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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 1.4%
industry: 3.2%
services: 95.4% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.1% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 8,061
by occupation: service workers 18.7%, clerical 18.6%, construction
12.5%, finance and investment 6.7%, directors and business managers
5.9% (1979)

Unemployment rate: 7% (1992)

Budget:
revenues: $141.5 million
expenditures: $160.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1991)

Industries: tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction,
construction materials, furniture

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 75,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 230 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 6,929 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: vegetables, fruit; livestock; turtle farming

Exports:
total value: $3.4 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: turtle products, manufactured consumer goods
partners: mostly US

Imports:
total value: $333 million (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods
partners: US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Caymanian dollar (CI$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Caymanian dollars (CI$) per US$1-0.83 (3 November
1995), 0.85 (22 November 1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 21,584 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: 1 submarine coaxial cable; satellite earth station-1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 28,200 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1995)

Televisions: 6,000 (1992 est.)

@Cayman Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 406 km
paved: 304 km
unpaved: 102 km

Ports and harbors: Cayman Brac, George Town

Merchant marine:
total: 54 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 751,113 GRT/1,139,958 DWT
ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 8, chemical tanker 4, container 5, oil
tanker 6, refrigerated cargo 18, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, specialized
tanker 1, vehicle carrier 1
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 10
countries: Greece 11, US 8, UK 5, Cyprus 1, Finland 1, India 1, Japan
1, Norway 1, Sweden 1, and Switzerland 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Cayman Islands:Military

Military branches: Royal Cayman Islands Police Force (RCIPF)

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Cayman Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: vulnerable to drug money-laundering and drug
transshipment

______________________________________________________________________

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

Introduction

Current issues: In 1996, the Central African Republic experienced
three mutinies by dissident elements of the armed forces, which
demanded back pay as well as political and military reforms.
Continuing violence in 1997 between the government and rebel military
groups over pay issues, living conditions, and lack of opposition
party representation in the government has destroyed many businesses
in the capital, reducing tax revenues and exacerbating the
government's problems in meeting expenses.

@Central African Republic:Geography

Location: Central Africa, north of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 7 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 622,980 sq km
land: 622,980 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,203 km
border countries: Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Democratic Republic
of the Congo 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 467 km, Sudan 1,165 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers

Terrain: vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in
northeast and southwest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Oubangui River 335 m
highest point: Mount Gaou 1,420 m

Natural resources: diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: 75%
other: 17% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern
areas; floods are common

Environment-current issues: tap water is not potable; poaching has
diminished its reputation as one of the last great wildlife refuges;
desertification; deforestation

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography-note: landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa

@Central African Republic:People

Population: 3,375,771 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (male 745,128; female 737,879)
15-64 years: 52% (male 864,263; female 906,656)
65 years and over: 4% (male 55,051; female 66,794) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.02% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 38.72 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 16.75 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 105.73 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 46.82 years
male: 45.02 years
female: 48.68 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.12 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Central African(s)
adjective: Central African

Ethnic groups: Baya 34%, Banda 27%, Sara 10%, Mandjia 21%, Mboum 4%,
M'Baka 4%, Europeans 6,500 (including 3,600 French)

Religions: indigenous beliefs 24%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%,
Muslim 15%, other 11%
note: animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian
majority

Languages: French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national
language), Arabic, Hunsa, Swahili

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60%
male: 68.5%
female: 52.4% (1995 est.)

@Central African Republic:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Central African Republic
conventional short form: none
local long form: Republique Centrafricaine
local short form: none
former: Central African Empire
abbreviation: CAR

Data code: CT

Government type: republic

National capital: Bangui

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures,
singular-prefecture), 2 economic prefectures* (prefectures
economiques, singular-prefecture economique), and 1 commune**;
Bamingui-Bangoran, Bangui**, Basse-Kotto, Gribingui*, Haute-Kotto,
Haute-Sangha, Haut-Mbomou, Kemo-Gribingui, Lobaye, Mbomou,
Nana-Mambere, Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pende, Sangha*,
Vakaga

Independence: 13 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 1 December (1958) (proclamation of the
republic)

Constitution: passed by referendum 29 December 1994; adopted 7 January
1995

Legal system: based on French law

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ange PATASSE (since 22 October 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Michel GBEZERA-BRIA (since January
1997)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
elections: president elected by popular vote for a 6-year term;
election last held 19 September 1993 (next to be held NA 1999); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: Ange PATASSE elected president; percent of
vote-PATASSE 52.45%, Abel GOUMBA 45.62%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (85 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 19 September 1993 (next to be held NA 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-MLPC 34,
RDC 13, PLD 7, FPP 7, ADP 6, PSD 3, CN 3, MDREC 1, PRC 1, FC 1, MESAN
1, independents supporting David DACKO 6, other independents 2
note: the National Assembly is advised by the Economic and Regional
Council or Conseil Economique et Regional; when they sit together they
are called the Congress or Congres

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme, judges appointed by
the president; Constitutional Court, judges appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy and Progress or
ADP [Tchapka BREDE]; Central African Democratic Assembly or RDC [Andre
KOLINGBA]; Central African Republican Party or PRC; Civic Forum or FC
[Gen. Timothee MALENDOMA]; Democratic Movement for the Renaissance and
Evolution of Central Africa or MDREC [Joseph BENDOUNGA]; Liberal
Democratic Party or PLD [Nestor KOMBO-NAGUEMON]; Movement for the
Liberation of the Central African People or MLPC [the party of the
president, Ange Felix PATASSE]; Movement for Democracy and Development
or MDD [David DACKO]; National Convention or CN [David GALIAMBO];
Patriotic Front for Progress or FPP [Abel GOUMBA]; Social Democratic
Party or PSD [Enoch Derant LAKOUE]; Social Evolution Movement of Black
Africa or MESAN [Prosper LAVODRAMA and Joseph NGBANGADIBO]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC,
CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC
(observer), UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Henri KOBA
chancery: 1618 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462 2517
FAX: [1] (202) 462 2517

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mosina H. JORDAN
embassy: Avenue David Dacko, Bangui
mailing address: B. P. 924, Bangui
telephone: [236] 61 26 21
FAX: [236] 61 44 94

Flag description: four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white,
green, and yellow with a vertical red band in center; there is a
yellow five-pointed star on the hoist side of the blue band

@Central African Republic:Economy

Economy-overview: Subsistence agriculture, together with forestry,
remains the backbone of the economy of the Central African Republic
(CAR), with more than 70% of the population living in outlying areas.
The agricultural sector generates half of GDP. Timber has accounted
for about 16% of export earnings and the diamond industry for nearly
54%. Important constraints to economic development include the CAR's
landlocked position, a poor transportation system, a largely unskilled
work force, and a legacy of misdirected macroeconomic policies. The
50% devaluation of the currencies of 14 Francophone African nations on
12 January 1994 had mixed effects on the CAR's economy. Diamond,
timber, coffee, and cotton exports increased, leading an estimated
rise of GDP of 7% in 1994 and nearly 5% in 1995. Military rebellions
and social unrest in 1996 were accompanied by widespread destruction
of property and a drop in GDP of 1%. Ongoing violence between the
government and rebel military groups over pay issues, living
conditions, and political representation has destroyed many businesses
in the capital, reduced tax revenues for the government, and delayed
negotiations for an IMF financial aid agreement.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$3.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 50%
industry: 14%
services: 36% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 4% (1996 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 6% (1993)

Budget:
revenues: $638 million
expenditures: $1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $888
million (1994 est.)

Industries: diamond mining, sawmills, breweries, textiles, footwear,
assembly of bicycles and motorcycles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 43,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 100 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 31 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cotton, coffee, tobacco, manioc (tapioca), yams,
millet, corn, bananas; timber

Exports:
total value: $171 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: diamonds, timber, cotton, coffee, tobacco
partners: France 16%, Belgium-Luxembourg 40.1%, Italy, Japan, US,
Spain, Iran, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo

Imports:
total value: $174 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery, electrical
equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, consumer goods,
industrial products
partners: France 37%, other EU countries, Japan 24%, Algeria,
Cameroon, Namibia

Debt-external: $890 million (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA; traditional budget subsidies from France

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1-608.36 (January 1998),
583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16
(1993)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 16,867 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: fair system
domestic: network consists principally of microwave radio relay and
low-capacity, low-powered radiotelephone communication
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 7,500 (1993 est.)

@Central African Republic:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 23,810 km
paved: 429 km
unpaved: 23,381 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 800 km; traditional trade carried on by means of
shallow-draft dugouts; Oubangui is the most important river

Ports and harbors: Bangui, Nola

Airports: 52 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 49
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 15 (1997 est.)

@Central African Republic:Military

Military branches: Central African Army (includes Republican Guard),
Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Police Force

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 763,085 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 398,617 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $30 million (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.3% (1994)

@Central African Republic:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

CHAD

Introduction

Historical perspective: In December 1990, after Chad had endured
decades of civil warfare among ethnic groups as well as invasions by
Libya, former northern guerrilla leader Idriss DEBY seized control of
the government. His transitional government eventually suppressed or
came to terms with most political-military groups, settled the
territorial dispute with Libya on terms favorable to Chad, drafted a
democratic constitution which was ratified by popular referendum in
March 1996, held multiparty national presidential elections in June
and July 1996 (DEBY won with 67% of the vote), and held multiparty
elections for the National Assembly in January and February 1997, in
which Idriss DEBY's party, Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS, won a
majority of the seats.

@Chad:Geography

Location: Central Africa, south of Libya

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 19 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1.284 million sq km
land: 1,259,200 sq km
water: 24,800 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than three times the size of
California

Land boundaries:
total: 5,968 km
border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197
km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in
northwest, lowlands in south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Djourab Depression 175 m
highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m

Natural resources: petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way),
uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 36%
forests and woodland: 26%
other: 35% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 140 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north;
periodic droughts; locust plagues

Environment-current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water;
improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water
pollution; desertification

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography-note: landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water
body in the Sahel

@Chad:People

Population: 7,359,512 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (male 1,631,010; female 1,623,272)
15-64 years: 53% (male 1,903,012; female 1,982,257)
65 years and over: 3% (male 97,118; female 122,843) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.66% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 43.45 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 16.86 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 116.97 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 48.22 years
male: 45.81 years
female: 50.73 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.74 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Chadian(s)
adjective: Chadian

Ethnic groups: Muslims (Arabs, Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko,
Kanembou, Baguirmi, Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba), non-Muslims (Sara,
Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei, Massa), nonindigenous
150,000 (of whom 1,000 are French)

Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs (mostly
animism) 25%

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Sara and Sango (in
south), more than 100 different languages and dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write in French or Arabic
total population: 48.1%
male: 62.1%
female: 34.7% (1995 est.)

@Chad:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Chad
conventional short form: Chad
local long form: Republique du Tchad
local short form: Tchad

Data code: CD

Government type: republic

National capital: N'Djamena

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures,
singular-prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti,
Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental,
Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile

Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 August (1960)

Constitution: 31 March 1995, passed by referendum

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Chadian customary
law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (since 4 December 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Nassour Guelengdouksia OUAIDOU
(since 16 May 1997); appointed by the president; note-he was
reappointed on 1 January 1998 when President DEBY named his new
government
cabinet: Council of State appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the prime minister
elections: the constitution provides for the election of a president
by direct popular vote to serve a term of five years; if no candidate
receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving
the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last held 2
June and 11 July 1996 (next to be held NA 2001); the prime minister is
appointed by the president
election results: in the first round of voting none of the 15
candidates received the required 50% of the total vote; percent of
vote, first round-Lt. Gen. Idress DEBY 47.8%; percent of vote, second
round-Lt. Gen. DEBY 69.1%, Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE 30.9%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (125 seats; members
serve four-year terms); replaces the Higher Transitional Council or
the Conseil Superieur de Transition
elections: National Assembly-last held in two rounds on 5 January and
23 February 1997, (next to be held NA 2001); in the first round of
voting on 5 January 1997 some candidates won clear victories by
receiving 50% or more of the vote; where that did not happen, the two
highest scoring candidates stood for a second round of voting
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-MPS 65,
URD 29, UNDR 15, RDP 3, others 13

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts;
Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders: Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS
[Maldom Bada ABBAS, chairman], originally in opposition but now the
party in power and the party of the president; National Union for
Development and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO, leader]; Rally for
Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lal Mahamat CHOUA, leader]; Union for
Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE, leader];
note-in mid-1996 Chad had about 60 political parties, of which these
are the most prominent in the new National Assembly

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UDEAC,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat Saleh AHMAT
chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador David C. HALSTED
embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
telephone: [235] (51) 70-09, (51) 90-52, (51) 92-33
FAX: [235] (51) 56-54

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the
flag of Andorra, which has a national coat of arms featuring a
quartered shield centered in the yellow band; design was based on the
flag of France

@Chad:Economy

Economy-overview: Landlocked Chad's economic development suffers from
it's geographic remoteness, drought, lack of infrastructure, and
political turmoil. About 85% of the population depends on agriculture,
including the herding of livestock. Of Africa's Francophone countries,
Chad benefited least from the 50% devaluation of their currencies in
January 1994. Financial aid from the World Bank, the African
Development Fund, and other sources is directed largely at the
improvement of agriculture, especially livestock production. Lack of
financing, however, is stalling the development of a southern oil
field and the construction of a proposed oil pipeline through
Cameroon.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$4.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$600 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 48%
industry: 18%
services: 34% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 15% (1997 est.)

Labor force: NA
by occupation: agriculture 85% (subsistence farming, herding, and
fishing)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $198 million
expenditures: $218 million, including capital expenditures of $146
million (1998 est.)

Industries: cotton textiles, meat packing, beer brewing, natron
(sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 29,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 80 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 14 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice,
potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels

Exports:
total value: $259 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: cotton, cattle, textiles
partners: Portugal 30%, Germany 18%, South Africa 16%, France 7%

Imports:
total value: $301 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and transportation equipment 39%, industrial
goods 20%, petroleum products 13%, foodstuffs 9%; textiles;
note-excludes military equipment
partners: France 34%, Cameroon 24%, Nigeria 7%, US 6%

Debt-external: $875 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: $125 million committed by Taiwan (August 1997); $30 million
committed by African Development Bank

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA Francs (CFAF) per US$1-608.36 (January 1998),
583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16
(1993)
note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100
per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 5,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: primitive system
domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1987 est.)
note: limited TV service; many facilities are inoperative

Televisions: 7,000 (1991 est.)

@Chad:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 32,700 km
paved: 262 km
unpaved: 32,438 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 2,000 km navigable

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 53 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 47
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 21
under 914 m: 10 (1997 est.)

@Chad:Military

Military branches: Armed Forces (includes Ground Force, Air Force, and
Gendarmerie), Republican Guard, Police

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,645,295 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 852,705 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 68,343 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $74 million (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 11.1% (1994)

@Chad:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: demarcation of international boundaries in the
vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in
the past, is completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad,
Niger, and Nigeria

______________________________________________________________________

CHILE

@Chile:Geography

Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean
and South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 30 00 S, 71 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 756,950 sq km
land: 748,800 sq km
water: 8,150 sq km
note: includes Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y Gomez

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
total: 6,171 km
border countries: Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km

Coastline: 6,435 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; desert in north; cool and damp in south

Terrain: low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes
in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,962 m

Natural resources: copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious
metals, molybdenum

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 18%
forests and woodland: 22%
other: 55% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,650 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis

Environment-current issues: air pollution from industrial and vehicle
emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation contributing
to loss of biodiversity; soil erosion; desertification

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: strategic location relative to sea lanes between
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake
Passage); Atacama Desert is one of world's driest regions

@Chile:People

Population: 14,787,781 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 2,134,701; female 2,043,112)
15-64 years: 65% (male 4,768,366; female 4,811,403)
65 years and over: 7% (male 426,924; female 603,275) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.27% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 18.28 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.55 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10.39 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.16 years
male: 72.01 years
female: 78.48 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Chilean(s)
adjective: Chilean

Ethnic groups: white and white-Amerindian 95%, Amerindian 3%, other 2%

Religions: Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish

Languages: Spanish

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.2%
male: 95.4%
female: 95% (1995 est.)

@Chile:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Chile
conventional short form: Chile
local long form: Republica de Chile
local short form: Chile

Data code: CI

Government type: republic

National capital: Santiago

Administrative divisions: 13 regions (regiones, singular-region);
Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania,
Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los
Lagos, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region
Metropolitana, Tarapaca, Valparaiso
note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence: 18 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 September (1810)

Constitution: 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended 30
July 1989

Legal system: based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and
subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial
review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; does not accept
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle (since 11 March
1994); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
head of government: President Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle (since 11 March
1994); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 11 December 1993 (next to be held NA December 1999)
election results: Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle elected president; percent
of vote-Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle (PDC) 58%, Arturo ALESSANDRI 24.4%,
other 17.6%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of the Senate or Senado (48 seats, 38 elected by popular
vote; members serve eight-year terms-one-half elected every four
years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (120 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate-last held 11 December 1997 (next to be held NA
December 2001); Chamber of Deputies-last held 11 December 1997 (next
to be held NA December 2001)
election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-Coalition of Parties for Democracy 20 (PDC 14, PS 4, PPD 2),
Union for the Progress of Chile 17 (RN 7, UDI 10), independent 10;
Chamber of Deputies-percent of vote by party-Coalition of Parties for
Democracy 50.55% (PDC 22.98%, PS 11.10%, PPD 12.55%, PRSD 3.13%),
Union for the Progress of Chile 36.23% (RN 16.78%, UDI 14.43%); seats
by party-Coalition of Parties for Democracy 70 (PDC 39, PPD 16, PRSD
4, PS 11), Union for the Progress of Chile 46 (RN 24, UDI 21, Party of
the South 1), right-wing independents 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are appointed
by the president and ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates
provided by the court itself; the president of the Supreme Court is
elected by the 21-member court

Political parties and leaders: Coalition of Parties for Democracy or
CPD consists mainly of: Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Enrique
KRAUSS]; Socialist Party or PS [Camilo ESCALONA]; Party for Democracy
or PPD [Sergio BITAR]; Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD
[Anselmo SULE]; Union for the Progress of Chile or UPP consists mainly
of two parties: National Renewal or RN [Alberto ESPINA]; Independent
Democratic Union or UDI [Jovino NOVOA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: revitalized university student
federations at all major universities; United Labor Central or CUT
includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor
confederations; Roman Catholic Church

International organization participation: APEC, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11,
G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John BIEHL Del Rios
chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1746
FAX: [1] (202) 887-5579
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York,
Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gabriel GUERRA-MONDRAGON
embassy: Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Santiago
mailing address: APO AA 34033
telephone: [56] (2) 232-2600
FAX: [56] (2) 330-3710

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red;
there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the
hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white
five-pointed star in the center; design was based on the US flag

@Chile:Economy

Economy-overview: Chile has a prosperous, essentially free market
economy. Civilian governments - which took over from the military in
March 1990-have continued to reduce the government's role in the
economy while shifting the emphasis of public spending toward social
programs. Growth in real GDP averaged more than 7.0% in 1991-1997, and
inflation is nearing a 40-year low. Chile's currency and foreign
reserves also are strong, as sustained foreign capital
inflows-including significant direct investment-have more than offset
current account deficits and public debt buybacks. President FREI, who
took office in March 1994, has placed improving Chile's education
system and developing foreign export markets at the top of his
economic agenda. Despite this progress, the Chilean economy remains
largely dependent on a few sectors-particularly copper mining,
fishing, and forestry. Success in meeting the government's goal of
sustained annual economic growth of 5% depends largely on world prices
for these commodities, continued foreign investor confidence, and the
government's ability to maintain a conservative fiscal stance. In
1996, Chile became an associate member of Mercosur and concluded a
Free Trade Agreement with Canada.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$168.5 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 7.1% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$11,600 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 8%
industry: 33%
services: 59% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 6% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 5.7 million (1997 est.)
by occupation: services 38.3% (includes government 12%), industry and
commerce 33.8%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 19.2%, mining 2.3%,
construction 6.4% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 6.1% (1997)

Budget:
revenues: $17 billion
expenditures: $17 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1996
est.)

Industries: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron
and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement,
textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 4.2% (1997)

Electricity-capacity: 5.504 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 24.5 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,730 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets,
potatoes, fruit; beef, poultry, wool; timber; 1991 fish catch of 6.6
million metric tons

Exports:
total value: $16.9 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: copper 37%, other metals and minerals 8.2%, wood products
7.1%, fish and fishmeal 9.8%, fruits 8.4% (1994)
partners: EU 25%, US 15%, Asia 34%, Latin America 20% (1995 est.)

Imports:
total value: $18.2 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: capital goods 25.2%, spare parts 24.8%, raw materials
15.4%, petroleum 10%, foodstuffs 5.7% (1994)
partners: EU 18%, US 25%, Asia 16%, Latin America 26% (1995 est.)

Debt-external: $26.7 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $50.3 million (1996 est.)

Currency: 1 Chilean peso (Ch$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Chilean pesos (Ch$) per US$1-452.60 (January 1998),
419.30 (1997), 412.27 (1996), 396.78 (1995), 420.08 (1994), 404.35
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 1.5 million (1994 est.)

Telephone system: modern system based on extensive microwave radio
relay facilities
domestic: extensive microwave radio relay links; domestic satellite
system with 3 earth stations
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 179, FM 614, shortwave 11

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 11

Televisions: 2.85 million (1992 est.)

@Chile:Transportation

Railways:
total: 6,782 km
broad gauge: 3,743 km 1.676-m gauge (1,653 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 116 km 1.067-m gauge; 2,923 km 1.000-m gauge (40 km
electrified) (1995)

Highways:
total: 79,800 km
paved: 11,012 km
unpaved: 68,788 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 725 km

Pipelines: crude oil 755 km; petroleum products 785 km; natural gas
320 km

Ports and harbors: Antofagasta, Arica, Chanaral, Coquimbo, Iquique,
Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Talcahuano,
Valparaiso

Merchant marine:
total: 39 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 473,173 GRT/770,619 DWT
ships by type: bulk 12, cargo 9, chemical tanker 4, container 2,
liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 4, passenger 2, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 3, vehicle carrier 2 (1997 est.)

Airports: 380 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 52
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 18
under 914 m: 6 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 328
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 74
under 914 m: 234 (1997 est.)

@Chile:Military

Military branches: Army of the Nation, National Navy (includes Naval
Air, Coast Guard, and Marines), Air Force of the Nation, Carabineros
of Chile (National Police), Investigations Police

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 3,919,465 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 2,909,927 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 128,442 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $2.8 billion (1997);
note-includes earnings from CODELCO Company; probably includes costs
of pensions and internal security

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 3.5% (1997)

@Chile:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: short section of the southeastern boundary
with Argentina is indefinite; Bolivia has wanted a sovereign corridor
to the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in
1884; dispute with Bolivia over Rio Lauca water rights; territorial
claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps
Argentine and British claims

Illicit drugs: a minor transshipment country for cocaine destined for
the US and Europe; booming economy has made it more attractive to
traffickers seeking to launder drug profits

______________________________________________________________________

CHINA

(also see separate

@China:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay,
Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 9,596,960 sq km
land: 9,326,410 sq km
water: 270,550 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:
total: 22,143.34 km
border countries: Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km,
Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea
1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia
4,673 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605
km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km

Coastline: 14,500 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: claim to shallow areas of East China Sea and Yellow
Sea
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains,
deltas, and hills in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,848 m

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, petroleum, mercury, tin, tungsten,
antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead,
zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 43%
forests and woodland: 14%
other: 33% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 498,720 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern
and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts

Environment-current issues: air pollution (greenhouse gases,
particulates) from the overwhelming use of high-sulfur coal as a fuel,
produces acid rain which is damaging forests; water shortages
experienced throughout the country, particularly in urban areas and in
the north; future growth in water usage threatens to outpace supplies;
water pollution from industrial effluents; much of the population does
not have access to potable water; less than 10% of sewage receives
treatment; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural
land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development;
desertification; trade in endangered species

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: world's fourth-largest country (after Russia, Canada,
and US)

@China:People

Population: 1,236,914,658 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 26% (male 169,347,516; female 149,897,253)
15-64 years: 68% (male 431,164,591; female 404,513,208)
65 years and over: 6% (male 38,398,920; female 43,593,170) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.83% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 15.73 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 6.99 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.15 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 45.46 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.59 years
male: 68.32 years
female: 71.06 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups: Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan,
Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%

Religions: Daoism (Taoism), Buddhism, Muslim 2%-3%, Christian 1%
(est.)
note: officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and eclectic

Languages: Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the
Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou),
Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority
languages (see Ethnic divisions entry)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.5%
male: 89.9%
female: 72.7% (1995 est.)

@China:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: People's Republic of China
conventional short form: China
local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
local short form: Zhong Guo
abbreviation: PRC

Data code: CH

Government type: Communist state

National capital: Beijing

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5
autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4
municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**,
Chongqing**, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan,
Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin,
Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong,
Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet),
Yunnan, Zhejiang
note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entry for
the special administrative region of Hong Kong

Independence: 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221
BC; Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February
1912; People's Republic established 1 October 1949)

National holiday: National Day, 1 October (1949)

Constitution: most recent promulgation 4 December 1982

Legal system: a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely
criminal law; rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987;
new legal codes in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts are
being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial
law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993) and Vice
President HU Jintao (since 16 March 1998)
head of government: Premier ZHU Rongji (since 18 March 1998); Vice
Premiers QIAN Qichen (since 29 March 1993), LI Lanqing (29 March
1993), WU Bangguo (since 17 March 1995), and WEN Jiabao (since 18
March 1998)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress
(NPC)
elections: president and vice president elected by the National
People's Congress for five-year terms; elections last held 16-18 March
1998 (next to be held NA March 2003); premier nominated by the
president, confirmed by the National People's Congress
election results: JIANG Zemin reelected president by the Ninth
National People's Congress with a total of 2,882 votes (36 delegates
voted against him, 29 abstained, and 32 did not vote); HU Jintao
elected vice president by the Ninth National People's Congress with a
total of 2,841 votes (67 delegates voted against him, 39 abstained,
and 32 did not vote)

Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo
Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,979 seats; members elected by municipal,
regional, and provincial people's congresses to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held NA December-NA February 1998 (next to be held
late 2002-NA March 2003)
election results: percent of vote-NA; seats-NA

Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court, judges appointed by the
National People's Congress

Political parties and leaders: Chinese Communist Party (CCP), JIANG
Zemin, General Secretary of the Central Committee; eight registered
small parties controlled by CCP

Political pressure groups and leaders: no meaningful political
opposition groups exist

International organization participation: AfDB, APEC, AsDB, BIS
(pending member), CCC, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (observer),
PCA, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
UNITAR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador LI Zhaoxing
chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500 through 2502
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San
Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James R. SASSER
embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [86] (10) 6532-3831
FAX: [86] (10) 6532-6422
consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang

Flag description: red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four
smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward
the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner

@China:Economy

Economy-overview: Beginning in late 1978 the Chinese leadership has
been trying to move the economy from a sluggish Soviet-style centrally
planned economy to a more market-oriented economy but still within a
rigid political framework of Communist Party control. To this end the
authorities switched to a system of household responsibility in
agriculture in place of the old collectivization, increased the
authority of local officials and plant managers in industry, permitted
a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in services and light
manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade and
investment. The result has been a quadrupling of GDP since 1978.
Agricultural output doubled in the 1980s, and industry also posted
major gains, especially in coastal areas near Hong Kong and opposite
Taiwan, where foreign investment helped spur output of both domestic
and export goods. On the darker side, the leadership has often
experienced in its hybrid system the worst results of socialism
(bureaucracy, lassitude, corruption) and of capitalism (windfall gains
and stepped-up inflation). Beijing thus has periodically backtracked,
retightening central controls at intervals. In 1992-97 annual growth
of GDP accelerated, particularly in the coastal areas-averaging about
10% annually according to official figures. In late 1993 China's
leadership approved additional long-term reforms aimed at giving still
more play to market-oriented institutions and at strengthening the
center's control over the financial system; state enterprises would
continue to dominate many key industries in what was now termed "a
socialist market economy." In 1995-97 inflation dropped sharply,
reflecting tighter monetary policies and stronger measures to control
food prices. At the same time, the government struggled to (a) collect
revenues due from provinces, businesses, and individuals; (b) reduce
corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat the large
state-owned enterprises, most of which had not participated in the
vigorous expansion of the economy and many of which have been losing
the ability to pay full wages and pensions. From 60 to 100 million
surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities,
many subsisting through part-time low-paying jobs. Popular resistance,
changes in central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have
weakened China's population control program, which is essential to
maintaining growth in living standards. Another long-term threat to
continued rapid economic growth is the deterioration in the
environment, notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall
of the water table especially in the north. China continues to lose
arable land because of erosion and economic development; furthermore,
the regime gives insufficient priority to agricultural research. The
next few years may witness increasing tensions between a highly
centralized political system and an increasingly decentralized
economic system. Rapid economic growth likely will continue but at a
declining rate. Hong Kong's reversion on 1 July 1997 to Chinese
administration will strengthen the already close ties between the two
economies.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$4.25 trillion (1997 estimate as
extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1995 with use of official
Chinese growth figures for 1996-97; the result may overstate China's
GDP by as much as 25%)

GDP-real growth rate: 8.8% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$3,460 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 20%
industry: 49%
services: 31% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.8% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 623.9 million (1995)
by occupation: agriculture and forestry 53%, industry and commerce
26%, construction and mining 7%, social services 4%, other 10% (1995)

Unemployment rate: officially 4% in urban areas; probably 8%-10%;
substantial unemployment and underemployment in rural areas (1997
est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments,
textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers,
footwear, toys, food processing, autos, consumer electronics,
telecommunications

Industrial production growth rate: 13% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 250 million kW (1997 est.)

Electricity-production: 1.135 trillion kWh (1997 est.)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,100 kWh (1997 est.)

Agriculture-products: rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea,
millet, barley, cotton, other fibers, oilseed; pork and other
livestock products; fish

Exports:
total value: $182.7 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: electrical machinery, clothing, footwear, toys, mineral
fuels, leather, plastics, fabrics (1997)
partners: Hong Kong, US, Japan, South Korea, Germany, Netherlands
(1997)

Imports:
total value: $142.4 billion (c.i.f., 1997)
commodities: mechanical appliances, electrical machinery, mineral
fuels, plastics, iron and steel, fabrics, cotton and yarn (1997)
partners: Japan, Taiwan, US, South Korea, Hong Kong, Germany,
Singapore (1997)

Debt-external: $131 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $1.977 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 yuan () = 10 jiao

Exchange rates: yuan () per US$1-8.2796 (December 1997), 8.2898
(1997), 8.3142 (1996), 8.3514 (1995), 8.6187 (1994), 5.7620 (1993)
note: beginning 1 January 1994, the People's Bank of China quotes the
midpoint rate against the US dollar based on the previous day's
prevailing rate in the interbank foreign exchange market

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 89 million (1997 est.); note-there are 2.5 telephones per
100 urban population and 7.2 telephones per 100 total population

Telephone system: domestic and international services are increasingly
available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves
principal cities, industrial centers, and most townships
domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular
telephone systems have been installed; a domestic satellite system
with 55 earth stations is in place
international: satellite earth stations-5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region) and 1
Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean Regions); several international
fiber-optic links to Japan, South Korea, and Hong Kong

Radio broadcast stations: AM 274, FM NA, shortwave 0

Radios: 216.5 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 202 (repeaters 2,050)

Televisions: 75 million

@China:Transportation

Railways:
total: 64,900 km (including 5,400 km of provincial "local" rails)
standard gauge: 61,300 km 1.435-m gauge (10,400 km electrified; 18,540
km double track)
narrow gauge: 3,600 km 0.750-m gauge local industrial lines (1998
est.)

Highways:
total: 1.18 million km
paved: 241,300 km
unpaved: 938,700 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 138,600 km; about 110,600 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 9,070 km; petroleum products 560 km; natural gas
9,383 km (1998)

Ports and harbors: Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Huangpu,
Lianyungang, Nanjing, Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai,
Shantou, Tianjin, Xiamen, Xingang, Yantai, Zhanjiang

Merchant marine:
total: 1,708 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,139,185
GRT/24,154,260 DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 313, cargo 858, chemical tanker
15, combination bulk 10, container 118, liquefied gas tanker 13,
multifunction large-load carrier 5, oil tanker 231, passenger 6,
passenger-cargo 45, refrigerated cargo 25, roll-on/roll-off cargo 24,
short-sea passenger 43
note: China owns an additional 307 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
11,648,133 DWT operating under the registries of Cyprus, Hong Kong,
Liberia, Malta, Marshall Islands, Panama, Singapore, Saint Vincent and
the Grenadines, and Vanuatu (1997 est.)

Airports: 206 (1996 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 192
over 3,047 m: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 65
1,524 to 2,437 m: 90
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 6 (1996 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

@China:Military

Military branches: People's Liberation Army (PLA), which includes the
Ground Forces, Navy (includes Marines and Naval Aviation), Air Force,
Second Artillery Corps (the strategic missile force), People's Armed
Police (internal security troops, nominally subordinate to Ministry of
Public Security, but included by the Chinese as part of the "armed
forces" and considered to be an adjunct to the PLA in wartime)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 359,057,859 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 197,553,118 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 9,553,823 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: the officially announced 1998
figure is 91 billion yuan, but China's defense expenditures are almost
certainly two to three times the announced budget; note-conversion of
the defense budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate
could produce misleading results

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@China:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: boundary with India in dispute; two disputed
sections of the boundary with Russia remain to be settled; most of the
boundary with Tajikistan in dispute; 33-km section of boundary with
North Korea in the Paektu-san (mountain) area is indefinite; involved
in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with Malaysia,
Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; maritime boundary
dispute with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin; Paracel Islands occupied
by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; claims
Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu Tai), as
does Taiwan; sections of land border with Vietnam are indefinite

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for heroin produced in the
Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem

______________________________________________________________________

CHRISTMAS ISLAND

(territory of Australia)

@Christmas Island:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of
Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 10 30 S, 105 40 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 135 sq km
land: 135 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 138.9 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds

Terrain: steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Murray Hill 361 m

Natural resources: phosphate

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can
be a maritime hazard

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean

@Christmas Island:People

Population: 2,195 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 7.77% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
noun: Christmas Islander(s)
adjective: Christmas Island

Ethnic groups: Chinese 61%, Malay 25%, European 11%, other 3%, no
indigenous population

Religions: Buddhist 55%, Christian 15%, Muslim 10%, other 20% (1991)

Languages: English

@Christmas Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of Christmas Island
conventional short form: Christmas Island

Data code: KT

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from Canberra
by the Australian Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories

Government type: NA

National capital: The Settlement

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: Christmas Island Act of 1958

Legal system: under the authority of the governor general of Australia
and Australian law

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by the Australian governor general
head of government: Administrator (acting) Graham NICHOLLS (since NA)
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; administrator
appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the
queen and Australia

Legislative branch: unicameral Christmas Island Shire Council (9
seats; members elected by popular vote to serve one-year terms)
elections: last held NA December 1996 (next to be held NA December
1997)
election results: percent of vote-NA; seats-independents 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used

@Christmas Island:Economy

Economy-overview: Phosphate mining had been the only significant
economic activity, but in December 1987 the Australian Government
closed the mine. In 1990, the mine was reopened by private operators.
Australian-based Casinos Austria International Ltd. built a $45
million casino on Christmas Island.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$NA

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$NA

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: NA
by occupation: tourism 400 people, mining 100 people

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: tourism, phosphate extraction (near depletion)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: NA kW

Electricity-production: NA kWh

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture-products: NA

Exports: $NA
commodities: phosphate
partners: Australia, NZ

Imports: $NA
commodities: consumer goods
partners: principally Australia

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1-1.5281 (January
1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3667 (1994),
1.4704, (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

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