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The Writings of Samuel Adams, vol. III.

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commit to writing.

Our declaration of Independence has already been attended with
good Effects. It is fortunate beyond our Expectation to have the
Voice of every Colony in favor of so important a Question.

I inclose you the Form of a Constitution which the Convention of
Virginia have agreed upon for that Colony. It came to my hand
yesterday by the Post, and I spare it to you, although I have not
had time to peruse it. I suppose there are other Copies in Town.
Adieu.

_________________________________________________________________
1John Adams.

TO JAMES WARREN.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

PHILADA July 17 1776

MY DEAR SIR

By this Express the General Assembly will receive the most
earnest Recommendation of Congress to raise & send with all
possible Speed the 2000 Men requested of them for New York above
a Month ago. There never was a more pressing Necessity for their
Exertions than at present. Our Army in N. Y. consists of not more
than half the number of those which we have reason to expect will
in a very short Time be ready to attack them--and to this let me
add that when we consider how many disaffected Men there are in
that Colony, it is but little better than an Enemies Country. I
am sensible this is a busy Season of the year, but I beg of you
to prevail on the People to lay aside every private Concern and
devote themselves to the Service of their Country. If we can gain
the Advantage of the Enemy this Campaign we may promise ourselves
Success against every Effort they will be able to make hereafter.
But I need not multiply words. I am sure YOUR Mind is fully
impressd with the Importance of this Measure. Adieu my Friend,
the Express waits--

TO JOHN PITTS.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

[PHILADELPHIA, July 17, 1776]

MY DEAR SIR

You were informd by the last Post that Congress had declared the
thirteen united Colonies free, & independent States. It must be
allowd by the impartial World that this Declaration has not been
made rashly. The inclosd Catalogue of Crimes of the deepest Dye,
which have been repeatedly perpetrated by the King will justify
us in the Eyes of honest & good Men. By multiplied Acts of
Oppression and Tyranny he has long since forfeited his Right to
Govern. The Patience of the Colonies in enduring the most
provoking Injuries so often repeated will be Matter of
Astonishmt. Too Much I fear has been lost by Delay, but an
accession of several Colonies has been gaind by it. The Delegates
of every colony were present & concurrd in this important act;
except those of N. Y. who were not authorizd to give their Voice
on the Question, but they have since publickly said that a new
Convention was soon to meet in that Colony & they had not the
least Doubt of their acceeding to it. Our Path is now open to
form a plan of Confederation & propose Alliances with foreign
States. I hope our Affairs will now wear a more agreable Aspect
than they have of late.

TO SAMUEL COOPER.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

PHILADA July 20 1776

MY DEAR SIR/

I have the Pleasure of informing you, that the Continental Troops
under the Command of Major Genl Lee, have tryumphd over the
British Forces in South Carolina, the particulars of which you
have in the inclosd Paper. I trust this Blow has given so great a
Check to the Power of the Enemy as to prevent their doing us any
material Injury in that part of America. We look towards New
York, and earnestly Pray that God would order a decisive Event in
our Favor there--you must have earlier Intelligence from time to
time of the Circumstances of our Affairs in that Department than
you can have from this place. Yesterday Circular Letters with
inclosd Declarations from Lord Howe to the late Governors of New
Jersey & the Colonies Southward as far as Georgia, were laid
before Congress. As they were orderd to be publishd, I have the
Opportunity of transmitting a printed Copy of them for your
Amusement. There were also Letters from London to private Persons
probably procured if not dictated by the British Ministry and
written with a manifest Intention to form a Party here in favor
of his Lordship, to induce People to believe that he is a cordial
Friend to America, and that he is empowerd to offer Terms of
Accommodation acceptable to the Colonists. But it is now too late
for that insidious Court to play such Tricks with any reasonable
Hopes of Success. The American States have declard themselves no
longer the Subjects of the British King. But if they had remaind
such, the Budget is now opened to the World, and the People see
with their own Eyes, with how much MAGNANIMITY the Prince offers
them Pardon on Condition that they will submit to be his abject
Slaves.

I was informd in a Letter I recd from London last March, that
this very Nobleman declind to accept the Commission until he
should be vested with Authority to offer to us honorable Terms--
that he made a Merit of it. And yet he now comes with Terms
disgraceful to human Nature. If he is a good kind of Man, as
these Letters import, I am mistaken if he is not weak & ductile.
He has always voted, as I am told in favor of the Kings Measures
in Parliament, and at the same time professd himself a Friend to
the Liberties of America! He seems to me, either never to have
had any good Principles at all, or not to have had Presence of
Mind openly and uniformly to avow them. I have an Anecdote which
I will communicate to you at another Time--at present I have not
Leisure.

Pray let me have a Letter from you soon. You cannot do me a
greater Act of Kindness or more substantially serve me than by
writing often.

I am affectionately,
Your Friend,

Will you be kind enough to let my Family know that I am in
health. I wish you wd present my respectful Compts to my very
venerable Friend D C----y.1 I hope the worthy old Gentleman is in
Health & Spirits.

________________________________________________________________
1Cf., page 155.

TO BENJAMIN KENT.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

PHILAD July 27 1776

MY DEAR FRIEND

I must beg you to impute to the true Reason my not having yet
acknowledgd & answerd your very obliging Letter of the 24 May.
The WANT OF LEISURE often prevents my indulging the natural
Inclination of my Mind to converse with my distant Friends by
familiar Epistles; for however unequal I feel my self to the
Station in which our Country has placed me here, I am
indispensibly obligd to attend the Duties of it with Diligence.

It has been difficult for a Number of persons sent from all parts
of so extensive a Territory and representing Colonies (or as I
must now call them STATES) which in many Respects have had
different Interests & Views, to unite in Measures materially to
affect them all. Hence our Determinations have been necessarily
slow. We have however gone on from Step to Step, till at length
we are arrivd to perfection, as you have heard, in a Declaration
of Independence. Was there ever a Revolution brot about,
especially so important as this without great internal Tumults &
violent Convulsions! The Delegates of every Colony in Congress
have given their
Voices in favor of the great Question, & the People I am
told, recognize the Resolution as though it were a Decree
promulgated from Heaven. I have thot that if this decisive
Measure had been taken six months earlier, it would have given
Vigor to our Northern Army & a different Issue to our military
Exertions in Canada. But probably I was mistaken. The Colonies
were not then all ripe for so momentous a Change. It was
necessary that they shd be united, & it required Time & patience
to remove old prejudices, to instruct the unenlightend, convince
the doubting and fortify the timid. Perhaps if our Friends had
considerd how much was to be previously done they wd not have
been, as you tell me some of them were, "impatient under our
Delay."

New Govts are now erecting in the several American States under
the Authority of the people. Monarchy seems to be generally
exploded. And it is not surprising to me, that the Aristocratick
Spirit which appeard to have taken deep Root in some of them, now
gives place to that of Democracy, You justly observe that "the
Soul or Spirit of Democracy is VIRTUE." No State can long
preserve its Liberty "where Virtue is not supremely honord." I
flatter my self you are mistaken in thinking ours is so very
deficient, and I do assure you, I find reliefe in supposing your
Colouring is too high. But if I deceive my self in this most
essential point, I conjure you and every Man of Influence by
Example and by all Means to stem the Torrent of Vice, which, as a
celebrated Author tells us, "prevailing would destroy, not only a
Kingdom or an Empire, but the whole moral Dominion of the
Almighty throughout the Infinitude of Space." I have Time only to
add that I am very affectionately,

Yours,

TO JOSEPH TRUMBULL.1

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

PHILADE Augt 3 17762

MY DEAR SIR

Our Friend Coll W brought & deliverd to me your Letter of the---
July directed to Mr J. A. and myself. The Inclosures clearly show
the deplorable State of our Affairs in the Northern Department
and it is easy to see the Source of them. I am fully of opinion
that ONE MAN must be removd to some other Department, to put an
End to our Misfortunes there but this has hitherto been
impracticable, though it has been attempted and urgd. A little
Time may perhaps unravel Mysteries and convince Gentlemen that
they have been under certain Prejudices to which the wisest Men
are lyable. It appears to me very extraordinary that Mr L. should
insist upon acting after being apprizd of the Resolve of
Congress, and it is still more extraordinary that he meets with
the Support of . . . . in such Conduct. I am very sure that our
Affairs must greatly suffer if he is allowd to persist in so
doing, and your Reputation as well as the Good of the Service may
be at Stake. I think it would not be amiss for you to State the
Matter to the General by which means it might be laid before
Congress. You are the best judge of the part proper for you to
act on this occasion in your own Department but I shall certainly
do all in my Power to have the Evils you mention corrected. I
have communicated your Letter to several Gentlemen who will joyn
with me in every practicable Method for this purpose. Congress
have this day passd several Resolutions which I hope tend to this
good Effect. Paymasters & Deputy Paymasters are to make weekly
Returns to Congress of the State of the Military Chests under
their Direction. Jonn Trumble Esqr Pay Master in the Northern
Department is to transmit as soon as possible an Acct of all the
Monies which have passed through his Hands. Commissaries & Depy
Comssys Genl in the several Departments are to transmit to
Congress weekly Accots of Monies they receive of Pay Masters or
their Deputies--Quarter Masters & Deputy Qr Masters to do the
same--and the Commanding Officers in Each Departmt are to make
monthly returns to Congress of the Drafts they make on the
respective Paymasters. Comry General, Qr Masters Genl & their
Deputies to make monthly Returns at least of Stores in their
Possession & the Distribution of them. These Resolutions perhaps
may not please EVERY BODY, but if they are duly executed, they
may detect Mistakes or Frauds if any should happen. As to what
has happend in Canada & near it, some person is in my opinion
most egregiously to blame, and, to use a homely Proverb, the
Saddle has been laid, or attempted to be laid on the wrong horse.
I hope that by strict Scrutiny the Causes will be found out and
the guilty Man made to suffer. My Regards to Genl Mifflin & all
Friends.

I am respectfully,
Yours,

Since writing the foregoing I have turnd to the printed Journals
of Congress and find that on the 17th of July 1775 Walter
Livingston Esq was appointed "Commissary of Stores & provisions
for the New York Departmt during the PRESENT Campaign. "Upon what
Grounds then does he speak of himself as vested by Congress with
full powers to act TILL REVOK'D? The last Campaign wch limitted
his power to act, is finishd. Under what pretence can he be
supported by his Patron, especially since by the Resolution of
Congress of the 8th of July last, you have "full Power to supply
both Armies, that upon the Lakes as well as that at N Y, & also
to appoint & employ such persons under you & to remove any Deputy
Commissary as you shall think proper & expedient,"3 and for this
express Reason "it being absolutely necessary that the Supply of
BOTH Armies shd be under ONE Direction." Has not Genl S----- seen
this Resolution? or if he has seen it, Does he judge that the
Supply of the two Armies shd be under different Directions, &
undertake to order accordingly? If the Persons whom you send to
act under you in the Northern Army are confined & limitted by ANY
other Person after they arrive there, unless by order of
Congress, & without giving you Notice in case such order shd be
made, we must expect a Repetition of the most mortifying
Disappointments. Upon my Word I think it your Duty to remonstrate
this, either to the Commander in Chief or to the Congress. The
former I should suppose you would prefer.

Adieu,

_________________________________________________________________
1Addressed to him at New York; commissary-general of the
continental army.
2At this point reference should be made to the pamphlet entitled
"An Oration delivered at the State House in Philadelphia . . . on
Thursday, the 1st of August, 1776, by Samuel Adams." This was
"reprinted" at London, and the text is given in W. V. Wells, Life
of Samuel Adams, vol. iii., pp. 405-422. Wells, at vol. ii., p.
440, states briefly the reasons why he does not credit the
production to Adams. See also, against its authenticity,
Proceedings of Massachusetts Historical Society, 1st ser., vol.
xiii., p. 451. The text has been published, with no allusion to
its doubtful origin, as recently as 1900, in The World's Orators,
edited by Guy C. Lee, vol. viii., pp. 239-265. John Eliot of
Boston apparently had the matter in mind when he wrote to Jeremy
Belknap, June 17, 1777: "Mr S. Adams is a gentleman who hath
sacrificed an immense fortune in the service of his country. He
is an orator likewise, & there is a famous oration upon the
independance of America, which, it is said, he delivered at
Philadelphia, January, 1776, but which was never seen in America
before." Collections of Massachusetts Historical Society, 6th
ser., vol. iv., pp. 124, 125. Cf., Sabin, Bibliotheca Americana,
No. 344.
3Journals of the Continental Congress (Library of Congress
edition), vol. v., p. 527.

TO JOHN ADAMS.

[MS., Adams Papers, Quincy; a text is in W. V. Wells, Life of
Samuel Adams, vol. ii., p. 441.]

PRINCETOWN Augt 13 1776

DEAR SIR

Before this reaches you,1 you will have heard of the Arrival of
near an hundred more of the Enemies ships. There are too many
Soldiers now in Philada waiting for Arms. Is it not of the utmost
Importance that they should march even without Arms, especially
as they may be furnishd with the Arms of those who are sick at N
York. Would it not be doing great Service to the Cause at this
time if you wd speak to some of the Come of Safety of
Pennsylvania relative to this matter. I write in haste. The
Bearer will inform you of the State of things.

Your Friend,

________________________________________________________________
1Addressed to John Adams at Philadelphia.

TO JOHN ADAMS.

[MS., Adams Papers, Quincy; a portion of the text is in W. V.
Wells, Life of Samuel Adams, vol. ii., p. 442.]

N YORK Augt 16 1776

MY DEAR SIR

I sit down to write in great Haste as the post is just going. I
reachd P. Ferry on Tuesday Six Clock P M & passd over the next
morning--found the Genl & his family in Health & spirits. Indeed
every Officer & Soldier appears to be determind. I have not had
Oppty to view the Works here, but I am told they are strong &
will be well defended whenever an Attack is made which is
expected daily. I see now more than I ever did the Importance of
Congress attending immediately to Inlistments for the next
Campaign. It would be a pity to lose your old Soldiers. I am of
Opinion that a more generous Bounty shd be given, 20 Dollars &
100 Acres of Land for three years at least--but enough of this--

The State of our Northern Army mends apace. The Number of
invalids decreases. Harmony prevails. They carry on all kinds of
Business within themselves. Smiths Armourers Carpenters Turners
Carriage Makers Rope Makers &c &c they are well provided with.
There were at Tyconderoga Augt 12 2,668 Rank & file fit for Duty
at Crown Point & Skeensborough 750, in Hospital 1,110-Lt
Whittemore returnd from his Discoveries--he left St Johns July 30
saw 2000 or 2500 at that place & Chamblee. Stores coming on from
Montreal--counted 30 Batteaus. No Vessell built or building. This
Accot may I think be depended upon. In my opinion we are happy to
have G Gates there. The Man who has the Superintendency of Indian
Affairs--the nominal Command of the Army--is the REAL Contractor
& Quarter Master Genl &c &c has too many Employmtts to attend to
the reform of such an Army--besides the Army can confide in the
VALOR & MILITARY Skill & Accomplishments of GATES--SAT VERBUM
SAPIENTI; pray write me & let me know the Confed. &c goes on.
Major Meigs a brave officer & a Prisoner taken at Quebeck is at
this time, as I suppose, at Philadelphia--he wishes to be
exchanged--such an Officer would be very usefull here. I wish you
wd give him your Assistance. I propose to sett off tomorrow for
the Eastward.

Adieu,

Cap Palmer is in this City waiting for inlisting orders. I wish
the Rank of the Navy officers was settled & the Commissions made
out. Capt Dearborne of N Hampshire is in the same Predicament
with Major Meigs. Coll Whipple who now sends his Regards to you,
is very desirous that he may also be exchand--his Character is
remarkeably good as Maj Meigs can inform you.

TO JOHN ADAMS.

[MS., Adams Papers, Quincy; a text is in John Adams, Works, vol.
ix., pp. 441-443.]

BOSTON Sep 16 1776

MY DEAR SIR/

I very gratefully acknowledge the Receipt of your Letter dated
the of August. I should have written to you from this place
before, but I have not had Leisure. My Time is divided between
Boston & Watertown, and though we are not engagd in Matters of
such Magnitude as now employ your Mind, there are a thousand
things which call the Attention of every Man who is concernd for
his Country. Our Assembly have appointed a Committee to prepare a
Form of Government--they have not yet reported. I believe they
will agree in two legislative Branches --their great Difficulty
seems to be to determine upon a free and adequate Representative,
--they are at present an unwieldy Body. I will inform you more of
this when I shall have the Materials. The Defence of this Town
you know has lain much upon our Minds. Fortifications are erected
upon several of the Islands, which I am told require at least
8000 Men. You shall have a particular Account when I am at
Leisure,--by my Manner of writing you may conclude that I am now
in haste. I have receivd no Letter from Philade or New York since
I was favord with yours, nor can I find that any other person
has. It might be of Advantage to the common Cause for us to know
what is doing at both those important places. We have a Report
that a Committee is appointed (as the expression is) "to meet the
Howes," and that you are one. This, without Flattery gave me
pleasure. I am indeed at a Loss to conclude how such a Movement
could be made consistent with the Honor of the Congress, but I
have such an Opinion of the Wisdom of that Body, that I must not
doubt of the Rectitude of the Measure. I hope they will be
vigilant and firm, for I am told that Lord Howe is, though not a
great man, an artful Courtier. May God give us Wisdom Fortitude
Perseverance and every other virtue necessary for us to maintain
that Independence which we have asserted. It would be ridiculous
indeed if we were to return to a State of Slavery in a few Weeks
after we had thrown off the Yoke and asserted our Independence.
The Body of the people of America, I am perswaded, would resent
it--but why do I write in this Stile--I rely upon the Congress &
the committee. I wish however to know a little about this Matter,
for I confess I cannot account for it to my own Mind. I will
write to you soon-in the mean time,

Adieu,

What has been the Issue of the Debates upon a weighty Subject
when I left you, and another Matter (you know what I mean) of
great Importance? Is it not high time they were finishd?

Pay my due Regards to the President Mess Paine1 & Gerry2 Coll
Lees and other Friends.

_______________________________________________________________
1Robert Treat Paine.
2A portion of a letter by Samuel Adams to Gerry, dated September
23, 1776, is printed in W. V. Wells, Life of
Samuel Adams, vol. ii., pp. 447, 448.

TO JOHN ADAMS.

[MS., Adams Papers, Quincy; a text is in John Adams, Works, vol.
ix., pp. 446, 447.]

BOSTON Sep 30 1776

MY DEAR SIR/

I am much obligd to you for your two Letters of the 8th & 14th of
this Month, which I receivd, together, by the last Post. The
Caution given in the first of these Letters was well designd; and
had it come to me as early as you had Reason to expect it would,
I should have been relievd of a full fortnights Anxiety of Mind.
I was indeed greatly "concernd" for the Event of the proposd
Conference with Lord Howe. It is no Compliment when I tell you,
that I fully confided in the Understanding and Integrity of the
Gentlemen appointed by Congress; but being totally ignorant of
the Motives which inducd such a Measure, I was fearful lest we
might be bro't into a Situation of great Delicacy and
Embarrassment. I perceive that his Lordship would not converse
with you as Members of Congress or a Committee of that Body; from
whence I concluded that the Conference did not take its Rise on
his part. As I am unacquainted with its Origination and the
Powers of the Committee, I must contemplate the whole Affair as a
Refinement in Policy beyond my Reach, and content myself with
remaining in the Dark, till I have the Pleasure of seeing you,
when, I trust, the Mystery will be fully explaind to me. Indeed I
am not so sollicitous to know the Motives from whence this
Conference sprang, or the Manner in which it was brought up, as I
am pleasd with its Conclusion. The Sentiments and Language of the
Committee, as they are related to me, were becoming the Character
they bore. They mannagd with great Dexterity. They maintaind the
Dignity of Congress, and in my Opinion, the Independence of
America stands now on a better footing than it did before. It
affords me abundant Satisfaction, that the Minister of the
British King, commissiond to require and fondly nourishing the
Hopes of receiving the Submission of America, was explicitly and
authoritatively assured, that neither the Committee nor that
Congress which sent them had Authority to treat in any other
Capacity than as INDEPENDENT STATES. His Lordship, it seems, "has
no Instruction on that Subject." We must therefore fight it out,
and trust in God for Success. I dare assure my self, that the
most effectual Care has before this time been taken, for the
Continuance and Support of our Armies, not only for the Remainder
of the present, but for a future year. The People will cheerfully
support their Independence to the utmost. Their Spirits will rise
upon their knowing the Result of the late Conference. It has, you
may depend upon it, been a Matter of great Expectation. Would it
not be attended with a good Effect, if an Account of it was
publishd by Authority of Congress? It would, I should think, at
least put it out of the Power of disaffected Men (and there are
some of this Character even here) to amuse their honest Neighbors
with vain hopes of Reconciliation.

I wish that Congress would give the earliest Notice to this
State, of what may be further expected to be done here for the
Support of the Army. The Season is advancing or rather passing
fast. I intended when I sat down to have written you a long
Epistle, but I am interrupted. I have a thousand Avocations which
require my Attention. Many of them are too trifling to merit your
Notice. Adieu, my Friend. I hope to see you soon.

TO SAMUEL MATHER.

[MS., Dreer Collection, Historical Society of Pennsylvania; a
text is in the Emmet Collection, Lenox Library; and a draft is in
the Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

PHILADA Octob 26 1776

MY DEAR SIR,

On the Evening of the 24th Instant I arrivd in good health in
this City--I give you this Information in Compliance with my
Word, and flattering my self that I shall very soon be favord
with a Letter from you--I will promise to give you hereafter as
much Intelligence as the Secrecy to which I am in honour bound
will allow.

I met with Nothing disagreable in my journey, saving my being
prevented from passing through the direct Road in East Chester,
the Enemy having taken Possession of the Ground there--Our Army
is extended in several Encampments from Kings Bridge to White
Plains which is 12 or 15 Miles Northward, commanded by the
Generals Lord Sterling, Bell (of Maryland) Lincoln, McDougal,
Lee, Heath & Putnam--I mention them, I think, in the order as
they are posted from the Plains to the Bridge--The Generals Head
Quarters are now at Valentine Hill about the Center of the
Encampments. The Army is in high Spirits and wish for Action.
There have been several Skirmishes; one on Fryday the 18th in
which the Massachusetts Regiment commanded by Coll Glover
distinguishd their Bravery and they have receivd the Thanks of
the General. In this Rencounter the Enemy sustaind a considerable
Loss, it is said not less than 700 Men--Another on the Night of
the 21st. The infamous Major Rogers with about 400 Tories of Long
Island, having advancd towards Mareneck1 on the Main, was
defeated by a Party of ours with the Loss of 36 Prisoners besides
killed & wounded. This valiant Hero was the first off the Field--
Such Skirmishes, if successful on our Part, will give Spirit to
our Soldiers and fit them for more important and decisive Action,
which I confess I impatiently wish for.--I have said that our
Soldiers are in high Spirits; I add, that so far as I can learn
the Character of the General officers of the Enemys Army, we at
least equal them in this Instance, we have an excellent
Commissary & Quarter Master General, officers of great Importance
--Mifflin, who servd so much to our Advantage in the latter of
these Employments, has condescended to take it again though he
had been promoted to the Rank & Pay of a Brigadier General--The
Enemy is posted in a rough hilly Country, the Advantages of which
Americans have convincd them they know how to improve--Under all
these Circumstances I should think that the sooner a General
Battle was brot on, the better; but I am no Judge in military
Matters.

An interresting Affair, about which a Circle of Friends whom I
had the Pleasure of meeting at Dr Chauncys, is finishd, I think,
agreably to their Wishes--I can only add at present that I am
with the most cordial Esteem,

Sir your assured Friend
& very humble Servant

_________________________________________________________________
1Mamaroneck.

TO MRS. ADAMS.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

PHILADA, Novr 14th 1776

MY DEAR BETSY

I wrote to you within a Day or two after my Arrival here by an
Express. I cannot say that I was not disappointed in not
receiving a Line from you by the last Post, as I thought I had
Reason to expect. While I am absent from you I am continually
anxious to know the State of your Health. I must therefore beg
you to write to me often. I have not for many years enjoyd a
greater Share of that invalueable Blessing than I have since I
left Boston. I believe the journey on Horseback has been greatly
beneficial to me.

We have lately receivd Intelligence from the Northern Army of
certain Movements of the Enemy in that Quarter, of which you will
see an Account in the inclosd News Paper. This day we have
further Intelligence that they have totally abandond Crown Point
& retreated into Canada. We have also just receivd a Letter from
a Gentleman living on the Sea Coasts of New Jersey informing us
that near 100 Sail of the Enemies Ships with two Frigates & a
fifty Gun Ship were seen steering to the Eastward. It is supposd
they are bound to England. We had before heard that the whole
Force of the Enemy had marchd unexpectedly & precipitately into
the City of New York. This evening an Express is come in from
General Greene who commands on this Side the North River in the
Jersys with Advice that ten thousand of the Enemies Troops were
embarkd, and that it was given out that they were destind to
South Carolina. This may be a Feint. Possibly they may be coming
to this City, which in my Opinion is rather to be desired,
because the People of this State are more numerous than that of
South Carolina. In either Case however I dare say that a good
Account will be given of them. It is said that Lord Dunmore is to
take the Command. If this be true, it looks as if they were going
to Virginia. Be it as it may, the withdrawing so great a Part of
their Troops from New York, it is hoped, will make it an easy
matter for our Army to conquer the Remainder.

It has not been usual for me to write to you of War or
Politicks,--but I know how deeply you have always interrested
yourself in the Welfare of our Country and I am disposd to
gratify your Curiosity. Besides you will hope that from these
Movements of our Enemies a Communication between Boston and
Philadelphia will be more safe and we may the more frequently
hear from each other.

Novr 17th I wish you would acquaint your Brother Sammy that
General Mifflin is now Quartermaster General in Room of Coll
Moylan--that when I was at Head Quarters I mentiond to the
General the treatment your Brother had met with. He told me that
he would have him state the Matter to him in Writing and that he
would endeavor to have justice done to him. The Letter your
Brother formerly wrote to me I left at Boston. If he will give me
a full Account of the Matter in another Letter, I will state it
to General Mifflin, but the Circumstances of things are such at
present that I would not have him depend on its being immediately
attended to. I will however do all in my power to serve him.

Our Friend Mr Lovell1 is at last exchangd. We receivd a Letter
from him two or three days ago. Probably before this reaches you
he will have arrivd at Boston. Pray remember me to my Daughter,
Sister Polly with the rest of my Family & Friends, and be assured
that I am most sincerely & affectionately,

Your,

_________________________________________________________________
1Cf. page 248.

TO MRS. ADAMS.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

PHILADELPHIA Novr 29 1776

MY DEAR BETSY

I take this Opportunity by Mr Chamberlain to acquaint you that I
am in good health & Spirits. This Intelligence, I flatter myself,
will not be disagreable to you. I have not receivd a Line from
you since I left Boston which gives me Reason to suspect that
your Letters may have fallen into wrong hands.

Traveling, it seems, is of late become somewhat dangerous; should
this be intercepted and be seen by the two Brothers,1 they will
have an opportunity of knowing that I am still most firmly
attachd to the best Cause that virtuous Men contend for, and that
I am animated with the full Perswasion that righteous Heaven will
support the Americans if they persevere in their manly Struggles
for their Liberty. I have no Reason to suspect the Virtue of the
Generality of my Countrymen. There are indeed Poltrons & Trayters
everywhere. I do not therefore think it strange that some such
Characters are to be found in this City, but the indignation of
the People kindles at the expected approach of the Enemies Army,
and every proper measure is taking to meet them on the Road and
stop their wild Career.--I am told that Lord Howe has lately
issued a Proclamation offering a general Pardon with the
Exception of only four Persons viz Dr Franklin Coll Richard Henry
Lee Mr John Adams & myself. I am not certain of the Truth of this
Report. If it be a Fact I am greatly obligd to his Lordship for
the flattering opinion he has given me of my self as being a
Person obnoxious to those who are desolating a once happy Country
for the sake of extinguishing the remaining Lamp of Liberty, and
for the singular Honor he does me in ranking me with Men so
eminently patriotick.

I hope you will write to me by every opportunity. Pay my due
Respects to my Family and Friends and be assured that I am most
affectionately,

Your,

_________________________________________________________________
1Presumably Admiral Howe and General Howe.

TO JAMES WARREN.

[MS., Chamberlain Collection, Boston Public Library.]

PHILADE, Novr 29 1776

MY DEAR SIR/

I inclose a Resolve1 passd in Congress and attested by the
Secretary which I doubt not the Honbl House of Representatives
will duly regard. Indeed I am in hopes your Committee for
providing Cloathing &c for the Army have already in a great
Measure answerd the Request. You will have heard of the
Scituation of the Armies before this will reach you. A Part of
the Enemy have got on this Side of Hudsons River, but I dare say
you will have a good Account of them. I am more chagrind at the
Disgrace than the Loss we have met with by the Surrender of Forts
Washington & Lee. They should not have cost the Enemy less than
thousands of their Troops. After all, what have the mighty
Victors gaind? a few Miles of Ground at the Expence of many
Millions of their Treasure & the Effusion of much of their Blood.
But we must stop their Career. This I am satisfied can & will be
done. Mr Gerry writes to you by this opportunity--therefore I
need not add more than that I am very affectionately,

Yours,

_________________________________________________________________
1A marginal postscript, in the autograph of Adams, reads: "Pray
deliver the inclosd, if your Leisure will admit with
your own hand."

TO JAMES WARREN.

[W. V. Wells, Life of Samuel Adams, vol. ii., pp. 452-454; an
incomplete text.]

[PHILADELPHIA, December 4, 1776.]

It affords me singular pleasure to be informed that our General
Assembly is now sitting in Boston. I have been of opinion that
the public business could be done with more despatch there than
elsewhere. "You have appointed a committee of war," with very
extensive powers, "and appropriated to their disposition two
hundred thousand pounds to purchase everything necessary to carry
on the war with vigor next year." I heartily rejoice to hear
this. I hope the committee are men of business, and will make a
good use of the powers and moneys they are intrusted with. Let me
tell you, that every nerve must be strained to resist the British
tyrant, who, in despair of availing himself of his own troops
which lately he so much prided himself in, is now summoning the
powers of earth and hell to subjugate America. The lamp of
liberty burns there and there only. He sees it, and is impatient
even to madness to extinguish it. It is our duty, at all hazards,
to prevent it.

But I am sensible I need not write you in this style. You and the
rest of my countrymen have done, and I have no doubt will
continue to do, your duty in defence of a cause so interesting to
mankind. It is with inexpressible pleasure that I reflect that
the mercenary forces of the tyrant have for two years in vain
attempted to penetrate the Eastern Colonies; there our enemies
themselves, and those who hate us, acknowledge that the rights of
man have been defended with bravery. And did not South Carolina
nobly withstand the efforts of tyranny? She did. Virginia too,
and North Carolina, have in their turn acted with a spirit
becoming the character of Americans But what will be said of
Pennsylvania and the Jerseys? Have they not disgraced themselves
by standing idle spectators while the enemy overran a great part
of their country? They have seen our army unfortunately separated
by the river, retreating to Newark, to Elizabethtown, Woodbridge,
Brunswick, and Princeton. The enemy's army were, by the last
account, within sixty miles of this city. If they were as near
Boston, would not our countrymen cut them all to pieces or take
them prisoners? But by the unaccountable stupor which seems to
have pervaded these States, the enemy have gained a triumph which
they did not themselves expect. A triumph, indeed! Without a
victory! Without one laurel to boast of! For Bunker's Hill they
fought and bled. They sacrificed their bravest officers, and we
wished them twenty such victories. But the people of the Jerseys
have suffered them to run through their country without the risk
of even a private soldier! They expended their ammunition at
trees and bushes as they marched! But I hear the sound of the
drum. The people of Pennsylvania say of themselves, that they are
slow in determining, but vigorous in executing. I hope that we
shall find both parts of this prediction to be just. They say, We
are now determined, and promise to bring General Howe to a hearty
repentance for venturing so near them. I have the pleasure to
tell you that, within a few days past, they have made a spirited
appearance. In spite of Quakers, Proprietarians, timid Whigs,
Tories, petit-maitres, and trimmers, there is a sufficient number
of them in arms resolved to defend their country. Many of them
are now on the march. Heaven grant they may be honorable
instruments to retrieve the reputation of their countrymen and
reduce Britain to a contemptible figure at the end of this
campaign.

I am glad to hear our harbor looks so brilliant. I HOPE IT IS
FORTIFIED AGAINST EVERY ATTEMPT OF THE ENEMY NEXT SPRING.

In your letters, you ask me two important questions. I dare not
repeat them. With regard to the last you will understand me when
I tell you, let not your mind be troubled about it.

TO MRS. ADAMS.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

PHILADELPHIA Decr 9 1776

MY DEAR BETSY

My last by Mr Pliarne I hope you will have receivd before this
reaches you. I am still in good Health and Spirits, although the
Enemy is within Forty Miles of this City. I do not regret the
Part I have taken in a cause so just and interresting to Mankind.
I must confess it chagrins me greatly to find it so illy
supported by the People of Pennsylvania and the Jerseys. They
seem to me to be determind to give it up--but I trust that my
dear New England will maintain it at the Expence of every thing
dear to them in this Life---they know how to prize their
Liberties. May Heaven bless them! It is not yet determind to what
place to adjourn the Congress, if it should be necessary to move.
Wherever I may be, I shall write to you by every Opportunity. Mr
Brown who carries this Letter will give you a particular Account
of the Circumstances of things here--to him I refer you. Pray
remember me to my Daughter, Sister Polly, the rest of my Family &
Friends. I hope the Life of our valueable Friend Mrs March will
yet be spared. She is indeed a good Woman. Tell my worthy
Neighbor Mr Preston, that I rejoyce to hear of his honorable
Appointment. I hope & believe he will use his office well. I wish
to have a Letter from you. You cannot imagine how highly I prize
such a Favor. My daily Prayer is for your Safety, & Happiness in
this Life & a better. Adieu, my dear. You cannot doubt the
sincere & most cordial Affection of,

Your,

Decr 11

Since writing the above I have receivd your Letter of the 9th of
Novr, for which I am much obligd to you. If this City should be
SURRENDERD, I should by no means despair of our Cause. It is a
righteous Cause and I am fully perswaded righteous Heaven will
succeed it. Congress will adjourn to Baltimore in Maryland, about
120 Miles from this place, when Necessity requires it and not
before. It is agreed to appoint a Day of Prayer, & a Come will
bring in a Resolution for that purpose this day. I wish we were
a more religious People. That Heaven may bless you here &
hereafter is the most ardent Prayer of, my dear, most cordially,

Your,

TO GEORGE WASHINGTON.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

PHILADELPHIA Decr 12 1776

SIR

We are this moment informd by a Gentleman who is Brother of Coll
Griffin, and has lately been at New York, that a Body of ten
thousand of the Enemies Troops had actually arrivd at Rhode
Island. As Congress is now adjournd to Baltimore in Maryland, and
the President and the Board of War are not in Town, we think it
our Duty to send you this Intelligence; and as there is no
General Officer in that Department, we refer it to your
Consideration whether the Service does not absolutely require
that one be immediately sent to take the Command of Troops that
may be raisd there to repel the Progress of the Enemy.

If Major General Gates or Green,1 who are greatly belovd in that
Part of America with a suitable Number of Brigadiers could be
spared for this Service, it would be attended with another
Advantage, that of facilitating the new Inlistments.

We intreat your Attention to this important Matter, and are with
great Respect,

Sir your very humble Servants,2

_________________________________________________________________
1The words "or Green" and "with a suitable number of Brigadiers,"
were added by interlineations in the first draft.
2Signed by Adams, Elbridge Gerry, William Ellery, and William
Whipple.

TO MRS. ADAMS.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE IN MARYLAND

Decr 19th 1776

MY DEAR BETSY

The Day before yesterday I arrivd in this Place which is One
hundred Miles from Philadelphia. The Congress had resolvd to
adjourn here when it should become absolutely necessary and not
before. This sudden Removal may perhaps be wonderd at by some of
my Friends, but was not without the advice of Generals Putnam &
Mifflin, who were at Philadelphia to take Measures for its
Preservation from the Enemy. For my own part, I had been used to
Alarms in my own Country, and did not see the Necessity of
removing so soon, but I suppose I misjudgd because it was
otherwise ruled. It must be confessd that deliberative Bodies
should not sit in Places of Confusion. This was heightned by an
unaccountable Backwardness in the People of the jerseys &
Pennsylvania to defend their Country and crush their Enemies when
I am satisfied it was in their Power to do it. The British as
well as Hessian officers have severely chastisd them for their
Folly. We are told that such savage Tragedies have been acted by
them without Respect to Age or Sex as have equaled the most
barbarous Ages & Nations of the World. Sorry I am that the People
so long refusd to harken to the repeated Calls of their Country.
They have already deeply staind the Honor of America, and they
must surely be as unfeeling as Rocks if they do not rise with
Indignation and revenge the shocking Injuries done to their Wives
and Daughters. Great Britain has taught us what to expect from
Submission to its Power. No People ever more tamely surrenderd
than of that Part of the Jerseys through which the Enemy marchd.
No opposition was made. And yet the grossest Insults have been
offerd to them, and the rude Soldiery have been sufferd to
perpetrate Deeds more horrid than Murder. If Heaven punishes
Communities for their Vices, how sore must be the Punishment of
that Community who think the Rights of human Nature not worth
struggling for and patiently submit to Tyranny. I will rely upon
it that New England will never incur the Curse of Heaven for
neglecting to defend her Liberties. I pray God to increase their
Virtue and make them happy in the full and quiet Possession of
those Liberties they have ever so highly prizd. YOUR Wellfare, my
dear, is ever near my heart. Remember me to my Daughter Sister
Polly & the rest of my Family and Friends. I am in high Health &
Spirits. Let me hear from you often.

Adieu,

Mr. Hancock is just now arrivd with his Family--all in good
health.

TO JAMES WARREN.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE IN MARYLAND Decr 25 1776

MY DEAR SIR

Although I have been continually writing to you, I have had the
Pleasure of receiving only one Letter from you since I left New
England. The Congress is here, scituated conveniently enough and
doing Business. You will ask me perhaps, How we came here. I
confess I did not see the Necessity of removing so soon; but I
must think I misjudgd because it was ruled otherwise, not indeed
until the Opinions of Putnam & Mifflin then in Philadelphia, had
been taken. The Truth is, the Enemy were within seventeen Miles
of us, and it was apprehended by some that the People of
Pennsylvania, influenced by Fear Folly or Treachery, would have
given up their Capital to appease the Anger of the two Brothers &
atone for their Crime in suffering it to remain so long the Seat
of Rebellion. We are now informd that they have at length
bestirrd themselves and that hundreds are daily flocking to Genl
Washingtons Camp, so that it is hoped if our Army pursues as
expeditiously as they have retreated, they will take them all
Prisoners before they can reach the Borders of Hudsons River.

We have this day receivd a Letter from General Schuyler, which
has occasiond the passing a Resolution, forwarded to you, I
suppose by this opportunity. The General says he is informd that
the Levies are making very tardily. I hope he has been
misinformd. It is certainly of the greatest Importance that New
England in a particular Manner should be very active in
Preparation to meet the Enemy early in the Spring. The British
Tyrant will not quit his darling Plan of subduing that Country.
The Intent of the Enemy seems to me to be to attack it on all
Sides. Howes Troops have penetrated this way far beyond his
Expectations; I flatter myself they will be driven back to New
York & winter there. Carleton will, unless prevented by an
immediate Exertion of New England, most certainly possess himself
of Tyconderoga as soon as Lake Champlain shall be frozen hard
enough to transport his Army. Clinton it is said is gone to Rhode
Island with 8 or 10 thousand to make Winter Quarters there. The
infamous Behavior of the People of Jersey & Pennsylvania will
give fresh Spirits to the British Court and afford them a further
Pretence to apply to every Court in Europe where they can have
any Prospect of Success. Russia has already been applied to.
Their whole Force will be poured into N England for they take it
for granted that having once subdued those stubborn States, the
rest will give up without a Struggle. They will take Occasion
from what has happend in Jersey to inculcate this Opinion. How
necessary is it then for our Countrymen to strain every Nerve to
defeat their Design. The Time is short. Let this be the only
Subject of our Thoughts and Consultation. Our Affairs in France
wear a promising Aspect. Let us do our Duty and defend the fair
Inheritance which our Fathers have left us--our pious Forefathers
who regarded Posterity & fought and bled that they might transmit
to us the Blessing of Liberty.

When we first heard at Philadelphia of Clintons having saild to
Rhode Island, Mr Gerry and myself joynd with Coll Whipple of New
Hampshire & Mr Ellery of Rhode Island in a Letter to Genl
Washington and proposed to him the sending Gen Gates or Greene
with a suitable number of Brigadiers to take the Command in the
Eastern Departmt. [In] his answer which we receivd in this place
he tells us he has orderd M Genl Spencer & B Genl Arnold to
repair thither who he hopes may be sufficient to head the
yeomanry of that Country & repel the Enemy in their attempts to
gain possession of that part of the Continent. He [adds] that he
will if possible, send some other Brigadiers, and says Gen
Wooster is also at hand.

I wrote to you after my Arrival at Philade & inclosd a Resolution
of Congress relative to the procuring of cloathing in N E for the
Army. In another Letter I gave you a hint which I think of great
Importance if the Measure proposd [be] practicable. I hope both
these Letters were duly receivd by you. You cannot, my dear Sir,
do me a greater Kindness than by writing to me. I suffer much
thro want of Intelligence from N E; I pray you therefore let your
Letters to me be very frequent.

I am very cordially your friend,

By a late Letter from London written by a Gentn upon whose
Intelligence I greatly rely a Treaty is on foot with Russia to
furnish Britain with 20 or 30,000 troops. Levies are making with
all possible Industry in Germany & in Britain & Ireland from
where it is expected that 20,000 will be raisd. It [is] indeed to
be supposd that, as usual, a greater Appearance will be made on
paper than they will realize. But let us consider that they
realizd in America the last year 35,000 and do without doubt . .
. . . . . they lose because they are able to do it, we may then
set down their actual force in America by May or June next at
least 55 and probably 60,000.

We have the pleasure of hearing that a valueable Prize is arrivd
at [Boston]--among the rest of her Cargo 10,000 Suits of Cloaths!
A most fortunate Prize for us, especially as she is said to be
the last of 8 Vessels taken bound to Quebec. However while we are
pleasing ourselves with the Acquisition we should remember that
the Want of those supplys will be a strong Stimulus to Carleton
to make an early & bold push over the Champlain in hopes of
furnishing himself at Albany; & increases the Necessity of the
Eastern States sending their Troops to Tyconderoga immediately to
supply the places of those who will return home, when the time of
their Inlistments shall expire. I have good Information from
England that a certain Captn Furze who [was] in Boston the last
year & gaind the Confidence & recd the Civilities of the People;
when he returnd gloried in the Deception & carried Intelligence
to the British Ministry, particularly of the Fortifications in &
about Boston. Some of the People may remember him. How careful
ought we to be lest while we mean only innocent Civility, we
expose our Councils & Operations to Spies.

I remain very cordially your friend,

TO MRS. ADAMS.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE IN MARYLAND 26 Decr 1776

MY DEAR BETSY

I have written to you once since I arrivd here, and am determind
to omit no opportunity, because I flatter myself you will at all
times be gratified in hearing from me. I am at present in good
health and am exceedingly happy in an Acquaintance with Mr Samuel
Purviance a Merchant of this Place, with whom I have indeed
before corresponded, but I never saw him till I came here. He is
a sensible, honest and friendly Man, warmly attachd to the
American Cause, and has particularly endeard himself to me by his
great Assiduity in procuring Reliefe in this part of the
Continent for the Town of Boston at a Time when her Enemies would
have starvd her by an oppressive Port bill.

Just now I receivd a Letter from my Son dated the 7th Instant; he
tells me he had very lately heard from his Sister and that she
and the rest of my Family were well. I pray God to continue your
Health and protect you in these perilous times from every kind of
Evil. The Name of the Lord, says the Scripture, is a strong
Tower, thither the Righteous flee and are Safe. Let us secure his
Favor, and he will lead us through the journey of this Life and
at length receive us to a better.

We are now informd that the People of Jersey & Pennsylvania are
in Possession of their Understanding and that they are turning
out in great Numbers to the Assistance of General Washington. Had
they done this early they would not have so deeply staind the
Reputation of America. However I shall hardly think they will do
their Duty at last if they suffer the Enemy to return without
paying dearly for the barbarous Outrages they have committed in
the Country, without Regard to Age or Sex.

Our Affairs in France & Spain wear a pleasing Aspect, but human
Affairs are ever uncertain. I have strongly recommended to my
Friends in New England to spare no Pains or Cost in preparing to
meet the Enemy early in the Spring. We have a righteous Cause,
and if we defend it as becomes us, we may expect the Blessing of
Heaven.

Remember me to my Daughter, Sister Polly & the rest of my Family
& Friends. Adieu, my dear,

TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL OF MASSACHUSETTS.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE Decr 30 1776

SIR

Being a Committee of Congress we are directed to employ some
suitable Person to make Application to your Honorable Board for
certain Ordnance and other Stores, which have been represented by
General Schuyler as immediately necessary for the Use of the
Northern Army. We accordingly send forward Collo Stewart, who
will lay before the Board such Stores as are wanted; which we
hope may be procurd on just and equitable Terms, and transported
with all possible Dispatch to General Schuyler, whose Receipt
will be duly acknowledgd by Congress.

We need not urge the great Importance of having our Army in that
Quarter well furnishd with every necessary Article, there being
not the least Reason to doubt of General Carletons Intentions as
early as possible to push his Forces into the Eastern States, or
of his Success in such an Attempt unless seasonably prevented.

It is therefore our earnest Request that you would afford Coll
Stuart every possible advice & assistance in the Prosecution of
this Business, and furnish him with such Money as he may have
need of for the purpose in which Case your Draft on the President
of the Congress will be duly honord.

We are with the most cordial Esteem
Sir
your most obedient
& very humble Servants

TO WALTER STEWART.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library; a portion is printed in
W. V. Wells, Life of Samuel Adams, vol. ii., pp. 450, 451.]

BALTIMORE Decr 30 1776

SIR

We are a Committee of Congress1 authorizd and directed to appoint
some suitable Person to apply to Mr Livingston Owner of a Furnace
in the State of New York, and to Governor Trumbull who has the
Direction of the Furnace in the State of Connecticutt also to the
Council of the State of Massachusetts Bay, to procure such Cannon
and Ordnance Stores, as General Schuyler has represented to be
immediately necessary for the use of the Army in the Northern
Department.

We know of no one in whom we can more chearfully confide, for the
Performance of this important Business than your self; and
therefore we request you to undertake it, as Major General Gates
has assured us, that it is not inconsistent with the General
Service, or the Duty of that Station which you hold under his
immediate Command.

You have herewith a List of the Ordnance and Ordnance Stores that
are wanted; and you will be pleasd to make your first Application
to Mr Livingston for such of the Cannon and Stores as he can
furnish. You will then apply to Governor Trumbull, to be furnishd
by him with the Remainder, to be sent to General Schuyler as
early as possible this Winter.

For the Ordnance Stores we depend chiefly upon the Massachusetts
Bay; and desire you to make Application to the Council of that
State; although we would by no means restrain you in Endeavors to
procure them in New York Connecticutt or elsewhere.

We doubt not but you will provide these Necessaries with all
possible Dispatch, and at reasonable Rates; and we desire you to
give Notice to General Schuyler and to us of the Success you may
meet with in your several Applications.

We would inform you that Congress has contracted for Cannon to be
cast in this State at the Rate of Thirty Six pounds ten shillings
p Ton. And the highest price that has been given in Pennsylvania
is Forty Pounds. We desire and expect you will purchase them at
the lowest Rate you can. The Proof of the Cannon must be
according to the Woolwich Practice.

_________________________________________________________________
1The members of the committee were Adams, Lee, Harrison, Whipple
and Hayward.

TO JAMES WARREN.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE Decr 31. 1776

MY DEAR SIR/

I am determind to omit no Opportunity of writing to you, although
I of late very seldom receive a Favor from you. Your second
Letter I receivd a few days ago inclosing Copies of Papers from
Spain. I am much obligd to you for them. Our Affairs in Europe
look well, and additional Measures are taking here to establish
them in that Part of the World on a solid Foundation. I assure
you Business has been done since we came to this Place more to my
Safisfaction than any or every thing done before, excepting the
Declaration of Independence which should have been made
immediately after the 19th of April 75. OUR MINISTERS ABROAD are
directed to assure FOREIGN COURTS that notwithstanding the artful
& insidious Representations of the Emissaries of the British
Court to the Contrary, the Congress and People of America are
determind to maintain their Independence at all Events. This was
done before the late Success in the Jerseys, of which you will
have doubtless had Intelligence before this Letter reaches you. I
now think that Britain will soon make a most contemptible Figure
in America & Europe--but we must still make our utmost Exertions.
Pray let the Levies required of our State be raisd with all
possible Expedition. By this Conveyance you will have a
Resolution giving large Powers to General Washington for a
limited Season. It became in my opinion necessary. The Hint I
gave you some time ago, I still think very important. General
Gates arrivd here yesterday. I have conversd with him upon it. He
told me he had conceivd the Idea before and wishes the Measure
may [be] tryed. It requires Secrecy and Dispatch. Lt Coll Steward
will set off tomorrow with Directions to proceed as far as Boston
to purchase Ordnance & other Stores if they cannot be procurd
elsewhere. He is General Gates Aid de Camp & is very clev[er.] I
wish you would take Notice of him.

But I am now called off. Adieu my Friend,

Regina Azucena
razucena@gis.net

TO ARTHUR LEE.

[R. H. Lee, Life of Arthur Lee, vol. ii., pp. 225, 226; a draft
is in the Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE IN MARYLAND, Jan., 2d, 1777.

MY DEAR SIR,--It has been altogether from a regard to your safety
that I have restrained myself from continuing on my part that
correspondence which you was obliging enough to indulge for
several years. I know very well that your avowal of and warm
attachment to the cause of justice and truth, have rendered you
exceedingly obnoxious to the malice of the British king and his
ministers; and that a letter written by a zealous asserter of
that cause addressed to you while you was in their power, would
have brought upon you the resentment of that most cruel and
vindictive court. But I cannot omit this opportunity of writing
to you after so long a silence, to assure you that I am most
heartily engaged according to my small ability, in supporting the
rights of America and of mankind.

In my last letter to you near two years ago, I ventured to give
you my opinion that if the British troops then in Boston, should
attempt to march out in an hostile manner, it would most surely
effect a total and perpetual separation of the two countries.
This they did in a very short time; and the great event has since
taken place, sooner indeed than I expected it would, though not
so soon, in my opinion, as in justice it might, and in sound
policy, it ought. But there is a timidity in our nature which
prevents our taking a decisive part in the critical time, and
very few have fortitude enough to tell a tyrant they are
determined to be free. Our delay has been dangerous to us, yet it
has been attended with great advantage. It has afforded to the
world a proof, that oppressed and insulted as we were, we are
very willing to give Britain an opportunity of seeing herself,
and of correcting her own errors. We are now struggling in the
sharp conflict; confiding that righteous heaven will not look
with an indifferent eye upon a cause so manifestly just, and so
interesting to mankind.

You are now called to act in a still more enlarged sphere. Go on,
my friend, to exert yourself in the cause of liberty and virtue.
You have already the applause of virtuous men, and may be assured
of the smiles of heaven.

Your brother, Mr. R. H. Lee, will give you a particular account
of our affairs in America; nothing therefore remains for me to
add, but that I am your very affectionate friend,

TO JAMES WARREN.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE Jany 8th 1777

MY DEAR SIR

I have several times referrd you to a Hint which I gave you not
long ago, and which I have not thought prudent to repeat lest by
an Accident my Letters should be intercepted. I have still the
same opinion of the Importance of the Affair, but having spent
this Evening with General Gates and conversd with him upon that
and other Matters, we have concluded upon a more sure Way of
effecting it than the Way I proposd to you. I wish therefore if
you have already communicated it to any one of our Friends, that
you would injoyn them to close Secrecy, and that it may be even
forgot till the Event of it shall be known to the World.

I am much pleasd to find that the New England Troops have so
great a Share in the Honor of the late Action in the Jerseys.
General Gates speaks very highly of the Militia you sent him last
Fall. He applauds greatly their Zeal for the Cause and
particularly their Readiness to tarry in the Service after the
Expiration of the Term of their Inlistments in November, and
tells me he gave them an honorable Discharge. I have not the
Pleasure of knowing General Bricket but he mentions him to me as
a worthy & good officer.

We have further good Accounts from our Army which are credited
although they are not yet authenticated. I verily believe that
the Incursions of the Enemy into the Jerseys will be in the Event
much to our Advantage, and that this Campaign will end gloriously
on our side; I never will be sanguine in my Expectation for I
know the Events of War are uncertain, but there seems to be an
enterprizing Spirit in our Army which I have long wishd to see
and without which we may not expect to do great Things. The same
enterprizing Spirit also takes place here. We have done things
which I would not have flatterd my self with the least hope of
doing a Month ago. This Express will carry to the Council a
Resolution which I presume will of course be communicated to you.
In my next I will give you a very particular & good reason
why it is not communicated TO YOU in this Letter. We understand
that by the Enemies Treatment of General Lee there appears to be
a Design to consider him as a deserter & take away his Life.
Congress have directed General Washington to acquaint Howe that
if this is his Intention five of the Hessian field officers now
in our hands together with Lt Coll Campbell shall be detained &
sacrificd as an Atonement for his Blood should the Matter be
carried to that Extremity; and this Resolution will most
undoubtedly in my opinion be executed in full tale.

Adieu,

TO JOHN ADAMS.

[John Adams, Works, vol. ix., pp. 448-450.]

BALTIMORE, 9 January, 1777.

I have every day for a month past been anxiously expecting the
pleasure of seeing you here, but now begin to suspect you do not
intend to give us your assistance in person. I shall therefore do
all that lies in my power to engage your epistolary aid. You will
by every opportunity receive my letters, and, I dare say, you
will be so civil as to answer at least some of them.

I have given our friend Warren, in one of my letters to him, the
best reason I could for the sudden removal of Congress to this
place. Possibly he may have communicated it to you. I confess it
was not agreeable to my mind; but I have since altered my
opinion, because we have done more important business in three
weeks than we had done, and I believe should have done, at
Philadelphia, in six months. As you are a member of Congress, you
have a right to know all that has been done; but I dare not
commit it to paper at a time when the safe carriage of letters is
become so precarious. One thing I am very solicitous to inform
you, because I know it will give you great satisfaction. If you
recollect our conversation at New Haven, I fancy you will
understand me when I tell you, that to ONE PLACE we have added
four, and increased the number of persons from THREE to six. I
hate this dark, mysterious manner of writing, but necessity
requires it.

You have heard of the captivity of General Lee. Congress have
directed General Washington to offer six Hessian field-officers
in exchange for him. It is suspected that the enemy choose to
consider him as a deserter, bring him to trial in a court-
martial, and take his life. Assurances are ordered to be given to
General Howe, that five of those officers, together with
Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell, will be detained, and all of them
receive the same measure that shall be meted to him. This
resolution will most certainly be executed.

We have this day passed a recommendation to the Council of
Massachusetts Bay of a very important nature. It will be sent by
this express to the Council, to whom I refer you for a perusal of
it.

Our affairs in France and Spain wear a promising aspect, and we
have taken measures to put them on a respectable footing in other
parts of Europe; and I flatter myself too much if we do not
succeed.

The progress of the enemy through the Jerseys has chagrined me
beyond measure; but I think we shall reap the advantage in the
end. We have already beat a part of their army at Trenton, and
the inclosed paper will give you a farther account which we
credit, though not yet authenticated. The late behavior of the
people of Jersey was owing to some of their leading men, who,
instead of directing and animating, most shamefully deserted
them. When they found a leader in the brave Colonel Ford, they
followed him with alacrity. They have been treated with savage
barbarity by the Hessians, but I believe more so by Britons.
After they have been most inhumanly used in their persons,
without regard to sex or age, and plundered of all they had,
without the least compensation, Lord Howe and his brother (now
Sir William, knight of the Bath) have condescended to offer them
protections for the free enjoyment of their effects.

You have seen the power with which General Washington is vested
for a limited time. Congress is very attentive to the northern
army, and care is taken effectually to supply it with every thing
necessary this winter for the next campaign. General Gates is
here. How shall we make him the head of that army?

We are about establishing boards of war, ordnance, navy, and
treasury, with a chamber of commerce, each of them to consist of
gentlemen who are not members of Congress. By these means, I
hope, our business will be done more systematically, speedily,
and effectually.

Great and heavy complaints have been made of abuse in the
Director-General's department in both our armies; some, I
suppose, without grounds, others with too much reason. I have no
doubt but as soon as a committee reports, which is expected this
day, both Morgan and Stringer will be removed, as I think they
ought.1

To the eighty-eight battalions ordered to be raised, sixteen are
to be added, which, with six to be raised out of the continent at
large, will make one hundred and ten, besides three thousand
horse, three regiments of artillery, and a company of engineers.
We may expect fifty or sixty thousand of the enemy in June next.
Their design will still be to subdue the obstinate States of New
England. It was the intention that Carleton should winter in
Albany, Howe in New York, and Clinton at Rhode Island, that, with
re-enforcements in the spring, they might be ready to attack New
England on all sides. I hope every possible method will be used
to quicken the new levies, and that the fortifications in the
harbor of Boston will be in complete readiness. Much will depend
upon our diligence this winter.

The attention of Congress is also turned to the southward. Forts
Pitt and Randolph are to be garrisoned, and provisions laid up
for two thousand men, six months. By the last accounts from South
Carolina, we are informed that late arrivals have supplied them
with every thing necessary for their defence.

I have written in great haste, and have time only to add, that I
am, with sincere regards to your lady and family, very cordially
your friend,

P. S. Dr. Morgan and Dr. Stringer are dismissed without any
reason assigned, which Congress could of right do, as they held
their places during pleasure. The true reason, as I take it, was
the general disgust, and the danger of the loss of an army
arising therefrom.

________________________________________________________________
1Dr. John Morgan, director general, and Dr. Samuel Stringer,
director of hospitals in the northern department, were
removed from office January 9 by the Continental Congress.

TO JAMES WARREN.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE Jany 16 1777

MY DEAR SIR/

We receivd by Mr Williams a Letter from the Council of
Massachusetts Bay, requesting a Sum of Money for Payment of
Bounties to the Troops to be raisd in that State. Accordingly
three hundred thousand Dollars are orderd for that Purpose, which
will be forwarded to the Paymaster as soon as it can conveniently
be done.

I observe that our Assembly have made it necessary, that three of
their Delegates should be present and concurring in Sentiment
before the Voice of our State can be taken on any Question in
Congress. I I could have wishd it had been otherwise. Only three
of your Delegates are now present. So it may happen at other
times. One of them may be sick; he may be on a Committee, or
necessarily absent on publick Business; in which Case our State
will not be effectually represented. While I am writing at the
Table, Mr Gerry is necessarily employd on the Business of the
Publick at home, and the two present cannot give the Sense of the
State upon a Matter now before Congress. Were all the three
present, one Dissentient might controul the other two so far as
to oblige them to be silent when the Question is called for.
Indeed the Assembly have increasd the Number of Delegates to
Seven. But I submit the Matter, as it becomes me, to my
Superiors.

Major Hawley and my other patriotick Fellow Laborers, Are they
alive and in Health? I have not receivd a Line from any of them
excepting my worthy Friend Mr Nathl Appleton, whose Letter I will
acknowledge to him by the first opportunity. My Friends surely
cannot think I can go through the arduous Business assignd to me
here without their Advice and Assistance. I do not know whether
you ever intend to write to me again. Assure the Major from me,
that a few more of his "BROKEN HINTS" will be of eminent Service
to me.1

You cannot imagine how much I am pleasd with the Spirit our
Assembly have discoverd. They seem to have put every Country into
Motion. This forebodes in my Mind that something great will be
done. I have not, since this Contest began, had so happy Feelings
as I now have. I begin to anticipate the Establishment of Peace
on such Terms as independent States ought to demand; and I am
even now contemplating by what Means the Virtue of my Countrymen
may be secured for Ages yet to come. Virtue, which is the Soul of
a republican Government. But future Events, I have learnd by
Experience, are uncertain; and some unlucky Circumstance may
before long take Place, which may prove sadly mortifying to me.
But no such Circumstance can deprive me of the Pleasure I enjoy,
in seeing at a Distance, the rising Glories of this new World.
Adieu my Friend. Believe me to be unfeignedly yours,

_________________________________________________________________
1Cf., page 52.

TO MRS. ADAMS.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE Jan 29th 1777.

MY DEAR BETSY

Yesterday I had the Pleasure of receiving two Letters from you by
the same hand, dated the 9th and 22d of December. And just now a
Letter is deliverd to me from my Friend Mr Bradford, dated the
13th of this Month, wherein I am informd that you was then in
good Health and Spirits. If you had not told me that you had
written to me Six Letters since I left Boston, I should have
suspected that you did not keep a good Look out for Expresses
which come this Way. I have now receivd only four of them. The
others may possibly have fallen into the Hands of the Lords
PROTECTORS of America. There is one Way in which you may probably
make up the Loss to me, and that is by writing oftener. I assure
you, it would not be troublesome to me to receive half a Dozen
Letters from you at one Time.

You tell me you was greatly alarmd to hear that General Howe's
Army was on the March to Philadelphia. I have long known you to
be possessd of much Fortitude of Mind. But you are a Woman, and
one must expect you will now and then discover Timidity so
natural to your Sex. I thank you, my Dear, most cordially for the
Warmth of Affection which you express on this Occasion, for your
Anxiety for my Safety and your Prayers to God for my Protection.
The Man who is conscientiously doing his Duty will ever be
protected by that Righteous and all powerful Being, and when he
has finishd his Work he will receive an ample Reward. I am not
more convincd of any thing than that it is my Duty, to oppose to
the utmost of my Ability the Designs of those who would enslave
my Country; and with Gods Assistance I am resolvd to oppose them
till their Designs are defeated or I am called to quit the Stage
of Life.

I am glad to hear that the Winter has been in a remarkable Degree
so favorable in New England, because it must have lessend the . .
. . been increasd . . . . the Poor, is in Holy Writ coupled with
him who OPPRESSES them. Be you warm and be you cloathd, without
administering the necessary Means, is but cold Consolation to the
miserable. I am glad you have given Shelter to Mrs A. who had not
where to lay her Head. She deservd your Notice, and she has more
than rewarded you for it in being, as you say she is, GRATEFUL.
Whenever you see a poor Person grateful, you may depend upon it,
if he were rich he would be charitable. We are not however, to
seek Rewards in this Life, for Deeds of Charity, but rather
imitate the all merciful Being, of whom, if I mistake not, it is
said in Scripture, that he doth Good to the Evil and UNTHANKFUL.
There is indeed no such Thing as disinterrested Benevolence among
Men. Self Love and social, as Pope tells us, is the same. The
truly charitable Man partakes of the Feelings of the wretched
wherever he sees the Object, and he relieves himself from Misery
by relieving others.

I am greatly grievd for the Loss we have met with in the Death of
Mr Checkley. From the Account you give me of the Nature & Extent
of his Disorder, I conclude he must have died before this Time.
He was indeed a valueable Relation and Friend. Have you lately
heard from your Brother at St Eustatia?

We have no News here. The Events which take place in the Jerseys
must be known in Boston before you can be informd of them from
this Place. There is a Report that a Party of the Jersey Militia
fell in with a larger Party of the Enemy, killed about twenty and
took a greater Number Prisoners besides fifty three Waggons and
Provisions. This is believd. It is also said that General Heath
has taken Fort Washington. If it be so, we shall soon have the
News confirmd . . . .

TO JAMES WARREN.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE Feb. 1, 1777

MY DEAR SIR/

The Proceedings of the Committees of the four New England States
have been read in Congress and are now under the Consideration of
a Committee of the whole. They are much applauded as being
salutary and wise. I had heard that one of your Delegates at that
Convention had written a long Letter to his Friend and Confident
here, and hearing it whisperd that the Massachusetts State
disapprovd of the Proceedings, I was led to ask the Gentleman who
had receivd the Letter concerning it. He confirmd it and said
that not only the Trade but the landed Gentlemen in the House of
Representatives were sanguine against it. I beg'd him to let me
see his Letter but he refusd in a kind of Pet, telling me it was
a private Letter, & leaving me to conjecture whether I had really
been impertinent in asking a Sight of his Letter or whether the
Contents of it were such as it was not proper for me to see. You
will easily conceive what a Scituation a Man must be in here, who
having receivd no Intelligence of the Sentiments of his
Constituents himself is obligd in vain to ask of another upon
what Principles they have disapprovd of a Measure if in truth
they did disapprove of it, of which he is called to give his own
opinion. You may see, my Friend, from this Instance, the
Necessity of your writing to me oftener. When I was told upon the
forementiond occasion, that I should be intitled to see the
Letters of another whenever I should be disposd to show those
which I receive myself, I could have truly said that I had
scarcely receivd any. Two only FROM YOU in the Space of near four
Months. But I have no Claim to your Favors, however much I value
them, unless perhaps upon the Score of my having neglected not a
single Opportunity of writing to you. Your omitting even to
acknowledge the Receipt of my Letters, I might indeed construe as
a silent Hint that they were displeasing to you, but I will not
believe this till I have it under your own hand. While I am
writing your very agreable Letter is brought to me by Mr Lovell.
You therein speak, as you ever have done, the Language of my
Soul. Mr Adams tells me you are President of the Board of War; I
am therefore inducd to recall what I have just now said which you
may construe as an implied Censure for your not having written to
me oftener. I am sure you must have a great Deal of Business in
your hands. I am not however sorry to hear it, provided your
Health is not injurd by it. I pray God to preserve the Health of
your Body and the Vigor of your Mind. We must cheerfully deny our
selves domestick Happiness and the sweet Tranquility of private
Life when our Country demands our Services. Give me Leave to hint
to you my Opinion that it would be a Saving to our State in the
Way of Supply if the Board of War would consign the Cargos wch
they order here to a Merchant of good Character rather than to
the Master of the Vessell--possibly there may be Exceptions, But
I have Reason to think a Cargo which arrivd about a fortnight ago
consisting chiefly as I am told of Rum & Sugars was sold at least
30 p Ct under what it wd have fetched if it had been under the
Direction of a Person acquainted in the place, and Flour is
purchasing by the Person who bought the Cargo at an unlimitted
Price. I am perswaded that if you had by a Previous Letter
directed a Cargo to be procured here you might have had it 20 p
Cent cheaper. If the Board should be of my Mind, I know of no
Gentlemen whom I would recommend more chearfully than Mess Samuel
& Robert Purvyance--they are Merchants of good Character, honest
& discrete Men, and warmly attachd to our all important Cause.
But I get out of my Line when I touch upon Commerce, it is a
Subject I never understood. Adieu my dear Friend. Believe me to
be yours,

P. S. I forgot to tell you that, a fair occasion offering, I
moved in Congress that the eldest Son of our deceasd friend Genl
Warren mt be adopted by the Continent & educated at the publick
Expence. The Motion was pleasing to all and a Come is appointed
to prepare a Resolve. Monuments are also proposd in Memory of him
& Genl Mercer whose youngest Son is also to be adopted &
educated. But these things I would not have yet made publick.

TO SAMUEL COOPER.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE Feb 4th 1777

MY DEAR SIR

I send you the inclosd Speech for your Amusement. One or two
Remarks you will observe are made upon it. There is Room for many
more. I wish some ingenious Pen might be employd. The Contest
with America, it seems, is now confessd by the British Monarch to
be "arduous." I think he greatly deceives himself, if he does not
expect it will be more so. Indeed he sees it; for we must, says
he, "AT ALL EVENTS prepare for another Campaign." "If their
Treason is sufferd to take Root, much Mischief will grow out of
it--to the present System of ALL Europe." Here we have the
Authority of a King's (not a very wise one I confess) to affirm,
that the War between Britain and the united States of America
will affect the Ballance of Power in Europe. Will not the
different Powers take different Sides to adjust the Ballance to
their different Interests? "I am using my UTMOST Endeavors to
conciliate the unhappy Differences between two Neighboring
Powers." If he is still USING his Endeavors, it seems, the
Differences are not yet made up.--"I continue to receive
ASSURANCES of Amity from the several Courts in Europe"--But he
adds "It is expedient we should be in a respectable State of
DEFENCE at home." If he has such Assurances of the Continuance of
Amity in Europe, why is it so expedient at this time to be in a
respectable State of Defence at home? Surely he cannot think the
AMERICAN Navy yet so formidable, as to demand this Caution. Or is
he at length become wise enough to attend to a good old Maxim, IN
PEACE PREPARE FOR WAR.--By his prefixing a "NOTWITHSTANDING" to
his "fair Prospect," and his being manifestly hard pressd with
"the present Scituation of Affairs" in America, I am led to
conclude, that he looks upon his "Assurances of AMITY" as the
mere Compliments of a Court; and that he strongly apprehends, the
Quarrel he has plungd himself into with America hath excited a
Curiosity and a Watchfulness in some of the Powers of Europe,
which will produce a contrary Effect. I am with very great
Esteem,

Your assured Friend
and humble Servant,

TO JAMES WARREN.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE Feb 10, 1777

MY DEAR SIR

I beg Leave to inclose my Account of Expences from the 26th of
April 1775 to the 27 of Augt 1776 amounting to . . . .

I intended to have laid it before the House of Representatives
when I was last in New England, but the sudden Adjournment of the
General Assembly in September last, and my Hurry in preparing for
my Journey hither after its sitting again in October prevented my
doing it.

When I sat off from Lexington after the memorable Battle there, I
had with me only the Cloaths on my back, which were very much
worn, those which I had provided for my self being then in
Boston, and it was out of my Power at that time to recover them.
I was therefore under a Necessity, of being at an extraordinary
Expense, to appear with any kind of Decency for Cloathing &
Linnen after my Arrival in this City, which I think makes a
reasonable Charge of Barrils Leonards and Stilles Bills in my
Accot.

It may perhaps be necessary to say something of the Charge of
Horse hire in the last Article. When I left Watertown in
September '75, two Horses were deliverd to me out of the publick
Stable for my self & my Servant, by Order of Honbl Council. They
were very poor when I took them and both tired on the Road as you
will see in my Account. One of them afterwards died in
Philadelphia, which obligd me to purchase another in that place,
and with this Horse I returnd to Boston last Fall. His being my
own Property, having purchasd him without Charge to my
Constituents, I think gives me a just Right to make a Charge of
Horse Hire, which is left to be carried out in a reasonable Sum.
Mr A says he is obligd to allow seven pounds 10 s for the Hire of
each of his Horses to Philadelphia.

I shall take it as a favor if you will present the Account to the
Honbl House, and acquaint the Committee to whom it may be
referrd, with the Reasons of the Charges above mentiond, and make
any other Explanations which you may judge necessary. Mrs A has
the Vouchers, to whom I beg you would apply for them in Person
before you present the Account. I wish it may be settled as soon
as the House can conveniently attend to it. If an Allowance for
my Services is considerd at the same time, you will please to be
informd that I sat off from Lexington or Worcester on the 26th of
April '75 and returnd on the 14 of August following. And again I
sat off from Watertown on the 1st of Sept '75 and returnd to
Boston on the 27th of August '76.

I have troubled you with this Epistle of Horse hire and Shop
Goods at a Time when, no Doubt, your Attention is called to
Affairs of the greatest Concern to our Country. Excuse me, my
dear Friend for once, and be assured that I am your affectionate,

TO WALTER STEWART.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE Feb 12 1777

SIR

I receivd by Mr Babcock, your Letter dated Lebanon Jany 23,
communicated the same to the Committee and afterward laid it
before Congress. The Price of the Cannon at Salisbury1 so much
exceeds that at which it is set in a Contract enterd into by
Congress with the Owners of a Foundery in this State, that
Congress have thought proper not to allow it, but have directed
the Committee to request Governor Trumbull to lend them, to be
returnd or others in Lieu of them as soon as possible. The Come
have written accordingly; and I think it necessary to give you
Notice of the Sense of Congress relating to the Price of Cannon
as early as possible, that you may govern yourself thereby in
your further Execution of your Commission. I am &c

_________________________________________________________________
1Connecticut.

TO JONATHAN TRUMBELL.1

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE 12th Feb 1777

SIR/

The Committee on the Affairs in the Northern Department having
laid before Congress a Letter receivd from Colo Stewart who was
sent by them agreable to Order of Congress, to procure Cannon,
wherein he informs that there is a Quantity of Cannon at
Salisbury Foundery which the Governor & Council of Connecticutt
are willing to dispose of to the Continent, but demand the Price
of seventy Pounds Lawful Money p Ton for 18 & 9 pounders and
Eighty Pounds Lawfull Money pr Ton for 6, 4 & 3 pounders, it is
an Order of Congress that the Committee aforesaid write to Govr
Trumbull & inform him of the Contracts enterd into by Congress,
state to him the Prejudice it will do to those Contracts and the
ill Effects that must ensue to the Continent, should so high a
Price be given for these Cannon, and request him to lend the
Cannon, which are much wanted for the Defence of Ticonderoga, and
assure him that Congress will return them or others in Lieu of
them as soon as possible.

Your Honor will please to be informd that Congress have enterd
into a Contract with the Owners of a Foundery in the State of
Maryland for 1000 Tons of Cannon from 32 down to 4 pounders to be
deliverd in such proportion as Congress shall require at L36 10s
p Ton accounting Dollars at 7/6.

The Prejudice which will be done to this Contract if so high a
Price should now be given for the Cannon at Salisbury, must be
obvious. It will be an Example for all others to demand the like
Prices; and moreover it may afford a Pretext for those who wish
for Occasions to spread Jealousy and Discord among the united
States, to say, that the State of Connecticutt have in this
Instance taken Advantage of the Necessity of the Continent. As
there is no Reason to entertain so unworthy a Sentiment of that
State we earnestly hope that no Circumstance may take place which
might gratify the Inclinations of our insidious Enemies to do an
Injury to our common Cause. We are with the greatest Respect your
honors most obedient & very hbl Servts2

_________________________________________________________________
1Governor of Connecticut.
2Signed by Adams, R. H. Lee, Wm. Whipple, and Thomas Hayward.

TO JOHN PITTS.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE Feb 15 1777

MY DEAR SIR

I am favord with yours of the 21 of December for which I am much
obligd to you. I am much concernd to hear that the Tories in
Boston & Massachusetts Bay have lately grown insolent & that no
Measures are taken to suppress their Insolence. They are the most
virulent, & I am of Opinion, the most dangerous Enemies of
America. They do not indeed openly appear in Arms, but they do
more Mischief secretly. I am very apprehensive that they greatly
operate to the preventing Inlistments and doing other essential
Injury to our Cause. If they are not properly dealt with, I am
perswaded, the Publick will much regret the Omission very soon. I
do not wish for needless Severities; but effectual Measures, and
severe ones if others are insufficient, to prevent their
pernicious Councils & Machinations, I think ought to be taken,
and that without any Delay. It will be Humanity shown to
Millions, who are in more Danger of being reducd to thraldom &
Misery by those Wretches than by British & Hessian Barbarians. I
cannot conceive why a law is not made declaratory of Treason &
other Crimes & properly to punish those who are guilty of them.
If to conspire the Death of a King is Treason and worthy of
Death, surely a Conspiracy to ruin a State deserves no less a
Punishment. I have Reason to think you have a Number of such
Conspirators among you; and believe me, you will soon repent of
it, if you do not speedily take Notice of them. But let me ask
you my Friend, Whether some of the late Addressers, Protesters
and Associators, are not seen in the Circles, in the Houses and
at the Tables of Whigs? Is there not Reason to expect that those
who exiled themselves thro Fear of the just Vengeance of their
Countrymen will be invited by the kind Treatment of those who
have equal Reason to dread that Vengeance, to return into the
Bosom of their much injurd Country. But I need add no more.
Believe me to be cordially,

Your Friend,

TO JAMES WARREN.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE Feb 16 1777

MY DEAR SIR

A few days ago a small Expedition was made under the Authority of
this State, aided by a Detachment of Continental Regulars to
Suppress the Tories in the Counties of Somerset & Worcester on
the Eastern Shore of Chessapeak, where they are numerous & have
arisen to a great Pitch of Insolence. We this day heard rumors
that one of their Principals, a Doctor Cheyney, is taken & we
hope to hear of the Business being effectually done very soon. In
my opinion, much more is to be apprehended from the secret
Machination of these rascally People, than from the open Violence
of British & Hessian Soldiers, whose Success has been in a great
Measure owing to the Aid they have receivd from them. You know
that the Tories in America have always acted upon System. Their
Head Quarters used to be in Boston--more lately in Philadelphia.
They have continually embarrassd the publick Councils there, and
afforded Intelligence Advice & Assistance to General Howe. Their
Influence is extended thro-out the united States. Boston has its
full share of them and yet I do not hear that Measures have been
taken to suppress them. On the Contrary I am informd that the
Citizens are grown so polite as to treat them with Tokens of
Civility and respect. Can a Man take fire into his Bosom and not
be burnd? Your Massachusetts Tories communicate with the Enemy in
Britain as well as New York. They give and receive Intelligences
from whence they early form a Judgment of their Measures. I am
told they discoverd an Air of insolent Tryumph in their
Countenances, and saucily enjoyd the Success of Howes Forces in
Jersey before it happend. Indeed, my Friend, if Measures are not
soon taken, and the most vigorous ones, to root out these
pernicious Weeds, it will be in vain for America to persevere in
this glorious Struggle for the publick Liberty.

General Howe has declared his Intentions that General Lee shall
be tried by the Laws of HIS Country. So he is considerd as a
Deserter from the British Army. You know the Resolution of
Congress concerning this Matter. It is my Opinion that Lt Colo
Campbell ought immediately to be secured. He is to be detaind as
one upon whom Retalliation is to be made. Would you believe it,
that after the shocking Inhumanity shown to our Countrymen in the
Jerseys, plundering Houses, cruelly beating old Men, ravishing
Maids, murdering Captives in cold Blood & sistematically starving
Multitudes of Prisoners under his own Eyes in New York this
humane General totally disavows even his winking at the Tragedy
and allows that a few Instances may have happend which are rather
to be lamented.

Congress is now busy in considering the report of the joynt
Comtee of the Eastern States. A curious Debate arose on this
Subject, which I have not time now to mention. I will explain it
to you in my next.

Adieu my Friend,

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