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THE WORLD'S BEST POETRY

[Illustration]

I Home: Friendship
II Love
III Sorrow and Consolation
IV The Higher Life
V Nature
VI Fancy: Sentiment
VII Descriptive: Narrative
VIII National Spirit
IX Tragedy: Humor
X Poetical Quotations

THE WORLD'S BEST POETRY

IN TEN VOLUMES, ILLUSTRATED

Editor-in-Chief
BLISS CARMAN

Associate Editors
John Vance Cheney
Charles G.D. Roberts
Charles F. Richardson
Francis H. Stoddard

Managing Editor
John R. Howard

1904

The World's Best Poetry
Vol. X

POETICAL QUOTATIONS

AFTER ALL, WHAT IS POETRY

By
JOHN R. HOWARD

* * * * *

AFTER ALL, WHAT IS POETRY?

BY JOHN RAYMOND HOWARD.

Considering the immense volume of poetical writing produced, and lost
or accumulated, by all nations through the ages, it is of curious
interest that no generally accepted definition of the word "Poetry"
has ever been made. Of course, all versifiers aim at "poetry"; yet,
what is poetry?

Many definitions have been attempted. Some of these would exclude work
by poets whom the world agrees to call great; others would shut
out elements that are undeniably poetic; still others, while not
excluding, do not positively include much that must be recognized as
within the poetical realm. In brief, all are more or less partial.

Perhaps a few examples may make this clearer, and show, too, the
difficulty of the problem.

"Poetry," says Shelley, "is the record of the best and happiest
moments of the happiest and best minds." But how can this include that
genuine poetic genius, Byron, who gloried in being neither good nor
happy? Lord Jeffrey, one of the keenest of critics, says that the term
may properly be applied to "every metrical composition from which we
derive pleasure without any laborious exercise of the understanding."
In this category, what becomes of Browning, whom Sharp characterizes
"the most profoundly subtle mind that has exercised itself in poetry
since Shakespeare"? Wordsworth, who has influenced all the poets since
his day, declares poetry to be "the breath and finer spirit of all
knowledge; it is the impassioned expression which is the countenance
of all science." Matthew Arnold accepts this dictum, and uses it to
further his own idea of the great future of poetry as that to which
mankind will yet turn, "to interpret life for us, to console us, to
sustain us,"--even in place of religion and philosophy. And yet, some
of the highest and finest of known poetic flights have been in the
expression of religious and philosophical truth; while on the other
hand Wordsworth's characterization of poetry turns the cold shoulder
to that which is neither knowledge nor science, the all-powerful
passion of Love--probably the most universal fount and origin of
poetry since the human race began to express its thoughts and feelings
at all. Coleridge enlarges Wordsworth's phrase, and makes poetry "the
blossom and fragrance of all human knowledge, human thought, human
passions, emotions, language." This is fine; yet it is but a figure,
denoting the themes and ignoring the form of poetic production.

Quaint old Thomas Fuller gives a pretty simile when he says that
"Poetry is music in words, and music is poetry in sound"; and, in
so far as melodious form and harmonious thought express and arouse
emotion, he gives a hint of the truth.

The German Jean Paul Richter says an admirable thing: "There are so
many tender and holy emotions flying about in our inward world, which,
like angels, can never assume the body of an outward act; so many
rich and lovely flowers spring up, which bear no seed, that it is
a happiness poetry was invented, which receives into its limbus all
these incorporeal spirits, and the perfume of all these flowers."
True: but the tremendous domain of Tragedy--emotion neither holy nor
tender--has been most fruitful of poetic power, and that finds here no
recognition.

Edmund Burke's rather disparaging remark that poetry is "the art of
substituting shadows, and of lending existence to nothing," has yet a
vital suggestion, reminding one of Shakespeare's graphic touch in "The
Tempest":

"And, as imagination bodies forth
The forms of things unknown, the poet's pen
Turns them to shapes, and gives to airy nothings
A local habitation and a name";

and this again recalls in Holy Writ that clarifying description of the
imaginative power of "seeing the invisible" which is called "faith,"
as being "the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things
not seen."

These varied sayings concern the elements of poetry, and help to an
apprehension of its scope and power; yet they but partially satisfy
the desire to know what is meant by that familiar word,--which we
constantly use, and use understandingly, while yet the very makers of
poetry find difficulty in telling just what is signified by it.

Let us turn to the dictionary, and see how the matter looks to the
cold-minded definer. Webster gives Poetry as "the art of apprehending
and interpreting ideas by the faculty of the imagination; the art
of idealizing in thought and in expression;" and then, specifically,
"imaginative language or composition, whether expressed rhythmically
or in prose." This seems to come nearer the mark; although, by
admitting poetical prose, the popular idea of poetry is expanded to
include all writing that is infused with the imaginative quality. Thus
is found place for Walt Whitman, who defies all metre, and who yet
lays strong hold upon the reader--despite his whimsicalities--by the
very multiplicity and suggestiveness of his imaginings among real
things.

Perhaps as satisfactory a presentation of the matter as can be
found is in a casual phrase of Stedman's in the Introduction to his
"American Anthology." This true poet and master-critic, in pursuit of
another idea, alludes to poetry as "being _a rhythmical expression of
emotion and ideality_." Here at last we have form, spirit, and theme
combined in one terse utterance. In poetry we look for the musical
metre, the recurrent refrain of rhythm; while that which inspires it
arises from the universal motives which Coleridge names as ministers
to Love,--

"All thoughts, all passions, all delights,
_Whatever stirs_ this mortal frame."

With this view, then, of the vast range of poetical thinking and
feeling--such as most arouse interest in all possible moods of the
reader, and recalling the fact that the aim of the poet is to set
forth his strains in musical measures that allure the attention and
satisfy the sense of perfect expression, it will be of interest to
note a few passages concerning this art of all arts from notable
thinkers.

In his introduction to Ward's admirable selections from "The English
Poets," Matthew Arnold--critic and poet--to whom allusion has already
been made, says:

"The future of poetry is immense, because in poetry, where it is
worthy of its high destinies, our race, as time goes on, will find an
ever surer and surer stay....

"We are here invited to trace the stream of English poetry. But
whether we set ourselves, as here, to follow only one of the several
streams that make the mighty river of poetry, or whether we seek to
know them all, our governing thought should be the same. We should
conceive of poetry worthily, and more highly than it has been the
custom to conceive of it. We should conceive of it as capable of
higher uses, and called to higher destinies, than those which in
general men have assigned to it hitherto. More and more mankind will
discover that we have to turn to poetry to interpret life for us, to
console us, to sustain us....

"But if we conceive thus highly of poetry, we must also set our
standard for poetry high, since poetry, to be capable of fulfilling
such high destinies, must be poetry of a high order of excellence.

... The best poetry is what we want; the best poetry will be found
to have a power of forming, sustaining, and delighting us, as nothing
else can. A clearer, deeper sense of the best in poetry, and of the
strength and joy to be drawn from it, is the most precious benefit
which we can gather from a poetical collection such as the present."

Macaulay in his brilliant essay on Milton, which, published in the
_Edinburgh Review_ in 1825, gave him instant recognition as "a new
literary power," set up an interesting theory. A few extracts will
give it:--

"Milton, it is said, inherited what his predecessors created; he lived
in an enlightened age; he received a finished education; and we must
therefore, if we would form a just estimate of his powers, make large
deductions for these advantages.

"We venture to say, on the contrary, paradoxical as the remark may
appear, that no poet has ever had to struggle with more unfavorable
circumstances than Milton....

"We think that, as civilization advances, poetry almost necessarily
declines. Therefore, though we admire those great works of imagination
which have appeared in dark ages, we do not admire them the more
because they have appeared in dark ages. On the contrary, we hold
that the most wonderful and splendid proof of genius is a great poem
produced in a civilized age....

"Of all people, children are the most imaginative. They abandon
themselves without reserve to every illusion. Every image which is
strongly presented to their mental eye produces on them the effect
of reality.... In a rude state of society, men are children with a
greater variety of ideas. It is therefore in such a state of society
that we may expect to find the poetical temperament in its highest
perfection. He who, in an enlightened and literary society, aspires
to be a great poet, must first become a little child. He must take
to pieces the whole web of his mind. He must unlearn much of that
knowledge which has perhaps constituted hitherto his chief title
to superiority. His very talents will be a hinderance to him. His
difficulties will be proportioned to his proficiency in the pursuits
which are fashionable among his contemporaries; and that proficiency
will in general be proportioned to the vigor and activity of his
mind....

"If these reasonings be just, no poet has ever triumphed over greater
difficulties than Milton. He received a learned education. He was
a profound and elegant classical scholar; he had studied all the
mysteries of Rabbinical literature; he was intimately acquainted
with every language of modern Europe from which either pleasure or
information was then to be derived. He was perhaps the only great poet
of later times who has been distinguished by the excellence of his
Latin verse."

And yet Macaulay goes on to say:

"The public has long been agreed as to the merit of the most
remarkable passages, the incomparable harmony of the numbers, and the
excellence of that style which no rival has been able to equal, and
no parodist to degrade, which displays in their highest perfection the
idiomatic powers of the English tongue, and to which every ancient and
every modern language has contributed something of grace, of energy,
or of music."

But how would it have been possible for Milton to have enriched his
poetry with all these elements in a primaeval age, when many of them
did not exist? Indeed, Milton's own words show how he regarded the
task of writing the "Paradise Lost," to which he had consecrated his
energies, In a pamphlet issued in 1641 he wrote:

"Neither do I think it shame to covenant with any knowing reader, that
for some few years yet I may go on trust with him toward the payment
of what I am now indebted, as being a work not to be raised from the
heat of youth or the vapors of wine, like that which flows at waste
from the pen of some vulgar amorist, or the trencher-fury of a riming
parasite, nor to be obtained by the invocation of Dame Memory and her
Siren daughters, but by devout prayer to that eternal Spirit who can
enrich with all utterance and knowledge, and sends out his Seraphim
with the hallowed fire of his altar to touch and purify the lips of
whom he pleases. To this must be added industriously select reading,
steady observation, insight into all seemly and generous arts and
affairs--till which in some measure be compassed at mine own peril and
cost, I refuse not to sustain this expectation from as many as are not
loth to hazard so much credulity upon the best pledges that I can give
them."

The poem was published in 1667, so that for at least twenty-six years
the poet was utilizing all the available resources of civilization and
scholarship to make himself "more fit."

But we may cite against Macaulay's theory also a brief passage in the
essay on Burns by Thomas Carlyle--surely a prose-poet, if ever there
was one. Treating of the achievement of Burns in spite of his
crude surroundings, ignorance, and lack of most that distinguishes
civilization from that childlike simplicity of primaeval life
which Macaulay regards as the more favorable to developing poetical
temperament, Carlyle says of the ploughman-poet:

"Let it not be objected that he did little. He did much, if we
consider where and how. If the work performed was small, we must
remember that he had his very materials to discover; for the metal
he worked in lay hid under the desert moor, where no eye but his had
guessed its existence; and we may almost say, that with his own hand
he had to construct the tools for fashioning it. For he found himself
in deepest obscurity, without help, without instructions, without
model; or with models only of the meanest sort. An educated man
stands, as it were, in the midst of a boundless arsenal and magazine,
filled with all the weapons and engines which man's skill has been
able to devise from the earliest time; and he works, accordingly, with
a strength borrowed from all past ages. How different is _his_ state
who stands on the outside of that storehouse, and feels that its gates
must be stormed, or remain forever shut against him! His means are
the commonest and rudest; the mere work done is no measure of his
strength. A dwarf behind his steam-engine may remove mountains; but no
dwarf will hew them down with a pickaxe; and he must be a Titan that
hurls them abroad with his arms.

"It is in this last shape that Burns presents himself.... Impelled
by the expansive movement of his own irrepressible soul, he struggles
forward into the general view; and with haughty modesty lays down
before us, as the fruit of his labor, a gift, which Time has now
pronounced imperishable."

But why should one read poetry, at all, where there is so much good
prose to be read? Herbert Spencer in his essay on "Style" gives some
reasons for the superiority of poetry to prose. He says:

"Poetry, we shall find, habitually adopts those symbols of thought
and those methods of using them which instinct and analysis agree in
choosing, as most effective, and becomes poetry by virtue of doing
this.

"Thus, poetry, regarded as a vehicle of thought, is especially
impressive, partly because it obeys all the laws of effective speech
and partly because in so doing it imitates the natural utterances
of excitement. While the matter embodied is idealized emotion, the
vehicle is the idealized language of emotion. As the musical composer
catches the cadences in which our feelings of joy and sympathy, grief
and despair, vent themselves, and out of these germs evolves melodies
suggesting higher phases of these feelings; so the poet develops from
the typical expressions in which men utter passion and sentiments
those choice forms of verbal combination in which concentrated passion
and sentiment may be fitly presented."

And the language which Spencer regards as the "most effective" is
tersely set forth by that poetic and spiritual preacher, Frederick
W. Robertson, in his idea of poetry: "The natural language of excited
feeling, and a work of imagination wrought into form by art."

Another point in connection with the language of poetry is that,
compelled by their limitations of rhythm, rhyme, and the compression
of much thought and feeling into brief space, the poets have become
the finest artists in the use of words. The examples of word-use in
the dictionaries are largely drawn from the poets. Joseph Joubert, the
French epigrammatist, says:

"Like the nectar of the bee, which turns to honey the dust of flowers,
or like that liquor which converts lead into gold, the poet has a
breath that fills out words, gives them light and color. He knows
wherein consists their charm, and by what art enchanted structures may
be built with them."

Familiarity with poetry thus becomes to the attentive reader an
insensible training in language, as well as an elevation of mind and
spirit. Superiority of spirit and of form, then, offers good
reasons why the intelligent--whether for stimulation, consolation,
self-culture, or mere amusement in idle hours--should avail of a due
proportion of this finest expression of the sweetest, the highest, and
the deepest emotional experiences of life, in the realms of nature, of
art, and of humanity itself.

A few words from the gifted William Ellery Channing the elder
epitomize some striking thoughts on this subject:

"We believe that poetry, far from injuring society, is one of the
great instruments of its refinement and exaltation. It lifts the mind
above ordinary life, gives it a respite from depressing cares, and
awakens the consciousness of its affinity with what is pure and noble.
In its legitimate and highest efforts it has the same tendency and
aim with Christianity,--that is, to spiritualize our nature.... The
present life, which is the first stage of the immortal mind, abounds
in the materials of poetry, and it is the highest office of the bard,
to detect this divine element among the grosser pleasures and labors
of our earthly being. The present life is not wholly prosaic, precise,
tame, and finite. To the gifted eye it abounds in the poetic....

"It is not true that the poet paints a life which does not exist. He
only extracts and concentrates, as it were, life's ethereal essence,
arrests and condenses its volatile fragrance, brings together its
scattered beauties, and prolongs its more refined but evanescent joys:
and in this he does well; for it is good to feel that life is not
wholly usurped by cares for subsistence and physical gratifications,
but admits, in measures which may be indefinitely enlarged, sentiments
and delights worthy of a higher being."

In his Introduction to the "Plymouth Collection of Hymns and
Tunes"--the pioneer book of all such aids to church congregational
singing--Henry Ward Beecher gave a noble view of the power of a hymn
arising out of experience:

"No other composition is like an experimental hymn. It is not a mere
poetic impulse. It is not a thought, a fancy, a feeling threaded upon
words. It is the voice of experience speaking from the soul a few
words that condense and often represent a whole life....

"One great hope may come to fruit only at the end of many years, and
as the ripening of a hundred experiences. As there be flowers that
drink the dews of spring and summer, and feed upon all the rains, and
only just before the winter comes burst forth into bloom, so it
is with some of the noblest blossoms of the soul. The bolt that
prostrated Saul gave him the exceeding brightness of Christ; and so
some hymns could never have been written but for a heart-stroke that
well-nigh crushed out the life. It is cleft in two by bereavement, and
out of the rift comes forth, as by resurrection, the form and voice
that shall never die out of the world. Angels sat at the grave's
mouth; and so hymns are the angels that rise up out of our griefs and
darkness and dismay.

"Thus born, a hymn is one of those silent ministers which God sends
to those who are to be heirs of salvation. It enters into the tender
imagination of childhood, and casts down upon the chambers of its
thought a holy radiance which shall never quite depart. It goes with
the Christian, singing to him all the way, as if it were the airy
voice of some guardian spirit. When darkness of trouble, settling
fast, is shutting out every star, a hymn bursts through and brings
light like a torch. It abides by our side in sickness. It goes forth
with us in joy to syllable that joy.

"And thus, after a time, we clothe a hymn with the memories and
associations of our own life. It is garlanded with flowers which grew
in our hearts. Born of the experience of one mind, it becomes the
unconscious record of many minds.... Thus sprung from a wondrous life,
hymns lead a life yet more wonderful. When they first come to us they
are like the single strokes of a bell ringing down to us from above;
but, at length, a single hymn becomes a whole chime of bells, mingling
and discoursing to us the harmonies of a life's Christian experience."

Passing from this very human and sympathetic view of the profoundest
use of poetry, note how the veteran Bryant confirms it. In treating of
the beautiful mythologies of Greece and Rome, so much of which entered
into the warp and woof of ancient poetry, he grants their poetical
quality, but doubts whether, on the whole, the art gained more than
it lost by them, because, having a god for every operation of
nature, they left nothing in obscurity; everything was accounted for;
mystery--a prime element of poetry--existed no longer. Moreover:

"That system gave us the story of a superior and celestial race of
beings, to whom human passions were attributed, and who were, like
ourselves, susceptible of suffering; but it elevated them so far above
the creatures of earth in power, in knowledge, and in security from
the calamities of our condition, that they could be the subjects of
little sympathy. Therefore it is that the mythological poetry of
the ancients is as cold as it is beautiful, as unaffecting as it is
faultless....

"The admirers of poetry, then, may give up the ancient mythology
without a sigh. Its departure has left us what is better than all
it has taken away: it has left us men and women; it has left us the
creatures and things of God's universe, to the simple charm of which
the cold splendor of that system blinded men's eyes, and to the
magnificence of which the rapid progress of science is every day
adding new wonders and glories. It has left us, also, a more sublime
and affecting religion, whose truths are broader, higher, nobler than
any outlook to which its random conjectures ever attained."

Yet, after all, returning from this consideration of poetic themes
to the question of the poetic principle itself; we may find a sturdy
assertion of it in a few words by Edgar Allan Poe--perhaps the most
acute of the many debaters of this apparently simple yet evasive
problem. After discussing the elements of poetry in music, painting,
and other art, Poe writes:

"I would define, in brief, the Poetry of words as the Rhythmical
Creation of Beauty! Its sole arbiter is Taste. With the Intellect,
or with the Conscience, it has only collateral relations. Unless
incidentally, it has no concern whatever with Duty or with Truth....

"In the contemplation of Beauty we alone find it possible to attain
that pleasurable elevation, or excitement of the soul, which
we recognize as the Poetic Sentiment, and which is so easily
distinguished from Truth, which is the satisfaction of the Reason,
or from Passion, which is excitement of the Heart. I make Beauty,
therefore--using the word as inclusive of the sublime--I make Beauty
the province of the poem....

"It by no means follows, however, that the incitements of Passion,
or the precepts of Duty, or even the lessons of Truth, may not be
introduced into a poem, and with advantage; for they may subserve
incidentally, in various ways, the general purposes of the work:--but
the true artist will always contrive to tone them down in proper
subjection to that Beauty which is the atmosphere and the real essence
of the poem."

Lest one should conclude that this is the verdict of an exclusively
artistic spirit, bent upon the development of "art for art's sake"
alone, disregardful of the spiritual essence involved, let him
read the following passage by Dr. William Hayes Ward, scholar,
archaeologist, critic, editor of a great religious journal. Treating of
"The Elements of True Poetry," he lays down this:

"What, then, is poetry? It is the verbal expression of thought under
the paramount control of the principle of beauty. The thought must
be as beautiful as possible; the expression must be as beautiful as
possible. Essential beauty and formal beauty must be wedded, and the
union is poetry. Other principles than beauty may govern a literary
production. The purpose may be, first, absolute clearness. That will
not make poetry. It will make good mathematical demonstration; it may
make a good news item; but not poetry. The predominant sentiment may
be ethical. That may give us a sermon, but it will not give a poem. A
poem is first of all beautiful, beautiful in its content of thought,
and beautiful in its expression through words....

"The first and chief element in a poem is beauty of thought, and that
beauty may relate to any department, material, mental, or spiritual,
in which beauty can reside. Such poetry may describe a misty desert,
a flowery mead, a feminine form, a ruddy sky, a rhythmic waterfall, a
blue-bird's flutterings, receding thunder, a violet's scent, the spicy
tang of apples, the thrill of clasped arms and a lover's kiss. Or it
may rise higher, and rest in the relations of things, in similes and
metaphors; it may infuse longing and love and passion; it may descant
fair reason and meditative musing. Or, in highest flight, beauty
may range over the summits of lofty purpose, inspiring patriotism,
devotion, sacrifice, till it becomes one with the love of man and the
love of God, even as the fading outline of a mountain melts into the
blue sky which envelops it....

"Dominant over all beauty is moral beauty. All highest flights of
poetry must range in the empyrean."

Thus, in poetry, all other graces and powers, be they lower or higher,
must come under control of the principle of beauty--the pleasing
harmony that brings delight. And the almost "infinite variety" of
beautiful modes and styles offered in such a gathering of poems as the
present finds argument for its worth in the brief extract with which
our _melange_ of opinions may well conclude. It is taken from a series
of articles in the New York _Independent_ on "A Theory of Poetry,"
by the Southern poet, Henry Timrod. Making a protest against the
limitation of taste and the poetic vision in certain directions,
instead of cultivating a broader range of taste, he says:

"I have known more than one young lover of poetry who read nothing but
Browning, and there are hundreds who have drowned all the poets of
the past and present in the deep music of Tennyson. But is it not
possible, with the whole wealth of literature at our command, to
attain views broad enough to enable us to do justice to genius of
every class and character? That certainly can be no true poetical
creed that leads directly to the neglect of those masterpieces which,
though wrought hundreds or thousands of years ago, still preserve the
freshness of perennial youth.... The injury [of such neglect] falls
only on such as slight them; and the penalty they pay is a contracted
and a contracting insight, the shutting on them forever of many
glorious vistas of mind, and the loss of thousands of images of grace
and grandeur.

"Oh! rest assured that there are no stereotyped forms of poetry. It
is a vital power, and may assume any guise and take any shape, at
one time towering like an Alp in the darkness and at another sunning
itself in the bell of a tulip or the cup of a lily; and until one
shall have learned to recognize it in all its various developments he
has no right to echo back the benison of Wordsworth:

"'Blessings be on them and eternal praise,
The poets, who on earth have made us heirs
Of truth and pure delight in heavenly lays.'"

* * * * *

By no means, then, to attempt a new definition where so many more
competent have failed, we may nevertheless gather some points of
certainty from the opinions cited above.

Poetry concerns itself with the ideal and the emotional, in nature,
life, and thought. Its language must be choice, for aptness of
expression and for melodious sound. Its form will embody the
recurrence of rhythmic measures, which, however elaborated and varied
in later times, originated in the dim past, when singing and dancing
moved hand in hand for the vivid utterance of feeling--in mirthful joy
and in woe, love and hate, worshipful devotion and mortal defiance,
the fierceness of battle and the serenity of peace. While through all
and over all must breathe the informing spirit of Beauty--whether
of the delicate or the sublime, whether of sweetness or of
power--harmonizing both the interior essence and its outward
expression.

In the ejaculations of delight, fear, or wonder of primitive man at
the phenomena of nature--in his imaginative efforts to explain the
mystery of power behind light, darkness, the seasons, storm, calm--lie
the beginnings of poetry; and religion grows from the same seed--the
desire of the finite to lay hold on the Infinite. Every man is a
potential poet, just so far as he responds to these yearnings after
some expression of the ideal and the ineffable.

Poetry, indeed, finds its inspiration in all things, from the humblest
creation to the Creator himself,--nothing too low or too high for its
interest. In turn, it has inspired humanity's finest deeds; and so
long as humanity's aims and joys and woes persist, will mankind seek
uplift and delight in its charm.

[Signature: JR Howard]

PREFACE

The Poets, by the very necessity of their vocation, are the closest
students of language in any literature. They are the most exacting
in their demands upon the resources of words, and the most careful
of discriminations in their use. "Easy writing's curst hard reading,"
said an English wit; but for the poet there is no such thing as easy
writing. He must "wreak thought upon expression." The veteran Bryant
wrote:

"Thou who wouldst wear the name
Of Poet midst thy brethren of mankind,
And clothe in words of flame
Thoughts that shall live within the general mind,
Deem not the framing of a deathless lay
The pastime of a drowsy summer day.
But gather all thy powers," etc.

The prose-writer should, and the great one does, carefully weigh,
select, and place his words; but the Poet must,--if he is to make
any least claim to the title. Therefore poetical quotations are, as
a rule, more skillfully apt to the purpose of expressing shades of
thought than are the more natural and therefore usually less careful
phrases of prose, even when conveying "thoughts that shall live within
the general mind."

A gathering of poetical quotations is valuable in two ways. It may
afford the most vivid and significant representation of a thought or
feeling for some specific occasion, or it will open to the reader
an alluring field for wandering at will--or even aimlessly, yet with
ever-fresh interest. In case one seeks some particular phrase, some
familiar quotation which is vaguely remembered but desired for more
accurate use, it may easily be that the phrase sought is not among the
assemblage of notable fragments in this volume, but in its own place,
embodied in the poem where it had its origin, in some of the other
volumes of this work. In this volume, however, will be found some
2,700 memorable passages from poems not included in the others. They
are alphabetically arranged under more than 300 appropriate
titles, for general topics; and the "Index of Topics" will show
cross-references to other and kindred themes, so that if desired a
subject may be pursued into thoughts of related interest.

It is hoped that this gathering up of admirable fragments that should
not be lost to familiar use, even though their original sources could
find no proper place in the plan of the work at large, will prove to
be helpfully suggestive, whether to the seeker for specific thoughts
and expressions or to the general appreciative reader.

THE EDITORS.

INDEX OF TOPICS.

WITH CROSS-REFERENCES.

VOL. X

INDEX OF TOPICS.

* * * * *

WITH CROSS-REFERENCES.

* * * * *

Absence
Farewell
Parting

Action
Deeds
Labor
Resolution
Success

Admiration
Beauty
Blush
Compliment
Eye
Face
Love
Praise
Woman

Adornment
Beauty
Dress
Fashion
Hair
Jewel

Adventure
Battle
Courage
Heroism
Hunting
War

Adversity
Comfort
Consolation
Cowardice
Grief
Life
Loss
Memory
Patience
Pity
Poverty
Sorrow
Wealth

Advice
Instruction
Wisdom

Age
Death
Life
Time

Air
Cloud
Nature
Night
Season
Wind

Ambition
Fame
Praise
Reputation
State-craft

Angel
Deeds
Spirits

Anger
Hate
Passion
Revenge

Angling
Fish

Animals
Cat
Dog
Horse
Mouse
Ox
Sheep
Deer
Wolf

Anthology
Poet, The
Poetry

Apparition
Angel
Ghost
Imagination
Spirits
Visions

Appearance
Admiration
Adornment
Beauty
Compliment
Dress
Face
Fashion
Hair
Woman

Architecture
Art

Argument
Conversation
Oratory
Reasons
Speech

Aristocracy
Courtesy
Gentleman
Labor
Man
Manners
Nobility

Art
Architecture
Fancy
Imagination
Music
Nature
Painting
Poet, The
Poetry
Sculpture

Aspiration
Faith
God
Hope
Prayer
Religion

Authority
Power
Royalty

Authorship
Book
Criticism
Journalism
Learning
Pen
Poet, The
Poetry
Reading

Baby
Childhood
Mother

Battle
Courage
Heroism
Soldier
War

Beauty
Admiration
Blush
Compliment
Bye
Face
Hair
Love
Praise
Woman

Bell
Boating
Sabbath

Bible
God
Jesus Christ

Birds
Blackbird
Bluebird
Bobolink
Bullfinch
Cock
Canary
Crow
Cuckoo
Eagle
Falcon
Goose
Hawk
Humming-bird
Lark
Mocking-bird
Nightingale
Owl
Robin
Summer
Swallow
Swan
Wren

Blessing
God
Gratitude

Blush
Face
Kiss

Boating
Adventure
Fortune
Ship
Waters

Books
Authorship
Criticism
Instruction
Learning
Pen
Philosophy
Poet, The
Poetry
Reading

Borrowing
Care
Gratitude

Boy
Childhood
Mother
Rod, The
School
Youth

Care
Adversity
Contentment
Merriment

Chance
Fate
Fortune
God
Opportunity

Change
Contentment
Discontent
Fate
Fortune
Future

Charity
Duty
Good
Poverty

Childhood
Baby
Boy
Mother
School
Youth

Christmas
Home
Jesus Christ

Church
Clergy
Ecclesiasticism
Preaching
Religion
Sabbath

City
Athens
London
Manhattan
Nature
Rome
Rural Life
Venice

Clergy
Church
Ecclesiasticism
Preaching
Religion

Cloud
Day
Moon
Rain
Seasons
Sky
Star
Spring
Storm
To-morrow

Comfort
Contentment
Rest
Sleep

Compliment
Beauty
Blush
Bye
Face
Love
Praise
Woman

Conceit
Fool
Pride
Vanity

Conscience
Contentment
Duty
Remorse
Retribution
Sin

Consolation
Adversity
Friendship
Heaven
Memory
Mourning
Pity
Resignation
Sorrow

Constancy
Fidelity
Inconstancy
Resolution
Virtue

Contentment
Change
Discontent
Fate
Fortune
Future
Happiness
Peace
Rest

Conversation
Argument
Oratory
Silence
Society
Speech

Coquetry
Woman

Countries
America
England
Italy

Courage
Adventure
Battle
Heroism
Resolution
War

Courtesy
Gentleman
Manners
Temper

Cowardice
Courage
Fear
Fright
Resolution

Creed
Action
Deeds
Ecclesiasticism
Faith
Jesus Christ
Religion
Theology
Truth

Crime
Conscience
Murder
Remorse
Retribution
Revenge
Shame
Stealing
Temptation

Criticism
Authorship
Book
Opinion
Pen
Perfection
Poet, The
Poetry
Reading
Satire
Taste

Custom
Change
Fashion

Day
Cloud
Evening
Morning
Seasons
Sky
Sun

Death
Consolation
Dying
Fate
Grave, The
Illness
Immortality
Memory
Mourning

Deceit
Devil
Falsehood
Hypocrisy
Sincerity
Stealing

Deeds
Action
Labor

Defeat
Adversity
Despair
Disappointment
Resolution
Success

Despair
Disappointment
Fate
Hope

Devil
Deceit
Hell
Temptation

Dew,
Morning,
Spring

Disappointment
Defeat
Discontent
Fate
Hope

Discontent
Contentment
Fate
Fortune
Future

Distance
Mountains

Doubt
Creed
Faith
Resolution
Theology
Truth

Dream
Imagination
Vision

Dress
Adornment
Appearance
Fashion
Jewel
Perfume

Drink
Waters
Wine

Duty
Action
Deeds

Dying
Death
Illness
Life

Easter
Jesus Christ

Ecclesiasticism
Creed
Theology
Religion

Eternity
Immortality
Present, The
Time

Evening
Dew
Moon
Night
Sun

Expectation
Faith
Future
Hope

Eye
Admiration
Face

Face
Admiration
Appearance
Beauty
Eye

Fairy
Moon

Faith
Creed
Fidelity
Hope
Religion
Truth
Theology

Falsehood
Deceit
Devil
Hypocrisy
Sincerity

Fame
Ambition
Glory
Praise
Reputation

Fancy
Dreams
Imagination
Visions

Farewell
Absence
Parting

Farming
Animals
Labor
Seasons: Autumn

Fashion
Adornment
Appearance
Custom
Dress

Fate
Adversity
Death
Faith
Fortune
Future
Life

Fault
Conscience
Sin

Fear
Courage
Cowardice
Doubt
Fright

Feeling
Anger
Love
Oratory
Silence
Sympathy

Fidelity
Faith
Love's Unity
Matrimony
Resolution
Treason

Fish
Angling

Flattery
Compliment
Deceit
Hypocrisy
Sincerity

Flowers
Apple-blossoms
Arbutus
Aster
Bluebell
Buttercup
Carnation
Columbine
Cowslip
Daffodil
Daisy
Dandelion
Eglantine
Foxglove
Gillyflower
Golden-rod
Hawthorn
Heliotrope
Ivy
Jasmine
Lily
Lily of the Valley
Muskrose
Nightshade
Oxlip
Pansy
Primrose
Rose
Rosemary
Sweetbriar
Sweet-pea
Thyme
Tuberose
Violet
Wildrose
Woodbine

Fool
Flattery
Man
Vanity
Wisdom

Forget
Forgive
Grief
Inconstancy
Memory

Forgive
Forget
Nobility

Fortune
Adversity
Contentment
Fate
Future
Wealth

Freedom
Countries
Patriotism
Power
Tyranny

Friendship
Age
Constancy
Help
Hospitality
Jealousy
Jesus Christ
Secret
Sympathy
Table, The

Fright
Fear

Future
Eternity
Immortality
Past, The
Present, The
Time
To-morrow

Gentleman
Aristocracy
Courtesy
Labor
Man
Manners
Nobility
Temper.

Ghost
Apparition
Spirits

Glory
Ambition
Fame
Praise
War

God
Comfort
Faith
Nature
Prayer
Religion

Gods, The

Good
Charity
Creed
Deeds
Virtue

Gratitude
Help
Ingratitude

Grave, The
Death
Mourning

Greatness
Ambition
Fame
Nobility
State-craft

Grief
Adversity
Death
Grave
Mourning
Resignation

Habit
Custom
Fault
Temptation

Hair
Appearance
Compliment

Hand
Beauty

Happiness
Contentment
Heaven
Home
Joy
Merriment
Pleasure

Hate
Anger
Jealousy
Passion
Revenge
Suspicion

Heart
Contentment
Happiness
Heaven
Home
Jesus Christ

Heaven
Eternity
Immortality
Sky
Star

Hell
Defeat
Despair
Devil
Hate
Remorse

Help
Charity
Friendship
Gratitude
Ingratitude
Sympathy

Heroism
Adventure
Battle
Courage
Soldier
War

Home
Baby
Boy
Childhood
Hospitality
Matrimony
Mother
Reading
Wife
Youth

Hope
Expectation
Faith
Future
Heaven
To-morrow

Horsemanship
Animals
Hunting

Hospitality
Friendship
Home
Table

Humility
Contentment
Pride

Hunting
Animals
Horsemanship

Hypocrisy
Deceit
Falsehood
Sincerity

Idleness
Labor
Rest

Illness
Medicine
Pain

Imagination
Dream
Fancy
Poet
Poetry
Visions

Immortality
Consolation
Eternity
Heaven
Soul

Inconstancy
Constancy
Fidelity
Promise

Ingratitude
Gratitude
Help

Inn
Ben Jonson

Innocence
Virtue
Youth

Insects
Bee
Butterfly
Flea
Fly
Glow-worm
Katydid
Moth
Spider

Instruction
Books
Mind
Rod
School

Invention
Mind
Science

Jealousy
Hate
Inconstancy
Passion
Suspicion

Jesus Christ
Friendship
Humility
Virtue

Jewel
Adornment
Dress

Journalism
Criticism
Inn
Learning
Thought

Joy
Happiness
Home
Memory
Merriment
Pleasure

Kiss
Love
Romance

Knowledge
Learning
Science
Wisdom

Labor
Deeds
Farming
Rural Life

Law
Crime
Murder
Order
Stealing

Learning
Instruction
Invention
Knowledge
Science
Wisdom

Letters
Pen

Life
Death
Deeds
Expectation
Hope
Regret
Success

Loss
Adversity
Disappointment
Memory
Opportunity
Regret
Wealth

Love
Admiration
Blush
Constancy
Friendship
Inconstancy
Kiss
Matrimony
Moderation
Sigh
Wife
Woman

Man
Age
Death
Gentleman
Immortality
Life
Mind
Progress
Thought
Time
Virtue

Manners
Aristocracy
Gentleman
Man
Temper

Matrimony
Baby
Childhood
Home
Love's Unity
Mother
Wife
Woman

Medicine
Illness
Pain

Melancholy
Discontent
Regret
Sorrow

Memory
Blessing
Grief
Happiness
Joy
Mourning
Regret
Remorse
Sorrow

Mercy

Merriment
Care
Rural Life

Mind
Instruction
Knowledge
Learning
Reading
Soul
Thought
Wisdom

Missions
Religion

Moderation
Contentment
Humility

Moon
Autumn
Night
Star

Morning
Day
Dew
Star
Sun

Mother
Baby
Childhood
Home

Mountain

Mourning
Death
Grief
Immortality
Memory
Sorrow

Murder
Crime
Hate
Law
Passion

Music
Memory

Name
Aristocracy
Fame
Greatness
Reputation
Scandal

Nature
Animals
Birds
City
Cloud
Evening
Fish
Flowers
Insects
Moon
Morning
Mountains
Night
Rain
Rainbow
Rural Life
Sea
Seasons
Sky
Star
Storm
Sun
Tree
Waters

Night
Evening
Moon
Sky
Star

Nobility
Greatness
Virtue

Opinion
Criticism
Mind
Reasons
Thought

Opportunity
Chance
Defeat
Success

Oratory
Conversation
Reasons
Speech

Order
Aristocracy
God
Law

Pain
Illness
Medicine

Painting
Art

Parting
Absence
Farewell

Passion
Anger
Hate
Jealousy
Revenge
Suspicion

Past, The
Memory
Present, The
Time

Patience
Adversity
Grief
Mourning
Resolution
Sorrow

Patriotism
Countries
Freedom
Power
Treason
Tyranny

Peace
Quarrel
War

Pen, The
Authorship
Letters
Poet, The

People, The
Freedom
Man
Politics

Perfection
Beauty
Criticism

Perfume

Personal
Bacon, Lord
Burke, E.
Carlyle, T.
Chatterton, T.
Chaucer
Cowley, A.
Cromwell
Emerson
Galileo
Garrick
Hawthorne
Hogarth
Holmes
Johnson
King Charles II
Luther
Marlborough
Milton
Poe
Shakespeare
Sheridan
Sidney
Spenser
Thomson
Warwick
Washington
Wellington
Whittier
Wickliffe

Philosophy
Argument
Mind
Science
Thought

Pity
Charity
Good
Mercy
Sympathy

Pleasure
Joy
Pain
Merriment
Youth

Poet, The
Authorship
Criticism
Books
Fancy
Imagination
Pen
Poetry
Reading

Poetry
See under _The Poet_

Politics
Freedom
Man

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