Part 6 out of 6
Holy Maria, mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and in the hour
of our death! - Amen, Jesus.
Glory (to) the Father, the Son, (and) the Holy Ghost; as was in the
beginning, now, and for ever: in the ages of the ages. - Amen.
OR CREDO / THE CREED
SARTA LO CHIBELARON LOS CALES DE CORDOVATI / TRANSLATED BY THE
GYSPIES OF CORDOVA
Pachabelo en Un-debel batu tosaro-baro, que ha querdi el char y la
chique; y en Un-debel chinoro su unico chaboro erano de amangue,
que chalo en el trupo de la Majari por el Duquende Majoro, y abio
del veo de la Majari; guillo curado debajo de la sila de Pontio
Pilato el chinobaro; guillo mulo y garabado; se chale a las
jacharis; al trin chibe se ha sicobado de los mules al char; sinela
bejado a las baste de Un-debel barrea; y de ote abiara a juzgar a
los mules y a los que no lo sinelan; pachabelo en el Majaro; la
Cangri Majari barea; el jalar de los Majaries; lo meco de los
grecos; la resureccion de la maas, y la ochi que no marela.
I believe in God the Father all-great, who has made the heaven and
the earth; and in God the young, his only Son, the Lord of us, who
went into the body of the blessed (maid) by (means of) the Holy
Ghost, and came out of the womb of the blessed; he was tormented
beneath the power of Pontius Pilate, the great Alguazil; was dead
and buried; he went (down) to the fires; on the third day he raised
himself from the dead unto the heaven; he is seated at the major
hand of God; and from thence he shall come to judge the dead and
those who are not (dead). I believe in the blessed one; in the
church holy and great; the banquet of the saints; the remission of
sins; the resurrection of the flesh, and the life which does not
REJELENDRES / PROVERBS
Or soscabela juco y terable garipe no le sin perfine anelar
Bus yes manupe cha machagarno le pendan chuchipon los brochabos.
Sacais sos ne dicobelan calochin ne bridaquelan.
Coin terelare trasardos e dinastes nasti le buchare berrandanas a
On sares las cachimanes de Sersen abillen reches.
Bus mola yes chirriclo on la ba sos gres balogando.
A Ostebe brichardilando y sar or mochique dinelando.
Bus mola quesar jero de gabuno sos manpori de bombardo.
Dicar y panchabar, sata penda Manjaro Lillar.
Or esorjie de or narsichisle sin chismar lachinguel.
Las queles mistos grobelas: per macara chibel la piri y de rachi
Aunsos me dicas vriardao de jorpoy ne sirlo braco.
Chachipe con jujana - Calzones de buchi y medias de lana.
Chuquel sos pirela cocal terela.
Len sos sonsi bela pani o reblandani terela.
He who is lean and has scabs needs not carry a net. (98)
When a man goes drunk the boys say to him 'suet.' (99)
Eyes which see not break no heart.
He who has a roof of glass let him not fling stones at his
Into all the taverns of Spain may reeds come.
A bird in the hand is worth more than a hundred flying.
To God (be) praying and with the flail plying.
It is worth more to be the head of a mouse than the tail of a lion.
To see and to believe, as Saint Thomas says.
The extreme (100) of a dwarf is to spit largely.
Houses well managed:- at mid-day the stew-pan, (101) and at night
Although thou seest me dressed in wool I am no sheep.
Truth with falsehood-Breeches of silk and stockings of Wool. (102)
The dog who walks finds a bone.
The river which makes a noise (103) has either water or stones.
ODORES YE TILICHE / THE LOVER'S JEALOUSY
Dica Calli sos linastes terelas, plasarandote misto men calochin
desquinao de trinchas punis y canrrias, sata anjella terelaba
dicando on los chorres naquelos sos me tesumiaste, y andial reutila
a men Jeli, dinela gao a sos menda orobibele; men puni sin trincha
per la quimbila nevel de yes manu barbalo; sos saro se muca per or
jandorro. Lo sos bus prejeno Calli de los Bengorros sin sos nu
muqueis per yes manu barbalo. . . . On tute orchiri nu chismo,
tramisto on coin te araquera, sos menda terela men nostus pa avel
sos me camela bus sos tute.
Reflect, O Callee! (104) what motives hast thou (now that my heart
is doting on thee, having rested awhile from so many cares and
griefs which formerly it endured, beholding the evil passages which
thou preparedst for me;) to recede thus from my love, giving
occasion to me to weep. My agony is great on account of thy recent
acquaintance with a rich man; for every thing is abandoned for
money's sake. What I most feel, O Callee, of the devils is, that
thou abandonest me for a rich man . . . I spit upon thy beauty, and
also upon him who converses with thee, for I keep my money for
another who loves me more than thou.
OR PERSIBARARSE SIN CHORO / THE EVILS OF CONCUBINAGE
Gajeres sin corbo rifian soscabar yes manu persibarao, per sos saro
se linbidian odoros y beslli, y per esegriton apuchelan on sardana
de saros los Benjes, techescando grejos y olajais - de sustiri sos
lo resaronomo niquilla murmo; y andial lo fendi sos terelamos de
querar sin techescarle yes sulibari a or Jeli, y ne panchabar on
caute manusardi, persos trutan a yesque lili.
It is always a strange danger for a man to live in concubinage,
because all turns to jealousy and quarrelling, and at last they
live in the favour of all the devils, voiding oaths and curses: so
that what is cheap turns out dear. So the best we can do, is to
cast a bridle on love, and trust to no woman, for they (105) make a
LOS CHORES / THE ROBBERS
On grejelo chiro begoreo yesque berbanilla de chores a la burda de
yes mostipelo a oleba rachi - Andial sos la prejenaron los cambrais
presimelaron a cobadrar; sar andoba linaste changano or lanbro, se
sustino de la charipe de lapa, utilo la pusca, y niquillo
platanando per or platesquero de or mostipelo a la burda sos
socabelaba pandi, y per or jobi de la clichi chibelo or jundro de
la pusca, le dino pesquibo a or langute, y le sumuquelo yes
bruchasno on la tesquera a or Jojerian de los ostilaores y lo
techesco de or grate a ostele. Andial sos los debus quimbilos
dicobelaron a desquero Jojerian on chen sar las canrriales de la
Beriben, lo chibelaron espusifias a los grastes, y niquillaron
chapescando, trutando la romuy apala, per bausale de las machas o
almedalles de liripio.
On a certain time arrived a band of thieves at the gate of a farm-
house at midnight. So soon as the dogs heard them they began to
bark, which causing (106) the labourer to awake, he raised himself
from his bed with a start, took his musket, and went running to the
court-yard of the farm-house to the gate, which was shut, placed
the barrel of his musket to the keyhole, gave his finger its
desire, (107) and sent a bullet into the forehead of the captain of
the robbers, casting him down from his horse. Soon as the other
fellows saw their captain on the ground in the agonies of death,
they clapped spurs to their horses, and galloped off fleeing,
turning their faces back on account of the flies (108) or almonds
COTOR YE GABICOTE MAJARO / SPECIMEN OF THE GOSPEL
OR SOS SARO LO HA CHIBADO EN CHIPE CALLI OR RANDADOR DE OCONOS
PAPIRIS AUNSOS NARDIAN LO HA DINADO AL SURDETE.
FROM THE AUTHOR'S UNPUBLISHED TRANSLATION OF THE NEW TESTAMENT
Y soscabando dicando dico los Barbalos sos techescaban desqueros
mansis on or Gazofilacio; y dico tramisto yesque pispiricha
chorrorita, sos techescaba duis chinorris saraballis, y penelo: en
chachipe os penelo, sos caba chorrorri pispiricha a techescao bus
sos sares los aveles: persos saros ondobas han techescao per los
mansis de Ostebe, de lo sos les costuna; bus caba e desquero
chorrorri a techescao saro or susalo sos terelaba. Y pendo a
cormunis, sos pendaban del cangaripe, soscabelaba uriardao de
orchiris berrandanas, y de denes: Cabas buchis sos dicais,
abillaran chibeles, bus ne muquelara berrandana costune berrandana,
sos ne quesesa demarabea. Y le prucharon y pendaron: Docurdo, bus
quesa ondoba? Y sos simachi abicara bus ondoba presimare? Ondole
penclo: Dicad, sos nasti queseis jonjabaos; persos butes abillaran
on men acnao, pendando: man sirlo, y or chiro soscabela pajes:
Garabaos de guillelar apala, de ondolayos: y bus junureis barganas
y sustines, ne os espajueis; persos sin perfine sos ondoba chundee
brotobo, bus nasti quesa escotria or egresiton. Oclinde les
pendaba: se sustinara sueste sartra sueste, y sichen sartra
sichen, y abicara bareles dajiros de chenes per los gaos, y
retreques y bocatas, y abicara buchengeres espajuis, y bareles
simachis de otarpe: bus anjella de saro ondoba os sinastraran y
preguillaran, enregandoos a la Socreteria, y los ostardos, y os
legeraran a los Oclayes, y a los Baquedunis, per men acnao: y
ondoba os chundeara on chachipe. Terelad pus seraji on bros
garlochines de ne orobrar anjella sata abicais de brudilar, persos
man os dinare rotuni y chanar, la sos ne asislaran resistir ne
sartra pendar satos bros enormes. Y quesareis enregaos de bros
batos, y opranos, y sastris, y monrrores, y queraran merar a
cormuni de averes; y os cangelaran saros per men acnao; bus ne
carjibara ies bal de bros jeros. Sar bras opachirima avelareis
bras orchis: pus bus dicareis a Jerusalen relli, oclinde chanad
sos, desquero petra soscabela pajes; oclinde los soscabelan on la
Chutea, chapesguen a los tober-jelis; y los que on macara de
ondolaya, niquillense; y lo sos on los oltariques, nasti enrren on
ondolaya; persos ondoba sen chibeles de Abillaza, pa sos chundeen
sares las buchis soscabelan libanas; bus isna de las araris, y de
las sos dinan de oropielar on asirios chibeles; persos abicara bare
quichartura costune la chen, e guillara pa andoba Gao; y petraran a
surabi de janrro; y quesan legeraos sinastros a sares las chenes, y
Jerusalen quesa omana de los suestiles, sasta sos quejesen los
chiros de las sichenes; y abicara simaches on or orcan, y on la
chimutia, y on las uchurganis; y on la chen chalabeo on la suete
per or dan sos bausalara la loria y des-queros gulas; muquelando
los romares bifaos per dajiralo de las buchis sos costune abillaran
a saro or surdete; persos los solares de los otarpes quesan sar-
chalabeaos; y oclinde dicaran a or Chaboro e Manu abillar costune
yesque minrricla sar baro asislar y Chimusolano: bus presimelaren
a chundear caba buchis, dicad, y sustinad bros jeros, persos pajes
soscabela bras redencion.
And whilst looking he saw the rich who cast their treasures into
the treasury; and he saw also a poor widow, who cast two small
coins, and he said: In truth I tell you, that this poor widow has
cast more than all the others; because all those have cast, as
offerings to God, from that which to them abounded; but she from
her poverty has cast all the substance which she had. And he said
to some, who said of the temple, that it was adorned with fair
stones, and with gifts: These things which ye see, days shall
come, when stone shall not remain upon stone, which shall not be
demolished. And they asked him and said: Master, when shall this
be? and what sign shall there be when this begins? He said: See,
that ye be not deceived, because many shall come in my name,
saying: I am (he), and the time is near: beware ye of going after
them: and when ye shall hear (of) wars and revolts do not fear,
because it is needful that this happen first, for the end shall not
be immediately. Then he said to them: Nation shall rise against
nation, and country against country, and there shall be great
tremblings of earth among the towns, and pestilences and famines;
and there shall be frightful things, and great signs in the heaven:
but before all this they shall make ye captive, and shall
persecute, delivering ye over to the synagogue, and prisons; and
they shall carry ye to the kings, and the governors, on account of
my name: and this shall happen to you for truth. Keep then firm
in your hearts, not to think before how ye have to answer, for I
will give you mouth and wisdom, which all your enemies shall not be
able to resist, or contradict. And ye shall be delivered over by
your fathers, and brothers, and relations, and friends, and they
shall put to death some of you; and all shall hate you for my name;
but not one hair of your heads shall perish. With your patience ye
shall possess your souls: but when ye shall see Jerusalem
surrounded, then know that its fall is near; then those who are in
Judea, let them escape to the mountains; and those who are in the
midst of her, let them go out; and those who are in the fields, let
them not enter into her; because those are days of vengeance, that
all the things which are written may happen; but alas to the
pregnant and those who give suck in those days, for there shall be
great distress upon the earth, and it shall move onward against
this people; and they shall fall by the edge of the sword; and they
shall be carried captive to all the countries, and Jerusalem shall
be trodden by the nations, until are accomplished the times of the
nations; and there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and
in the stars; and in the earth trouble of nations from the fear
which the sea and its billows shall cause; leaving men frozen with
terror of the things which shall come upon all the world; because
the powers of the heavens shall be shaken; and then they shall see
the Son of Man coming upon a cloud with great power and glory:
when these things begin to happen, look ye, and raise your heads,
for your redemption is near.
THE ENGLISH DIALECT OF THE ROMMANY
'TACHIPEN if I jaw 'doi, I can lel a bit of tan to hatch: N'etist
I shan't puch kekomi wafu gorgies.'
The above sentence, dear reader, I heard from the mouth of Mr.
Petulengro, the last time that he did me the honour to visit me at
my poor house, which was the day after Mol-divvus, (109) 1842: he
stayed with me during the greatest part of the morning, discoursing
on the affairs of Egypt, the aspect of which, he assured me, was
becoming daily worse and worse. 'There is no living for the poor
people, brother,' said he, 'the chok-engres (police) pursue us from
place to place, and the gorgios are become either so poor or
miserly, that they grudge our cattle a bite of grass by the way
side, and ourselves a yard of ground to light a fire upon. Unless
times alter, brother, and of that I see no probability, unless you
are made either poknees or mecralliskoe geiro (justice of the peace
or prime minister), I am afraid the poor persons will have to give
up wandering altogether, and then what will become of them?
'However, brother,' he continued, in a more cheerful tone, 'I am no
hindity mush, (110) as you well know. I suppose you have not
forgot how, fifteen years ago, when you made horse-shoes in the
little dingle by the side of the great north road, I lent you fifty
cottors (111) to purchase the wonderful trotting cob of the
innkeeper with the green Newmarket coat, which three days after you
sold for two hundred.
'Well, brother, if you had wanted the two hundred, instead of the
fifty, I could have lent them to you, and would have done so, for I
knew you would not be long pazorrhus to me. I am no hindity mush,
brother, no Irishman; I laid out the other day twenty pounds in
buying rupenoe peam-engries; (112) and in the Chong-gav, (113) have
a house of my own with a yard behind it.
'AND, FORSOOTH, IF I GO THITHER, I CAN CHOOSE A PLACE TO LIGHT A
FIRE UPON, AND SHALL HAVE NO NECESSITY TO ASK LEAVE OF THESE HERE
Well, dear reader, this last is the translation of the Gypsy
sentence which heads the chapter, and which is a very
characteristic specimen of the general way of speaking of the
The language, as they generally speak it, is a broken jargon, in
which few of the grammatical peculiarities of the Rommany are to be
distinguished. In fact, what has been said of the Spanish Gypsy
dialect holds good with respect to the English as commonly spoken:
yet the English dialect has in reality suffered much less than the
Spanish, and still retains its original syntax to a certain extent,
its peculiar manner of conjugating verbs, and declining nouns and
pronouns. I must, however, qualify this last assertion, by
observing that in the genuine Rommany there are no prepositions,
but, on the contrary, post-positions; now, in the case of the
English dialect, these post-positions have been lost, and their
want, with the exception of the genitive, has been supplied with
English prepositions, as may be seen by a short example:-
Hungarian Gypsy.(114) English Gypsy. English.
Job Yow He
Leste Leste Of him
Las Las To him
Les Los Him
Lester From leste From him
Leha With leste With him
Hungarian Gypsy English Gypsy. English
Jole Yaun They
Lente Lente Of them
Len Len To them
Len Len Them
Lender From Lende From them
The following comparison of words selected at random from the
English and Spanish dialects of the Rommany will, perhaps, not be
uninteresting to the philologist or even to the general reader.
Could a doubt be at present entertained that the Gypsy language is
virtually the same in all parts of the world where it is spoken, I
conceive that such a vocabulary would at once remove it.
English Gypsy. Spanish Gypsy.
Ant Cria Crianse
Bread Morro Manro
City Forus Foros
Dead Mulo Mulo
Enough Dosta Dosta
Fish Matcho Macho
Great Boro Baro
House Ker Quer
Iron Saster Sas
King Krallis Cralis
Love(I) Camova Camelo
Moon Tchun Chimutra
Night Rarde Rati
Onion Purrum Porumia
Poison Drav Drao
Quick Sig Sigo
Rain Brishindo Brejindal
Sunday Koorokey Curque
Teeth Danor Dani
Village Gav Gao
White Pauno Parno
Yes Avali Ungale
As specimens of how the English dialect maybe written, the
following translations of the Lord's Prayer and Belief will perhaps
THE LORD'S PRAYER
Miry dad, odoi oprey adrey tiro tatcho tan; Medeveleskoe si tiro
nav; awel tiro tem, be kairdo tiro lav acoi drey pov sa odoi adrey
kosgo tan: dey mande ke-divvus miry diry morro, ta fordel man sor
so me pazzorrus tute, sa me fordel sor so wavior mushor pazzorrus
amande; ma riggur man adrey kek dosch, ley man abri sor wafodu;
tiro se o tem, tiro or zoozli-wast, tiro or corauni, kanaw ta ever-
komi. Avali. Tatchipen.
My Father, yonder up within thy good place; god-like be thy name;
come thy kingdom, be done thy word here in earth as yonder in good
place. Give to me to-day my dear bread, and forgive me all that I
am indebted to thee, as I forgive all that other men are indebted
to me; not lead me into any ill; take me out (of) all evil; thine
is the kingdom, thine the strong hand, thine the crown, now and
evermore. Yea. Truth.
Me apasavenna drey mi-dovvel, Dad soro-ruslo, savo kedas charvus ta
pov: apasavenna drey olescro yeck chavo moro arauno Christos, lias
medeveleskoe Baval-engro, beano of wendror of medeveleskoe gairy
Mary: kurredo tuley me-cralliskoe geiro Pontius Pilaten wast;
nasko pre rukh, moreno, chivios adrey o hev; jas yov tuley o kalo
dron ke wafudo tan, bengeskoe stariben; jongorasa o trito divvus,
atchasa opre to tatcho tan, Mi-dovvels kair; bestela kanaw odoi pre
Mi-dovvels tacho wast Dad soro-boro; ava sig to lel shoonaben opre
mestepen and merripen. Apasa-venna en develeskoe Baval-engro; Boro
develeskoe congri, develeskoe pios of sore tacho foky ketteney,
soror wafudu-penes fordias, soror mulor jongorella, kek merella
apopli. Avali, palor.
I believe in my God, Father all powerful, who made heaven and
earth; I believe in his one Son our Lord Christ, conceived by Holy
Ghost, (117) born of bowels of Holy Virgin Mary, beaten under the
royal governor Pontius Pilate's hand; hung on a tree, slain, put
into the grave; went he down the black road to bad place, the
devil's prison; he awaked the third day, ascended up to good place,
my God's house; sits now there on my God's right hand Father-all-
powerful; shall come soon to hold judgment over life and death. I
believe in Holy Ghost; Great Holy Church, Holy festival of all good
people together, all sins forgiveness, that all dead arise, no more
die again. Yea, brothers.
SPECIMEN OF A SONG IN THE VULGAR OR BROKEN ROMMANY
As I was a jawing to the gav yeck divvus,
I met on the dron miro Rommany chi:
I puch'd yoi whether she com sar mande;
And she penn'd: tu si wafo Rommany,
And I penn'd, I shall ker tu miro tacho Rommany,
Fornigh tute but dui chave:
Methinks I'll cam tute for miro merripen,
If tu but pen, thou wilt commo sar mande.
One day as I was going to the village,
I met on the road my Rommany lass:
I ask'd her whether she would come with me,
And she said thou hast another wife.
I said, I will make thee my lawful wife,
Because thou hast but two children;
Methinks I will love thee until my death,
If thou but say thou wilt come with me.
Many other specimens of the English Gypsy muse might be here
adduced; it is probable, however, that the above will have fully
satisfied the curiosity of the reader. It has been inserted here
for the purpose of showing that the Gypsies have songs in their own
language, a fact which has been denied. In its metre it resembles
the ancient Sclavonian ballads, with which it has another feature
in common - the absence of rhyme.
(1) QUARTERLY REVIEW, Dec. 1842
(2) EDINBURGH REVIEW, Feb. 1843.
(3) EXAMINER, Dec. 17, 1842.
(4) SPECTATOR, Dec. 7, 1842.
(5) Thou speakest well, brother!
(6) This is quite a mistake: I know very little of what has been
written concerning these people: even the work of Grellmann had
not come beneath my perusal at the time of the publication of the
first edition OF THE ZINCALI, which I certainly do not regret: for
though I believe the learned German to be quite right in his theory
with respect to the origin of the Gypsies, his acquaintance with
their character, habits, and peculiarities, seems to have been
(7) Good day.
(8) Glandered horse.
(9) Two brothers.
(10) The edition here referred to has long since been out of print.
(11) It may not be amiss to give the etymology of the word engro,
which so frequently occurs in compound words in the English Gypsy
tongue:- the EN properly belongs to the preceding noun, being one
of the forms of the genitive case; for example, Elik-EN boro
congry, the great Church or Cathedral of Ely; the GRO or GEIRO
(Spanish GUERO), is the Sanscrit KAR, a particle much used in that
language in the formation of compounds; I need scarcely add that
MONGER in the English words Costermonger, Ironmonger, etc., is
derived from the same root.
(12) For the knowledge of this fact I am indebted to the well-known
and enterprising traveller, Mr. Vigne, whose highly interesting
work on Cashmire and the Panjab requires no recommendation from me.
(13) Gorgio (Spanish GACHO), a man who is not a Gypsy: the Spanish
Gypsies term the Gentiles Busne, the meaning of which word will be
explained farther on.
(14) An Eastern image tantamount to the taking away of life.
(15) Gentes non multum morigeratae, sed quasi bruta animalia et
furentes. See vol. xxii. of the Supplement to the works of
Muratori, p. 890.
(16) As quoted by Hervas: CATALOGO DE LAS LENGUAS, vol. iii. p.
(17) We have found this beautiful metaphor both in Gypsy and
Spanish; it runs thus in the former language:-
'LAS MUCHIS. (The Sparks.)
'Bus de gres chabalas orchiris man dique a yes chiro purelar
sistilias sata rujias, y or sisli carjibal dinando trutas
(18) In the above little tale the writer confesses that there are
many things purely imaginary; the most material point, however, the
attempt to sack the town during the pestilence, which was defeated
by the courage and activity of an individual, rests on historical
evidence the most satisfactory. It is thus mentioned in the work
of Francisco de Cordova (he was surnamed Cordova from having been
for many years canon in that city):-
'Annis praeteritis Iuliobrigam urbem, vulgo Logrono, pestilenti
laborantem morbo, et hominibus vacuam invadere hi ac diripere
tentarunt, perfecissentque ni Dens O. M. cuiusdam BIBLIOPOLAE
opera, in corum, capita, quam urbi moliebantur perniciem
avertisset.' DIDASCALIA, Lugduni, 1615, I vol. 8VO. p. 405, cap.
(19) Yet notwithstanding that we refuse credit to these particular
narrations of Quinones and Fajardo, acts of cannibalism may
certainly have been perpetrated by the Gitanos of Spain in ancient
times, when they were for the most part semi-savages living amongst
mountains and deserts, where food was hard to be procured: famine
may have occasionally compelled them to prey on human flesh, as it
has in modern times compelled people far more civilised than
(22) MITHRIDATES: erster Theil, s. 241.
(23) Torreblanca: DE MAGIA, 1678.
(24) Exodus, chap. xiii. v. 9. 'And it shall be for a sign unto
thee upon thy hand.' Eng. Trans.
(25) No chapter in the book of Job contains any such verse.
(26) 'And the children of Israel went out with an high hand.'
Exodus, chap. xiv. v. 8. Eng. Trans.
(27) No such verse is to be found in the book mentioned.
(28) Prov., chap. vii. vers. 11, 12. 'She is loud and stubborn;
her feet abide not in her house. Now is she without, now in the
streets, and lieth in wait at every corner.' Eng. Trans.
(29) HISTORIA DE ALONSO, MOZO DE MUCHOS AMOS: or, the story of
Alonso, servant of many masters; an entertaining novel, written in
the seventeenth century, by Geronimo of Alcala, from which some
extracts were given in the first edition of the present work.
(30) O Ali! O Mahomet! - God is God! - A Turkish war-cry.
(31) Gen. xlix. 22.
(32) In the original there is a play on words. - It is not
necessary to enter into particulars farther than to observe that in
the Hebrew language 'ain' means a well, and likewise an eye.
(33) Gen. xlviii. 16. In the English version the exact sense of
the inspired original is not conveyed. The descendants of Joseph
are to increase like fish.
(34) Exodus, chap. xii. v. 37, 38.
(35) Quinones, p. 11.
(36) The writer will by no means answer for the truth of these
statements respecting Gypsy marriages.
(37) This statement is incorrect.
(38) The Torlaquis (idle vagabonds), Hadgies (saints), and
Dervishes (mendicant friars) of the East, are Gypsies neither by
origin nor habits, but are in general people who support themselves
in idleness by practising upon the credulity and superstition of
(39) In the Moorish Arabic, [Arabic text which cannot be
reproduced] - or reus al haramin, the literal meaning being, 'heads
or captains of thieves.'
(40) A favourite saying amongst this class of people is the
following: 'Es preciso que cada uno coma de su oficio'; I.E. every
one must live by his trade.
(41) For the above well-drawn character of Charles the Third I am
indebted to the pen of Louis de Usoz y Rio, my coadjutor in the
editing of the New Testament in Spanish (Madrid, 1837). For a
further account of this gentleman, the reader is referred to THE
BIBLE IN SPAIN, preface, p. xxii.
(42) Steal a horse.
(43) The lame devil: Asmodeus.
(44) Rinconete and Cortadillo.
(45) The great river, or Guadalquiver.
(46) A fountain in Paradise.
(47) A Gypsy word signifying 'exceeding much.'
(48) 'Lengua muy cerrada.'
(49) 'No camelo ser eray, es Calo mi nacimiento;
No camelo ser eray, eon ser Cale me contento.'
(50) Armed partisans, or guerillas on horseback: they waged a war
of extermination against the French, but at the same time plundered
their countrymen without scruple.
(51) The Basques speak a Tartar dialect which strikingly resembles
the Mongolian and the Mandchou.
(52) A small nation or rather sect of contrabandistas, who inhabit
the valley of Pas amidst the mountains of Santander; they carry
long sticks, in the handling of which they are unequalled. Armed
with one of these sticks, a smuggler of Pas has been known to beat
off two mounted dragoons.
(53) The hostess, Maria Diaz, and her son Joan Jose Lopez, were
present when the outcast uttered these prophetic words.
(54) Eodem anno precipue fuit pestis seu mortalitas Forlivio.
(55) This work is styled HISTORIA DE LOS GITANOS, by J. M-,
published at Barcelona in the year 1832; it consists of ninety-
three very small and scantily furnished pages. Its chief, we might
say its only merit, is the style, which is fluent and easy. The
writer is a theorist, and sacrifices truth and probability to the
shrine of one idea, and that one of the most absurd that ever
entered the head of an individual. He endeavours to persuade his
readers that the Gitanos are the descendants of the Moors, and the
greatest part of his work is a history of those Africans, from the
time of their arrival in the Peninsula till their expatriation by
Philip the Third. The Gitanos he supposes to be various tribes of
wandering Moors, who baffled pursuit amidst the fastnesses of the
hills; he denies that they are of the same origin as the Gypsies,
Bohemians, etc., of other lands, though he does not back his denial
by any proofs, and is confessedly ignorant of the Gitano language,
the grand criterion.
(56) A Russian word signifying beans.
(57) The term for poisoning swine in English Gypsy is DRABBING
(58) Por medio de chalanerias.
(59) The English.
(60) These words are very ancient, and were, perhaps, used by the
earliest Spanish Gypsies; they differ much from the language of the
present day, and are quite unintelligible to the modern Gitanos.
(61) It was speedily prohibited, together with the Basque gospel;
by a royal ordonnance, however, which appeared in the Gazette of
Madrid, in August 1838, every public library in the kingdom was
empowered to purchase two copies in both languages, as the works in
question were allowed to possess some merit IN A LITERARY POINT OF
VIEW. For a particular account of the Basque translation, and also
some remarks on the Euscarra language, the reader is referred to
THE BIBLE IN SPAIN, vol. ii. p. 385-398.
(62) Steal me, Gypsy.
(63) A species of gendarme or armed policeman. The Miquelets have
existed in Spain for upwards of two hundred years. They are called
Miquelets, from the name of their original leader. They are
generally Aragonese by nation, and reclaimed robbers.
(64) Those who may be desirous of perusing the originals of the
following rhymes should consult former editions of this work.
(65) For the original, see other editions.
(66) For this information concerning Palmireno, and also for a
sight of the somewhat rare volume written by him, the author was
indebted to a kind friend, a native of Spain.
(67) A very unfair inference; that some of the Gypsies did not
understand the author when he spoke Romaic, was no proof that their
own private language was a feigned one, invented for thievish
(68) Of all these, the most terrible, and whose sway endured for
the longest period, were the Mongols, as they were called: few,
however, of his original Mongolian warriors followed Timour in the
invasion of India. His armies latterly appear to have consisted
chiefly of Turcomans and Persians. It was to obtain popularity
amongst these soldiery that he abandoned his old religion, a kind
of fetish, or sorcery, and became a Mahometan.
(69) As quoted by Adelung, MITHRIDATES, vol. i.
(70) For example, in the HISTORIA DE LOS GITANOS, of which we have
had occasion to speak in the first part of the present work:
amongst other things the author says, p. 95, 'If there exist any
similitude of customs between the Gitanos and the Gypsies, the
Zigeuners, the Zingari, and the Bohemians, they (the Gitanos)
cannot, however, be confounded with these nomad castes, nor the
same origin be attributed to them; . . . all that we shall find in
common between these people will be, that the one (the Gypsies,
etc.) arrived fugitives from the heart of Asia by the steppes of
Tartary, at the beginning of the fifteenth century, while the
Gitanos, descended from the Arab or Morisco tribes, came from the
coast of Africa as conquerors at the beginning of the eighth.'
He gets rid of any evidence with respect to the origin of the
Gitanos which their language might be capable of affording in the
following summary manner: 'As to the particular jargon which they
use, any investigation which people might pretend to make would be
quite useless; in the first place, on account of the reserve which
they exhibit on this point; and secondly, because, in the event of
some being found sufficiently communicative, the information which
they could impart would lead to no advantageous result, owing to
their extreme ignorance.'
It is scarcely worth while to offer a remark on reasoning which
could only emanate from an understanding of the very lowest order,
- so the Gitanos are so extremely ignorant, that however frank they
might wish to be, they would be unable to tell the curious inquirer
the names for bread and water, meat and salt, in their own peculiar
tongue - for, assuredly, had they sense enough to afford that
slight quantum of information, it would lead to two very
advantageous results, by proving, first, that they spoke the same
language as the Gypsies, etc., and were consequently the same
people - and secondly, that they came not from the coast of
Northern Africa, where only Arabic and Shillah are spoken, but from
the heart of Asia, three words of the four being pure Sanscrit.
(72) As given in the MITHRIDATES of Adelung.
(73) Possibly from the Russian BOLOSS, which has the same
(74) Basque, BURUA.
(75) Sanscrit, SCHIRRA.
(76) These two words, which Hervas supposes to be Italian used in
an improper sense, are probably of quite another origin. LEN, in
Gitano, signifies 'river,' whilst VADI in Russian is equivalent to
(77) It is not our intention to weary the reader with prolix
specimens; nevertheless, in corroboration of what we have asserted,
we shall take the liberty of offering a few. Piar, to drink, (p.
188,) is Sanscrit, PIAVA. Basilea, gallows, (p. 158,) is Russian,
BECILITZ. Caramo, wine, and gurapo, galley, (pp. 162, 176,)
Arabic, HARAM (which literally signifies that which is forbidden)
and GRAB. Iza, (p. 179,) harlot, Turkish, KIZE. Harton, bread,
(p. 177,) Greek, ARTOS. Guido, good, and hurgamandera, harlot,
(pp. 177, 178,) German, GUT and HURE. Tiple, wine, (p. 197,) is
the same as the English word tipple, Gypsy, TAPILLAR.
(78) This word is pure Wallachian ([Greek text which cannot be
reproduced]), and was brought by the Gypsies into England; it means
'booty,' or what is called in the present cant language, 'swag.'
The Gypsies call booty 'louripen.'
(79) Christmas, literally Wine-day.
(80) Irishman or beggar, literally a dirty squalid person.
(82) Silver teapots.
(83) The Gypsy word for a certain town.
(84) In the Spanish Gypsy version, 'our bread of each day.'
(85) Span., 'forgive us our debts as we forgive our debtors.'
(86) Eng., 'all evil FROM'; Span., 'from all ugliness.'
(87) Span., 'for thine.'
(88) By Hungary is here meant not only Hungary proper, but
(89) How many days made come the gentleman hither.
(90) How many-year fellow are you.
(91) Of a grosh.
(92) My name shall be to you for Moses my brother.
(94) Empty place.
(95) V. CASINOBEN in Lexicon.
(96) By these two words, Pontius Pilate is represented, but whence
they are derived I know not.
(98) Poverty is always avoided.
(99) A drunkard reduces himself to the condition of a hog.
(100) The most he can do.
(101) The puchero, or pan of glazed earth, in which bacon, beef,
and garbanzos are stewed.
(102) Truth contrasts strangely with falsehood; this is a genuine
Gypsy proverb, as are the two which follow; it is repeated
throughout Spain WITHOUT BEING UNDERSTOOD.
(103) In the original WEARS A MOUTH; the meaning is, ask nothing,
(104) Female Gypsy,
(105) Women UNDERSTOOD.
(106) With that motive awoke the labourer. ORIG.
(107) Gave its pleasure to the finger, I.E. his finger was itching
to draw the trigger, and he humoured it.
(108) They feared the shot and slugs, which are compared, and not
badly, to flies and almonds.
(109) Christmas, literally Wine-day.
(110) Irishman or beggar, literally a dirty squalid person.
(114) Silver tea-pots.
(115) The Gypsy word for a certain town.
(116) As given by Grellmann.
(117) The English Gypsies having, in their dialect, no other term
for ghost than mulo, which simply means a dead person, I have been
obliged to substitute a compound word. Bavalengro signifies
literally a wind thing, or FORM OF AIR.