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Traditions of the Tinguian: A Study in Philippine Folk-Lore by Fay-Cooper Cole

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lazy, lazy." And so that bird is called _sigakok_.


A long time ago there was a young man who cut all the trees in a little
wood. When he had cut up them, he burned them, and he planted rice in
the field. In a few days the rice was ready to cut and the young man
went to find a girl for him to marry. He found a girl in the other
town. He married her and he took her with him to his home. When they
got home the man said to his wife, "Let us go to see our rice." They
went to see the rice. At midday they went home. The next day the
man sent his wife to go to cut the rice. When she got to the rice,
she thought to herself that she could not cut it in a month. Said
she to herself, "I want to be a bird." She lay down on the floor in
a little house that the man had made. She put her hat over her to be
her blanket. Then she became a bird which we call _kakok_ now. Her
cloth became her feathers. In the morning the man went with some rice
for his wife to eat. When he got there, he could not see his wife. He
walked and walked, but he did not find her, then he came to the little
house. He saw his wife's hat, and he picked it up. The bird flew away,
crying "_kakok, kakok_."


In the first time Ganoway was the man who possessed a dog which
caught many deer; and Kaboniyan allowed. The dog pursued the deer
which went in a cave in the rock. The dog went in also, and Ganoway
followed into the hole in the rock. He walked, always following the
dog which was barking, and he felt the shrubs which he touched. The
shrubs all had fruit which tinkled when he touched them. Then he
broke off those branches which tinkled as he touched them, and
Kaboniyan allowed. He came to the end of the cave in the rock which
was at the river Makatbay, and his dog was there, for he had already
caught the deer, which was a buck. It was light in the place where
he was, at the river Makatbay, and he looked at the shrub which he
had broken off in the dark place in the cave. He saw that the shrub
was _denglay_ which bore fruit--the choice agate bead, which is good
for the Tinguian dress. He was glad. He cut up the deer into pieces
and placed it on a bamboo pole which he carried. He thought always
of the beads and wished to return to that shrub which he touched. He
returned and searched, but was not able to find it, and because he
failed he returned to his home in An-nay. There was not one who did
not envy him those beads which he brought home, and they asked him
to show them the way to the cave. He showed them the hole in the
rock where he and his dog had gone in. They took torches and walked,
always walked, but at last they were not able to go further, for
the rest of the cave was closed. That place is now called Ganoway,
for he was the one who secured the beads which grew in the cave of
Kaboniyan, which cave the spirit always keeps clean. [374]


Magsawi, my jar, when it was not yet broken talked softly, but now
its lines are broken, and the low tones are insufficient for us to
understand. The jar was not made where the Chinese are, but belongs to
the spirits or Kaboniyan, because my father and grandfather, from whom
I inherited it, said that in the first times they (the Tinguian) hunted
Magsawi on the mountains and in the wooded hills. My ancestors thought
that their dog had brought a deer to bay, which he was catching, and
they hurried to assist it. They saw the jar and tried to catch it but
were unable; sometimes it disappeared, sometimes it appeared again,
and because they could not catch it they went again to the wooded hill
on their way to their town. Then they heard a voice speaking words
which they understood, but they could see no man. The words it spoke
were: "You secure a pig, a sow without young, and take its blood,
so that you may catch the jar which your dog pursued." They obeyed
and went to secure the blood. The dog again brought to bay the jar
which belonged to Kaboniyan. They plainly saw the jar go through a
hole in the rock which is a cave, and there it was cornered so that
they captured the pretty jar which is Magsawi, which I inherited.

(Told by Cabildo, of Patok, the owner of the famous talking jar,


Once then sun and moon fought. The sun said, "You are moon, not so
good; if I give you no light, you are no good." The moon answered,
"You are sun and very hot. I am moon and am better. The women like me
very much, and when I shine they go out doors to spin." Then the sun
was very angry and took some sand and threw it on the moon, and that
is why there are dark places on the moon now.


In the old time, a man went with others to get heads. They were gone
very, very long, and the man's daughter, who was little when he went
away, was grown up and beautiful when he returned. When he got to
the gate of the town, his daughter went to hold the ladder for him to
come in. [375] The man did not recognize his daughter, and when he saw
her holding the ladder for him, he threw his arms around the ladder
and seized and kissed her. The girl was very sorrowful because her
father had not recognized her and had misunderstood her intentions;
so she went home and said to her mother, "It is better now that I
become a coconut tree, to stand close by our house." In the morning
the man and his wife missed the girl, and when they looked out doors,
there stood a fine coconut tree close to the house; so they knew that
she had changed to the tree.


In the old times there were two flying snakes in the gap of the Abra
river. [376] Many men had been killed by them. So the head man of
Abra invited Malona and Biwag, two very brave men from Cagayan, to
come and help him kill the snakes. They came at once with big bolos,
shields, and the trunk of the banana tree, which they used to fight
with. When they arrived, they were taken to the gap, and the snakes
attacked them. The men fought with the trunk of the banana tree,
and the wings of the snakes stuck to the trunk; so they killed them
easily. When they had killed them, they came back to the leader and
showed him, and he asked what should be their pay. They did not ask
any reward, but the leader gave them gold in the form of deer and
horses. Then they went home, and after that the people of Abra could
pass through the gap.


Hundreds of years ago there were two people who were husband and
wife. Their names were Tagapen and Giaben, and they had only one
son whose name was Soliben. Those people came from Ilocos Norte;
they came down to Vigan to pass a while, then came into the Abra
river. When they were in Banoang, they sailed on a raft in the
Abra river to come up to Langiden. When they reached that town,
they stopped there to stay a short time, because Tagapen went to
the town to give thoughts to the people there and to give a nice
face to the girls. When Tagapen was in the town, in Langiden, his
son Soliben was weeping on the raft by his mother. "Sleep, sleep,
sleep, my dear son, because your father is not here yet; it-to-tes,
it-to-tes, so sleep my son, do not weep," said his mother, whose name
is Giaben. When Tagapen came back from the town of Langiden, they began
to sail again until they came to Pidigan. When they reached the town
of Pidigan, they stopped there because Tagapen went to the town to
give a nice face to the ladies and girls. Then his son wept again,
"Oh, dear son, sleep, sleep, sleep; oh, dear son, sleep, sleep,
sleep, for your father is not here yet. When he comes back, he will
get bananas for you to eat. It-to-tes, it-to-tes, it-to-tes, sleep,
Soliben, sleep, my son; do not weep; your father will give you to eat,"
said the mother. In a short time Tagapen came back from the town and
they sailed to come up. When they reached the mouth of the Sinalang
river, they came up in the river; they sailed up here; this is the
river of Sinalang town (Patok). "We go there to give the people some
nice face and good thoughts, so they will be very wise." When they
arrived in Sinalang town, they left their raft in the river and went
up in the town. When they reached the town, every person went to them
to give their regards. Tagapen and his wife with her son stayed in a
little house we call _balaua_; they lived there teaching many _dalengs_
[377] and _bagayos_ of the Tinguian people.


77 The Turtle and the Monkey

There was once a turtle and a monkey who went to make a clearing. The
monkey did not work, but the turtle was the one which cleared the
land. When one day passed, "Let us go to plant," said the turtle. They
went, and banana was what they went to plant. The turtle planted his
in the clearing, but the monkey hung his in a tree when he went to
climb. Five days passed. "Let us go to see our planting," said the
turtle. When they arrived where they had planted, the monkey saw that
his banana was dry, but that which the turtle had planted bore ripe
fruit. When the monkey reached the place where the turtle sat, "I am
waiting for you, monkey, for I cannot climb my banana tree." "Give me
fruit, and I will go to climb. My banana which I hung in the tree did
not bear fruit," said the monkey. The turtle laughed and agreed, but
when the monkey climbed in the tree he only ate and did not throw down
any fruit. "Give me, monkey," said the turtle. "The thumb still eats,"
replied the monkey. Then he pushed a banana up his anus and after that
threw it down. The turtle ate it and again asked for fruit. "The little
finger still eats," said the monkey. Then he finished eating the fruit
and he slept on the banana tree. The turtle went to search for long
sharp shells, and when he had secured them he planted them upright
around the tree, and cried, "Bad in the east. Bad in the west." Then
the monkey jumped, and the shells pierced his side so that he died.

The turtle dried his meat and sold it to the other monkeys, and when
he had finished selling he went under the house and hid beneath
a coconut shell. When all the monkeys had eaten the turtle cried,
"They eat their relative." Then the monkeys heard, but could not
see. The turtle called many times until at last they found him
beneath the coconut shell. They agreed to kill him with the axe,
but the turtle laughed and pointed to the marks on his back. [378]
The monkeys believed him when he said he had often been cut by his
father and grandfather; so they did not cut, but went to get fire. "You
cannot kill me with that. Do you not see that my back is almost black
from burning." "Ay-ay," said the monkeys, "let us tie a stone to his
waist and drown him in the lake." The turtle cried and begged them to
spare him, but the monkeys did not know that the water was the cause
of his living, for it was his home. They threw him in the lake and
when they had watched a long time, they saw him float on the water
and he was holding a large fish. Then all the monkeys tied stones
to their waists and dived in the lake to catch fish. They did not
float in the lake, but they died. Only a pregnant monkey was left,
but the turtle came and drowned her also. [379]


A turtle and a big lizard went to the field of Gotgotapa to steal
ginger. When they got there the turtle told the lizard he must be
very still; but when the lizard tasted the ginger, he exclaimed,
"The ginger of Gotgotapa is very good." "Be still," said the turtle;
but again the lizard shouted louder than before. Then the man heard
and came out of his house to catch the robbers. The turtle could
not run fast, so he lay very still, and the man did not see him;
but the lizard ran and the man chased him. When they were very far,
the turtle went into the house. Now, the man had a coconut shell
which he used to sit on, and the turtle hid under it.

The man could not catch the lizard, so in a while he came back
to his house and sat on the shell. Bye and bye, the turtle called
"Kook." Then the man jumped up and looked all around to find where
the noise came from, but he could not find. The turtle called "Kook"
again and the man tried very hard to find what made the noise. The
turtle called a third time more loudly and then the man thought it was
his testicles which made the noise, so he took a stone and hit them;
then he died and the turtle ran away.

When the turtle got a long way, he met the lizard again and they
saw some honey on the branch of a tree. "I run first to get,"
said the turtle; but the big lizard ran fast and seized the honey;
then the bees stung him and he ran back to the turtle. On their
road they saw a bird snare. The turtle said, "That is the _paliget_
[380] of my grandfather." Then the lizard ran very fast to get it,
but it caught his neck and held him until the man who owned it came
and killed him. Then the turtle went away.


The _polo_ [381] said to a boy named Ilonen, "Tik-tik-loden, come and
catch me," many times. Then the boy answered, "I am making a snare for
you." The bird called again, "Tik-tik-loden." "I am almost finished,"
said Ilonen. Then the bird called again and the boy came and put the
snare over the bird and caught it. He took it home and put it in a
jar and then went with the other boys to swim. While he was gone, his
grandmother ate the bird. Ilonen came back and went to the jar to see
the bird, but no bird. "Where is my bird?" he said. "I do not know,"
said his grandmother. "Let me see your anus," said the boy. Then he
saw his grandmother's anus and he saw feathers there and was very
angry. "It is better I get lost," he said and went away. He came to a
big stone called _balintogan_ and said, "Stone, open your mouth and
eat me." Then the stone opened his mouth and swallowed the boy. His
grandmother went to find him and looked very much. When she came to
the stone, it said, "Here is." She called the horses to come to the
stone. They kicked it, but could not break. She called the carabao
and they hooked it, but only broke their horns; then she called the
chickens and they pecked it, but could not open. Then she called
thunder, but it could not help. Then her friends came to open the
stone, but could not, so she went home without the boy.


A frog was fastened to a fish hook in the water. A fish came and
said, "What are you doing?" "I am swinging," said the frog, "come
and try if you wish." But the fish was angry with the frog. "You can
not catch me," said the frog. Then the fish jumped up to catch him,
but the frog pushed his anus upon the stick and left the hook so the
fish was caught.


The five fingers were brothers. The other four sent the little thumb to
get _posel_. [382] He went to get, but when he got there, the _posel_
said, "Kiss me, for I have a good odor to you." So the thumb kissed
him, and his nose stuck to the bamboo. The others could not wait so
long, so they sent the first finger to get. When he got there, he
saw the thumb, and said, "What are you doing?" "I am smelling this
_posel_, for it has a good smell." Then the first finger smelled and
his nose was caught. The others could not wait, so they sent the second
finger and it happened the same. Also the third, and he also became
fast. Then little finger went and when he saw the others, he said,
"You are very crazy," and he cut them loose.

82 [383]

Carabao met _loson_ [384] in the river. "You are very slow," said the
carabao. "No, I can beat you in a race," said _loson_. "Let us try,"
said the carabao. So they started to run. When the carabao reached a
long distance, he called, "Shell," and another shell lying by the river
answered, "Yes." He ran again and again, and every time he stopped to
call, another shell answered. At least the carabao ran until he died.


A crab and _kool_ [385] went to the forest to get wood for fuel. The
crab cut his wood and the shell went to cut his. "Tie very good your
wood which you get," said _kool_ to the crab. The crab pulled the ropes
so tightly that he broke his big legs and died. When the shell went to
see where the crab was, he found him dead, and he begun to cry until
he belched; then his meat came out of his shell and he was dead also.

84 [386]

A mosquito came to bite a man. The man said, "You are very little and
can do nothing to me." The mosquito answered, "If you had no ears,
I would eat you."


A boy's parents sent a man to carry gifts to the girl's house, and
see if they would agree to a marriage. When he got to the door of the
house, the people were all eating _kool_, and when they sucked the
meat out of the shell, they nodded their heads. The man saw them nod,
so did not state his errand, but returned and said that the people in
the house all desired the union. Then the boy's people got ready the
things for _pakalon_ [387] and went to the girl's house. The girl's
parents were very much surprised.


A man went to the other town. When he got there, the people were eating
_labon_. [388] He asked them what they ate, and they said _pangaldanen_
(the bamboo ladder is called "_aldan_".) He went home and had nothing
to eat but rice, so he cut his ladder into small pieces and cooked all
day, but the bamboo was still very hard. He could not wait longer,
so called his friends and asked why he could not make it like the
people had in the other town. Then his friends laughed and told him
his mistake.


A man went to get coconuts and loaded his horse heavily. He met a boy
and asked how long to his house. "If you go slowly, very soon; if you
go fast, all day," said the boy. The man did not believe, so hurried
his horse and the coconuts fell off, so he had to stop and pick them
up. He did this many times and it was night before he got home.


Two women went to get _atimon_ [389] which belonged to the
crocodile. "You must not throw the rind with your teeth marks where
the crocodile can see it," said the first woman. Then they ate; but
the other woman threw a rind with her teeth marks in the river, and
the crocodile saw it and knew who the woman was. He was very angry
and went to her house and called the people to send out the woman so
he could eat her, for she had eaten his _atimon_. "Yes," they said,
"but sit down and wait a while." Then they put the iron soil turner
in the fire until it was red hot. "Eat this first," they said to the
crocodile, and when he opened his mouth, they threw it very far into
his body and he died.

89 [390]

There was a man named Dogidog who was very lazy and very poor. His
house was small and had no floor, only the boards to put the floor
on. He went to the forest to cut bamboo with which to make a floor,
and he carried cooked rice with him. When he got there he hung the
rice in a tree and went to cut the bamboo. While he was gone, a cat
came and ate the rice, so when the man got hungry and came to eat,
he had no rice, so he went home. The next day he went to cut again,
and when he had hung the rice in the tree, the cat came to eat it. The
third day he went again and hung the rice in the tree, but fixed it
in a trap; then he hid in some brush and did not cut bamboo. The cat
came to eat the rice and was caught. Then the man said, "I will kill
you." "No," said the cat, "do not kill me." "Alright, then I take you
home to watch my house," said the man. Then he took the cat home,
and tied it near the door of his house and went away. When he came
back, the cat had become a cock.

"Now I go to the cock fight at Magsingal," [391] said Dogidog, and
he put his rooster under his arm and started for the place. He was
crossing a river when he met a crocodile. "Where are you going,
Dogidog?" said the crocodile. "To the cock fight at Magsingal,"
said the man. "Wait, I go with you," said the crocodile. Then they
went. Soon they met a deer. "Where are you going, Dogidog?" said the
deer. "To the cock fight at Magsingal," said the man. "Wait, I go
with you," said the deer. Then they went again. In the way they met
Bunton. [392] "Where are you going?" said it. "To Magsingal to the
cock fight," said the man. "Wait, I go with you," said the mound. Then
they went again and soon they met a monkey. "Where are you going,
Dogidog?" said the monkey. "To the cock fight at Magsingal," said
the man. "Wait, I go with you," said the monkey. Then they went until
they reached the place where was the fight in Magsingal.

The crocodile said to Dogidog, "If any man wants to sink in the water,
I can beat him." The deer said, "If any man wants to run, I am very
fast." Then the earth said, "If any man wants to wrestle, I know very
well how to do." The monkey said, "If any man wants to climb, I can
go higher." Then they took the rooster to the place of the fighting,
and Dogidog had him fight the other rooster. But the rooster had
been a cat before, and he seized the other rooster in his claws, as
a cat does, and killed it. Then the people brought many roosters and
bet much money and the rooster of Dogidog, which was a cat before,
killed them all, so there were no more roosters in Magsingal, and
Dogidog won much money.

The people wanted some other sport, so they brought a man who
could stay very long under water, and Dogidog had him try with
the crocodile. After more than two hours, the man had to come up
first. Then the people brought a man who runs very fast, and the deer
raced with him, and the man could not beat the deer for he was very
fast. Then they brought a very big man, but he could not throw the
earth. Last, the people brought a man who climbs very well and the
monkey climbed with him, and went much higher than the man.

Dogidog had very much money and he bought two horses to carry the
sacks of silver to his house. When he got near to the town, he tied
his horses and went to tell his mother to go and ask to buy the
good house from the rich man. "How can you buy?" said the rich man,
"when you have no money?" Then his mother went home and the man went
to get two sacks of money to send to the rich man. When the rich man
saw so much money, he said, "Yes," for the money was in sacks and was
not counted. Then Dogidog went to live in the good house and the rich
man still had no house, so he had no where to go when the rain came.


A wood-chopper went to the woods. When he passed where the brook ran,
"Go away, go away," he said to Banbantay, the spirit of the brook. He
heard a voice in the thicket. The voice said, "I should think he
would see me." The man answered, "Yes, I see you." The spirit said,
"Where am I now?" The man answered, "You are in the thicket." The
spirit came down and said, "Put my _poncho_ on you." When he has
it on, no one can see him. [393] "See if I really can see you in my
_poncho_." The man took the _poncho_ and put it on, then the spirit
could not see him any more, because the cloth made him invisible. Then
the man went home. When he reached there, he said to his wife, "Wife,
where am I now?" She cried because she thought him dead. He said,
"Do not cry, for I am not dead, but I have received a _poncho_ which
makes me invisible." The man took off his _poncho_ and embraced his
wife, which made his wife laugh at him, for she knew then that her
husband was powerful.


A fisherman went to catch fish with his throw net. While he was
fishing, a big bird, Banog, saw him. It seized the man, put him on its
back and flew away. It lighted on a very big tree in the forest. In
the thicket there was a nest with two small Banog in it.

After the bird had put the man near the nest, it flew away again, and
the nestlings wished to eat the man, but he defended himself so they
could not eat him. He took one in each hand and jumped from the tree,
and the young birds broke his fall so that he was not hurt. The man
was much frightened by the things which had happened to him, and
he ran to his home. When he arrived home, he told with tears what
had happened to him. His family were very happy over his return,
and made him promise not to go alone again to fish.




Two women are gathering greens when a vine wraps around one and
carries her to the sky. She is placed near to spring, the sands of
which are rare beads. Small house near by proves to be home of the
sun. Woman hides until owner goes into sky to shine, then goes to
house and prepares food. Breaks up fish stick and cooks it. It becomes
fish. Single grain of rice cooked in pot the size of a "rooster's egg"
becomes sufficient for her meal. Goes to sleep in house. Sun returns
and sees house which appears to be burning. Investigates and finds
appearance of flames comes from beautiful woman. Starts to prepare
food, but awakens visitor. She vanishes. Each day sun finds food
cooked for him. Gets big star to take his place in sky; returns home
unexpectedly and surprises woman. They chew betel-nut together and
tell their names. The quids turn to agate beads, showing them to be
related, and thus suitable for marriage. Each night sun catches fish,
but woman refuses it, and furnishes meat by cooking fish stick.

Woman decides to go with husband on daily journey through sky. When
in middle of heavens she turns to oil. Husband puts her in a bottle
and drops it to earth. Bottle falls in woman's own town, where she
resumes old form and tells false tale of her absence. She becomes
ill, asks mother to prick her little finger. Mother does so and
child pops out. Child grows each time it is bathed. Girl refuses to
divulge name of child's father. Parents decide to celebrate _balaua_
and invite all people. Send out oiled betel-nuts covered with gold to
invite guests. When one refuses, nut begins to grow on his knee or
prized animal until invitation is accepted. Child is placed by gate
of town in hopes it will recognize its father. Gives no sign until
sun appears, then goes to it. Sun appears as round stone. Girl's
parents are angry because of her choice of a husband and send her
away without good clothes or ornaments.

Sun, wife and child return home. Sun assumes form of man. They
celebrate _balaua_ and invite all their relatives. Guests chew
betel-nuts and the quid of the sun goes to that of Pagbokasan, so it
is known that the latter is his father. Parents of sun pay marriage
price to girl's people.


Aponibolinayen who is very ill expresses a desire for mangoes
which belong to Algaba of Dalaga. Her brother dispatches two men
with presents to secure them. One carries an earring, the other an
egg. On way egg hatches and soon becomes a rooster which crows. They
spread a belt on the water and ride across the river. When they bathe,
the drops of water from their bodies turn to agate beads. Find way
to Algaba's house by following the row of headbaskets, which reaches
from the river to his dwelling. Defensive fence around the town is
made up of boa constrictors, which sleep as they pass. Algaba seizes
his spear and headaxe intending to kill the visitors, but weapons shed
tears of oil. He takes other weapons, but they weep tears of blood. He
then makes friends of the intruders. Learning their mission he refuses
their gifts, but gets fruit and returns with them to their town. On
way he uses magic and causes the death of Aponibolinayen. He takes
her in his arms and restores her to life. While she rests in his arms,
their rings exchange themselves. They chew betel-nuts and tell their
names. The quids turn to agate beads and lie in rows. This is good
sign. They marry and go to Algaba's town. They celebrate _Sayang_
and send betel-nuts to invite their relatives. When the guests cross
the river, the drops of water which run from their bodies are agate
beads and stones of the river are of gold. Guests all chew betel-nut
and lay down their quids. By arrangement of quids they learn the true
parents of Algaba. His brother-in-law wishes to marry his new found
sister and offers an engagement present. An earring is put in a jar
and it is at once filled with gold, but Algaba lifts his eyebrows and
half of the gold vanishes. Another earring is put in jar, and it is
again full. Marriage price is paid later.


Aponitolau falls in love with girl he meets at the spring. They
chew betel-nuts and tell their names. Girl gives false name and
vanishes. Aponitolau sends his mother to arrange for his marriage
with the girl. She wears a hat which is like a bird, and it gives
her a bad sign, but she goes on. She crosses river by using her
belt as a raft. The girl's parents agree to the match and price
to be paid. Girl accepts a little jar and agate beads as engagement
present. When Aponitolau goes to claim bride, he finds he is betrothed
to wrong girl. His parents celebrate _Sayang_ and invite many people,
hoping to learn identity of girl at spring. She does not attend,
but Aponitolau finds her among betel-nuts brought him by the spirit
helpers. They chew betel-nuts and learn they are related and that
both possess magical power.

After their marriage Aponitolau goes to his field. There he keeps
many kinds of jars which act like cattle. He feeds them with _lawed_
leaves and salt. While he is gone, the woman to whom he was first
betrothed kills his new wife. He restores her to life. Takes her and
her parents to the field to see him feed his jars.


A bird directs Aponitolau in his search for the maiden Asibowan. Girl
furnishes him with food by cooking a fish stick. They have a daughter
who grows one span each time she is bathed. Aponitolau discovers that
his parents are searching for him, and determines to go home. Asibowan
refuses to accompany him, but uses magic and transfers him and child
to his town.

Aponitolau falls in love with girl he sees bathing, and his mother
goes to consult her parents. She crosses river by using her belt as a
raft; when she bathes, the drops of water from her body become agate
beads. The girl's people agree to the marriage and accept payment
for her.

Aponitolau and his bride celebrate _Sayang_ and send out betel-nuts
to invite the guests. Asibowan refuses to attend, but a betel-nut
grows on her pig until, out of pity, she consents.

After the ceremony the brother of the bride turns himself into a
firefly and follows her new sister-in-law. Later he again assumes
human form and secures her as his wife.


The mother of Gawigawen is well received when she goes to seek a
wife for her son. The girl's mother furnishes fish by breaking and
cooking the fish stick. A day is set for payment of the marriage
price. Guests assemble and dance. When bride dances she is so beautiful
that sunshine vanishes, water from the river comes up into the town
and fish bite her heels. When she arrives at her husband's home, she
finds sands and grass of spring are made up of beads, and the walk
and place to set jars are large plates. Her husband cuts off head of
an old man and a new spring appears; his blood becomes beads and his
body a great shade tree. Bride who has not yet seen the face of her
husband is misled by evil tales of jealous women, and believes him
to be a monster. During night she turns to oil, slips through floor
and escapes. In jungle she meets rooster and monkey, who tell her she
is mistaken and advise her to return home. She continues her way and
finally reaches ocean. Is carried across by a carabao which at once
informs its master of the girl's presence.

The master comes and meets girl. They chew betel-nut, and the quids
turn to agate beads, so they marry.

They make _Sayang_ and send betel-nuts to summon relatives. Nuts grow
on pet pigs of those who refuse to go.

Guests are carried across river by betel-nuts. During dance Gawigawen
recognizes his lost wife and seizes her. Is speared to death by the
new husband, but is later brought back to life. In meantime the _alan_
(spirits) inform the parents of the new groom that he is their child
(from menstrual blood). Parents repay Gawigawen for his lost bride,
and also make payment to the girl's family.


The enemies of Aponibolinayen, thinking her without the protection
of a brother, go to fight her. She glances off their spears with
her elbows. Her weapons kill all but Ginambo, who agrees to continue
fight in one month.

Aponigawani has a similar experience with her enemies. A month later
the two women meet as they go to continue the fight against their
foes. They chew betel-nut, and quid of Aponibolinayen is covered with
gold and that of her companion becomes an agate bead. They agree to aid
each other. Go to fight and are hard pressed by foes. Spirit helpers
go to summon aid of two men who turn out to be their brothers--were
miscarriage children who had been raised by the _alan_. They go to
aid sisters and kill so many people that pig troughs are floating in
blood. One puts girls inside belt. They kill all the enemies and send
their heads and plunder to the girls' homes. Brothers take girls to
their parents. Father and mother of Aponigawani celebrate _balaua_ and
summon guests by means of oiled betel-nuts covered with gold. Guests
chew betel-nut and spittle of children goes to that of parents,
so relationship is established. _Alan_ explain how they raised the
miscarriage children. Heads of enemies are placed around the town
and people dance for one month. Aponibolinayen marries brother of
Aponigawani, who in turn marries the brother of her friend. Usual
celebration and payments made. Relatives receive part of price paid
for brides.


Aponitolau dons his best garments, takes his headaxe and spear,
and goes to fight. When he reaches the spring which belongs to the
ten-headed giant Giambolan, he kills all the girls, who are there
getting water, and takes their heads. The giant in vain tries to
injure him. Spear and headaxe of Aponitolau kill the giant and all
the people of his town and cut off their heads. Heads are sent in
order to hero's town--giants' heads first, then men's, and finally
women's. On return journey Aponitolau is followed by enemies. He
commands his flint and steel to become a high bank which prevents
his foes from following. Upon his arrival home a great celebration
is held; people dance, and skulls are placed around the town.


Aponitolau and his wife decide to celebrate _Sayang_, but he goes
first to take the head of old man Ta-odan. He uses magic and arrives
at once where foe lives. They fight and Ta-odan is beheaded. While
Aponitolau is gone, an Ilocano comes to town and tries to visit
his wife. She at first refuses to see him, but when he returns a
needle she has dropped he puts a love charm on it. She then receives
him into house. He remains until Aponitolau returns, then leaves so
hastily he forgets his belt of gold. Woman hides belt in rice granary,
but it reveals self by shining like fire. Aponitolau is suspicious
and determines to find owner. As guests arrive for the celebration,
he tries belt on each until he finds right one. He cuts off his head
and it flies at once to his wife's breasts and hangs there. She flees
with her children. They reach town, which is guarded by two kinds of
lightning, but they are asleep and let them pass. They sleep in the
_balaua_ and are discovered by the owner of the place, who turns out
to be an afterbirth brother of the woman. He removes the head of the
dead Ilocano from her breasts. Betel-nuts are sent to summon their
father and mother, who are surprised to learn of their afterbirth
son. He returns home with them. Aponitolau fails to be reconciled to
his faithless wife.


Ayo is hidden by her brother, but meets Dagdagalisit, who is fishing,
and becomes pregnant. Child pops out between third and fourth fingers
when Ayo has her hand pricked. Baby objects to first name; so is called
Kanag. Milk from Ayo's breasts falls on her brother's legs while
she is lousing him, and he thus learns of the child. He determines
to build a _balaua_ and invite all people, so he may learn who the
father is. Sends out oiled betel-nuts to invite the guests and when
one refuses to attend they grow on him or his pet pig. Dagdagalisit
attends wearing only a clout of dried banana leaves. Brother of Ayo
is enraged at her match and sends her and the baby away with her poor
husband. When they arrive at her new home, Ayo finds her husband
a handsome man who lives in a golden house, and whose spring has
gravel of gold and agates. They summon their relatives to celebrate
_balaua_ with them. While Ayo's brother is dancing, her husband cuts
off his head, but he is brought back to life. Ayo's husband pays her
parents for her, but half the payment vanishes when her mother raises
eyebrows. Husband again completes payment. They chew betel-nut and
the quids of the children go to those of their parents. Dagdagalisit's
parents learn he is a miscarriage child who was cared for by the _alan_


Aponibalagen uses magic to create a residence in the ocean for his
sister. Takes her and companions there on backs of crocodiles. Returns

Ingiwan who is walking is confronted by high bank and is forced to
cross the ocean. Rides on his headaxe past the sleeping crocodiles
which guard the maiden. Turns self into firefly and reaches
girl. Assumes own form and chews betel-nut with her. Omens are good. He
returns home and soon maiden is troubled with intense itching between
her last fingers. She has place pricked, and baby boy pops out. Child
grows one span at each bath. Aponibalagen learns of child when milk
from sister's breasts falls on him. He takes her home and prepares to
celebrate _balaua_. Oiled betel-nuts are sent to summon guests. They
grow on knees of those who refuse to attend. Ingiwan, poorly clad,
appears at the ceremony and is recognized by the child but not by its
mother. Girl's brother, in rage, sends her away with the stranger. He
assumes own form and proves to be handsome and wealthy. When they
celebrate _balaua_, they chew betel-nut and thus learn who are his
true parents.


When Aponitolau goes to visit his cousin, he finds him celebrating
_Sayang_. He is incensed because no invitation has reached him,
so sits in shade of tree near the spring instead of going up to
the village. He finds the switch lost by Aponibolinayen. He is
induced to attend the ceremony, where he meets with an old enemy,
and they fight. The hawk sees the struggle and reports the death
of Aponitolau to his sister. She sends her companions to avenge the
death and they kill many people before they learn that the hawk was
mistaken. Aponitolau restores the slain to life. He agrees to fight
his enemies in two months. Before he goes to battle he summons the old
men and women, and has them examine a pig's liver and gall. The omens
are favorable. During the fight he becomes thirsty and his headaxe
supplies him with water. He stops the slaughter of his enemies when
they agree to pay him one hundred valuable jars. The jars and heads
of the slain take themselves to his home. A celebration is held over
the heads, and skulls are exhibited around the town.

Aponitolau goes to return the switch of Aponibolinayen. They
chew betel-nuts and tell their names. Their finger rings exchange
themselves, while their betel quids turn to agate beads and arrange
themselves in lines--a sign of relationship. He cooks a stick and
it becomes a fish. The girl vanishes, but Aponitolau turns himself
into a firefly and finds her. They remain together one night, then
he departs. On his way home he is seized by an immense bird which
carries him to an island guarded by crocodiles. He is forced to marry
a woman also captured by the bird.

Aponibolinayen gives birth to a child called Kanag. Child is delivered
when an itching spot on mother's little finger is pricked. Kanag is
kept in ignorance of father's fate until informed by an old woman
whom he has angered. He goes in search of his father. By using power
of the betel-nut he is enabled to cross the water on the backs of
sleeping crocodiles. He kills gigantic snakes and finally the bird
which had carried away his father. He takes father and the captive
woman back home. Both women claim Aponitolau as husband. A test is
held and Aponibolinayen wins.


Pregnant woman expresses desire for fruit of _bolnay_ tree. Her husband
asks what it is she wishes, and she falsely tells him fish roe. He
uses magic to catch all fish in the river, and selects one with roe,
releases others. She throws it to the dogs, and tells husband it is
the liver of a deer she needs. He secures it, but when it likewise
is fed to the dogs, he changes self into an ant and hides near wife
until he learns her real wish. He secures the _bolnay_ fruit, but
upon his return allows his sweethearts to get all but a small piece
of it. His wife eats the bit left and desires more. She quarrels with
husband, who in rage drags her to the _bolnay_ tree and places her in
a hole. Her child Kanag is born when an itching spot between her third
and fourth fingers is pricked. Child grows with each bath. He agrees to
go with other boys to fight. Plants a _lawed_ vine which is to keep his
mother informed as to his condition. Child's father is with war party,
but does not recognize son. It rains continually so party cannot cook;
but the spirit helpers of child's mother feed him, and he shares food
with companions. They plan ambush near enemies' town. Kanag cuts off
head of a pretty girl; his companions kill an old man and woman. They
return home and hold dance around the heads. When Kanag dances, earth
trembles, coconuts fall, water from river enters the town, and the fish
lap his feet. His father is jealous and cuts off his head. His mother
sees _lawed_ vine wilt and knows of son's death. Informs her husband
he has killed son. She restores Kanag to life and they leave. Husband
tries to follow, but magic growth of thorns in trail prevents. He is
finally reconciled to his family and has former sweethearts killed.


A pregnant woman desires the fruit of an orange tree which belongs
to the six-headed giant Gawigawen. Her husband asks her what it
is she desires and she replies falsely; first, that she wishes a
certain fruit, then fish roe, and finally deer liver. He secures
each, taking the roe and liver out of the fish and deer without
causing their death. Each of the articles makes the woman vomit,
so her husband knows that she is not satisfied. Transforming self
into a centipede he hides until he learns her real wish. Arms self
and starts on perilous mission, but first plants _lawed_ vine in
house. By condition of vine wife is to know of his safety or death.

On way small dog bites him; he is tested by lightning and by thunder,
and in each case gets a bad sign, but continues journey. Sails over
ocean on his headaxe. Reaches cliff on which the town of the giant
is placed, but is unable to scale it. Chief of spiders spins a web
on which he climbs. Giant promises him the fruit provided he eats
whole carabao. Chiefs of ants and flies calls their followers and eat
animal for him. Is allowed to pick fruit, but branches of tree are
sharp knives on which he is cut. He puts two of oranges on his spear
and it flies away to his home. He dies and _lawed_ vine at his house
withers. Giant uses his skin to cover end of drum, puts his hair on
roof of house and places his head at gate of town. Wife gives birth to
child, which grows one span each time it is bathed. While still very
small child angers old woman who tells him of his father's fate. Child
determines to go in search of father despite mother's protests. On
journey he meets all the tests put to his father, but always receives
good signs. Jumps over cliff father had climbed on the spider web. He
challenges giant to fight and shows valor by refusing to be the first
to use his weapons. Giant unable to injure him, for he first becomes
an ant, then vanishes. He throws his spear and it goes through giant,
while his headaxe cuts off five of adversary's heads. Spares last
head so it can tell him where to find his father. Collects father's
body together and restores it to life. _Lawed_ vine at their home
revives. Father tries to cut off last head of giant, but fails;
son succeeds easily. They send the headaxes to kill all people in
town. Slaughter is so great the father swims in blood, but son stands
on it. Both return home and hold a great celebration over the heads.

The father's spittle is lapped up by a frog which becomes
pregnant. Frog gives birth to baby girl which is carried away by
_anitos_. Girl is taught to make _dawak_ (the duties of a medium). Her
half brother hears her, changes self into a bird and visits her in the
sky. Is hidden in a caldron to keep _anitos_ from eating him. Tries
to persuade sister to return with him. She promises to go when their
father celebrates _balaua_. The ceremony is held and girl attends. Is
so beautiful all young men try to obtain her. They are so persistent
that brother returns her to sky where she still lives and aids women
who make _dawak_.


Aponitolau and his wife plant sugar cane, and by use of magic cause
it to grow rapidly. The daughter of the big star sees the cane and
desires to chew it. She goes with her companions and steals some of
the cane, which they chew in the field. Aponitolau hides near by
and sees stars fall into the cane patch. He observes one take off
her dress and become a beautiful woman. He sits on her garment and
refuses to give it up until they chew betel-nut together. The star
girl falls in love with him and compels him to return with her to
the sky. Five months later she has a child which comes out from space
between her last two fingers. Aponitolau persuades her to allow him
to visit the earth. He fails to return at agreed time, and stars are
sent to fetch him. He returns to the sky, but visits the earth again,
eight months later. Earth wife bears him a child and they celebrate
_Sayang_. Sky child attends and later marries an earth maiden.


The wife of Aponitolau refuses to comb his hair; so he has another
woman do it. She, in turn, refuses to cut betel-nut for him to
chew. While doing it for himself he is cut on his headaxe. The blood
flows up into the air, and does not cease until he vanishes. Ceremonies
made for him are without avail.

Aponitolau finds himself up in the air country. He meets maiden who is
real cause of his plight. They live together and have a child which
grows every time it is bathed. Aponitolau takes boy down to earth to
visit his half brother. While there the tears of the mother above
fall on her son and hurt him. They celebrate _Sayang_ and the sky
mother attends. After it is over the half brothers marry earth girls.


Ayo gives birth to three little pigs. Husband is ashamed, and while
wife is at the spring he places the animals in a basket and hangs it in
a tree. Basket is found by old woman, Alokotan, who takes it home. Pigs
soon turn into boys. When grown they go to court the girls while they
spin. Ayo hears of their visits and goes where they are. Milk from her
breasts goes to their mouths and thus proves her to be their mother.

They celebrate _balaua_. Ayo puts one grain of rice in each of twelve
jars and they are at once filled with rice. Betel-nuts summon the
people to attend the ceremony. The old woman Alokotan attends and the
whole story of the children's birth and change to human form comes out.


Dumalawi makes love to his father's concubines who openly show
their preference for the son. The father plans to do away with
the youth. Gets him drunk and has storm carry him away. Dumalawi
awakens in center of a large field. He causes betel trees to grow,
then cuts the nuts into bits and scatters them on the ground. The
pieces of nut become people who are his neighbors. He falls in love
with daughter of one of these people and marries her. They celebrate
_Sayang_ and send out oiled betel-nuts to invite the guests. All
guests, except Dumalawi's father, are carried across river on the
back of a crocodile. Animal at first dives and refuses to carry him,
but finally does so. All drink from a small jar which still remains a
third full. Parents of Dumalawi pay the usual marriage price for girl,
but her mother insists on more. Has spider spin web around the town,
and groom's mother has to cover it with golden beads.


While two women are bathing, blood from their bodies is carried
down stream. Two _alan_ secure the drops of blood and place them in
dishes. Each drop turns into a baby boy. Boys go to fight and kill many
people at the spring. They challenge a ten-headed giant. He is unable
to injure them, but their weapons kill him and his neighbors. Heads of
the victors take themselves to homes of the boys. A storm transports
the giant's house. Boys trample on town of the enemy and it becomes
like the ocean. They use magic and reach home in an instant. Hold
celebration over the heads. Some guests bring beautiful girls hidden
in their belts. _Alan_ tell history of lads and restore them to their
people. One of boys falls in love and his parents negotiate match
for him. The payment for the girl is valuable things sufficient to
fill _balaua_ eighteen times, and other gifts in her new home.


Kanag is lead by his hunting dog to a small house in the jungle. Girl
who lives there hides, but appears on second day. They chew betel-nuts
and tell their names. The quids turn to agate beads and lie in order,
showing them to be related and hence suitable for marriage. They
remain in forest two years and have children. Kanag uses magical power
and transfers their house to his home town during night. Children see
sugar cane which they wish to chew. Kanag goes to secure it, and while
away his mother visits his wife and abuses her. She becomes ill and
dies. Kanag tries to kill his mother, but fails. Puts body of wife
on a golden raft, places golden rooster on it and sets afloat on the
river. Rooster crows and proclaims ownership whenever raft passes a
village. Old woman Alokotan secures raft before it vanishes into the
hole where river ends. Revives the girl. Kanag and children reach home
of Alokotan, and girl is restored to them. They celebrate _balaua_
and send betel-nuts covered with gold to invite relatives. When guests
arrive, they chew betel-nut and learn that Kanag and his wife are
cousins. Kanag's parents pay marriage price, which is the _balaua_
filled nine times with jars. Girl's mother raises eyebrows and half
of jars vanish. _Balaua_ is again filled. Guests dance and feast. Part
of marriage price given to guests.


Kanag's sweetheart desires the perfume of Baliwan and promises to
fulfill his desires if he secures it for her. Gives him arm beads
from left arm in token of her sincerity.

Kanag and a companion set out on mission but are warned, first by a jar
and later by a frog, not to continue. They disregard the advice and go
on. They reach the tree on which perfume grows, and Kanag climbs up and
breaks off a branch. He turns into a great snake, and his companion
flees. Snake appears to Langa-ayan and proves its identity by the
arm beads around its neck. She takes it to a magic well, the waters
of which cause the snake skin to peel off, and the boy is restored
to his own form. Kanag marries Amau, and when they celebrate _balaua_
he returns the bracelet to his former sweetheart. His parents fill the
_balaua_ nine times with valuable articles, in payment for his bride.


Kanag is sent to watch the mountain rice, although it is well
protected from wild pigs. Thinks parents do not care for him, is
despondent. Changes self into an omen bird and accompanies his father
when he goes to fight. Father obeys signs and secures many heads
from his enemies. He holds a great celebration over the heads, but
Kanag refuses to attend. Decides to go down to earth to eat certain
fruits. Parents order their spirit helpers to accompany him and
dissuade him if possible. They show him a beautiful girl with whom he
falls in love. He assumes human form and meets her. They chew betel-nut
and tell their names. Signs are favorable for their marriage. His
parents agree to fill the _balaua_ nine times with various kinds of
jars. They do so, but mother of girl raises eyebrows and half of jars
vanish and have to be replaced. Girl's mother demands that golden
beads be strung on a spider web which surrounds the town. This is
done, but web does not break. Girl's mother hangs on thread which
still holds. She then agrees to the marriage. Guests dance and then
return home, each carrying some of the jars.


While Ligi is bathing in river his headband flies away and alights
on the skirt of a maiden who is bathing further down stream. The girl
carries the headband home and soon finds herself pregnant. The child
is born when she has the space between her third and fourth fingers
pricked. With each bath the child grows a span and soon becomes so
active that he hinders mother at her work. She decides to put him
with his father during daytime. Uses magic and causes people of the
town to sleep while she places child beside father. Ligi awakes and
finds child and his headband beside him. Child refuses to answer
questions. Mother secures child at nightfall and repeats acts next
day. Child is hidden, so she fails to get him. Ligi determines to
learn who mother of child is; sends out oiled betel-nuts covered
with gold to invite all people to a _Sayang_. When summoned, the
mother refuses to go until a betel-nut grows on her knee and compels
her. She goes disguised as a Negrito, but is recognized by the child
who nurses from her while she is drunk. Ligi suspects her, and with
a knife cuts off her black skin. Learns she is child's mother and
marries her. He divorces his wife Aponibolinayen, who marries husband
of Gimbagonan. The latter poisons her rival, but later restores her,
when threatened by her husband.


A flock of birds offer to cut rice for Ligi. He agrees, and goes
home with a headache. Birds use magic so that the rice cutters work
alone, and the tying bands tie themselves around the bundles. The
birds each take one grain of rice in payment. They use magic again
so that bundles of rice take themselves to the town. Ligi invites
them to a ceremony, and then follows them home. He sees them remove
their feathers and become one girl. They go back to the celebration,
where all chew betel-nut. Girl's quid goes to those of her parents,
from whom she had been stolen by the spirit Kaboniyan. The parents
of Ligi pay the usual marriage price for the girl.


When the husband of Dolimaman pricks an itching spot between her third
and fourth fingers, a baby boy pops out. Child who is called Kanag
grows each time he is bathed. While his wife is away the father puts
child on a raft and sets it afloat on the river. Child is rescued by
old woman Alokotan, who is making a pool in which sick and dead are
restored to health. Boy plays on nose flute which tells him about
his mother, but he does not understand. Plays on _bunkaka_ with
same result. Mother who is searching her child passes by while he is
playing. Milk from her breasts goes to his mouth, and she recognizes
him. They stay with old woman despite pleading of husband.


Awig sends his daughter to watch the mountain rice. She stays in a
high watch house, but is found by tattooed Igorot, who cut her body
in two and take her head. Father goes to seek her murderers, but
first plants a _lawed_ vine in the house; by its condition his wife
is to know of his safety or death. He climbs high tree and looks in
all directions. Sees Igorot, who are dancing around the head of his
daughter. He takes juice from the poison tree and goes to the dance,
where he is mistaken for a companion. He serves liquor to others and
poisons them. Takes daughter's head and starts home. Is followed by
four enemies. Uses magic and causes _cogon_ field to burn, so foes
are delayed. Repeats this several times and finally escapes. He joins
head and body of his daughter, and old woman Alokotan puts saliva on
cuts and revives her. Old woman places four sticks in the ground and
they become a _balaua_. Betel-nuts are sent out to invite guests and
many come. When the girl dances with her lover, the water comes up
knee deep into the town and they have to stop. She is engaged and her
lover's parents fill the _balaua_ three times with valuable gifts,
in payment for her. Half of gifts vanish, when her mother raises her
eyebrows, and are replaced.

Her husband discovers the scar on her body where Igorot had cut
her. Takes her to magic well where she bathes. Scars vanish.


The mother of Dumanagan negotiates marriage for her son with
Aponibolinayen. Brother of girl puts her in his belt and carries
her to place where agreement is made. When they reach gate of town,
young girls offer them cakes, in order to take away bad signs seen on
road. Boy's parents pay for girl and they marry. She gives birth to son
named Asbinan. He marries Asigowan, but his jealous concubines cause
her to cut her finger and she dies. Her body is placed in a _tabalang_
on which a rooster sits, and is set afloat on the river. Crowing of the
cock causes old woman Alokotan to rescue the corpse. She places it in
her magic well and the girl is again alive and beautiful. She returns
to her husband as a bird; is caught by him and then resumes own form.


Baby of four months hears his father tell of his youthful
exploits. Decides to go on head hunt despite protests of parents. Is
detained on his trip by young _alan_ girls. Finally reaches Igorot town
and by means of magic kills all the people and takes their heads. Heads
take themselves to his home. On way back he plays bamboo jew's harp
and it summons his brothers to come and see him. They chew betel-nut
and make sure of relationship. Continuing his journey, he is twice
lost. Finds an unknown sister hiding among _lawed_ vines. Puts her in
his belt and carries her home. Upon his arrival a celebration is held
and the new found brothers and sister, who had been stolen by _alan_,
are restored to parents.


The mother and caretaker of Asbinan try to arrange for him to marry
Dawinisan, but are refused. Asbinan goes to the girl's home and feigns
sickness. Is cared for by the girl, who becomes infatuated with him
and accepts his suit. His parents pay jars and gold--in the shape of
deer--for her.


Asbinan refuses to eat until his father secures fish roe. He then
demands Chinese dishes from the coast town of Vigan. When these are
supplied, he eats, and then demands the love charm which his father
used when a young man. He goes to the place where the maidens are
spinning, and when one offers to give him a light for his pipe,
he blows smoke in her face. The charm acts and she becomes ill. He
convinces her people that the only way she can be cured is by marrying
him. Her parents accept payment for the girl.


Tolagan decides to visit certain places in Pangasinan. He rides on
a pinto pony and carries rice cakes as provisions. At the spring in
Kaodanan he meets a beautiful maiden who warns him to return home,
because the birds have given him a bad sign. He returns only to find
that his wife has been stolen by the spirit Kaboniyan. He fails to
find her, but is comforted by winning a new bride (probably the girl
of Kaodanan).


Two girls are adopted by a rich man, who treats them as his daughters,
except that he does not offer them bracelets or rings. They dress as
men and go to see a jeweler. Two young men suspect and follow them,
but they succeed in escaping and return home.

The spirit helpers of the youths take the forms of hawks and finally
locate the maidens, whom they carry away. The youths plan to marry
the girls and invite many friends to the celebration. Kanag and
his companion attend, become enamored with the brides and steal
them. Upon chewing betel-nuts they learn that they are related,
so they are married.



The Ipogau who are trying to celebrate _Sayang_ make errors. The spirit
Kadaklan and his wife instruct them to go and watch the _Sayang_ at
Sayau. They do as bidden and after learning all the details return
home and perform the ceremony. The chief spirits are pleased and
cause the lesser spirits to attend the ceremony when summoned by the
medium. The sick improve.


The people who are conducting the _Dawak_ ceremony fail to do it
properly. Kaboniyan (a spirit) goes down and instructs them. After
that they are able to cure the sick.


The spirits of Dadaya notice that their feather headdresses have
lost their lustre. They place them on the house of some mortals, who
at once become ill. The spirit Kaboniyan instructs them to make the
_Pala-an_ ceremony. They obey, the feathers regain their brightness
and the people recover.


The father who is starting for a head-dance agrees to meet his wife
and baby at sun down. When he reaches the agreed spot, he finds only
their hats; he looks down and sees them in the ground. He tries in
vain to get them out. The spirit Kaboniyan instructs him to perform
the _Ibal_ ceremony. He does so and receives his wife and child.


The spirit Inawen, who lives in the sea, sends her servants to spread
sickness. They kill many people who fail to make the _Sangasang_
ceremony. A man is disturbed at night by barking of dogs, goes to
door and meets a big spirit which has nine heads. Spirit tells him
how to make the offering in _Sangasang_. He follows directions and
spirits carry gift to their mistress. She mistakes the blood of a
rooster for that of human beings. Is displeased with the taste and
orders spirits to stop killing.


The spirit Maganawan sends his servants to secure the blood of
a rooster mixed with rice. People see many snakes and birds near
gate of town. They make the ceremony _Sangasang_ and offer blood and
rice. The servants of Maganawan carry the offering to him. He takes
it in his mouth and spits it out, and in the same way the sickness
is removed from the mortals.


The people who are digging holes for house poles get a bad sign from
the omen bird. They abandon the place and dig again. The deer gives a
bad sign, then the snake, then different birds. They change locations
many times, but at last ignore the signs and complete the house. The
family are continually in trouble and are ill.

The spirit Kaboniyan goes to see the sick persons; he lets his spear
drop through the house, and then tells them the cause of the trouble
is that they have failed to make _Sangasang_. He instructs them what
to do, and when they obey all become well.


The different parts of the house quarrel and each insists on its
importance. At last they recognize how necessary each one is for
the other and cease their wrangling; then the people who live in the
house are again in good health.


The great spirit sees the people of Bisau celebrating the _Ubaya_
ceremony, and determines to reward them by increasing their worldly
goods. He appears as a man and rewards them.


Dayapan, who has been ill for seven years, goes to bathe. The spirit
Kaboniyan enters her body and instructs her how to perform healing
ceremonies. He also teaches her how to plant and reap, and she in
turn teaches the Tinguian. While she is bathing she ties a cock and
dog by the water side. The dog eats the cock, and thus death comes
into the world.


Girl who lacks certain organs is ashamed to marry. She is sent by her
mother to cause lameness to people who pass. A man who falls victim
to her magic is only cured when the girl instructs him how to make
the _Bawi_ ceremony.


The spirit Kaboniyan instructs a sick man to make offerings at the
guardian stones. He does as bidden and becomes well. They perform
ceremonies near the stones when they go to fight or celebrate _balaua_,
and sometimes the spirit of the stones appears as a wild rooster, a
white cock, or a white dog. A man who defiles the stones becomes crazy.


Man sees a woman walking at night near the guardian stones. She
refuses to talk and he cuts her in the thigh. She vanishes into the
stones. Next day it is seen that one of the stones is cut. Man dies.


The old men of Lagayan see peculiarly shaped stones traveling down the
river, accompanied by a band of blackbirds. They catch the stones and
carry them to the gate of the village, where they have since remained
as guardians.


The spirit Ibwa visits a funeral and is given some of the juices,
coming from the dead body, to drink. Since then he always tries to eat
the body of the dead unless prevented. He is accompanied by another
evil spirit whose embrace causes the living to die.


A widow leaves the town before the period of mourning for her husband
is past. The spirit appears first to the daughter-in-law and is fed
by her, then asks for his wife. He goes to the place where she is
watching the corn and sleeps with her. She apparently becomes pregnant,
but fails to be delivered, and dies.


Two men agree to hunt carabao the following morning. In the night one
dies, but the other not knowing this leaves the town and goes to the
appointed place. He meets the spirit of the dead man, and only saves
his life by running his horse all the way home.


A man and his wife are living near to their field when the husband
dies. An evil spirit comes to the door, but is driven away by the
wife with a headaxe. Several evil spirits attempt to gain entrance;
then the chief comes. He breaks down the door; he cuts off the dead
man's ears and makes the woman chew them with him--like betel-nut. The
signs are propitious. He changes the woman's two breasts into one,
in the center of her chest, and takes her home.


A man, whose brother has just died, goes to hunt. He begins to cut
up the game when his brother's spirit appears. He feeds it, but food
comes out of its anus as fast as it eats. He flees and is pursued
by the spirit until, by chance, he runs among _alangtin_ bushes. The
spirit dislikes the bush and leaves.


The people fail to put the _banal_ vine and iron on the grave. An
evil spirit notices the omission and steals the body.


A man goes to hunt his carabao in the mountains. He fails to plant
branches at his head before he sleeps. A spirit expectorates on him,
and he soon dies.


Two men who have to sleep in the mountains make beds of _sobosob_
leaves. In the night they hear the evil spirits come and express
a desire to get them. Spirits dislike the leaves, so do not molest
the men.


Three hunters spend the night in the open. One covers himself with
a red and yellow striped blanket. In the night two spirits come and
think he is a little wild pig, and decide to eat him. The hunter
hears them and exchanges blankets with one of his companions. The
companion is eaten, and hence the _kambaya_, or striped blanket,
is no longer used on the trail.


The spirit Bayon steals a beautiful girl and carries her to the sky,
where he changes her breasts into one and marries her. She drops her
rice pounder to the earth, and thus her people learn of her fate. Both
she and her husband still attend certain ceremonies.


A hunter is carried away by a great bird. He is placed in the nest
with its young and aids in feeding them. When they are large, he
holds on to them, and jumps safely to the ground. He goes to fight
against his enemies. While he is gone his wife dies. Upon his return
he sees her spirit driving a cow and two pigs. He follows her to the
spirit's town and is hidden in a rice bin. When spirits try to get
him during the night, he repels them by throwing feathers. Feathers
become exhausted, and he is forced to return home.


A man encounters a large being, which, from its odor, he recognizes
as the spirit of a dead man. He runs to get his friends, and they
find the spot trampled like a carabao wallow.


The dead wife of Baluga harvests his rice during the nighttime. He
hides and captures her. They go together to the spirit town, in the
ground, and secure her spirit which is kept in a green bamboo cup. As
they are returning to the ground they are pursued, but Baluga cuts
the vine on which their pursuers are climbing. When they reach home,
they hold a great celebration.


An _alan_ takes the afterbirth and causes it to become a real child
named Sayen. Afterbirth child marries a servant, thinking he has
married her mistress. Learns he is deceived, and causes death of his
wife; then kills many people in the town of the girl who has deceived
him. She gets him to desist, and after he revives some of the slain
marries him. People of neighboring town are troubled by the _komau_,
an evil spirit, who always causes the death of as many people as the
hunters have secured deer. Sayen kills the _komau_. He fights with the
great spirit Kaboniyan. Neither is able to overcome the other, so they
become friends. They fight together against their enemies. Sayen often
changes himself into a fish or chicken, and hides after a fight. This
is observed by people who set a trap and capture him. He is killed.


A man while in the woods hears the _alan_ near him. He feigns death
and the spirits weep for him. They put gold and beads on the body. He
springs up and seizes the offerings. They demand the return of one
bead; he refuses, and the spirits burn his house.


Two men who have killed a wild pig desire fire. One goes to house of
an _alan_ and tries to secure it while the spirit sleeps. She awakes
and goes with the man to the pig. Man carries liver of the animal back
to the baby _alan_. He eats the liver and then throws the child into a
caldron of hot water. He tells his companion what he has done, and they
climb a tree near the water. The _alan_ discovers their hiding place by
seeing their reflection in the water. She climbs up, feet first, but
they cut the vine on which she is ascending, and she is killed. They
go to her house and secure a jar of beads and a jar of gold.


The flat earth is made by the spirit Kadaklan. He also makes the moon
and sun, which chase each other through the sky. The moon sometimes
nearly catches the sun, but becomes weary too soon. The stars are
stones, the lightning a dog.


A flood covers the land. Fire has no place to go, so enters bamboo,
stones and iron. It still lives there and can be driven out by those
who know how.


A man finds his rice field disturbed even though well fenced in. He
hides and in middle of night sees some big animals fly into it. He
seizes one and cuts off its wings. The animal turns out to be a mare
which is pregnant and soon has male offspring. The place where the
wings once grew are still to be seen on the legs of all horses.


A lazy man, who is planting corn, constantly leans on his planting
stick. It becomes a tail and he turns into a monkey.


A boy is too lazy to strip sugar cane for himself. His mother in anger
tells him to stick it up his anus. He does so and becomes a monkey.


A lazy girl pretends she does not know how to spin. Her companions,
in disgust, tell her to stick the spinning stick up her anus. She
does so and at once changes into a monkey.


A war party are unable to cross a swollen river. They wish to become
birds. Their wish is granted and they are changed to _kalau_, but
they are not able to resume the human forms. Those who wore the white
mourning bands, now have white heads.


A mother puts a basket over her lazy son. When she raises it a bird
flies away crying "sigakok" (lazy).


A young man who owns a rice field gets a new wife. He leaves her to
harvest the crop. She is discouraged over the prospect and wishes to
become a bird. Her wish is fulfilled, and she becomes a _kakok_.


The dog of Ganoway chases a deer into a cave. The hunter follows
and in the darkness brushes against shrubs which tinkle. He breaks
off some branches. Cave opens again on the river bank, and he finds
his dog and the dead deer at the entrance. He sees that fruits on
the branches he carries are agate beads. Returns, but fails to find
more. His townspeople go with him to seek the wonderful tree, but
part of the cave is closed by the spirit Kaboniyan who owns it.


The jar Magsawi formerly talked softly, but now is cracked and cannot
be understood. In the first times the dogs of some hunters chased the
jar and the men followed, thinking it to be a deer. The jar eluded
them until a voice from the sky informed the pursuers how it might
be caught. The blood of a pig was offered, as the voice directed,
and the jar was captured.


The sun and moon fight. Sun throws sand in moon's face and makes the
dark spots which are still visible.


A man who went with a war party is away so long that he does not
recognize his daughter when he returns. He embraces her when she meets
him at the town gate. In shame she changes herself into a coconut tree.


Two flying snakes once guarded the gap in the mountains by which the
Abra river reaches the sea. Two brave men attack them with banana
trunks. Their wings stick in the banana trees and they are easily
killed. The men are rewarded with gold made in the shape of deer
and horses.


A man named Tagapen, of Ilocos Norte, with his wife and child goes
up the Abra river on a raft. They stop at various towns and Tagapen
goes up to each while his wife comforts the child. They finally
reached Patok where they go to live in the _balaua_. They remain
there teaching the people many songs.



A turtle and a monkey go to plant bananas. The turtle places his in
the ground, but the monkey hangs his in a tree. Soon the tree of the
turtle has ripe fruit, but the monkey has none. Turtle asks monkey
to climb and secure the fruit. Monkey eats all but one banana, then
sleeps in the tree. Turtle plants sharp shells around the tree and
then frightens monkey which falls and is killed. Turtle sells his
flesh to other monkey and then chides them because they eat their
kind. Monkeys catch turtle and threaten first to cut and then to
burn him. He deceives them by showing them marks on his body. They
tie weight to him and throw him into the water. He reappears with a
fish. Monkeys try to imitate him and are drowned.


A turtle and lizard go to steal ginger. The lizard talks so loudly
he attracts the attention of the owner. The turtle hides, but the
lizard runs and is pursued by the man. The turtle enters the house
and hides under a coconut shell. When the man sits on the shell the
turtle calls. He cannot discover source of noise and thinks it comes
from his testicles. He strikes these with a stone and dies. The turtle
and the lizard see a bees' nest. The lizard hastens to get it and is
stung. They see a bird snare and turtle claims it as the necklace of
his father. Lizard runs to get it but is caught and killed.


A little bird calls many times for a boy to catch it. He snares it and
places it in a jar. Lad's grandmother eats the bird. He discovers the
theft, leaves home and gets a big stone to swallow him. The grandmother
gets horses to kick the stone, carabao to hook it, and chickens to
peck it, but without result. When thunder and her friends also fail,
she goes home without her grandson.


A frog, which is attached to a hook, lures a fish so that it is caught.


The five fingers are brothers. The thumb goes to get bamboo. He tries
to kiss the bamboo and his nose sticks. One by one the others go in
search of the missing but are captured in the same manner. The little
finger, which alone remains free, releases the others.


A carabao and a shell agree to race along the river. The carabao runs
swiftly, then pauses to call "shell." Another shell replies and the
carabao continues running. This is repeated many times until at last
the carabao falls dead.


A crab and a shell go to get wood. The crab pulls the rope on his load
so tightly that he breaks his big legs and dies. The shell finds his
friend dead and cries until he belches his own body out of the shell
and he dies.


A mosquito tells a man he would eat him were it not for his ears.


A messenger goes to negotiate a marriage. When he arrives he sees the
people nodding their heads as they suck meat out of shells. He returns
home without stating his mission, but reports an acceptance. Girl's
people are surprised when people come for _pakalon_.


A man sees people eating bamboo shoots, and is told they are eating
_pagaldanen_. He understands them to say _aldan_--"ladder," so he
goes home and cooks his bamboo ladder. Is ridiculed by his friends.


A man with heavily laden horse asks the length of a certain trip. Boy
replies, "If you go slowly, very soon; if you go fast, all day." The
man hurries so that coconuts keep falling off the load and have to
be replaced. It is dark when he arrives.


A woman eats the fruit belonging to crocodile and throws away the
rind. Crocodile sees her tooth marks and recognizes the offender. He
demands that she be given him to eat. Her people agree, but first
feed him a hot iron. He swallows it and dies.


A lazy man goes to cut bamboo, and a cat steals his cooked rice. He
catches the cat in a trap and takes it home. It becomes a fighting
cock. The man starts for a cock fight, and on the way is joined by a
crocodile, a deer, a mound of earth and a monkey. The rooster kills
all the other birds at the fight, then the crocodile wins a diving
contest, the deer a race, the mound of earth a wrestling match, and
the monkey excels all in climbing. The man wins much money in wagers
and buys a good house.


A spirit lets a man take his _poncho_ which makes him invisible. He
goes to his wife who recognizes his voice and thinks him dead. He
takes off _poncho_ and appears before her.


A fisherman is seized by a big bird which carries him to its nest. The
small birds try to eat him, but he seizes one in each hand and jumps
from the tree. He reaches the ground unhurt and returns home.


[1] Men or women through whom the superior beings talk to
mortals. During ceremonies the spirits possess their bodies and govern
their language and actions. When not engaged in their calling, the
mediums take part in the daily activities of the village.

[2] See page 29.

[3] The initial portion of some of these names is derived from the
respectful term _apo_--"sir," and the attributive copulate _ni_; thus
the original form of Aponitolau probably was Apo ni Tolau, literally
"Sir, who is Tolau." However, the story-tellers do not now appear
to divide the names into their component parts, and they frequently
corrected the writer when he did so; for this reason such names appear
in the text as single words. Following this explanation it is possible
that the name Aponibolinayen may be derived from Apo ni bolan yan,
literally "Sir (mistress) who is place where the moon"; but _bolan_
generally refers to the space of time between the phases of the moon
rather than to the moon itself. The proper term for moon is _sinag_,
which we have seen is the mother of Gaygayoma--a star,--and is clearly
differentiated from Aponibolinayen.

[4] [male]--male. [female]--female.

[5] Occasionally the storytellers become confused and give Pagbokasan
as the father of Aponitolau.

[6] The town of Natpangan is several times mentioned as though it
was the same as Kaodanan.

[7] Only the most important references found in the texts are given
here. For a fuller list see the index.

[8] The only possible exception to this statement is the mention of
a carabao sled on p. 150, and of Aponitolau and Aponibolinayen riding
on a carabao p. 51.

[9] A term applied to any of the wilder head-hunting tribes.

[10] Ladders are placed on each side of the town gate and are inclined
toward one another until they meet at the top. Returning warriors
enter the village by climbing up the one and descending the other,
never through the gate.

[11] Copper gongs.

[12] Sharpened bamboo poles which pass through the foramen magnum.

[13] This poison is placed in the food or drink. The use of poisoned
darts or arrows seems never to have been known to this people.

[14] A similar custom is found among the Kayan of Borneo. See _Hose_
and _McDougall_, Pagan Tribes of Borneo, Vol. II, p. 171 (London,

[15] In this dance a man and a woman enter the circle, each holding
a cloth. Keeping time to the music, they approach each other with
almost imperceptible movements of feet and toes, and a bending at the
knees, meanwhile changing the position of the cloths. This is varied
from time to time by a few quick, high steps. For fuller description
see article by author in _Philippine Journal of Science_, Vol. III,
No. 4, 1908, p. 208.

[16] The custom was formerly practised by the Ilocano. See _Reyes_,
Folklore Filipino, p. 126 (Manila, 1899).

[17] See _Philippine Journal of Science_, Vol. III, No. 4, 1908,
pp. 206, ff.

[18] The Tinguian do not have a classificatory system of relationship
terms. The term _kasinsin_ is applied alike to the children of mother's
and father's brothers and sisters.

[19] A sacred dance in which a number of men and women take part. It
takes place only at night and is accompanied by the singing of the

[20] The night preceding the greatest day of the _Sayang_ ceremony.

[21] Runo, a reed.

[22] See p. 11, note 3.

[23] A short ceremony held for the cure of fever and minor ills. It
also forms a part of the more extensive rites.

[24] A sugar-cane rum.

[25] See p. 10, note 1.

[26] Lesser spirits.

[27] Like ideas occur in the folktales of British North Borneo. See
_Evans_, _Journal Royal Anthro. Inst_., Vol. XLIII, 1913, p. 444.

[28] In various guises the same conception is found in Europe, Asia,
Africa, and Malaysia. See Cox, An Introduction to Folklore, p. 121
(London, 1904).--In an Igorot tale the owner captures and marries the
star maiden, who is stealing his rice. _Seidenadel_, The Language of
the Bontoc Igorot, p. 491 ff. (Chicago, 1909).

[29] The Dusun of Borneo have tales of talking jars. _Evans_, _Journal
Royal Anthro. Inst_., Vol. XLIII, 1913, pp. 426-427. See also _Cole_
and _Laufer_, Chinese Pottery in the Philippines (_Pub. Field Museum
of Nat. Hist_., Vol. XII, No. 1, p. 11 ff., 1912).

[30] _Piper sp_.

[31] Bagobo tales relate that in the beginning plants, animals,
and rocks could talk with mortals. See _Benedict_, _Journal American
Folklore_, Vol. XXVI, 1913, p. 21.

[32] Tales of animals who assist mortals are found in all lands;
perhaps the best known to European readers is that of the ants which
sorted the grain for Cinderella. See also _Evans_, _Jour. Royal
Anthro. Inst.,_ Vol. XLIII, 1913, p. 467, for Borneo; _Tawney's_
Katha Sarit Sagara, pp. 361 ff., Calcutta, 1880, for India.

[33] Fabulous birds of gigantic size, often known under the Indian
term _garuda_, play an important part in the beliefs of the Peninsular

[34] A similiar incident is cited by _Bezemer_ (Volksdichtung aus
Indonesien). See also the Bagobo tale of the Kingfisher (_Benedict_,
_Jour. American Folklore_, Vol. XXVI, 1913, p. 53).

[35] The magic flight has been encountered in the most widely separated
parts of the globe, as, for instance, India and America. See _Tawney_,
Katha Sarit Sagara, pp. 361, 367 ff. and notes, (Calcutta, 1880);
_Waterman_, _Jour. American Folklore,_ Vol. XXVII, 1914, p. 46;
_Reinhold Koehler_, Kleinere Schriften, Vol. I, pp. 171, 388.

[36] In the Dayak legend of Limbang, a tree springs from the head
of a dead giant; its flowers turn to beads; its leaves to cloth;
the ripe fruit to jars. See _H. Ling Roth_, The Natives of Sarawak
and British North Borneo, Vol. I, p. 372.

[37] Similar incidents are to be found among the Ilocano and Igorot;
in Borneo; in Java and India. See _Reyes_, Folklore Filipino, p. 34,
(Manila, 1889); _Jenks_, The Bontoc Igorot, p. 202, (Manila, 1905);
_Seidenadel_, The Language of the Bontoc Igorot, p. 491, 541, ff,
(Chicago, 1909); _Evans_, _Journal Royal Anthro. Inst_., Vol. XLIII,
1913, p. 462; _Ling Roth_, Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo,
Vol. I, p. 319; _Tawney_, Katha Sarit Sagara, Vol. II, p. 3, (Calcutta,
1880); _Bezemer_, Volksdichtung aus Indonesien, p. 49, (Haag, 1904).

[38] This peculiar expression while frequently used is not fully
understood by the story tellers who in place of the word "whip"
occasionally use "make." In one text which describes the _Sayang_
ceremony, I find the following sentence, which may help us to
understand the foregoing: "We go to make perfume at the edge of the
town, and the things which we take, which are our perfume, are the
leaves of trees and some others; it is the perfume for the people,
which we give to them, which we go to break off the trees at the edge
of the town." Again in tale 20, Kanag breaks the perfume of Baliwan
off a tree.--The use of sweetly scented oil, in raising the dead,
is found in Dayak legends. See _Ling Roth_, The Natives of Sarawak
and British North Borneo, Vol. I, p. 314.

[39] According to a Jakun legend, the first children were produced
out of the calves of their mothers' legs. _Skeat_ and _Blagden_, Pagan
Races of the Malay Peninsula, Vol. II, p. 185.--A creation tale from
Mangaia relates that the boy Rongo came from a boil on his mother's
arm when it was pressed. _Gill_, Myths and Songs of the South Pacific,
p. 10 (London, 1876).

[40] This power of transforming themselves into animals and the like
is a common possession among the heroes of Dayak and Malay tales. See
_Ling Roth_, The Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo, Vol. I,
p. 312; _Perham_, _Journal Straits Branch R., Asiatic Society_,
No. 16, 1886; _Wilkinson_, Malay Beliefs, pp. 32, 59 (London, 1906).

[41] The present day Tinguian attach much importance to these
omens. The gall and liver of the slaughtered animal are carefully
examined. If the fluid in the gall sack is exceedingly bitter, the
inquirer is certain to be successful; if it is mild he had best defer
his project. Certain lines and spots found on the liver foretell
disaster, while a normal organ assures success. See also _Hose_
and _McDougall_, Pagan Tribes of Borneo, Vol. II, p. 60 ff.

[42] See p. 24, note 1.

[43] The present capital of Ilocos Sur.

[44] See p. 10, note 1.

[45] _Barrows_, Census of the Philippine Islands, Vol. I, pp. 456
ff., 1903.

[46] Paul P. de La Gironiere, who visited the Tinguian in the early
part of the nineteenth century, describes these ornaments as follows:
"Their heads were ornamented with pearls, coral beads, and pieces
of gold twisted among their hair; the upper parts of the hands were
painted blue; wrists adorned with interwoven bracelets, spangled with
glass beads; these bracelets reached the elbow and formed a kind of
half-plaited sleeve." _La Gironiere_, Twenty Years in the Philippines,
pp. 108 ff.

[47] See _Cole_ and _Laufer_, Chinese Pottery in the Philippines
(_Pub. Field Museum of Natural History_, Vol. XII, No. 1).

[48] This is entirely in agreement with Chinese records. The Islands
always appeared to the Chinese as an Eldorado desirable for its gold
and pearls.

[49] See p. 21, note 1.

[50] See p. 10, note 1.

[51] A bamboo pole, about ten feet long, one end of which is slit
into several strips; these are forced apart and are interwoven with
other strips, thus forming a sort of basket.

[52] See _Cole_, Distribution of the Non-Christian Tribes of
Northwestern Luzon (_American Anthropologist_, Vol. II, No. 3, 1909,
pp. 340, 341).

[53] See p. 12.

[54] See p. 13, note 5.

[55] Among the Ifugao, the lowest of the four layers or strata which
overhang the earth is known as Kabuniyan. See _Beyer_, _Philippine
Journal of Science_, Vol. VIII, 1913, No. 2, p. 98.

[56] See p. 11.

[57] An Ifugao myth gives sanction to the marriage of brother and
sister under certain circumstances, although it is prohibited in every
day life. _Beyer_, _Philippine Journal of Science_, Vol. VIII, 1913,
No. 2, pp. 100 ff.

[58] As opposed to the spirit mate of Aponitolau.

[59] According to _Ling Roth_, the Malanaus of Borneo bury small
boats near the graves of the deceased, for the use of the departed
spirits. It was formerly the custom to put jars, weapons, clothes,
food, and in some cases a female slave aboard a raft, and send it out
to sea on the ebb tide "in order that the deceased might meet with
these necessaries in his upward flight." Natives of Sarawak and British
North Borneo, Vol. I, p. 145, (London, 1896). For notes on the funeral
boat of the Kayan, see _Hose_ and _McDougall_, Pagan Tribes of Borneo,
Vol. II, p. 35.--Among the Kulaman of southern Mindanao an important
man is sometimes placed in a coffin resembling a small boat, which
is then fastened on high poles near to the beach. _Cole_, Wild Tribes
of Davao District, Mindanao (_Pub. Field Museum of Natural History_,
Vol. XII, No. 2, 1913).--The supreme being, Lumawig, of the Bontoc
Igorot is said to have placed his living wife and children in a log
coffin; at one end he tied a dog, at the other a cock, and set them
adrift on the river. See _Jenks_, The Bontoc Igorot, p. 203, (Manila,
1905); _Seidenadel_, The Language of the Bontoc Igorot, p. 502 ff.,
(Chicago, 1909).

[60] For similar omens observed by the Ifugao of Northern Luzon,
see _Beyer_, Origin Myths of the Mountain peoples of the Philippines
(_Philippine Journal of Science_, Vol. VIII, 1913, No. 2, p. 103).

[61] Page 6, note 3.

[62] See tale 22.

[63] For a discussion of this class of myths, see _Waterman_,
_Jour. Am. Folklore_, Vol. XXVII, 1914, p. 13 ff.; _Lowie_, _ibid._,
Vol. XXI, p. 101 ff., 1908; P.W. _Schmidt_, Grundlinien einer
Vergleichung der Religionen und Mythologien der austronesischen Voelker,
(Wien, 1910).

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