And it came to pass,
when she pressed him daily with her words, and urged him, so that his
soul was vexed unto death; that he told her all his heart, and said
unto her, "There hath not come a razor upon mine head; for I have been
a Nazarite unto God from my mother's womb: if I be shaven, then my
strength will go from me, and I shall become weak, and be like any
other man." And when Delilah saw that he had told her all his heart,
she sent and called for the lords of the Philistines, saying, "Come up
this once, for he hath showed me all his heart." Then the lords of the
Philistines came up unto her, and brought money in their hand. And she
made him sleep upon her knees; and she called for a man, and she caused
him to shave off the seven locks of his head; and she began to afflict
him, and his strength went from him. And she said, "The Philistines be
upon thee, Samson." And he awoke out of his sleep, and said, "I will go
out as at other times before, and shake myself." And he wist not that
the Lord was departed from him.

But the Philistines took him, and put out his eyes, and brought him
down to Gaza, and bound him with fetters of brass; and he did grind in
the prison house. Howbeit the hair of his head began to grow again
after he was shaven. Then the lords of the Philistines gathered them
together for to offer a great sacrifice unto Dagon their god, and to
rejoice: for they said, "Our god hath delivered Samson our enemy into
our hand." And when the people saw him, they praised their god: for
they said, "Our god hath delivered into our hands our enemy, and the
destroyer of our country, which slew many of us." And it came to pass,
when their hearts were merry, that they said, "Call for Samson, that he
may make us sport." And they called for Samson out of the prison house;
and he made them sport: and they set him between the pillars. And
Samson said unto the lad that held him by the hand, "Suffer me that I
may feel the pillars whereupon the house standeth, that I may lean upon
them." Now the house was full of men and women; and all the lords of
the Philistines were there; and there were upon the roof about three
thousand men and women, that beheld while Samson made sport. And Samson
called unto the Lord, and said, "O Lord God, remember me, I pray thee,
and strengthen me, I pray thee, only this once, O God, that I may be at
once avenged of the Philistines for my two eyes." And Samson took hold
of the two middle pillars upon which the house stood, and on which it
was borne up, of the one with his right hand, and of the other with his
left. And Samson said, "Let me die with the Philistines." And he bowed
himself with all his might; and the house fell upon the lords, and upon
all the people that were therein. So the dead which he slew at his
death were more than they which he slew in his life. Then his brethren
and all the house of his father came down, and took him, and brought
him up, and buried him between Zorah and Eshtaol in the burying-place
of Manoah his father. And he judged Israel twenty years.



Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor
standeth in the way of sinners, nor sitteth in the seat of the scornful.

But his delight is in the law of the Lord; and in his law doth he
meditate day and night.

And he shall be like a tree planted by the rivers of water, that
bringeth forth his fruit in his season; his leaf also shall not wither;
and whatsoever he doeth shall prosper.

The ungodly are not so: but are like the chaff which the wind driveth

Therefore the ungodly shall not stand in the judgment, nor sinners in
the congregation of the righteous.

For the Lord knoweth the way of the righteous: but the way of the ungodly
shall perish.


The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament showeth his

Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night showeth knowledge.

There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard.

Their line is gone out through all the earth, and their words to the
end of the world. In them hath he set a tabernacle for the sun.

Which is as a bridegroom coming out of his chamber, and rejoiceth
as a strong man to run a race.

His going forth is from the end of the heaven, and his circuit
unto the ends of it; and there is nothing hid from the heat thereof.

The law of the Lord is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony
of the Lord is sure, making wise the simple.

The statutes of the Lord are right, rejoicing the heart: the
commandment of the Lord is pure, enlightening the eyes.

The fear of the Lord is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments
of the Lord are true and righteous altogether.

More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold:
sweeter also than honey and the honeycomb.

Moreover by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them
there is great reward.

Who can understand his errors? cleanse thou me from secret faults.

Keep back thy servant also from presumptuous sins; let them not
have dominion over me: then shall I be upright, and I shall be
innocent from the great transgression.

Let the words of my mouth, and the meditation of my heart, be
acceptable in thy sight, O Lord, my strength, and my redeemer.


The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want.

He maketh me to lie down in green pastures: he leadeth me beside the
still waters.

He restoreth my soul: he leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for
his name's sake.

Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will
fear no evil: for thou art with me; thy rod and thy staff they comfort

Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies: thou
anointest my head with oil; my cup runneth over.

Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: and
I will dwell in the house of the Lord for ever.


And seeing the multitudes, he went up into a mountain: and when he was
set, his disciples came unto him: And he opened his mouth, and taught
them, saying:

Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted. Blessed are
the meek: for they shall inherit the earth. Blessed are they which do
hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled.
Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy. Blessed are the
pure in heart: for they shall see God. Blessed are the peacemakers: for
they shall be called the children of God. Blessed are they which are
persecuted for righteousness' sake: for theirs is the kingdom of
heaven. Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you,
and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake.
Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for
so persecuted they the prophets which were before you.

Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt have lost his savor,
wherewith shall it be salted? it is thenceforth good for nothing, but
to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men. Ye are the light
of the world. A city that is set on a hill cannot be hid. Neither do
men light a candle, and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick;
and it giveth light unto all that are in the house. Let your light so
shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your
Father which is in heaven.

Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not
come to destroy, but to fulfill. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven
and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the
law, till all be fulfilled. Whosoever therefore shall break one of
these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called
the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach
them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. For I
say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the
righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter
into the kingdom of heaven.

Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not
kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment: But
I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a
cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to
his brother, "Raca," shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever
shall say, "Thou fool," shall be in danger of hell fire. Therefore if
thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there rememberest that thy
brother hath aught against thee; leave there thy gift before the altar,
and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and
offer thy gift. Agree with thine adversary quickly, while thou art in
the way with him; lest at any time the adversary deliver thee to the
judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into
prison. Verily I say unto thee, Thou shalt by no means come out thence,
till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing.

Again, ye have heard that it hath been said by them of old time, Thou
shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt perform unto the Lord thine
oaths: but I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven; for it
is God's throne: nor by the earth; for it is his footstool: neither by
Jerusalem; for it is the city of the great King. Neither shalt thou
swear by thy head, because thou canst not make one hair white or black.
But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is
more than these cometh of evil.

Ye have heard that it hath been said. An eye for an eye, and a tooth
for a tooth; but I say unto you, That ye resist not evil: but whosoever
shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also. And if
any man will sue thee at the law, and take away thy coat, let him have
thy cloak also. And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with
him twain. Give to him that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow
of thee turn not thou away.

Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbor, and
hate thine enemy. But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them
that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which
despitefully use you, and persecute you; that ye may be the children of
your Father which is in heaven: for he maketh his sun to rise on the
evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust.
For if ye love them which love you, what reward have ye? do not even
the publicans the same? And if ye salute your brethren only, what do ye
more than others? do not even the publicans so? Be ye therefore
perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect.

Take heed that ye do not your alms before men, to be seen of them:
otherwise ye have no reward of your Father which is in heaven.
Therefore when thou doest thine alms, do not sound a trumpet before
thee, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that
they may have glory of men. Verily I say unto you, They have their
reward. But when thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy
right hand doeth: that thine alms may be in secret: and thy Father
which seeth in secret himself shall reward thee openly.

And when thou prayest, thou shalt not be as the hypocrites are: for
they love to pray standing in the synagogues and in the corners of the
streets, that they may be seen of men. Verily I say unto you, They have
their reward. But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and
when thou hast shut thy door, pray to thy Father which is in secret;
and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly. But when
ye pray, use not vain repetitions, as the heathen do: for they think
that they shall be heard for their much speaking. Be not ye therefore
like unto them: for your Father knoweth what things ye have need of,
before ye ask him. After this manner therefore pray ye: Our Father
which art in heaven, Hallowed by thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will
be done in earth, as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread.
And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. And lead us not
into temptation, but deliver us from evil: For thine is the kingdom,
and the power, and the glory, for ever. Amen. For if ye forgive men
their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you: but if ye
forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your

Moreover when ye fast, be not, as the hypocrites, of a sad countenance:
for they disfigure their faces, that they may appear unto men to fast.
Verily I say unto you, They have their reward. But thou, when thou
fastest, anoint thine head, and wash thy face; that thou appear not
unto men to fast, but unto thy Father which is in secret: and thy
Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly.

Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth and rust
doth corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal: but lay up for
yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth
corrupt, and where thieves do not break through nor steal: for where
your treasure is, there will your heart be also. The light of the body
is the eye: if therefore thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be
full of light. But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full
of darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how
great is that darkness!

No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love
the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye
cannot serve God and mammon. Therefore I say unto you, Take no thought
for your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink; nor yet for
your body, what ye shall put on. Is not the life more than meat, and
the body than raiment? Behold the fowls of the air: for they sow not,
neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; yet your heavenly Father
feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they? Which of you by taking
thought can add one cubit unto his stature? And why take ye thought for
raiment? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil
not, neither do they spin: and yet I say unto you, That even Solomon in
all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. Wherefore, if God so
clothe the grass of the field, which today is, and tomorrow is cast
into the oven, shall he not much more clothe you, O ye of little faith?
Therefore take no thought, saying, What shall we eat? or, What shall we
drink? or, Wherewithal shall we be clothed? (For after all these things
do the Gentiles seek:) for your heavenly Father knoweth that ye have
need of all these things. But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his
righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you. Take
therefore no thought for the morrow: for the morrow shall take thought
for the things of itself. Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof.

Judge not, that ye be not judged. For with what judgment ye judge, ye
shall be judged: and with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to
you again. And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's
eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye? Or how wilt
thou say to thy brother, Let me pull out the mote out of thine eye;
and, behold, a beam is in thine own eye? Thou hypocrite, first cast out
the beam out of thine own eye; and then shalt thou see clearly to cast
out the mote out of thy brother's eye.

Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls
before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again
and rend you.

Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it
shall be opened unto you: for every one that asketh receiveth; and he
that seeketh findeth; and to him that knocketh it shall be opened. Or
what man is there of you, whom if his son ask bread, will he give him a
stone? Or if he ask a fish, will he give him a serpent? If ye then,
being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children, how much
more shall your Father which is in heaven give good things to them that
ask him? Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to
you, do ye even so to them: for this is the law and the prophets.

Enter ye in at the strait gate: for wide is the gate, and broad is the
way, that leadeth to destruction, and many there be which go in
thereat: because strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, which
leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it.

Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but
inwardly they are ravening wolves. Ye shall know them by their fruits.
Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? Even so every good
tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil
fruit. A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt
tree bring forth good fruit. Every tree that bringeth not forth good
fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire. Wherefore by their fruits
ye shall know them.

Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the
kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in
heaven. Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not
prophesied in thy name? and in thy name have cast out devils? and in
thy name done many wonderful works? And then will I profess unto them,
I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity.

Therefore whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them, I
will liken him unto a wise man, which built his house upon a rock: and
the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat
upon that house; and it fell not: for it was founded upon a rock. And
every one that heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them not, shall
be likened unto a foolish man, which built his house upon the sand: and
the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat
upon that house; and it fell: and great was the fall of it.

And it came to pass, when Jesus had ended these sayings, the people
were astonished at his doctrine: for he taught them as one having
authority, and not as the scribes.


Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not
charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. And
though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and
all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove
mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing. And though I bestow all
my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and
have not charity, it profiteth me nothing.

Charity suffereth long, and is kind; charity envieth not, charity
vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up, doth not behave itself unseemly,
seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil;
rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth; beareth all
things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things.

Charity never faileth: but whether there be prophecies, they shall
fail; whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be
knowledge, it shall vanish away. For we know in part, and we prophesy
in part. But when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in
part shall be done away. When I was a child, I spake as a child, I
understood as a child, I thought as a child: but when I became a man, I
put away childish things. For now we see through a glass, darkly; but
then face to face: now I know in part; but then shall I know even as
also I am known.

And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three; but the greatest of
these is charity.




_August_ 22, 1869
_My dear Isabel:_

[Footnote: Little Miss Isabel Standen, whom Carroll had just met in a
park in Reading.]

Though I have been acquainted with you only fifteen minutes, yet, as
there is no one else in Reading I have known so long, I hope you will
not mind my writing to you.... A friend of mine, called Mr. Lewis
Carroll, tells me he means to send you a book. He is a _very_ dear
friend of mine. I have known him all my life (we are the same age) and
have _never_ left him. Of course he was with me in the Gardens, not
a yard off, even while I was drawing those puzzles for you. I wonder if
you saw him.

Your fifteen-minute friend,



Monday, _April_, 1844

_My dear May_, [Footnote: May Elliot, a little girl Hood had met
during a summer vacation.]--

I promised you a letter, and here it is. I was sure to remember it; for
you are as hard to forget, as you are soft to roll down a hill with.
What fun it was! only so prickly, I thought I had a porcupine in one
pocket, and a hedgehog in the other. The next time, before we kiss the
earth, we will have its face shaved well. Did you ever go to Greenwich
Fair? I should like to go there with you, for I get no rolling at St.
John's Wood. Tom and Fanny [Footnote: Hood's son and daughter.] only
like roll and butter, and as for Mrs. Hood, she is for rolling in

Tell Dunnie that Tom has set his trap in the balcony and has caught a
cold, and tell Jeanie that Fanny has set her foot in the garden, but it
has not come up yet. Oh, how I wish it was the season when "March winds
and April showers bring forth _May_ flowers!" for then of course
you would give me another pretty little nosegay. Besides it is frosty
and foggy weather, which I do not like. The other night, when I came
from Stratford, the cold shriveled me up so, that when I got home, I
thought I was my own child!

However, I hope we shall all have a merry Christmas; I mean to come in
my most ticklesome waistcoat, and to laugh till I grow fat, or at least
streaky. Fanny is to be allowed a glass of wine, Tom's mouth is to have
a _hole_ holiday, and Mrs. Hood is to sit up for supper! There
will be doings! And then such good things to eat; but, pray, pray,
pray, mind they don't boil the baby by a mistake for a _plump_
pudding, instead of a plum one.

Give my love to everybody, from yourself down to Willy, with which and
a kiss, I remain, up hill and down dale,

Your affectionate lover,



[Footnote: Master Hughes had written to Dickens about _Nicholas
Nickleby_, protesting against Squeers' school.]


_Dec_. 12th, 1838

_Respected Sir_,

I have given Squeers one cut on the neck and two on the head, at which
he appeared much surprised and began to cry, which, being a cowardly
thing, is just what I should have expected from him--wouldn't you?

I have carefully done what you told me in your letter about the lamb
and the two "sheeps" for the little boys. They have also had some good
ale and porter, and some wine. I am sorry you didn't say _what_
wine you would like them to have. I gave them some sherry, which they
liked very much, except one boy, who was a little sick and choked a
good deal. He was rather greedy, and that's the truth, and I believe it
went the wrong way, which I say served him right, and I hope you will
say so too.

Nicholas had his roast lamb, as you said he was to, but he could not
eat it all, and says if you do not mind his doing so he should like to
have the rest hashed tomorrow with some greens, which he is very fond
of, and so am I. He said he did not like to have his porter hot, for he
thought it spoilt the flavor, so I let him have it cold. You should
have seen him drink it. I thought he never would have left off. I also
gave him three pounds of money, all in sixpences, to make it seem more,
and he said directly that he should give more than half to his mamma
and sister, and divide the rest with poor Smike. And I say he is a good
fellow for saying so; and if anybody says he isn't I am ready to fight
him whenever they like--there!

Fanny Squeers shall be attended to, depend upon it. Your drawing of her
is very like, except that I don't think the hair is quite curly enough.
The nose is particularly like hers, and so are the legs. She is a
nasty, disagreeable thing, and I know it will make her very cross when
she sees it; and what I say is that I hope it may. You will say the
same, I know--at least I think you will.

I meant to have written you a long letter, but I cannot write very fast
when I like the person I am writing to, because that makes me think
about them, and I like you, and so I tell you. Besides, it is just
eight o'clock at night, and I always go to bed at eight o'clock, except
when it is my birthday, and then I sit up to supper. So I will not say
anything more besides this--and that is my love to you and Neptune; and
if you will drink my health every Christmas Day I will drink yours--

I am,

Respected Sir,

Your affectionate Friend

P. S.--I don't write my name very plain, but you know what it is,
you know, so never mind.


Washington Irving

"I appeal to any white man if ever he entered Logan's cabin hungry, and
he gave him not to eat; if ever he came cold and naked, and he clothed
him not."

_Speech of an Indian Chief_

There is something in the character and habits of the North American
savage, taken in connection with the scenery over which he is
accustomed to range,--its vast lakes, boundless forests, majestic
rivers, and trackless plains,--that is to my mind wonderfully striking
and sublime. He is formed for the wilderness, as the Arab is for the
desert. His nature is stern, simple, and enduring; fitted to grapple
with difficulties and to support privations. There seems but little
soil in his heart for the support of the kindly virtues; and yet, if we
would but take the trouble to penetrate through that proud stoicism and
habitual taciturnity which lock up his character from casual
observation, we should find him linked to his fellow man of civilized
life by more of those sympathies and affections than are usually
ascribed to him.

It has been the lot of the unfortunate aborigines of America, in the
early periods of colonization, to be doubly wronged by the white men:
they have been dispossessed of their hereditary possessions by
mercenary and frequently wanton warfare, and their characters have been
traduced by bigoted and interested writers. The colonist often treated
them like beasts of the forest, and the author has endeavored to
justify him in his outrages. The former found it easier to exterminate
than to civilize, the latter to vilify than to discriminate. The
appellations of "savage" and "pagan" were deemed sufficient to sanction
the hostilities of both; and thus the poor wanderers of the forest were
persecuted and defamed, not because they were guilty, but because they
were ignorant.

The rights of the savage have seldom been properly appreciated or
respected by the white man. In peace he has too often been the dupe of
artful traffic; in war he has been regarded as a ferocious animal whose
life or death was a question of mere precaution and convenience. Man is
cruelly wasteful of life when his own safety is endangered and he is
sheltered by impunity, and little mercy is to be expected from him when
he feels the sting of the reptile and is conscious of the power to

The same prejudices which were indulged thus early exist in common
circulation at the present day. Certain learned societies have, it is
true, with laudable diligence endeavored to investigate and record the
real characters and manners of the Indian tribes; the American
government, too, has wisely and humanely exerted itself to inculcate a
friendly and forbearing spirit towards them, and to protect them from
fraud and injustice. [Footnote: The American government has been
indefatigable in its exertions to ameliorate the situation of the
Indians, and to introduce among them the arts of civilization and civil
and religious knowledge. To protect them from the frauds of the white
traders, no purchase of land from them by individuals is permitted; nor
is any person allowed to receive lands from them as a present, without
the express sanction of government. These precautions are strictly
enforced.] The current opinion of the Indian character, however, is too
apt to be formed from the miserable hordes which infest the frontiers
and hang on the skirts of the settlements. These are too commonly
composed of degenerate beings, corrupted and enfeebled by the vices of
society, without being benefited by its civilization. That proud
independence which formed the main pillar of savage virtue has been
shaken down, and the whole moral fabric lies in ruins. Their spirits
are humiliated and debased by a sense of inferiority, and their native
courage cowed and daunted by the superior knowledge and power of their
enlightened neighbors. Society has advanced upon them like one of those
withering airs that will sometimes breed desolation over a whole region
of fertility. It has enervated their strength, multiplied their
diseases, and superinduced upon their original barbarity the low vices
of artificial life. It has given them a thousand superfluous wants,
whilst it has diminished their means of mere existence. It has driven
before it the animals of the chase, who fly from the sound of the ax
and the smoke of the settlement, and seek refuge in the depths of
remoter forests and yet untrodden wilds. Thus do we too often find the
Indians on our frontiers to be the mere wrecks and remnants of once
powerful tribes, who have lingered in the vicinity of the settlements,
and sunk into a precarious and vagabond existence. Poverty, repining
and hopeless poverty, a canker of the mind unknown in savage life,
corrodes their spirits and blights every free and noble quality of
their natures. They become drunken, indolent, feeble, thievish, and
pusillanimous. They loiter like vagrants about the settlements, among
spacious dwellings replete with elaborate comforts which only render
them sensible of the comparative wretchedness of their own condition.
Luxury spreads its ample board before their eyes, but they are excluded
from the banquet. Plenty revels over the fields; but they are starving
in the midst of its abundance; the whole wilderness has blossomed into
a garden, but they feel as reptiles that infest it.

How different was their state while yet the undisputed lords of the
soil! Their wants were few, and the means of gratification within their
reach. They saw every one around them sharing the same lot, enduring
the same hardships, feeding on the same aliments, arrayed in the same
rude garments. No roof then rose but was open to the homeless stranger;
no smoke curled among the trees but he was welcome to sit down by its
fire and join the hunter in his repast. "For," says an old historian of
New England, "their life is so void of care, and they are so loving
also, that they make use of those things they enjoy as common goods,
and are therein so compassionate that rather than one should starve
through want, they would starve all; thus they pass their time merrily,
not regarding our pomp, but are better content with their own, which
some men esteem so meanly of." Such were the Indians whilst in the
pride and energy of their primitive natures; they resembled those wild
plants which thrive best in the shades of the forest, but shrink from
the hand of cultivation and perish beneath the influence of the sun.

In discussing the savage character, writers have been too prone to
indulge in vulgar prejudice and passionate exaggeration, instead of the
candid temper of true philosophy. They have not sufficiently considered
the peculiar circumstances in which the Indians have been placed, and
the peculiar principles under which they have been educated. No being
acts more rigidly from rule than the Indian. His whole conduct is
regulated according to some general maxims early implanted in his mind.
The moral laws that govern him are, to be sure, but few--but then he
conforms to them all; the white man abounds in laws of religion,
morals, and manners--but how many does he violate?

A frequent ground of accusation against the Indians is their disregard
of treaties, and the treachery and wantonness with which, in time of
apparent peace, they will suddenly fly to hostilities. The intercourse
of the white men with the Indians, however, is too apt to be cold,
distrustful, oppressive, and insulting. They seldom treat them with
that confidence and frankness which are indispensable to real
friendship, nor is sufficient caution observed not to offend against
those feelings of pride or superstition which often prompt the Indian
to hostility quicker than mere considerations of interest. The solitary
savage feels silently, but acutely. His sensibilities are not diffused
over so wide a surface as those of the white man, but they run in
steadier and deeper channels. His pride, his affections, his
superstitions, are all directed towards fewer objects; but the wounds
inflicted on them are proportionately severe, and furnish motives of
hostility which we cannot sufficiently appreciate. Where a community is
also limited in number, and forms one great patriarchal family, as in
an Indian tribe, the injury of an individual is the injury of the
whole, and the sentiment of vengeance is almost instantaneously
diffused. One council fire is sufficient for the discussion and
arrangement of a plan of hostilities. Here all the fighting men and
sages assemble. Eloquence and superstition combine to inflame the minds
of the warriors. The orator awakens their martial ardor, and they are
wrought up to a kind of religious desperation by the visions of the
prophet and the dreamer.

An instance of one of those sudden exasperations, arising from a
motive peculiar to the Indian character, is extant in an old record of
the early settlement of Massachusetts. The planters of Plymouth had
defaced the monuments of the dead at Passonagessit, and had plundered
the grave of the sachem's mother of some skins with which it had been
decorated. The Indians are remarkable for the reverence which they
entertain for the sepulchers of their kindred. Tribes that have passed
generations exiled from the abodes of their ancestors, when by chance
they have been traveling in the vicinity, have been known to turn aside
from the highway, and guided by wonderfully accurate tradition have
crossed the country for miles to some tumulus, buried perhaps in woods,
where the bones of their tribe were anciently deposited, and there have
passed hours in silent meditation. Influenced by this sublime and holy
feeling, the sachem whose mother's tomb had been violated gathered his
men together and addressed them in the following beautifully simple and
pathetic harangue--a curious specimen of Indian eloquence, and an
affecting instance of filial piety in a savage:--

"When last the glorious light of all the sky was underneath this globe,
and birds grew silent, I began to settle, as my custom is, to take
repose. Before mine eyes were fast closed, methought I saw a vision, at
which my spirit was much troubled; and trembling at that doleful sight,
a spirit cried aloud: 'Behold, my son, whom I have cherished, see the
breasts that gave thee suck, the hands that lapped thee warm, and fed
thee oft. Canst thou forget to take revenge of those wild people who
have defaced my monument in a despiteful manner, disdaining our
antiquities and honorable customs? See now the sachem's grave lies like
the common people, defaced by an ignoble race. Thy mother doth
complain, and implores thy aid against this thievish people who have
newly intruded on our land. If this be suffered, I shall not rest quiet
in my everlasting habitation.' This said, the spirit vanished, and I,
all in a sweat, not able scarce to speak, began to get some strength
and recollect my spirits that were fled, and determined to demand your
counsel and assistance."

I have adduced this anecdote at some length, as it tends to show how
these sudden acts of hostility, which have been attributed to caprice
and perfidy, may often arise from deep and generous motives which our
inattention to Indian character and customs prevents our properly

Another ground of violent outcry against the Indians is their barbarity
to the vanquished. This had its origin partly in policy and partly in
superstition. The tribes, though sometimes called nations, were never
so formidable in their numbers but the loss of several warriors was
sensibly felt. This was particularly the case when they had frequently
been engaged in warfare; and many an instance occurs in Indian history,
where a tribe that had long been formidable to its neighbors has been
broken up and driven away by the capture and massacre of its principal
fighting men. There was a strong temptation, therefore, to the victor
to be merciless; not so much to gratify any cruel revenge, as to
provide for future security. The Indians had also the superstitious
belief, frequent among barbarous nations and prevalent also among the
ancients, that the manes of their friends who had fallen in battle were
soothed by the blood of the captives. The prisoners, however, who are
not thus sacrificed, are adopted into their families in the place of
the slain, and are treated with the confidence and affection of
relatives and friends; nay, so hospitable and tender is their
entertainment, that when the alternative is offered them, they will
often prefer to remain with their adopted brethren rather than return
to the home and the friends of their youth.

The cruelty of the Indians toward their prisoners has been heightened
since the colonization of the whites. What was formerly a compliance
with policy and superstition has been exasperated into a gratification
of vengeance. They cannot but be sensible that the white men are the
usurpers of their ancient dominion, the cause of their degradation, and
the gradual destroyers of their race. They go forth to battle smarting
with injuries and indignities which they have individually suffered,
and they are driven to madness and despair by the wide-spreading
desolation and the overwhelming ruin of European warfare. The whites
have too frequently set them an example of violence, by burning their
villages and laying waste their slender means of subsistence; and yet
they wonder that savages do not show moderation and magnanimity towards
those who have left them nothing but mere existence and wretchedness.

We stigmatize the Indians, also, as cowardly and treacherous, because
they use stratagem in warfare in preference to open force; but in this
they are fully justified by their rude code of honor. They are early
taught that stratagem is praiseworthy. The bravest warrior thinks it no
disgrace to lurk in silence and take every avantage of his foe; he
triumphs in the superior craft and sagacity by which he has been
enabled to surprise and destroy an enemy. Indeed, man is naturally more
prone to subtility than open valor, owing to his physical weakness in
comparison with other animals. They are endowed with natural weapons of
defense--with horns, with tusks, with hoofs, and talons; but man has to
depend on his superior sagacity. In all his encounters with these, his
proper enemies, he resorts to stratagem; and when he perversely turns
his hostility against his fellow man, he at first continues the same
subtle mode of warfare.

The natural principle of war is to do the most harm to our enemy with
the least harm to ourselves; and this, of course, is to be effected by
stratagem. That chivalrous courage which induces us to despise the
suggestions of prudence and to rush in the face of certain danger is
the offspring of society, and produced by education. It is honorable,
because it is in fact the triumph of lofty sentiment over an
instinctive repugnance to pain, and over those yearnings after personal
ease and security which society has condemned as ignoble. It is kept
alive by pride and the fear of shame, and thus the dread of real evil
is overcome by the superior dread of an evil which exists but in the
imagination. It has been cherished and stimulated also by various
means. It has been the theme of spirit-stirring song and chivalrous
story. The poet and minstrel have delighted to shed round it the
splendors of fiction, and even the historian as forgotten the sober
gravity of narration, and broken forth into enthusiasm and rhapsody in
its praise. Triumphs and gorgeous pageants have been its reward;
monuments on which art has exhausted its skill, and opulence its
treasures, have been erected to perpetuate a nation's gratitude and
admiration. Thus artificially excited, courage has risen to an
extraordinary and factitious degree of heroism; and arrayed in all the
glorious "pomp and circumstance of war," this turbulent quality has
even been able to eclipse many of those quiet but invaluable virtues
which silently ennoble the human character and swell the tide of human

But if courage intrinsically consists in the defiance of danger and
pain, the life of the Indian is a continual exhibition of it. He lives
in a state of perpetual hostility and risk. Peril and adventure are
congenial to his nature, or rather seem necessary to arouse his
faculties and to give an interest to his existence. Surrounded by
hostile tribes whose mode of warfare is by ambush and surprisal, he is
always prepared for fight, and lives with his weapons in his hands. As
the ship careers in fearful singleness through the solitudes of ocean,
as the bird mingles among clouds and storms, and wings its way, a mere
speck, across the pathless fields of air, so the Indian holds his
course, silent, solitary, but undaunted, through the boundless bosom of
the wilderness. His expeditions may vie in distance and danger with the
pilgrimage of the devotee or the crusade of the knight-errant. He
traverses vast forests, exposed to the hazards of lonely sickness, of
lurking enemies, and pining famine. Stormy lakes, those great inland
seas, are no obstacles to his wanderings; in his light canoe of bark he
sports like a feather on their waves, and darts with the swiftness of
an arrow down the roaring rapids of the rivers. His very subsistence is
snatched from the midst of toil and peril. He gains his food by the
hardships and dangers of the chase; he wraps himself in the spoils of
the bear, the panther, and the buffalo, and sleeps among the thunders
of the cataract.

No hero of ancient or modern days can surpass the Indian in his lofty
contempt of death and the fortitude with which he sustains its cruelest
infliction. Indeed, we here behold him rising superior to the white man
in consequence of his peculiar education. The latter rushes to glorious
death at the cannon's mouth; the former calmly contemplates its
approach, and triumphantly endures it, amidst the varied torments of
surrounding foes and the protracted agonies of fire. He even takes a
pride in taunting his persecutors and provoking their ingenuity of
torture; and as the devouring flames prey on his very vitals and the
flesh shrinks from the sinews he raises his last song of triumph,
breathing the defiance of an unconquered heart and invoking the spirits
of his fathers to witness that he dies without a groan.

Notwithstanding the obloquy with which the early historians have
overshadowed the characters of the unfortunate natives, some bright
gleams occasionally break through which throw a degree of melancholy
luster on their memories. Facts are occasionally to be met with in the
rude annals of the eastern provinces, which, though recorded with the
coloring of prejudice and bigotry, yet speak for themselves, and will
be dwelt on with applause and sympathy when prejudice shall have passed

In one of the homely narratives of the Indian wars in New England,
there is a touching account of the desolation carried into the tribe of
the Pequod Indians. Humanity shrinks from the coldblooded detail of
indiscriminate butchery. In one place we read of the surprisal of an
Indian fort in the night, when the wigwams were wrapped in flames, and
the miserable inhabitants shot down and slain in attempting to escape,
"all being dispatched and ended in the course of an hour." After a
series of similar transactions, "our soldiers," as the historian
piously observes, "being resolved by God's assistance to make a final
destruction of them," the unhappy savages being hunted from their homes
and fortresses and pursued with fire and sword, a scanty but gallant
band, the sad remnant of the Pequod warriors, with their wives and
children, took refuge in a swamp.

Burning with indignation and rendered sullen by despair, with hearts
bursting with grief at the destruction of their tribe and spirits
galled and sore at the fancied ignominy of their defeat, they refused
to ask their lives at the hands of an insulting foe, and preferred
death to submission.

As the night drew on they were surrounded in their dismal retreat so as
to render escape impracticable. Thus situated, their enemy "plied them
with shot all the time, by which means many were killed and buried in
the mire." In the darkness and fog that preceded the dawn of day some
few broke through the besiegers and escaped into the woods; "the rest
were left to the conquerors, of which many were killed in the swamp,
like sullen dogs who would rather, in their self-willedness and
madness, sit still and be shot through or cut to pieces," than implore
for mercy. When the day broke upon this handful of forlorn but
dauntless spirits, the soldiers, we are told, entering the swamp, "saw
several heaps of them sitting close together, upon whom they discharged
their pieces laden with ten or twelve pistol bullets at a time, putting
the muzzles of the pieces under the boughs within a few yards of them;
so as, besides those that were found dead, many more were killed and
sunk into the mire, and never were minded more by friend or foe."

Can any one read this plain, unvarnished tale without admiring the
stern resolution, the unbending pride, the loftiness of spirit that
seemed to nerve the hearts of these self-taught heroes and to raise
them above the instinctive feelings of human nature? When the Gauls
laid waste the city of Rome, they found the senators clothed in their
robes and seated with stern tranquillity in their curule chairs; in
this manner they suffered death without resistance or even
supplication. Such conduct was, in them, applauded as noble and
magnanimous; in the hapless Indian it was reviled as obstinate and
sullen! How truly are we the dupes of show and circumstance! How
different is virtue clothed in purple and enthroned in state from
virtue naked and destitute and perishing obscurely in a wilderness!

But I forbear to dwell on these gloomy pictures. The Eastern tribes
have long since disappeared; the forests that sheltered them have been
laid low, and scarce any traces remain of them in the thickly settled
states of New England, excepting here and there the Indian name of a
village or a stream. And such must, sooner or later, be the fate of
those other tribes which skirt the frontiers, and have occasionally
been inveigled from their forests to mingle in the wars of white men.
In a little while, and they will go the way that their brethren have
gone before. The few hordes which still linger about the shores of
Huron and Superior and the tributary streams of the Mississippi will
share the fate of those tribes that once spread over Massachusetts and
Connecticut and lorded it along the proud banks of the Hudson, of that
gigantic race said to have existed on the borders of the Susquehanna,
and of those various nations that flourished about the Potomac and the
Rappahannock, and that peopled the forests of the vast valley of
Shenandoah. They will vanish like a vapor from the face of the earth,
their very history will be lost in forgetfulness, and "the places that
now know them will know them no more forever." Or if, perchance, some
dubious memorial of them should survive, it may be in the romantic
dreams of the poet, to people in imagination his glades and groves,
like the fauns and satyrs and sylvan deities of antiquity. But should
he venture upon the dark story of their wrongs and wretchedness; should
he tell how they were invaded, corrupted, despoiled, driven from their
native abodes and the sepulchers of their fathers; hunted like wild
beasts about the earth, and sent down with violence and butchery to the
grave, posterity will either turn with horror and incredulity from the
tale, or blush with indignation at the inhumanity of their forefathers.
"We are driven back," said an old warrior, "until we can retreat no
farther; our hatchets are broken, our bows are snapped, our fires are
nearly extinguished; a little longer, and the white man will cease to
persecute us--for we shall cease to exist!"


Francis Bacon

Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief
use for delight is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in
discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment and disposition of
business. For expert men can execute, and perhaps judge of particulars,
one by one; but the general counsels, and the plots and marshaling of
affairs, come best from those that are learned. To spend too much time
in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament is affectation;
to make judgment wholly by their rules is the humor of a scholar. They
perfect nature, and are perfected by experience; for natural abilities
are like natural plants, that need proyning by study; and studies
themselves do give forth directions too much at large, except they be
bounded in by experience. Crafty men contemn studies; simple men admire
them; and wise men use them: for they teach not their own use; but that
is a wisdom without them and above them, won by observation. Read not
to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to
find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider. Some books are to
be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and
digested: that is, some books are to be read only in parts; others to
be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read wholly, and with
diligence and attention. Some books also may be read by deputy, and
extracts made of them by others; but that would be only in the less
important arguments, and the meaner sort of books; else distilled books
are like common distilled waters, flashy things. Reading maketh a full
man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. And therefore,
if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer
little, he had need have a present wit; and if he read little, he had
need have much cunning, to seem to know that he doth not. Histories
make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtle; natural philosophy
deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend. _Abeunt studia
in mores_. Nay, there is no stond or impediment in the wit, but may
be wrought out by fit studies: like as diseases of the body may have
appropriate exercises. Bowling is for the stone and reins; shouting for
the lungs and breast; gentle walking for the stomach; riding for the
head; and the like. So if a man's wit be wandering, let him study the
mathematics; for in demonstrations, if his wit be called away never so
little, he must begin again: if his wit be not apt to distinguish or
find differences, let him study the schoolmen; for they are _cymini
sectores:_ if he be not apt to beat over matters, and to call one
thing to prove and illustrate another, let him study the lawyers'
cases: so every defect of the mind may have a special receipt.


Theodore Roosevelt

Of course what we have a right to expect of the American boy is that he
shall turn out to be a good American man. Now, the chances are strong
that he won't be much of a man unless he is a good deal of a boy. He
must not be a coward or a weakling, a bully, a shirk, or a prig. He
must work hard and play hard. He must be clean-minded and clean-lived,
and able to hold his own under all circumstances and against all
comers. It is only on these conditions that he will grow into the kind
of American man of whom America can be really proud.

There are always in life countless tendencies for good and for evil,
and each succeeding generation sees some of these tendencies
strengthened and some weakened; nor is it by any means always, alas!
that the tendencies for evil are weakened and those for good
strengthened. But during the last few decades there certainly have been
some notable changes for good in boy life. The great growth in the love
of athletic sports, for instance, while fraught with danger if it
becomes one-sided and unhealthy, has beyond all question had an
excellent effect in increased manliness. Forty or fifty years ago the
writer on American morals was sure to deplore the effeminacy and luxury
of young Americans who were born of rich parents. The boy who was

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