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Traditions of the Tinguian: A Study in Philippine Folk-Lore by Fay-Cooper Cole

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went to the town and Ligi slept again, and she took the boy. As soon
as she reached the edge of the town she used her power again and all
the people who slept woke up. As soon as Ligi woke up he saw that
the boy was not by him. "What has happened to the boy? Perhaps his
mother came to steal him while I was sleeping," said Ligi. Langa-an
was surprised and sorry because the boy was gone.

As soon as the boy and his mother arrived in their house, he
asked his mother how many blankets she had woven while he was in
Kadalayapan. "Ala, tomorrow you send me again to Kadalayapan." "Yes,"
said Gamayawan. When it became early morning she made cakes for his
provisions. When it became day they took the boy to Kadalayapan. When
they approached the town Gamayawan used her power again so that all
the people, even though they were working, slept again, and so they
slept truly; then they went to the town and they left the boy beside
Ligi who was sleeping in the _balaua_. As soon as they were far away
from the town Gamayawan used her magic, and all the people who slept
awoke. As soon as Ligi woke up he saw the boy by him again, and they
at once hid him.

When it became afternoon Gamayawan and her companions went to
Kadalayapan to get the boy and as soon as they arrived she used
magic again so that all the people slept, then they went up to the
town. They looked for the boy, but they could not find him, and they
were troubled. They went back home crying. As soon as Ligi woke up
he went outdoors.

Five days later Ligi told his mother he thought they should build
_balaua_. "We are going to make _Sayang_, mother, for we want to
find the mother of this boy." Langa-an said, "Yes." Not long after
they made _balaua_ and when it became afternoon they made _Libon_
[276] and they commanded someone to go and get the betel-nuts which
were covered with gold, so that they might send them to invite all
the people in the world. As soon as the people whom they sent arrived
they oiled the betel-nuts, and sent them to all parts of the world
to invite all the people.

Not long after the betel-nut which went to the town of Gamayawan
arrived, "Good afternoon, lady. I cannot tarry, I came to invite you,
for Ligi and his mother and father of Kadalayapan make _Sayang_," said
the betel-nut. "I cannot come for there is no one to watch the house,"
said Gamayawan. "If you do not wish to come I will grow on your knee,"
said the betel-nut. "Grow on my big pig, for I cannot go," she said,
so it went on to her big pig and the pig squealed very much. "You
get off and come on my knee," said Gamayawan to the betel-nut, for
she was sorry for her pig. So the betel-nut went on her knee, and it
grew high so that it hurt her. "Ala, you betel-nut, I am going now
to take a bath, and then I will come." So the betel-nut got off and
she went to take a bath. When she arrived at the river she was in no
hurry, for she did not wish to go, and the people from Pindayan, who
were Iwaginan and his wife Gimbagonan, and the other people passed by
the place where she was bathing, when they were going to attend the
_Sayang_ in Kadalayapan. They saw the pretty lady taking her bath by
the river. "Ala, you Gimbagonan, give me some betel-nut so that I can
give that lady a chew," said Iwaginan. "No, do not lose any time, we
are in a hurry," said Gimbagonan. He compelled her to give it to him,
so he went to give the lady the betel-nut and Gimbagonan was angry. As
soon as Iwaginan reached the lady and offered her the betel-nut to
chew she refused it, but he compelled her to chew it with him. As
soon as he gave the betel-nut to her he urged her to go with them to
attend the _Sayang_. The lady did not want to go, but he urged her very
long, until she went with them. She said, "Wait for me here while I
go to change my clothes, if you want me to accompany you, but it is
shameful for me to go, for they did not invite me." She went slowly
to their house and when Iwaginan and the others waited a long time
for her Gimbagonan was angry with Iwaginan and said bad words to him.

Not long after an Agta [277] woman passed by them at the river. "Ay,
Agta, did you not see the lady for whom we are waiting?" said
Iwaginan. "No, I did not see her," said the Agta. "If you did not
see her you come with us and we will go to attend _Sayang_" said
Iwaginan to her. "I am ashamed to go, for I have no clothes," said the
Agta. "No, if I wish it, do not be ashamed," said Iwaginan. Not long
after they went. As soon as they arrived in Kadalayapan the Agta went
to sit down behind a rice winnower, and Galinginayen was carried by his
father and he took him past all the people and he noticed none of them,
and when they were in front of the Agta he wanted to go to her, but the
Agta winked at him and he did not go to her though he recognized her
as his mother. Not long after the Agta became drunk, for they gave her
much _basi_ to drink. While she was drunk Iwaginan called Ligi. "Now,
cousin Ligi, my companion the Agta is drunk and she has laid down on
the ground. I want you to take her into the house and give her a mat."

Ligi took her into the house and he held her by the little finger
for he did not want to touch her. As soon as they were in the house
he put her by the door and he put some old clothes over her, and
the boy said, when he saw his mother, "How bad my father is, for
he gave my mother the old blankets which the dogs lie on." As soon
as his father was among the people the boy changed the blankets on
his mother, and he sucked milk from her breasts. As soon as he had
sucked the milk from her breasts he went to play by the window, and
the guests went below him, for they feared that he would fall. When
they were there all the time Ligi went to the house. Not long after
he arrived in the house he saw the breasts of the Agta twinkle like
stars, and Ligi took the sharp knife and cut the skin off from the
Agta. As soon as he had cut off all of the black skin, he threw
it out of the window. He lifted her up and put her on a good mat,
and all the people who went to attend _balaua_ went to where the
skin had fallen, for they thought it was the child who had fallen,
and they saw it was the skin of the Agta. They were surprised.

Not long after Iwaginan was anxious to go home. "Ala, now, cousin
Ligi, I want to go home, for we have been here so long a time, do not
detain us. Go and get my Agta companion so that we can go home." "I
don't know where your Agta companion is now, for I did not see where
she went." Iwaginan was sorry and he went to look for her. Not long
after he saw her on the mat. "She is on the mat, my cousin Iwaginan,
but I do not like to let her go with you, for she is the cause of my
making _Sayang_, for I wanted to find out who was the mother of the
boy. Now she is his mother. The best thing for you to do is to marry
Aponibolinayen and I am going to marry this woman," said Ligi.

Not long after Iwaginan went back home. As soon as they
arrived in Pindayan he divorced Gimbagonan, and he went to marry
Aponibolinayen. So truly he married Gamayawan. As soon as the _pakalon_
was over, he paid the marriage price. Next evening Iwaginan and
Aponibolinayen lived together. Next morning they went to wash their
hair. "Wait for me here for I am going to dive in the river," said
Iwaginan. So he dived, and he went to the place where the _alan_
lived under the water and the _alan_ said, "Eb we have something
to eat for breakfast, it is a man." "No, do not eat me, I came to
change my clothes," said Iwaginan. "Is Aponibolinayen here?" they
said. "No," he said, and the _alan_ covered each hair of his head with
golden beads, and they gave clothes to him. After that when he went
back home, they went to guide him. As soon as they arrived by the
river they saw Aponibolinayen. "How cunning you are, Iwaginan! You
told us she was not here, and she is here," said the _alan_. "If we
had known that Aponibolinayen was by the river we would have eaten
you, for we wanted to take her," they said. "No," said Iwaginan,
and they went home. A day later he took Aponibolinayen to Pindayan
and Gimbagonan prepared the _baladon_ poison, because she wanted to
kill Iwaginan. As soon as he and Aponibolinayen arrived in Pindayan,
Gimbagonan went to their house, and she took betel-nuts. As soon as
she reached the house she gave the nut to Aponibolinayen, and it had
_baladon_ poison on it. She gave also to Iwaginan, but it had no
poison on it. As soon as they chewed the betel-nut Aponibolinayen
died. Not long after Iwaginan sharpened his headaxe and spear, for
he intended to cut off Gimbagonan's head. They went to get a medium
[278] to make the ceremony for Aponibolinayen, and when the medium
was making the ceremony she said, "Aponibolinayen cannot be cured
unless Gimbagonan comes to cure her, for she used the poison which is
_baladon_." Not long after they went to get Gimbagonan and Iwaginan
was anxious to get her head, but she asked his pardon and she went
to cure Aponibolinayen. As soon as she made Aponibolinayen drink of
her medicine, she was at once alive again. Not long after Gimbagonan
went back to her house, and when she went back Iwaginan said to her,
"Do not do that." "You are not good, Iwaginan. I do not know why you
divorced me," she said.


"Tikgi, tikgi, Ligi, if you want us to cut rice for you, we will
come to work with you," said the _tikgi_ birds, "Because we like to
cut your rice _amasi_, which is mixed with _alomaski_ in the place
of Domayasi." Ligi said to them, "What are you going to do? I do not
think you can cut rice, for you are birds and only know how to fly, you
_tikgi_." But they still asked until he let them cut his rice. "Ala,
Ligi, even if we are _tikgi_ we know how to cut rice." "If you want
to come and cut, you must come again, because the rice is not yet
ripe. When you think it is ripe, you come," he said. "If that is what
you say Ligi that we shall come when the rice is ripe, we will go
home and come again," said the _tikgi_. Not long after they went home.

As soon as the birds went Ligi fell sick; he wanted always to see them,
and he had a headache, so he went home to Kadalayapan. The _tikgi_
used magic so that Ligi's rice was ripe in a few days.

Five days later, Ligi went back to his rice field and the _tikgi_ went
also, and they arrived at the same time. "Tikgi, tikgi, Ligi, Ala, now
we have come to cut your rice _amasi_ which is mixed with _alomaski_
in the place of Domayasi," said the _tikgi_. "Come, _tikgi_, if you
know how to cut rice," said Ligi. Not long after the _tikgi_ went. "We
use magic so that you cut the rice. You rice cutters, you cut alone
the rice. And you tying bands, you tie alone the rice which the rice
cutters cut," said the _tikgi_. So the rice cutters and bands worked
alone and Ligi went home when he had shown them where to cut rice. He
advised the _tikgi_ to cut rice until afternoon, and they said, "Yes,
Ligi, when it is afternoon you truly come back." "Yes," said Ligi.

When it became afternoon Ligi went. As soon as he arrived at the field
the rice which they had cut was gathered--five hundred bundles. "Now,
Ligi, come and see the rice which we have cut, for we want to go back
home," said the _tikgi_. Ligi was surprised. "What did you do, you
_tikgi_? You have nearly finished cutting my rice _alomaski_ in the
place of Domayasi," he said. "'What did you do', you say, and we cut
it with our rice cutters." "Now you _tikgi_, I am ashamed to separate
the payment for each of you. You take all you want," said Ligi, so
the _tikgi_ took truly one head of rice for each one. "Now, Ligi, we
have taken all we can carry," said the _tikgi_. "All right if that is
all you want, help yourself," said Ligi, "and you come again." After
that the _tikgi_ flew and took with them one head of rice each.

After the _tikgi_ left Ligi had the headache again, so he did not
put the rice in the carabao sled, but went home in a hurry. As soon
as he arrived in his house Ligi used his power so that it again
became morning. As soon as it became day the _tikgi_ went and Ligi
went also and they arrived at the same time. "Tikgi, tikgi, Ligi,
can we cut your rice which is _amasi_ mixed with _alomaski_ in the
place of Domayasi?" "Are you here now, _tikgi_?" said Ligi. "Go and
cut the rice and see if you can cut it very soon, and after that I
will make _Sayang_, and you must come _tikgi_," said Ligi. "Yes, we
are going to cut and you do not need to stay here. You can go home
if you wish," said the _tikgi_. So Ligi went home.

As soon as he arrived in his house he went to make a rice granary. When
it became afternoon they had finished cutting the rice and Ligi went
to the fields to see them. As soon as he arrived there, "We have
finished all the rice, Ligi," they said. "Come and give us the payment
and then you can go home and see the rice granary where you put the
rice, and all the rice bundles will arrive there directly, for you
cannot carry them home." "I cannot take them home, for I always have
a headache when you go. Since you came I began to have headaches,"
said Ligi. "Why do you blame us, Ligi?" "Because since you came I
have had headaches." After that Ligi went home to see the rice granary.

As soon as Ligi left them they used magic so that all the rice went
to the granary of Ligi in his town. As soon as Ligi arrived at the
drying enclosure he saw the rice which the _tikgi_ had sent and he
was surprised. "I wonder how those _tikgi_ sent all the rice? I think
they are not real _tikgi_" said Ligi. As soon as the _tikgi_ sent
all the rice to the town they went home, and Ligi went to his house.

Not long after he built _balaua_ and made _Sayang_, and he invited
all the _tikgi_. As soon as the people whom Ligi invited arrived
the _tikgi_ came also and they flew over the people and they made
them drink _basi_. Not long after they became drunk. "Now Ligi we
must go home, because it is not good for us to stay for we cannot
sit among the people whom you have invited, for we are _tikgi_ and
always fly." Not long after they went home and Ligi followed them. He
left the people in the party and he watched where they went, and they
went to the _bana-asi_ tree and Ligi went to them and he saw them take
off their feathers and put them in the rice granary and Ligi said to
them, "Is that what you become, a girl; sometimes you are _tikgi_
who come to cut rice for me. Now that you are not _tikgi_ I would
like to marry you." "It is true that I am the _tikgi_ who came to cut
rice, because you would not have found me if I had not done it." He
married the woman who had power so that she became several birds,
[279] and he took her home.

When they arrived in Kadalayapan the people whom Ligi had invited
were still there and were dancing. The father and mother of Ligi were
surprised and so they chewed betel-nut so as to find out who the lady
was. The quid of Ebang and Pagatipanan and the quid of Aponibolinayen
(the _tikgi_) went together. The quid of Langa-an and Pagbokasan went
to the quid of Ligi and thus they knew who Aponibolinayen was. Ebang
and Pagatipanan were surprised that she was their daughter, and they
called her Aponibolinayen, and they called Ligi Aponitolau. As soon
as they found out who she was, Ligi gave the payment to the relatives
of Aponibolinayen. As soon as he made the payment, they played the
_gansas_ and danced for three months. As soon as the _balaua_ was
over all the people went home and Aponibolinayen's father asked
her where she had been. She said she had been in the _bana-asi_
tree where Kaboniyan [280] had put her, and they were surprised for
they did not know when Kaboniyan had taken her from them. After that
they used magic and the house where Aponibolinayen had lived went to
Kadalayapan. This is all.

(Told by Madomar of Riang barrio of Patok.)


There was a man named Wadagan, and his wife was Dolimaman. They were
sitting together in the middle of the day, and Dolimaman commanded
Wadagan to stick with a thorn the place between her fourth and little
finger. So Wadagan stuck her finger with the thorn and as soon as
he did so a little baby popped out. "What name shall we give to this
boy?" said Wadagan. "You ask what name we shall give him, we are going
to call him Kanag Kabagbagowan," she replied. "Give him a bath every
day." "I use my power so that every time I give him a bath he will
grow." [281] She always said this when she bathed him and every time
the baby grew. Not long after she said, "I use my power so that when
I bathe him again he will be so big he will ask for his clout, belt,
and top." As soon as she said this and bathed him the boy became big
and asked for his clout, belt and top. Not long after he dressed up
and took his top and went to play with the other boys.

Not long after Dolimaman said to Wadagan, "Take care of the boy while I
go to the well," and Wadagan said, "Yes." As soon as Dolimaman arrived
at the well Wadagan made a little raft and Kanag went to the place
where he was working and asked, "What is that for father?" "'What is
that for,' you say. I am going to make it for your toy." Not long after
he said, "My son go and change your clothes and as soon as you change
your clothes I will see you." When Kanag went to change his clothes
his father was watching for him. He said, "My dear son, now we will
follow your mother to the well." So they went, but they did not go
to the place where Dolimaman was. They went to the east of Dolimaman,
and Wadagan said, "Ala, Kanag, go on the raft which I have just made,
and I will drag it up stream with a rope." Kanag did not want to,
but his father lifted him and put him on the new raft. As soon as
he put him on the raft he pushed it out into the current and then he
went back home.

When he reached the yard Wadagan went into the _balaua_ and laid down,
and when Dolimaman returned she inquired for Kanag and she said,
"Where is Kanag? Why can I not see him here?" Wadagan said, "I do not
know. I think he is playing with the other boys in the east." Not
long after Dolimaman went to ask Agtanang and Gamayawan, and she
said to them, "Did you see our son Kanag?" "No, we did not see him,"
they replied. Not long after, while she was inquiring, they told her
the truth, and they said, "He went to the well with his father and
they carried a little raft which had just been made." Not long after
Dolimaman went to the west of the well and she saw the marks of the
raft in the sand by the river and she sat there for along time and
Agtanang and Gamayawan shaded her while she sat there by the river.

Not long after the old woman Alokotan went to the well for she felt
hot. As she was taking a bath she saw the little raft which was
just made and said, "You new little raft, if the son of Wadagan and
Dolimaman is inside of you, come here." So the little raft went to
her where she was making a pool in which the dead or sick were put to
restore them. As soon as she finished the pool she took him to her
house and Kanag asked for something to eat. The old woman Alokotan
said, "Go and eat, it is already prepared." So Kanag went and ate
and he said, "Mother, give me that nose flute so I can play." So
she gave it to him and he played. "Agdaliyan, you are feeling so
happy while your mother is feeling unhappy, and is going to die by
the river side," said the flute as he played. So he stopped playing
and he said, "What is the matter with this flute? It sounds bad. I
am going to break you into pieces." Not long after he asked the old
woman Alokotan for the _bunkaka_ [282] and she gave it to him. When
he received it he played, and the _bunkaka_ said the same as the
flute. "What is the matter with this _bunkaka_ that it talks bad? I
am going to break you." He put it down again and said to Alokotan,
"Mother, I am going to play with the other boys." "No, do not go,"
said the old woman, but he went nevertheless to play with the boys.

Not long after he reached the _balaua_, and he met a little boy
playing with _lipi_ nuts, and they played together. "Will you
come with me to the place where my mother is while I ask for my
tobacco?" said Dagolayan. "If that is what you say we will go,"
said Kanag. So they went to the place where Dolimaman was and the
milk from her breasts went to Kanag's mouth. "Here is my son now,"
said Dolimaman who was lying down and she sat up. "What is the matter
of this woman, she called me her son and she is not my mother," said
Kanag. "Where is your mother then?" said Dolimaman. "My mother is
in Nagbotobotan and her name is Alokotan," said the boy. "Ala, let
us go. Where is Nagbotobotan? Guide me," said Dolimaman. As soon as
they arrived, she said, "Good morning, my Aunt." "Good morning also,"
said Alokotan. "My son is with you," said Dolimaman. "Yes, your son
is with me, because I met him by the river near the well." "How much
must I pay you, my Aunt, because you found him and he has staid with
you," said Dolimaman to the old woman. "I do not wish anything, for
my reason for taking him was so that I might have someone to inherit
my possessions, because I have no child." "That is not my mother,"
said Kanag to Alokotan, and she replied, "Yes, that is your mother,
but your father put you on the river when you were a little boy, and I
found you there and I took you, so I might have someone to inherit my
things." Not long after, "Ala, my Aunt, now we are not going home we
will stay here, because my husband Wadagan does not like us." So they
used magic so that their house in Kadalayapan went to Nagbotobotan,
and the people were surprised at the noise made by the house when
it went to Nagbotobotan. They saw that it was a big house all made
of gold, and they placed it near to the house of Alokotan. Not long
after Wadagan made _balaua_, because he could not find his family in
their golden house.

Wadagan got out of the _balaua_ and said, "I am going to take a
walk and see if I can meet Dolimaman and our house which is made of
gold." Not long after he went to walk, and he did not meet any of
them. "I am going to go to Nagbotobotan and see if the new raft went
there." So Wadagan went and not long after, while he was walking,
he reached the edge of the town of Nagbotobotan, and he saw the
golden house, and he went to it directly, and he said, "Perhaps that
was our house, for there was no other to compare with it." When he
arrived in the yard he said, "Good morning." "Good morning also,"
said the old woman Alokotan. "How are you, my Aunt?" She said, "We
are well." And he asked her if she had seen the little raft pass
by and she said, "Yes, it passed by here and I took it." So they
made him go upstairs and when he got up there he saw Dolimaman and
Kanag, and Kanag did not know his father. "You call me father, for
you are my son," said Wadagan to him. "No, you are not my father,"
said Kanag, "If you do not wish to call me so, then I will go home,
and we will leave you here. Let us go Dolimaman. If Kanag does not
like me it is all right," said Wadagan. "I don't like you, for you
sent me away," said Kanag. "Go back home, we are going to stay here,"
said Dolimaman. So Wadagan went back home and he went everywhere and
Dolimaman, Kanag and Dagolayan staid in Nagbotobotan.

(Told by Madomar of Riang.)


There was a man Awig and Aponibolinayen, and there was a girl named
Linongan. "Ala, you make Linongan start for she goes to watch the
mountain rice. You cook for her so that she goes to watch and I go to
guide her," said Awig. "Why do you dislike our daughter Linongan? Do
not make her go to watch for she is a girl. If she were a boy it would
be all right. You know that a girl is in danger. That is why you must
not put her to watch the field." "No you give her cooked rice and
cooked meat and make her start, for I am ready to go now," said Awig.

Not long after they went to the place where the mountain rice grew,
and he went to station her in the high watch house. He commanded her
to climb, and when she was in the middle of the ladder she was afraid,
for she nearly fell down, it was so high. Not long after she reached
the watch house. When she looked down it seemed as if her eyes fell
down it was so high. "Ala, you my daughter Linongan live here and
watch our rice, I will come to see you. Do not show yourself if anyone
comes," said Awig to her and he went home to Natpangan. "Ala, you
are so happy now, Awig, for you cannot see our daughter Linongan,"
said his wife Aponibolinayen, and Awig laid down in the _balaua_
and Aponibolinayen laid down in the room.

As soon as Awig left Linongan in the field, the tattooed _alzados_
went to the watch house, and Linongan laid down for she was afraid of
them. When the tattooed _alzados_ looked up toward the watch house
it seemed as if the moon shone, "Ala, we will go up and see what
that is." They went up, and when they arrived in the place where the
girl was they were surprised at her beauty. "We will not kill her,"
said the young men to the bravest of them. "Yes," said the bravest,
"get away so I can see her, if she is very beautiful." When the young
men got away he cut her in two at her waist. They took her body and
her head and went home. "Why did you kill her," said the young men. "So
that you do not get a bad omen, young men," said the bravest of them.

Not long after they had killed Linongan, "Why does my breast flutter
so, Awig?" said Aponibolinayen. "I feel sad also," said Awig. "Ala,
Aponibolinayen you cook food for me to take when I go and see our
daughter," said Awig. Aponibolinayen truly went to cook for him. When
Aponibolinayen finished cooking, "Ala, give me my dark colored clout
and my belt which has pretty colors, so that I go at once to the place
where the tattooed _alzados_ are. Perhaps they found our daughter. Look
often at the _lawed_ which I shall plant by the stove. If it wilts
so that its leaves are drooped, you can say Awig is dead." [283]

When Aponibolinayen thought he had arrived at the field she looked
at the _lawed_ and it was green and flourishing. Not long after Awig
saw the blood below the watch house. "Perhaps this is the blood of
my daughter. I am going to see if they have killed her." He climbed
up, and when he got up, the body and head were not there, so he went
down. As soon as he got down he sat and he bent his head, "What can
I do? Where am I going to go to find my daughter?" he said. Not long
after he took a walk. When he reached the jungle he looked at the big
high tree. ["We can see all over the world from the high trees." This
was a side remark by the story-teller.] "The best thing is for me
to climb so that I watch and see where the _alzados_ live, where my
daughter is," he said, and so he climbed. As soon as he climbed up he
saw all over the world. He looked to the west, there were no people
there who celebrated. "There is no one there," he said. He looked
toward the north. There were none there who celebrated. "There is no
one there," he said. He turned his face to the east, there was no one
there. When he looked in the south he saw the _alzados_ who were making
a celebration; and they danced with the head of his daughter. "Perhaps
that is my daughter," he said. "How terrible if it is my daughter,"
and his tears dropped. Not long after he went down. As soon as he
got down, "If I follow the path I will spend much time. The best way
is for me to go through the woods, to make the way short. I will go
where they are," he said, and he went.

When he had almost reached the place where the _alzados_ were dancing
he said, "What can I do to get the head of my daughter?" and he bent
his head. Not long after he remembered to go and get the juice of
the poison tree. As soon as he secured it he split some bamboo for
his torch, as he went to the celebration of the _alzados_. As soon
as he arrived there he said, "Good evening." "Good evening," they
answered. He laid down the torch by the fire of the _alzados_, who
thought him a companion. "Where did you come from? It has taken you
so long to arrive we thought that you were dead. We did not meet you,
but we found one lady who never goes out of the house, who is very
beautiful, that is why we celebrate." "I took long because I was in
the middle of the wood, for I wanted to get a head. I was ashamed to
go back home without a head, but I did not meet anyone, so I did not
secure one, for I had a bad sign. That is why I did not reach the town
where I wanted to go and fight," he said. "Ala, make him sit down,"
said the bravest. "Yes," said _alzados_ and they made him sit, and
they danced again. "Ala, you give him a coconut shell filled with
_basi_, then he must dance, when he finishes to drink," said the
bravest again. Awig stood up. "Ala, I ask that if it is possible I
take the coconut shell, for I am the one who must give the people to
drink, and when I have made all drink, then I will dance. I will make
_kanyau_ [284] so that next time I may be successful," he said. "Ala,
you give the golden cup to him, and let him serve us drink. As soon as
he will make us drink we will make him dance." "Yes," they said. Not
long after he took the cup and he used his power so that though he
drank the _basi_ the poison which he put in the big jar would not
kill him, and he drank first. As soon as he drank he made the bravest
drink. Not long after he made all of them drink, and the _alzados_
all died, for he used magic so that when they had all drunk then they
all died. He put a basket on his back, and he went to put the head
of his daughter in the basket. He took the head into the middle of
the circle, and he took all the valuable things which the _alzados_
had put on her. As soon as he got all the things he went home.

When he was in the middle of the field he turned back his face and
saw four young _alzados_ who followed him through the cogon grass,
and he used magic so that the flame of the fire was so hot that the
_alzados_ who followed could not reach him. [285] When the flame
of the fire was over he turned his face again when he reached the
middle of the next field. He used his magic again so that the flame
was so high there that the _alzados_, who always followed, could
not reach him. As soon as the flame was gone they followed again,
and Awig shouted. The _alzados_ were frightened and were afraid to
follow him for they were then near to Kaodanan. "Ala, we will go back
or the people of Kaodanan will inherit our heads," and they went back
home. Those were all who were left for Awig did not give them poison.

Not long after Awig arrived in Natpangan. He went back to get the
rest of his daughter's body from the place where the mountain rice
grew. When he arrived in their house he joined the body and the
head. They looked at her and she was sweating. "Ala, Awig you go and
command someone to get the old woman Alokotan. When she speaks to the
cut on our daughter's body the body and head will join better," said
Aponibolinayen to Awig. Not long after, "Ala, you spirit helpers go to
get old woman Alokotan of Nagbotobotan, so she will speak to the cut
on Linongan," said Awig. "Yes," said the spirits and they went. Not
long after they arrived at Nagbotobotan, "Good morning," they said,
"What are you coming for you spirits," said old woman Alokotan. "'What
are you coming for you say?' Awig sent us to call you and take you
to Natpangan, for you to speak to the cut on their daughter, for
the _alzados_ killed her when they sent her to watch the mountain
rice." "That is why those people are bad, for when they have only one
daughter they do not know how to take care of her." "Ala, what can
you do, that is their custom. Please come," said the spirits. "Ala,
you go first, and I follow. I ought not come for I want them to feel
sorrowful for their only daughter, which they sent to the field, but
I will come for I want Linongan to live. You go and I will follow,"
she said. "Yes," they said.

When the spirits arrived in Kaodanan the old woman Alokotan arrived
also. As soon as she arrived she went at once where Linongan was
lying. "Ala, you Aponibolinayen and Awig this is your pay, for
although you have only one daughter you sent her to the mountain
field," said the old woman Alokotan to them. Awig and Aponibolinayen
did not answer for they were ashamed. When the old woman had finished
to talk to them she put saliva around the cut on Linongan and caused
it to join. When she finished joining it, "I use my power so that when
I snap my perfume [286] which is called _dagimonau_ ('to wake up')
she will wake up at once." When she snapped her perfume Linongan woke
up at once. "I use my power so that when I use my perfume _alikadakad_
(sound of walking or moving) she will at once make a movement." When
she snapped her perfume Linongan moved at once. "I use my power so
when I snap my perfume _banawes_ she will blow out her breath!" When
she snapped her perfume, she at once breathed a long breath. "_Wes_
how terrible my sleep was," said Linongan. "'How terrible my sleep' you
say. The tattooed _alzados_ nearly inherited you. I went to follow you
because they took you to their town and they danced with your head,"
said Awig.

Not long after Awig went to take four small branches of the tree
and he used magic, "I use my power so that when the four sticks will
stand they will become a _balaua_." He used his power and truly the
four sticks became a _balaua_ and Aponibolinayen commanded someone to
pound rice. Ten days later they made _Libon_, on the tenth night. When
it became morning Awig commanded someone to go and get the betel-nut
which is covered with gold. As soon as they arrived they oiled the
betel-nuts. "Ala, all you betel-nuts, you go to invite the people
from the other towns who are relatives so that they will come to make
_balaua_ with us. You go to all the towns where our relatives live
and invite them, and if they do not wish to come you grow on their
knees." So the betel-nuts went.

Not long after the people whom they invited came to the place where
they made _balaua_ and they all danced. The companion of Ilwisan of
Dagapan in dancing was Alama-an. When Ilwisan stamped his feet the
earth rumbled. When he looked up at Alama-an he said, "How terrible is
the love of the ladies toward me; she thinks that I love her," but he
wished to dance with Linongan. When they finished dancing, Asigtanan
and Dondonyan of Bagtalan danced next. When Dondonyan shook his foot
the world smiled and it rained softly. When they finished dancing,
Iwaginan and Linongan, who never goes outdoors, danced. When Iwaginan
stamped his feet, all the coconuts in the trees fell, and when Linongan
moved her toes in dancing all the tattooed fish came to breathe at
her feet for the water covered the town when they danced. When they
were still dancing the water flowed, only a little while, and it was
only knee deep, "Ala, you Iwaginan and Linongan, stop dancing because
we are deluged," said Awig and the old woman Alokotan. They stopped
dancing and the water went down again from the town. "How terrible are
the people who are like Kaboniyan for they are so different from us,"
said the other people who went to attend _balaua_ with them.

Not long after, when all the people had finished dancing and the
_balaua_ was over, the people went home and Iwaginan was engaged to
Linongan. Aponibolinayen said, "We do not wish that our daughter
be married yet," but Awig agreed. "Why do you agree, Awig, do you
not like our only daughter?" said Aponibolinayen. "I like her, but
it is better for her to be married. He seems to have power. Don't
you know that a girl has many dangers? It is better for her to be
married, because she is the only daughter we have," said Awig. Not
long after they made _pakalon_. "Ala, now, sister-in-law, how much
will we pay?" said Dinowagan to Aponibolinayen. "The _balaua_ three
times full of jewels," said Aponibolinayen. "Ala, yes, sister-in-law,"
she replied. So she used her magic and the _balaua_ was three times
full of jewels, and Aponibolinayen raised her eyebrows and half of
the things in the _balaua_ disappeared, and Dinowagan used her power
again and filled the _balaua_. "Ala, stop that is enough to pay for
our daughter," said Aponibolinayen. "I pay now." "Yes," they said. "Now
that we have made the payment we will go home," said Dinowagan. "If you
do not let us take Linongan to Pindayan, Iwaginan will live here and I
will come to visit them," said Dinowagan to Awig and Aponibolinayen. As
soon as Dinowagan and her companions went home. "Ala, my wife we
go to Pindayan to see our mother Dinowagan," said Iwaginan. "Yes,
if that is what you say we will go," said Linongan. Not long after
they asked Awig and Aponibolinayen, "You go, but do not stay long,"
they said. "Yes," they answered.

When they arrived in Pindayan, Iwaginan and Linongan went to bathe
in the river, and Iwaginan saw the place where the _alzados_ had cut
Linongan in her side, and he went to make a magical well in which
a person can bathe and lose all scars and wounds; and it looked as
if she had no cut and she was prettier, and they went home. When
they arrived in the house Dinowagan was surprised, for she was more
beautiful than before. "I made the magic pool and cured the cut in
her side which I saw," he said. Not long after when they had been
two days in Pindayan, they went to Natpangan.


Dumanagan sent his mother Langa-an to Kaodanan. When she arrived there
she said, "Good morning Ebang," and Ebang replied, "Good morning,
cousin Langa-an. Why are you coming here?" "I came to visit you." So
they made her go upstairs and they talked. Not long after they all
became drunk and the old woman asked if Aponibalagen had a sister,
and they told her that he had one. Soon they agreed on the day for
the _pakalon_.

When the day agreed on came, Aponibalagen put Aponibolinayen inside of
his belt [287] so they went to Kadalayapan. As soon as they arrived at
the gate of the town of Kadalayapan, Sinogyaman carried cake and rice
to the gate of the town, to take away a bad sign if one had been seen
while on the way. They did not like her so she went back to the town
and they sent Kindi-ingan, and they did not like her either. As soon
as Kindi-ingan returned they sent Aponigawani. When she arrived at
the gate of the town they were very glad and Dumanagan thought that
Aponibalagen had used his power so that the sweets, made of rice,
were not in the basket until Aponigawani went to meet them at the
gate of the town.

Not long after they went up to the gate of the town and they agreed on
the marriage price when Dumanagan should marry Aponibolinayen. They
said the price was the _balaua_ filled nine times. Not long after
when they had paid they all danced. Then the people went back home
and Aponibalagen and his people went back home also.

Not long after Aponibolinayen was very anxious to eat _biw_ fruit
of Tagapolo. So Dumanagan went to get it for her. He arrived where
the _biw_ was and he got some, and in a short time he returned to
Kadalayapan and he gave the fruit to his wife to eat. As soon as she
ate it she became well again. After seven months she gave birth and
they called the boy Asbinan. As soon as the boy became large he went
to play with the girls.

As soon as Asigowan of Nagwatowatan noticed the braveness of Asbinan
she made _balaua_, and she commanded the people to pound rice. Not
long after she commanded the betel-nuts to go and invite their
relatives. The betel-nuts went to all the towns in the world and
invited all the people. The next day they oiled the _gansas_ and
the people played them and all the people who heard them danced for
they liked the sound of them very much. So Asbinan went to attend the
_balaua_. All the people arrived at the place by the spring and a big
storm came and wet all of them. Not long after the people who lived
in the same town as Asigowan, which was the town of Nagwatowatan,
went to meet them at the spring, to give them dry clothes. They
changed their clothes and went up to the town. As soon as they all
danced Asbinan saw Asigowan and he wanted to marry her. So he gave her
betel-nut to chew and they told their names, and when they had told
their names their quids showed that it was good for them to marry. The
father and mother of Asigowan were Gagelagatan and Dinowagan, but she
lived with the _alan_. Her father and mother did not know her until
she made _balaua_ and Asbinan did not know her until the _balaua_,
then he married her at once.

As soon as he married her all his concubines used their magic
power so that while he was living with Asigowan she would cut her
finger. Not long after she truly cut her finger and died. They put
her in the _tabalang_ [288] which had a rooster on top of it. Then
all the concubines of Asbinan were glad. Not long after they sent
the _tabalang_ along the stream and the rooster on top of it crowed,
and the old woman Alokotan went to see it. She stopped the _tabalang_
and took out the body of the dead person. Not long after she made
her alive again. As soon as she made her alive again she put her in
a well and she became a beautiful girl. Not long after she became
a bird and she flew back to the place where Asbinan lived. The bird
flew above him, and he tried to catch it. When he could not catch her,
she went to the top of a tree, and Asbinan went into his house and
he was sorrowful, because his wife was dead. Soon he fell asleep and
the bird went near to him and Asbinan awoke and caught it. The bird
became a girl again, the same as before, and Asbinan saw that it was
his wife, so he was very happy and they made a big party. They invited
all their relatives. Not long after all the people arrived and they
all danced. The old woman Alokotan was there and Asigowan told Asbinan
that she was the woman who gave her life again, so they treated her
very good and the old woman Alokotan gave them all her property,
and all the people who went to attend the party were very glad.

(Told by Masnal of Abang.)

27 [289]

"When I was a young fellow I went to all parts of the world, to every
town where the tattooed Igorot live, who were all enemies.

"Mother Dinowagan put the rice in the pot which looks like the
rooster's egg, [290] so that I eat rice, for I go to fight the tattooed
Igorots," said Ibago wa Agimlang who was four months old. "Do not
go my son Agimlang your feet are too young and your hands look like
needles they are so small. You just came from my womb." "Oh, mother,
Dinowagan, do not detain me for it will make me heavy for fighting,"
said Agimlang. As soon as he finished eating, "Mother Dinowagan
and father Dagilagatan let me start, and give me the little headaxe
and spear and also a shield, for I am going to walk on the mountain
Daolawan." Not long after he started. As soon as he arrived on top
of the mountain Daolawan he sat on a stone which looked like a bamboo
bench under the Alangigan tree, and there were _alan_ [291] there who
were young girls. "Oh, why are you here Ibago wa Agimlang who just came
from your mother's womb?" said the _alan_. "'What, are you here?' you
say young _alan_, whose toes on your feet are spread out. I am going
to fight with the tattooed Igorot," said Ibago wa Agimlang to them,
and they talked for nine months, in the place where the stone bench
was. The _alan_ girls wanted to see him all the time. After that,
"You young _alan_ girls, I am going to leave you." "Do not go," said
the _alan_, "because you are a little baby, you just came from the
place where your mother gave birth to you." "Do not detain me, young
girls, for it is bad for me if you detain me, for I will be too heavy
for fighting," said Ibago wa Agimlang. "If I return from war, I will
invite you to attend my big party," he said to them, and so he went.

Not long after he arrived at the town where the tattooed Igorot lived,
and they were so many they looked like locusts. He used his power,
"You, my headaxe and my spear, go and fight with the tattooed Igorot,
and kill all of them." As soon as the tattooed Igorot heard what he
said, they said, "Why, do you brave baby come to fight with us for,
you are very young? Now you cannot return to your town, for we inherit
you," said the bravest of the _alzados_. [292] "If you had said that
you intended to kill me I would have killed all of you, even though I
am a baby just from my mother's womb," said Agimlang. So the bravest
of the _alzados_ told his people that they should prepare to fight
with the baby, and they began to throw their spears at him, but they
could not hit him. As soon as all the spears and headaxes were gone,
the baby fought with them, and his spear and headaxes killed all the
people who lived in that town. As soon as he killed all of them he used
magic so that the heads of the tattooed _alzados_ went to Pindayan. Not
long after truly all the heads went to Pindayan and he followed them.

When he arrived at the spring of Lisnayan in the town of Ibowan he
rested and he sat on the high stone and began to play the bamboo
Jew's harp and Igowan saw him. "Adolan come and see this young fellow
and hear him play the Jew's harp." The harp said, "Iwaginan Adolan,
Inalangan come and see your brother, if he is your true brother." So
Adolan went truly to see him and he found that it was a newborn
baby who was just beginning to walk. "Where did you come from little
baby?" said Adolan. "'Where did you come from?' you say. I come from
fighting the tattooed Igorot." "How does it happen that you went to
war, for you are only just from your mother's womb?" "'How does it
happen?' you say. I heard my father saying that when he was young
he went to all parts of the world in all the towns," said Ibago wa
Agimlang to Adolan.

Not long after he gave him betel-nut and they chewed. As soon as they
finished chewing they told their names, and Adolan told his name first
and Ibago wa Agimlang was next to tell his. After that they laid down
their quids and they saw that they were brothers. "Now, my brother,
Adolan we will go to Pindayan, for I am going to make a big party,
for I just return from fighting," said Ibago wa Agimlang. "Ala,
you go first and I will go to see our brother," said Adolan.

Not long after Ibago wa Agimlang started to go and he lost his way,
and he went through the mountain rice clearing of Kabangoweyan, who was
the _Lakay_ [293] and he walked through many _lawed_ vines which were
wide spreading and when anyone cut off a leaf they smiled. As soon
as he arrived at the little house of the old man, "Oh, grandfather,
tell me the way back home and I will not take your head," said Ibago
wa Agimlang to the old man. "Where are you going?" he said. "I am going
home to the town of Pindayan, for I am returning from fighting." "Stop
while I cook, and you can eat first, and then you can go," said the old
man. "No, I do not wish to eat. Tell me the way back home," said Ibago
wa Agimlang. So he showed him the way to Pindayan, but missed the way
and they went through the middle of the reeds, and the place where the
_lawed_ vines grew, and he met the pretty girl who was his sister,
who had been hiding between two leaves. "Now, pretty girl, I have
found you among the _lawed_ vines, and I am going to take you," said
Ibago wa Agimlang. So he took her and he put her inside of his belt.

Not long after he arrived in Pindayan and he made a big party. Adolan
and Iwaginan and Igowan went to attend the party. Not long after
he took Inalingan out of his belt, she was a pretty girl who looked
like the newly opened flower of the betel-nut tree. "Where did you
get her?" "'Where did you get her?' you say. I met her in the place
where there are many _lawed_ vines, and when you cut their leaves
they smile," said Ibago wa Agimlang.

"Now, brother, we are going to chew betel-nut, and see if we are
truly relations," said Daliwagenan (Ibago wa Agimlang), and he called
Adolan, Igowan, and all his brothers and sisters, and his father and
mother. He gave them betel-nut to chew, and Dagilagatan and Dinowagan
told their names first and Iwaginan was the next, and then Adolan
and then Igowan, but he said that he was the son of the _alan_,
and next was Agimlang and then the pretty girl. She said, "My name
is Inaling who is the little girl who never goes out of the _lawed_
vines, which when somebody cuts they smile." After they finished
chewing the betel-nut and telling their names, they laid down their
quids, and the quids Igowan and Ginalingan (Inaling) went to the
quids of Iwaginan and Adolan. "Oh, my son, Igowan and my daughter
Ginalingan, I thought that I did not have any more my daughter and
son and that the _alan_ had taken. We did not feed you rice," said
the old woman Dinowagan. "Ala, my son, Agimlang, do not feel sorry,
because you heard what your father Dagilagatan said to you, because
you met your brothers and sister who are Igowan and Ginalingan,"
said the old woman Dinowagan. After that they danced for about nine
months. After that Igowan and Adolan and Iwaginan went home and they
did not let Ginalingan go back home.

As soon as Igowan arrived in his town he built _balaua_ and he invited
all his relatives who lived in different towns and all the _alan_
in the world. Not long after the people whom he invited arrived in
the town of Igowan, and all the _alan_ went to his _Sayang_, and the
_alan_ were surprised that Dagilagatan and Dinowagan knew that Igowan
and Ginalingan were their son and daughter, so they asked them. They
said that Ibago wa Agimlang met them when he came from war and he
took them to his party so they knew that they were their son and
daughter for they chewed betel-nut. As soon as Igowan's _Sayang_
was over the _alan_ gave all their valuable things to him, and also
those who had taken Ginalingan. As soon as they had given them all
their things the _alan_ flew away and Dinowagan and her husband took
their sons and daughters to Pindayan.

28 [294]

There was a man named Asbinan who was the son of Ayo, but the old woman
Alokotan took care of him. "Ala, my grandmother Alokotan, go and engage
me to Dawinisan who looks like the sunshine, for I want to marry her,"
said the young boy Asbinan. The old woman replied, "I do not think they
will like you, for she is a young girl who never goes outdoors." [295]
"Ala, grandmother, you go anyway, and if they do not like me I will
see what I shall do," said Asbinan who was a handsome young man. Not
long after the old woman went. As soon as she arrived at the stairs
of the house of the mother and father of Dawinisan, they said, "Good
morning," and the mother of Dawinisan said, "Good morning, what did
you come here for, Ayo and Alokotan of Kadalayapan?" "'What did you
come here for?' you say. Our son Asbinan wants to marry Dawinisan,"
said Ayo. She called them up into the house and they talked. "We will
ask our daughter and hear what she says." When they asked Dawinisan if
she wished to marry Asbinan, she said, "Oh, my mother, I am ashamed
to marry yet, I do not know how to do anything; so I do not wish to
be married now. Do not dislike me, but be patient with me." So her
mother said, "Pretty Ayo, I think you heard what she said. Be patient."

Not long after Ayo and Alokotan went back to Kadalayapan. When they
arrived there, Asbinan asked them the result of their mission. "Did
they wish me to marry their daughter Dawinisan?" His mother replied,
"They said that Dawin-isan does not wish to be married yet; so we came
back home." When he knew that they did not wish him for a son-in-law,
for they did not give any reason, he thought and he said, "My mother,
hand me my golden cup, for I am going away." So his mother gave it to
him. As soon as he arrived in the yard of Dawinisan, he said, "Good
morning, Dawinisan, will you look out of the window at me?" Dawinisan
said to the _alan_, who had spreading toes and who bent double when
they walked, [296] "Look out of the window and see who it is." The
_alan_ said to her, "He wants you to look at him." Dawinisan said,
"I cannot go to the window to look at him, for the sunshine is hot. I
do not wish the sun to shine in my face." When Asbinan could not get
her to go to the window, he used magic and went inside of the golden
cup, and he pretended that he was ill in his stomach. He said, "Ana,
mother, I am going to die, for my stomach suffers greatly," and he
said to the _alan_, "Ala, you _alan_, tell her that she must look
out of the window to see me." The _alan_ said to Dawinisan, "Come
and look at him; he wants you to see him. He says that his stomach
is ill." But Dawinisan said to the _alan_, "Tell him that I cannot
go and look at him, I am ashamed. You look at him and then you rub
his stomach." The _alan_ told Asbinan that Dawinisan would not look
at him, and he would not let the _alan_ rub his stomach. He said,
"If Dawinisan does not want to look at me from the window, and if I
die it is her fault, for I came here because of her."

The _alan_ who saw that Asbinan was a beautiful young boy, said,
"If you will not go to look at him, we are going to leave you, for we
fear that he is going to die because of you." Dawinisan did not wish
the _alan_ to leave her, and she said, "Ala, bring him up on the porch
and I will see him." The _alan_ took him up on the porch, and she went
to look at him. When she saw that he was a handsome boy, she said, "I
am ashamed, for I did not think he was a rich and handsome boy." When
she saw that the boy appeared to be suffering greatly she went into
the house; she changed her dress and went out on the porch, and she
looked like the sunshine. When she reached the porch, she rubbed the
boy's stomach, and directly Asbinan sat up. Dawinisan said to him,
"Come into the house and we will tell our names and see if we are
relatives." So they went into the house and she told him to set down on
a golden seat which looked like a fawn. As soon as he sat down he said,
"Pretty, young girl, when I see you I am blinded by your beauty. I
came here because I wish to marry you." "Oh, Asbinan! I am ashamed,
but I do not want to be married yet," said Dawinisan. "Dawinisan,
even if you tell me to leave you, I will not do it until you promise
to marry me. I will stay with you now," he said. Dawinisan replied,
"Even though you should stay here one month, I do not care," Asbinan
said. "Let us chew betel-nut and see if the quids turn to beads with
no hole, and lie side by side; or if they lie parallel, then it is
not good for us to marry; so we shall see."

Not long after they chewed betel-nut, and when they laid down their
quids they were agate beads, and they laid side by side; so they saw
it was good for them to marry. "Ala, now it is good for us to marry
and we are related." Dawinisan replied, "Ala, go and tell your mother
that if they have everything we want and will pay what we want, you
can marry me." Asbinan said, "Yes," and he went to his grandmother
Alokotan. "Ala, my grandmother Alokotan, what shall we do? Dawinisan
said that if we have everything they want and will pay it for her,
she will marry me." The old woman said, "Ala, do not worry about that,
I will see."

Not long after they started and took Asbinan, and when they arrived
at the house of Dawinisan they agreed on the marriage price. Her
mother said, "If you can fill our _balaua_ nine times with gold shaped
like deer, and jars which are _addeban_ and _ginlasan_, Asbinan can
marry our daughter." Alokotan and the others replied, "Ala, if that
is what you say it is all right, and we can pay more." So Alokotan
used magic and the _balaua_ was filled nine times with the things
they wished, and there were more golden deer than jars. The father
and mother and relatives of the girl said, "Asbinan and our daughter
Dawinisan can be married now." When the _pakalon_ was over, Alokotan
used magic and she said, "I use my power so that they will not know
that they are transferred to Kadalayapan," and all the houses went to
Kadalayapan. Not long after the people who went to attend the _pakalon_
found that they were in Kadalayapan and they were surprised, and the
people from the other towns went home when the _pakalon_ was finished.


"I am going to lie down on the stone which is like a seat below the
_dumalotau_ tree," said Ayo, for she felt hot in the middle of the
day. "What shall we call our son?" "We shall call him Asbinan, who
looks like the spreading branch of the betel-nut tree which looks
pretty in the afternoon," said Ligi, her husband.

"Ala! Agben, my loving son, go to eat," said Ayo. "Mother--pretty
Ayo--I do not wish to eat when we have no fish roe." After that Ligi
went to his friends who use the big fish net in the ocean. "Ala, my
friends, search fish roe, for my son Asbinan wishes to eat." They
went to examine the bellies of nine baskets of fish, but there
was no roe. He went to his friends who fish in the river. "Ala,
friends secure fish roe which my son wishes to eat." Soon after,
"How much do I pay?" "You do not pay, for this is the first time you
have come to buy," said those friends who fish in the river. "Agben,
my child, come and eat." "Mother, pretty Ayo, I do not wish to eat
the fish roe when there is no _dolang_, [297] and I do not like to
drink out of the scraped cocoanut shell when there is no glass which
comes from the place of the Chinese, and I do not like to eat from
the bamboo dish when there is no dish from Baygan (Vigan)." After
that Ligi went and got the cup and the dish from the Chinese store.

"Agben, my loving son, come and eat, for everything is here which you
wish," said pretty Ayo. When they had finished eating, "Father Ligi
give me your love charm [298] which you used when you were young,
for I wish to go to the place where the maidens spin at night."

"Good evening, young girls," said Asbinan. "I do not like to light my
tobacco unless the fire is taken from the light of your pipes." They
were anxious to offer their pipes, but when Tiningbengan stubbed her
toe she stopped and Sinobyaman, who was the prettiest, was the one
on whom he blew his smoke (a part of the love charm). She vomited
and her eyes were filled with tears, and after that they went home,
all those who spun together.

"Ala! go and fetch Asbinan, for she (Sinobyaman) turns over and over
and sways to and fro since he blew on her last night." They went to get
Asbinan who was sleeping, and he stepped on their heels as they walked.

"Ala, aunt, I cannot cure her unless we are married." Then they decided
on the day for _pakalon_, and the price was the lower part of the house
filled nine times with jars, which are _malayo_ and _tadogan_. Then
she made the cakes for the parents-in-law, and they carried the pig,
and they received the marriage price which was the lower part of the
house nine times filled.


"Ala! my wife Iwanen who loves me every afternoon, make cakes of
rice which shall be my provisions when I go to the southern place
San Fernando and Baknotan, which is a part of Pangasinan. [299] I am
going to investigate the report concerning the beautiful women, who
are like the rift in the clouds--the escaping place of the moon--;
who are like the bright stems of good betel-nuts."

"Ala! my soldiers who are many, catch my horse which is a pinto,
which paces, which walks fast, which goes, which gallops, which
has sore sides." "It is here already, the horse which is a pinto,
the saddle is already placed."

"Ala! now my wife Iwanen, I am going to leave you here. Keep your
honor as a person of wealth. Perhaps some one will entice you and we
two will be ashamed before the people of our town."

After that he went and started--Tolagan who went toward the south. He
whipped the pinto, he ran, he walked.

When he was in the town of Kaodanan his body was thirsty. "I go to
the place of betel-nuts, where I shall drink the water which is white
like coconut oil." He arrived at the place of the betel-nuts. He met
a maiden who was like the place of a large fire. There was no other
such maiden.

"Good morning, maiden who takes water in the shady place of the leaves
which grow, which are stripped off in the middle of the place of
betel-nuts, which bear fruit which anyone gathers. I come to drink
with you the water which looks like oil," said Tolagan. "If you
are the old raider cut me only once so that I have less to heal,"
(she said). "No, I am not the old raider, for I live in Baliwanan
and I go to the south to Pangasinan." "Do not continue the journey,
for you have a bad sign. The birds skimmed past in front of you, also
in the rear and the sides. [300] Go back to Baliwanan." "If that is
what you say pretty one, I shall turn back because of this sign."

He arrived at Baliwanan, but his wife was not there, for she had run
away with Kaboniyan [301] to the town of the sky.

There was not a place he did not search for her. He went to the head
man. "Ala, _presidente_ of our town, I come to ask for companions
while I search for my wife, who vanished last night." He gave
(the searchers), but when they did not find her, he went to another
town. He went to the place of Baingan in the town of the north. "Good
morning, I came to ask companions to search for her who was absent
last night." "If that is still your trouble" said Baingan, "you go
and see my sister, who is Imbangonan, whom you shall take for wife,
who cannot belt herself unless there are nine belts. She is in the
middle of the place of the betel-nuts."

"Good morning, Imbangonan," said Tolagan. "I came to see you, for
your brother told me we are to marry if you like me."

"If you like me, we will chew green betel-nut and see what is your
fortune." When they finished chewing, the two quids went into a
line. "Ala! we will marry if you agree to pay 100 _gumtang_ and 50
_ginalman_". [302]


There were two girls who went to take a walk and a rich man met them,
and he asked, "Where are you going, you two girls?" "We are going to
walk around the town." The rich man said, "Come and walk with me." When
they reached their house he gave them some work to do and he treated
them just the same as his daughters. The rich man was a king, and he
put the girls in a room and the princesses Mary and Bintolada were
in the other room. The king and the queen gave dresses to the girls
but they did not give them any bracelets and rings.

Not long after the two girls went to the house of the jeweler and
they ordered him to make rings and bracelets for them like those
the princesses had. As soon as they went in the house of Indayo and
Iwaginan in the town of Pindayan, they asked for water to drink. After
that Iwaginan and Indayo gave them water to drink, and they thought
that the two girls, who were dressed like men, were ladies, so they
followed them when they left and they took _basi_ for them to drink.

As soon as the princesses arrived in the jeweler's house they commanded
him to make rings and bracelets for them. As soon as the jeweler began
to make the rings and bracelets for them Iwaginan and Indayo arrived
with the _basi_. Soon it became night and they ate and drank in the
night and they became drunk, and they all slept in one room. The people
saw the beads on their arms and the jeweler awakened them and put them
in another room so they did not sleep in the same room with the others
and he said, "I thought you were princes, for you dress like princes,
but when I saw your beads I woke up, for I think those two men are
planning bad for you. Go and sleep in the other room." So they went
into the other room to sleep.

Not long after it became daylight and they returned home, and Iwaginan
and Indayo did not see them, and they were very sorry for they thought
the princes were truly girls. So they went back home, and as soon
as they arrived there they said, "We are going to make _balaua_,
to find out if those princes were truly girls." So they began to
build _balaua_. They sent messengers to go and invite people in every
town. Not long after the people whom they invited arrived, and they
saw that the princes were not there. So they commanded their spirit
aids to go to all the world and find those princes. So the spirits
became hawks and they flew about the world. As soon as they came near
to the palace of the king they alighted on a tree and they watched the
princesses in the windows and hawks said, "_Tingi_." The princesses
heard the word "_Tingi_," and they were Ganinawan and Asigtanan. They
saw the birds from the window, and the hawks flew by them and the
princesses stroked their feathers, because they were pretty.

Soon the hawks seized them in their talons and flew away with them
and carried them to Pindayan. Not long after they reached there and
Iwaginan and Indayo were very glad, and they made a big party and they
invited the king. The king had been searching for them for a long
time. Some of the spirit helpers who had gone to the palace said,
"Good morning. We came here to invite you, for Iwaginan and Indayo
sent us. They are making a big party for those princesses for whom you
are searching, for we took them to Pindayan, and Iwaginan and Indayo
married them." When the king heard the news he was glad, and he went
to the party. Indayo and Iwaginan made him dance when he arrived, and
Kanag and Dagolayen went to that party. Not long after they put those
girls, whom Iwaginan and Indayo had stolen, in their belts and they
did not know what had become of their wives and they were sorry. Kanag
and Dagolayen took them home. When they arrived home they told their
names and they chewed betel-nut and they found that it was good for
them to be married, instead of Iwaginan and Indayo. Kanag married
Asigtanan and Dagolayen married Ganinawan. The mother of Ganinawan
was Aponibolinayen and the mother of Asigtanan was Aponigawani.

As soon as they were married and they had learned who their mothers
were they built _balaua_, and they sent some betel-nuts to invite all
of their relatives in other towns. Iwaginan and Indayo went to attend
the _balaua_, and they danced. They saw that those girls were their
wives and they tried to take them back home, but Kanag and Dagolayen
would not let them. They said it was not good for them to be married
even though they wished to be married to them, because the girls would
become oil when they went close to them. So Indayo and Iwaginan were
very sorry. Ganinawan was the sister of Kanag and Asigtanan was the
sister of Dagolayen. They did not find out that they were related
until Indayo and Iwaginan took them, for their mothers had lost them
in miscarriages, and the girls became women by themselves, and the
king found them.

(Told by Talanak of Manabo.)

Ritualistic and Explanatory Myths

32 [303]

The Ipogau [304] are making _Sayang_. [305] "Why do not those Ipogau
who are making _Sayang_ start the _balaua_ [306] correctly?" said the
spirits above. Those _anitos_ [307] who are married, who are Kadaklan
and Agemem, [308] say, "It is better that you carry the pig." Then
truly they carried the pig up the river, those two Ipogau who are
married. "Ala! you walk and walk until you arrive at Sayau, for a
person who lives there is making _Sayang_," said the spirits. After
that they arrived, those who are married who carried the pig, at
the place of the man who made _Sayang_. "Where are you going?" asked
the man of Sayau of those who carried the pig. "We came to see how
you make _Sayang_, for we have not yet learned how to make _Sayang_
correctly," said those who are married. "Ala! watch what I am doing
and imitate." They watched what he did when he made _Sayang_, and he
did everything. He made _balag, sagoyab, aligang,_ they made also
_tangpap_, they made _adagang, balabago_, and what is needed for
_al-lot_. [309] After that, "You go home, and when you make _Sayang_
you do as I did," said the man from Sayau. They went home truly,
those Ipogau, and they imitated the man who made _Sayang_ in Sayau;
then those who are married--Kadaklan and Agemem--caused the spirits
to come whom they called, those who made _diam_ when they built
_balaua_. (Here the medium names the spirits which cause sickness.)

Now you get better, you who build _balaua_.

33 [310]

"Those who knew to make _dawak_, went to make _dawak_, but they did not
prepare the pig correctly. Not long after Kaboniyan, [311] above, was
looking down on those who make _dawak_. Kaboniyan went down to them,
he went to tell those preparing the pig, because they did not prepare
it correctly--those two who make _dawak_. After that they prepared
the pig correctly and the sick person got well of the sickness.

"Ala, when there is again the repetition of the sickness to the
person for whom you go to make _dawak_, do not neglect to prepare
the pig correctly, so that the sick person may get better, whom you
try to make well. I also, Kaboniyan, prepare correctly when there
is a person for whom I make _dawak_, and you, Ipogau, do not prepare
correctly when you make _dawak_." After that when there is the person
they go to cure who is sick, they always prepare correctly because
it was Kaboniyan who told them to do always like that. When some one
is ill whom they go to cure, they prepare correctly.

34 [312]

The spirit who lives in Dadaya [313] lies in bed; he looks at his
_igam_ [314] and they are dull. He looks again, "Why are my _igam_
dull? Ala, let us go to Sudipan where the Tinguian live and let us take
our _igam_, so that some one may make them bright again." After that
they laid them (the _igam_) on the house of the Ipogau [315] and they
are all sick who live in that house. Kaboniyan [316] looked down on
them. "Ala, I shall go down to the Ipogau." He truly went down to them,
"What is the matter with you?" "We are all sick who live in the same
place," said those sick ones. "That is true, and the cause of your
sickness is that they (the spirits) laid down their _igam_ on you. It
is best that you make _Pala-an_, since you have received their _igam_,
for that is the cause of your illness." After that they made _Pala-an_
and they recovered from their sickness, those who lived in the same
place. (Here the medium calls the spirits of Dadaya by name and then
continues.) "Now those who live in the same place make bright again
those _igam_ which you left in their house. Make them well again,
if you please."

35 [317]

Those who live in the same town go to raid--to take heads. After
they arrive, those who live in the same town, "We go and dance with
the heads," said the people who live in the same town, "because they
make a celebration, those who went to kill." "When the sun goes down,
you come to join us," said the mother and baby (to her husband who
goes to the celebration). After that the sun truly went down; she
went truly to join her husband; after that they were not (there),
the mother and the baby (i.e., when the father arrived where they
had agreed to meet, the mother and child were not there).

He saw their hats lying on the ground. He looked down; the mother and
the baby were in (the ground), which ground swallowed them. "Why (are)
the mother and the baby in the ground? How can I get them?" When he
raises the mother and the baby, they go (back) into the ground. After
that Kaboniyan above, looking down (said), "What can you do? The
spirits of Ibal in Daem are the cause of their trouble. It is better
that you go to the home of your parents-in-law, and you go and prepare
the things needed in _Ibal_ [318]," said Kaboniyan.

They went truly and prepared; after that they brought (the things)
to the gate. After that the mother and child came out of the
ground. "After this when there is a happening like this, of which you
Ipogau are in danger, you do like this (i.e., make the _Ibal_ ceremony)
and I alone, Kaboniyan, am the one you summon," said Kaboniyan.

After that they got well because they came up--the mother and the baby.

36 [319]

There is a very old woman in the sea who says to her spirits--Dapeg
(a spirit which kills people) and Balingenngen (a spirit which
causes bad dreams) and Benisalsal (a spirit which throws things and
is unpleasant), "Go beyond the sea and spread your sicknesses." The
spirits are going. They arrive and begin their work, and if the people
do not make _Sangasang_ many will die. Now it is morning and the
spirits are going to the river to see what the people have offered to
the old woman, who is Inawen (mother). If they do not find anything,
they will say, "All the people in this town shall die," and then they
will go on to another place.

Inawen, who is waiting, sends Kideng (a servant) to search for the
spirits who are killing people, to tell them to return. Dapeg leaves
the first town. He goes to another and the dogs bark so that the people
cannot sleep. A man opens the door, to learn the cause of the barking,
and he sees a man, fat and tall, with nine heads and he carries many
kinds of cakes. The man says, "Now take these cakes, and if you do
not make Sangasang for my mistress, at the river, you shall die. You
must find a rooster with long tail and spurs; you must mix its blood
with rice and put it in the river at dawn when no one can see you."

The man makes _Sangasang_ the next night, and puts the blood mixed
with rice in a well dug by the river, so that the spirits may take
it to their mistress. Kideng also arrives and says, "You must come
with me now, for she awaits you who are bearing this offering." They
go and arrive. Their mistress eats and says, "I did not think that
the blood of people tasted so badly, now I shall not send you again,
for you have already killed many people."

37 [320]

"You whom I send, go to the place where our relatives live in Sudipan,"
[321] said Maganawan of Nagbotobotan, "because I desire very much
the blood of the rooster mixed with rice." He gave his cane and sack,
"When you arrive at the place (of those who live) in Sudipan you wave
my cane and the husks of betel-nut which are here in my sack." They
truly waved when they arrived: many snakes (were creeping) and many
birds (flying) when they waved there by the gate.

"How many snakes and birds now," said the Ipogau. [322] "Go! command
to make _Sangasang_" said the married ones.

"We shall wait the blood of the rooster mixed with rice, because they
remember to command to make _Sangasang_" said those who Maganawan of
Nagbotobotan commanded. They took the blood of the rooster mixed with
rice, which was put in the _saloko_ [323] in the yard; they arrived to
their master. "How slow you are," said Maganawan. "We are only slow,
because there was no one who listened to us where we arrived first,"
said those whom he commanded; "we went up (the river) until there was
one who remembered to command to make _Sangasang_, which is what we now
bring to you--the blood of the rooster mixed with rice." They gave;
he put in his mouth--the one who commanded them--he spit out. "Like
this which is spit out (shall be) the sickness of the Ipogau who
remember me," said Maganawan of Nagbotobotan. After that it is as if
nothing had happened to the family.

38 [324]

The Ipogau are digging where they make stand the poles of their
houses. "You go to give the sign," said the master of the sign to the
_siket_. [325] _Siket_ went. "Why do we have a bad sign? We remove the
poles," said the Ipogau, and they removed that there might be no bad
sign. The deer went to call when they were digging where they removed
those poles which they made stand. "We remove again the poles,"
said the Ipogau, and they removed again. When they were digging,
where they made to stand those poles which they removed, the wild
pig went to grunt. They removed again the poles which make the house.

As before, the snake went to climb the pole with which they made the
house, and they removed again. When they were digging again where
they made the poles stand with which they made the house, the _labeg_
[326] skimmed over, and as they had a bad sign the Ipogau moved again
the poles with which they made the house. "Koling," and "Koling"
and again "Koling" (the bird cried); they removed again the log
which they made stand, with which they made the house. The _salaksak_
clucked, who flew where they dug, where they made those poles stand,
with which they made the house.

Since they have the bad sign again, they say to the others--those
who make the poles stand--"We are very tired always to dig and dig,
and to make stand and make stand those poles, we go ahead to make
the house," and they placed their lumber and they went--one family
of the Ipogau. Then they finished what they built, their house. There
was nothing good for them, and there was nothing which was not their
sickness (i.e., they had all manner of sickness).

"My wife," said Kaboniyan, "give me the coconut oil, that I oil
my spear, for I go to see those Ipogau who are sick." When those
Ipogau who were sick were in their house, his spear fell in their
house. "What is the matter with you, Ipogau?" said Kaboniyan. "What
is the matter with you, you say, and there is nothing which we do not
do for our sickness, and we are never cured," said those Ipogau. And
Kaboniyan answered, "How can you become cured of your sickness when
you have a bad sign for that which you made--your house? The reason
of your sickness is because you do not make _Sangasang_. The good
way (is) you find a rooster, and that you command the one who knows
how to make _diam_ of the _Sangasang_ to make _Sangasang_. I (am)
always the one for whom you make _diam_," said Kaboniyan. And truly,
before they had finished making _Sangasang_, it was as if there had
been nothing wrong, that family was cured of their sickness.

39 [327]

The poles of the Ipogau's house were quarreling. Said the floor
supports to the poles who were quarreling, "What can you do if I am
not?" "What can you do if I am not?" said the foot-boards to those
floor supports who are quarreling. "What can you do if I am not?" said
the cross supports to those floor supports who are quarreling. "What
can you do if I am not?" said the cross supports to those foot-boards
who are quarreling. "What can you do if I am not?" said the floor to
those cross supports who are quarreling. "What can you do if I am
not?" said the wall to the floor boards who are quarreling. "What
can you do if I am not?" said the beams to the wall boards who are
quarreling. "What can you do if I am not?" said the _pongo_ [328]
to the beams who are quarreling. "What can you do if I am not?" said
the _daplat_ [329] to the _pongo_ who are quarreling. "What can
you do if I am not?" said the end pole to those _daplat_ who are
quarreling. "What can you do if I am not?" said the _salabawan_
to those end poles who are quarreling. "What can you do if I am
not--who am _legpet_?" said those _legpet_ to those _salabawan_,
"Though you are _legpet_, you can do nothing if I am not," said
the _gakot_, "because you fall," said the _gakot_ to the _legpet_
who are quarreling. "And what can you all do if I am not, who am
grass? you all decay if I am not," said the grass (roof) to those
who are quarreling. "Therefore we are all the same use to the house
of the Ipogau; we will unite our thoughts and breath, so that in the
same manner the thoughts of the Ipogau are united, who live in us,"
said those who are quarreling. And they united their thoughts and
breath. After that the Ipogau who were sick were cured, those who
lived in the house. It was as if there was nothing bad for that family.

40 [330]

The great spirit lives in the sky, and he is carrying the goods of
the people. He says to himself, "To whom shall I give these goods
which I am carrying? I shall take them to the earth." He looked down
on Bisau, for the people there promised to make _Ubaya_. Soon the
people saw a man entering the town and they sent a man to prevent him
[331]. He said, "Let me come in, for I bring goods for you. Your food
and animals and other things which you need shall be increased." After
that he said, "Let all the people in the world know of this so that
they will make _Ubaya_ for me, and I will aid them also."


Dayapan was a woman who lived in Ka-alang. For seven years she was
sick. She went to the spring to bathe and while she was in the water
a spirit sent by Kadaklan [332] entered her body. The spirit held
sugar-cane and rice. He said to her, "Take this sugar-cane and rice
and plant them in the ground. After you reap the sugar-cane and rice,
you will build a bin to hold the rice, and a sugar mill for the cane;
after that you will make _Sayang_ and that will make you well." Dayapan
took those things and went back home. She planted the sugar-cane and
rice. When she was planting, the spirit entered her body again and
taught her how to plant. When she reaped the sugar-cane and rice,
she began to make _Sayang_. The spirit Kaboniyan went again into her
to teach her how to make _Sayang_. The spirit said, "Send a man to
get _bolo_ (bamboo) and weave it into _talapitap_. [333] Take _lono_
and _bolo_ as big as a finger and make _dakidak_, and put a jar with
water upstairs in the house. Dance _daeng_ [334] for ten nights. You
will pass seven evenings, then you will build _balaua_. [335] Send
some persons to get wood and bamboo and rattan and cogon, and take
ten baskets with cooked rice to follow the number of nights (i.e.,
on the first night one basket of cooked rice on the _talapitap_;
the second night, two; and so on). When you finish the time you will
know how to make _dawak_ and to call all the spirits, and you will
teach the people how to do _dawak_."

When she finished the _dawak_, the spirit sent her to wash in the river
as a sign that she had finished _Sayang_. He told her to get a dog and
a cock. She went to the river and she tied the cock and the dog by the
water, and while she was gone, the dog killed the cock. Dayapan wept,
but for a long time the spirit did not come. When Kaboniyan came again,
he said, "If the dog had not killed the cock, no person would die,
but this is a sign and now somebody will die and some will be well."

Dayapan went home and when she arrived there she began to learn to
make _dawak_, and she called all people to hear her and she told all
she had seen and heard. Then the people believed her very much. When
somebody was sick, they called Dayapan to see them and to show them
how to make them well. So Dayapan taught them all kinds of _dawak_
which the spirit had told her because before when Dayapan was sick,
no one knew the _dawak_. [336]


Many years ago there was a woman whose name was Bagutayka. She had had
only one daughter whose name was Bagan. A boy who lived in Lantagan
wished to marry Bagan, but she did not wish to marry him because she
had no vagina, and she was ashamed. Her mother said, "Take this little
pot with pictures on the outside, and this sucker of banana and go
to the roadside where people are passing. When people are passing,
you will make them sick in their knees or feet." Then poor Bagan went
by the roadside. In a short time a man passed by her; after that he
was sick in his knees and did not walk, he only lived in his house,
and could not move his hands or feet. His parents were troubled to
find medicine for him, for none they found did him good. They used all
the medicine that they knew. Then Bagan went to see him in his house
and told him to make _bawi_. [337] The sick man said to her, "How
do we make _bawi_, for we have never heard about that?" Bagan said,
"Bring me a white cloth, a basket of rice, some thread, a betel-nut,
coconut, a rooster, and _toknang_." [338] They brought all of these,
and Bagan took them. Then they built a _bawi_ in the garden and planted
the sucker by it. They broke the coconut shell, killed the rooster,
and took his feathers to put in the coconut husk, and they broke the
coconut meat.

They made _sablau_ near the _bawi_ and put the coconut meat in it. When
they had done this, the man who was sick was as good as if he had not
been sick, he could walk just as before. This is the way the Tinguian
people learned to make _bawi_.

43 [339]

In the first times Kaboniyan told a sick man to go to the mango tree
at the edge of the village. "Take a feather for your hair, a clay
dish with oil, a headaxe, a spear, and a small jar of _basi_, when
you go to the tree." He did as he was bidden, and when he reached the
tree the _pinaing_ [340] were there. "Ala! now kill a small pig and
offer its blood mixed with rice. Oil the heads of the stones well,
and decorate them with yellow head bands. When you do this Apadel
will always guard the town." The man and his companion always did as
Kaboniyan said, and when they made _balaua_, or were sick, or went to
fight, they did this. They ate of the pig, they played the _gansas_
and danced. All who obeyed were always well, but one man who urinated
on the stones became crazy.

One day when the people were preparing to go and fight against Manabo,
[341] they went to the _pinaing_, and while they danced a red rooster
with long tail feathers came out of the stones and walked around
them. When they stopped dancing, he went again into the stones. Since
that time a white cock has sometimes appeared and once a white dog
came out while the people danced.

44 [342]

One night a man saw a woman, who wore a black cloth, walking near
the _pinaing_. When she would not speak to him, he cut her in the
thigh with his _bolo_. [343] She ran to the stones and vanished. Next
morning the man went to the guardian stones and found one of them
cut in the middle, as it is now. The man soon died of smallpox.

45 [344]

In the first times, the old men saw the stones traveling together
down the river. Above them flew many blackbirds. Then the people went
down to the river and watched the stones on their journey. After
that they caught them and put them near to the gate of the town,
where they still remain.


The evil spirit Ibwa once had a body like a man and used to visit the
people. In those days they kept the body of the dead person seven days,
and when the fat ran from the body they caught it and placed it in
the grave. [345] One day when he visited a funeral, a man gave Ibwa
some of this fat to drink. Since that time he has always been bad and
always tries to eat the body of the dead and steals his clothes. He
comes to the funeral with another evil spirit Akop, who has a large
head, long slim arms and legs, but no body.

Kaboniyan has told us how to keep the evil spirits away, but if we
fail to do as he said, they always make trouble.


A man died. He had a wife and married son. They buried him under the
house and made _bagongon_. [346] After that his wife was in the field
and was watching their corn. His daughter-in-law was in the house
watching her baby. While she was swinging the baby, the dead man said,
"Take this _saloyot_ [347] to Gadgadawan." The girl took it. The
spirit said to her, "Let me swing the baby and you cook the _saloyot_
in Gadgadawan." When she cooked it, the spirit ate it, and he asked,
"Where is your mother-in-law?" She said, "She is in the field watching
the corn." The spirit went there. When he reached there, his wife was
afraid of him, but she did not run. He slept there that night with his
wife, and he did what he wished with her that night. In the daytime he
went away. His wife got big stomach, but had no baby, and died. The
spirit did that because the fire for the dead man was not out yet
and she had gone from the town before the _kanyau_ [348] was past.


One man in Solay [349] said to another, "Tomorrow we meet on the
mountain to get wild carabao." The other man agreed, and early the
next morning the first man set out on horseback. The second man died
that night, but the first man did not know this. When he got to the
place agreed, he said "Sh-sh" through his teeth, and the spirit of
the dead answered a little way off. The man went towards the answer
and signalled again. The spirit again answered, and then the man
saw the spirit of the dead, which was very big, was running to catch
him. He ran his horse at full speed, but the spirit was gaining when
the _lasta_ [350] on the saddle caught on a dead limb and was jerked
away. "Very good that you leave that or I would take your life," said
the spirit. Then the man ran his horse until he got to Solay. When he
got there, he could not get off his horse, for his legs were stuck
very tight to each side of the horse, so a man had to pull each leg
loose and lift him from the saddle. That is why we know that the
spirits of the dead men sometimes do harm and go places.


A man and his wife were living in the field where they planted corn
and rice. When they were there, the man died. The woman did not want
to go to the town, because there was no one to watch the dead man. She
could not bury him. The Ibwa [351] noticed that there was a dead man
in the house. He sent one of his sons to get the dead man. When the
Ibwa came in the house, the woman took the headaxes and cut him in
the doorway. The Ibwa went under the house. His father could not
wait for him; he sent his second son and his third son. The boys
could not take the body, because they were afraid of the headaxes,
for the woman had one in each hand. The Ibwa went there. He said
to his sons, "Why do you not take the dead man?" His sons said,
"We could not take him, because if we go up in the house the woman
takes the two headaxes and tries to kill us." Ibwa went up into the
house; he broke the door of the house. He said to the woman, "Now I
am your husband." The Ibwa took the two ears of the dead man; he ate
one and gave the other to the woman to chew, like betel-nut, to see
the sign. The sign of the saliva was good. He made the woman's two
breasts into one in the center of her chest. He took her to his house.


The stems of the _alangtin_ are good charms against the spirits of
the dead, and are often worn concealed in the hair or hat.

There were two brothers, and one died. The other went to hunt and
killed a deer. While he had it over the fire to singe, his dead
brother's spirit came to him. [352] Then the man began to cut the meat
into small pieces, and as fast as he cut it up, the spirit ate it; and
as fast as he ate it, the meat came out of his anus. When the meat was
almost all gone, the man became very much afraid and started to run,
and the spirit chased him. When he ran where some _alangtin_ grew,
the spirit stopped and said, "If you had not gone to the _alangtin_,
I would have eaten you also."


One person was dead in a town. They buried him under the house. They
did not put _banal_ [353] and a plow iron over the grave. The Ibwa
went there and saw there was no _banal_ on the grave, so he was not
afraid. He went there and took the dead man. He put one foot of the
dead man over each shoulder and let him hang down over his back. A
man saw him while he was walking in the street. The man told the
people in the town what he had seen. The people did not believe it
and went to see the grave. No dead man there, only the clothes and mat.


It is good to put some branches of trees in the ground near your
head when you sleep out doors, so the spirits can not spit on you,
for if they do, you will die.

One man who had lost his carabao went to the mountains to find; and at
night he did not find, so he lay down near the path to sleep. He did
not put any branches near his head, and in the night an evil spirit
came and wanted to eat him; but when the spirit saw that he had the
skin disease, he did not care to eat, so he spit on him. The man got
up and went home, but soon he got sick and died.


When Itneg [354] go to hunt or have to sleep anywhere that spirits
can get them it is good to use _sobosob_ [355] or _banal_ under them
for a mat.

Two men were in the mountains and had no mats to sleep on, so they
pulled much _sobosob_ and put it under them. That night the evil
spirits came to get them but did not come very near. The men heard
them say that they wanted to get them, but that it was bad for them
if they got near the _sobosob_, so they left them alone.

(_Sobosob_ and _banal_ are sometimes put with the plow iron over a
new grave as an added protection.)


In the first time, three Tinguian went to hunt. At night they lay down
to sleep and one of them, who had a _kambaya_, [356] had not gone to
sleep when two spirits came near and saw him under the blanket. One
turned to the other and said, "Here we have something to eat, for
here is a little pig." Then that man took the blanket from the other
man and put his blanket in its place, and the spirits came and ate
that man. So we know it is bad to use that kind of blanket when you
go where the spirits can get.


A man and woman had a beautiful daughter whom they always kept in the
house. [357] One day while they were away in the fields, the girl went
outside to pound rice. While she pounded, the spirit Bayon who lives
in the sky came to see her. He was like a fresh breeze. Then the girl
was like a person asleep, for she could not see nor hear. When she
awoke in the sky, she dropped her rice pounder so that it fell near
her home and then the people knew she was above. Bayon changed her
two breasts into one large one, which he placed in the middle of her
chest. When her parents made _Sayang_, the mediums called Bayon and
his wife to come. They still come when some one calls them in the
_Sayang_. The woman's name is Lokadya.


In the first times men went to the mountains to hunt deer and hogs. One
man kept his dog in the open land outside of the forest, to wait for
the game. While he waited there with his dog, the big bird Banog came
to take him away; and it flew with him over the mountains near to
Licuan. [358] The bird took him to her nest in the tree. There were
two young birds in the nest. When the bird laid him in the nest he was
on a branch of the tree. Three young pigs were in the nest. The bird
went away to get animals. After it went away, the man cut the meat
in small pieces for the young birds, and the man ate also because the
tree was big and he could not go away. The bird brought deer and pigs
all the time, and the man always cut the meat in small pieces. After
a while the two young birds could fly near to the nest. When they
were standing outside of the nest he held on to their wings and the
birds flew down under the tree. Then the man took his bolo and cut off
their heads and took them to his town and made _layog_ [359] for the
heads. After the man's _layog_, he wanted to go to _alzados_ [360] town
to fight them. He had been near to the _alzados_ town about one month.

While he was away, his wife died. He came back to the town and in
the way he met his wife (her spirit) with a cow and two pigs. The
man asked his wife where she was going. She said to him, "I am not
a person any more, I am dead." Her husband wanted to touch her hand
and his wife gave only her shortest finger. Her husband said, "Wait a
while for me, I will go with you." His wife said, "If you go to our
house, take the white chicken and you will see the footmarks of the
cow and pigs." He followed the footmarks, and while he was walking
he saw his wife washing in the river, under the tree. She said,
"You come and I go with you to own town (i.e., spirit town), and I
will put you in the rice bin, because the people in the town will
want to eat you in the nighttime; but if they come in the nighttime,
you must take some of the feathers of the chicken and throw at them,
and I will bring you something to eat."

They went to the spirit town, and she put him in the rice bin, and
gave him something to eat. In the evening, the spirits came to eat
the man. The man took some of the feathers and threw at them. The
spirits were afraid of the feathers. They did this every night, and
his wife brought him something to eat every day. The spirits said to
the man's wife, "We smell Ipogau." [361] His wife said, "No Ipogau
in here." In about two weeks the feathers were nearly gone. Then his
wife told him, "It is better for you to go home, because there are no
more feathers. I will give you some rice for you to eat in the way. I
will show you the road." The man agreed, and they went in the way. She
showed him the road. While the man was walking in the way he saw his
town and he asked for his wife. They said his wife was dead and they
had buried her under his house; then he made _layog_ for his wife.


The father of Siagon [362] was head man of Patok. He walked one night
on the road which goes to Domayko. In the road he saw a big man whom he
thought was Padawil. Then he smelt a bad odor and knew it was a _ladag_
[363] He struck it with his whip and it said, "Hah." It was night and
he ran very fast to the council house, and on the way he threw away
his clothes. When they came to the place where the spirit had stood,
they found a deep hole there like a carabao wallow.

58 [364]

Dalioya died; they put her in the ground under the house. After a
while Baluga's rice was ripe and was ready to cut. Baluga went to cut
it. He went home before dark from his field. Dalioya came out from the
ground. She went to cut the rice for him. The next morning he went
to cut the rice again. He saw the rice had been cut, but he did not
know who cut it. He went home again before dark and went to cut the
rice again the next morning. He saw again the rice cut by Dalioya,
but he did not yet know who cut it. He said to himself, "I must
wait for the person who comes to cut my rice." After dark his wife
came, and Baluga lay down very still; when Dalioya walked near him,
he waked up and caught her. Dalioya said, "Let me go." Baluga said,
"No, I will not let you go." She said, "If you come with me to get
my life, I will be very glad." "Yes," said he. Then they went down
in the ground where is the spirit's home. When they got there the
spirits were sleeping. Dalioya said, "Take that green bamboo cup,
because they put my life in it." Baluga took it and they went up on
the ground. One spirit waked up and said, "There are Baluga and his
wife walking in our vine way." All the spirits ran to catch them. When
the spirits were going up in the vine, Baluga cut the vine with his
bolo. The spirits fell down. Baluga and his wife went home. As soon
as they reached their home, they made a party. There were many people
there on that big day. They were drinking _basi_, eating rice and meat,
and singing and dancing because they were having a good time. That
party lasted two days. After that the people went home. Baluga and
Dalioya went to cut their rice.


The _alan_ [365] once found the afterbirth outside the town and made
it a real baby whose name was Sayen.

Sayen lived in Benben. He was very brave and often went to fight
without companions.

He wanted to marry Danipan who lives in Kadalayapan, but she did
not wish. She hid; so Sayen married her servant, thinking she
was Danipan. The name of the servant was Laey. Sayen took her
home. They had one baby. One day Sayen was making a plow under
the house. Laey was in the house with her baby. She was singing in
the house to her baby. "Sayen thinks I am Danipan, but I am Laey,
Laey no aglage-le-gey-ley." Sayen heard the song and said to himself
that his wife was not Danipan. He went up into the house and said,
"Take off your upper arm beads, and in the morning you will go to
the fields with your baby, because I will go there to plow." She
said, "Yes." In the morning he went there. He went to cut down the
bamboo bridge. At noon his wife carried food to him. She took her
baby with her. When she reached the bamboo bridge it fell with her
and they fell into the water. Sayen went back to his house. When he
got there, he took his headaxe, spear, and shield, and he went to
Kadalayapan. When he got there, he began to kill the people of the
town. When he had killed many people the _lakay_ [366] called Danipan,
"Come out, Sayen is killing many people of the town, because you
did something bad to him." She came out to Sayen and said to him,
"Do not kill all the people, leave some of them so I can go to borrow
fire from them." Sayen answered her, "Take the betel-nut in my bag
and cut it in two pieces for me to eat, for I am very tired." She
took the betel-nut from his bag and cut it in two pieces, and Sayen
chewed the betel-nut. Sayen spat on some of the dead people and made
them alive again and he married Danipan and took her to Benben.

When the people in Magisang [367] went to hunt deer and when they
went to divide it, the _komau_, a big spirit who looks like a man,
and who kills people, [368] went to them to ask them, "How many did
you catch?" If they had caught two they told him "Two," and the _komau_
said, "I caught two also." When they went to their town, there were two
dead people there in their town. Anytime they went to hunt the _komau_
asked them how many they had caught, and when they said how many,
the _komau_ always said he had that many, and when they reached the
town that many were dead. The _komau_ did that often and many people
were dead. The people in Magisang heard that Sayen was a very brave
man and they went to him to tell him about the _komau_. Sayen said to
them, "I come, but I must hide by the trees. When the _komau_ comes
and asks you how many deer you have caught he will ask you where I
am. You will say to him that you do not know where I am, because you
did not hear of me yet. I am sure the _komau_ will ask you where I
am, because he will smell me." The people said, "Yes." They went to
hunt. When they reached the forest, they caught two deer and they went
to the place where they singed and divided those deer which they had
caught. While they were sitting there, the _komau_ came to them and
said, "How many have you?" They answered, "Two." The _komau_ said,
"I have two also. Sayen is here." The people said, "We do not know
about Sayen, where he is." Then Sayen came out and killed the _komau_.

Kaboniyan [369] went to Sayen in Benben and said, "Are you a brave
man, Sayen? You are brave, because you killed the _komau_." Sayen
said, "Yes, I am a brave man." Kaboniyan said, "If you are a brave
man, I will meet you in that place at a distance." Sayen said,
"Yes." Kaboniyan told him the day when he would meet him, and
Sayen was to stay in the lower place and Kaboniyan in the higher
place. Sayen went there on that day. When he reached there and was
waiting he heard a sound like a storm and said to himself, "Here
is Kaboniyan." Kaboniyan called to him, "Are you there, Sayen?" "I
am here," said Sayen. "Are you a brave man?" said Kaboniyan to
Sayen. Sayen said, "Yes." Kaboniyan said to him, "Catch this," and
he threw his spear. Sayen caught the spear. It was as big as a large
tree. Kaboniyan asked, "Did you catch it?" "Yes," said Sayen. "Here is
again," said Kaboniyan, and threw his headaxe. Sayen caught it. "Did
you catch it, Sayen?" said Kaboniyan. Sayen said, "Yes." The axe was
as large as the end roof of a house. Kaboniyan said, "Here is again,"
and threw his shield. Sayen caught it again. "Did you catch it,
Sayen?" Sayen said, "Yes." Kaboniyan said, "Here is again," and threw
a very big stone. Sayen caught it. "Did you catch it, Sayen?" said
Kaboniyan. Sayen said, "Yes," and Kaboniyan said to him, "Wait for me,
I come down to you." When Kaboniyan got there, he and Sayen fought face
to face and they got tired, because Kaboniyan could not beat Sayen,
and Sayen could not beat Kaboniyan. Sayen said, "I take my headaxe,
because I am very tired." Kaboniyan said, "Do not take your headaxe;
you are a brave man; I will be your friend and we will go to fight
anywhere." Sayen said, "Yes." Then they were friends and went to fight
in many towns. If the people in the town caught them in the way when
they went home from fighting, or when they were in the river, Sayen
could be a fish and hide. They fought in one town. Sayen became a
chicken after fighting. He went under the house where the chickens
roost. He did that many times and the people in the town noticed that
Sayen could be a chicken or a fish. When he came with Kaboniyan to
the town to fight the people, he went under the house to the chickens'
place. The people said to themselves, "We will put a fish trap there,
because Sayen after fighting goes in the chicken coop." They put a
trap under the house by the coop. Sayen came in the town again to
fight. After fighting he went under the house and he went into the
trap, and the people caught and killed him.

This all happened not very long ago.


In the old times Malilipeng was walking along the trail in the woods
when he heard the _alan_ [370] in the trees. He laid down on his face
as if dead and the _alan_ who saw him began to wail, for they thought
he was dead. When they brought gold and beads to place on him, he
sprang up and drove them away. "Give us the one bead which is _nagaba_,
or we will burn your house," said the _alan_. The man refused. When
he reached home his house was burned, but he still had the bead.


Two men went to hunt wild pig. They killed one, but had no fire to
singe it, so one man climbed a tree to see if he could see where was
a fire. He saw a little fire at a distance and went to get it. When he
got where the fire was, he saw it was in the house of an _alan_. He was
very much afraid, but he went up and saw the _alan_, who had a baby,
was asleep. He walked very quietly, but the _alan_ woke up and said,
"What do you want?" "I want fire, for we have killed a little wild
pig." "Do not say little pig, but larger," said the _alan_. "Larger,"
said the man, for he was afraid. "Do not say larger, but big," said
_alan._ "Big." "Do not say big, but very big," said the _alan_. "Very
big," said the man. Then the _alan_ gave him the fire, and she took her
big basket and went with him to where the pig was. They singed the pig,
and the _alan_ cut it up with her nails. Then she gave the liver to
the man, and told him to take it to her house and feed the baby. The
man went, but on the way he ate the liver. When he got to the house,
he saw a big caldron with hot water on the fire. He took the _alan's_
baby and put it in the hot water and then went back. "Did the baby eat
well?" asked the _alan_. "Very well," he answered. Then the _alan_
put most of the meat in her basket and started home. The man told
his companion what he had done and they were both very much afraid;
so they ran to hide.

When the _alan_ got home, she saw the baby dead in the water. Then
she went to find the men. They had climbed a high tree which stood
near the water, and when the _alan_ looked in the water, she saw
them in it. She put her hand in the water and tried to get them,
but could not; then she looked up and saw them again. "How did you
get up there?" she asked. "We climbed up feet first." Then the _alan_
seized a vine and started up the tree feet first. When she had almost
reached them, they cut the vine and the _alan_ fell to the ground
and was dead. The men came down from the tree and went to the house
of the _alan_. When they got there, they saw three jars: the first
was full of dung; the second, of beads; the third, of gold. They took
the jars with the beads and gold and went home.


The earth, which is very flat, was made by the great spirit
Kadaklan. He also made the sun and moon, which chase each other over
and under the earth. Sometimes the moon almost catches the sun,
but it always gets tired and gives up before it succeeds. The sun
and moon are the lights of Kadaklan and so are the stones which are
stars. The dog of Kadaklan is the lightning.


Kaboniyan once sent a flood which covered all the land. There was no
place for the fire to go, so it went into the bamboo, the stones,
and the iron. Now that is why you can get fire out of the bamboo
and stones.


A man planted rice in the high land. When it was grown, he saw that
something was eating it, though he had a fence around it. One night
he went to watch his field. About midnight he heard many wings and saw
some big animals with wings alight in his rice. He ran and caught one,
and cut off its wings. The animal was pregnant and soon had a young
one. Since then there have been horses on the earth, but people have
never seen any more fly. You can see the place on the horse's legs
where the wings used to be.


A lazy man was planting corn in the high land. He would plant a few
seeds and then put his planting stick in the ground and lean back on
it. After a while the stick grew there and was a tail, and the man
became a monkey. [371]


A very lazy boy got a piece of sugar-cane and went home with it. When
he got home, he told his mother to take off the outside of the stalk
so he might eat it. His mother was angry to see him so lazy and told
him that if he could not take it off himself, to stick it up his
anus. He did so and became a monkey.


A very lazy girl would not learn to spin, and always pretended that
she did not know how. One day she took the cotton and asked the
women what to do with it. "Beat it out," they said. Then she asked,
"What shall I do with it then?" "Put it in a betel leaf on a stick
and spin it." Again she asked, "How shall I spin it?" "If you do not
know how to spin, put the stick up your anus." She did so, and became
a monkey. After that there were many monkeys.

68 [372]

In an early time, the Tinguian were like the _alzado_, [373] and
hunted heads. The men from one town started to another on the other
side of the Abra river to get heads. While they were on the way, it
rained very hard; and when they reached the river, they could not get
across, so they prayed to the Spirit that he would give them wings
to cross. They at once became birds; but when they reached the other
side of the river, they could not resume the forms of men. Some of
the men's wives had just died, and they had bark bands on their heads,
as is the Tinguian custom. When these became birds, their heads were
white; but those of the others were black, and so they are to this day.


A mother had a very lazy boy who could do nothing. One day she went
away to get something, and she put a big basket over the boy. When she
came home, she took the basket up, but instead of the boy there was
a bird which flew away, crying "sigakok, sigakok, sigakok,"--"lazy,

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