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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 101.19 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 45.56 years
male: 43.79 years
female: 47.38 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.4 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Burundian(s)
adjective: Burundi

Ethnic groups: Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%,
Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000

Religions: Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%),
indigenous beliefs 32%, Muslim 1%

Languages: Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake
Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 35.3%
male: 49.3%
female: 22.5% (1995 est.)

@Burundi:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
conventional short form: Burundi
local long form: Republika y'u Burundi
local short form: Burundi

Data code: BY

Government type: republic

National capital: Bujumbura

Administrative divisions: 15 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi,
Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba,
Muramvya, Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian
administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution: 13 March 1992; provides for establishment of a plural
political system

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary
law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Pierre BUYOYA (interim president since 27
September 1996); note-former President NTIBANTUNGANYA was overthrown
in a coup on 25 July 1996 and took refuge for 11 months in the US
ambassador's residence in Bujumbura; former Major (retired) Pierre
BUYOYA has not been recognized as president of Burundi by the US or
most other governments
head of government: Prime Minister Pascal-Firmin NDIMIRA (since 31
July 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by prime minister
elections: NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (81 seats; members are popularly elected on a proportional
basis to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 29 June 1993 (scheduled to be held in 1998,
although no date has been set)
election results: percent of vote by party-FRODEBU 71%, UPRONA 21.4%;
seats by party - FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16; other parties won too small
shares of the vote to win seats in the assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders: Unity for National Progress or UPRONA
[Charles MUKASI, president]; Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Jean
MINANI, president]; Socialist Party of Burundi or PSB; People's
Reconciliation Party or PRP [Mathias HITIMANA, leader]; opposition
parties, legalized in March 1992, include Burundi African Alliance for
the Salvation or ABASA; Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social
Development or RADDES [Cyrille SIGEJEJE, chairman]; and Party for
National Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA, leader]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC,
CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Henri
SIMBAKWTRA
chancery: Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Morris N. HUGHES, Jr. (27 June l996)
embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
telephone: [257] (2) 223454
FAX: [257] (2) 222926

Flag description: divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels
(top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a
white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed
stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star
above, two stars below)

@Burundi:Economy

Economy-overview: Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country in an
early stage of economic development. The economy is predominately
agricultural with roughly 90% of the population dependent on
subsistence agriculture. Its economic health depends on the coffee
crop, which accounts for 80% of foreign exchange earnings. The ability
to pay for imports therefore rests largely on the vagaries of the
climate and the international coffee market. As part of its economic
reform agenda, launched in February 1991 with IMF and World Bank
support, Burundi is trying to diversify its agricultural exports,
attract foreign investment in industry, and modernize government
budgetary practices. Since October 1993 the nation has suffered from
massive ethnic-based violence which has resulted in the death of
perhaps 100,000 persons and the displacement of a million others.
Foods, medicines, and electricity remain in short supply. An
impoverished and disorganized government can hardly implement the
needed reform programs.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$4 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4.4% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$660 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 56%
industry: 18%
services: 26% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 26% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.9 million
by occupation: agriculture 93.0%, government 4.0%, industry and
commerce 1.5%, services 1.5% (1983 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $222 million
expenditures: $258 million, including capital expenditures of $92
million (1995 est.)

Industries: light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap;
assembly of imported components; public works construction; food
processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 43,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 158 million kWh (1995)
note: imports some electricity from Democratic Republic of the Congo

Electricity-consumption per capita: 32 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet
potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); meat, milk, hides

Exports:
total value: $40 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: coffee 81%, tea, cotton, hides
partners: EU 60%, US 7%, Asia 1%

Imports:
total value: $127 million (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: capital goods 26%, petroleum products, foodstuffs,
consumer goods
partners: EU 47%, Asia 25%, US 6%

Debt-external: $1.1 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Burundi franc (FBu) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Burundi francs (FBu) per US$1-412.59 (January 1998),
352.35 (1997), 302.75 (1996), 249.76 (1995), 252.66 (1994), 242.78
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 7,200 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: primitive system
domestic: sparse system of open wire, radiotelephone communications,
and low-capacity microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 4,500 (1993 est.)

@Burundi:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 14,480 km
paved: 1,028 km
unpaved: 13,452 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: Lake Tanganyika

Ports and harbors: Bujumbura

Airports: 4 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Burundi:Military

Military branches: Army (includes naval and air units), paramilitary
Gendarmerie

Military manpower-military age: 16 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,203,518 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 627,587 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 69,030 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $25 million (1993)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.6% (1993)

@Burundi:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

CAMBODIA

@Cambodia:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between
Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 181,040 sq km
land: 176,520 sq km
water: 4,520 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Oklahoma

Land boundaries:
total: 2,572 km
border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km

Coastline: 443 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season
(December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m

Natural resources: timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese,
phosphates, hydropower potential

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 11%
forests and woodland: 66%
other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 920 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding;
occasional droughts

Environment-current issues: logging activities throughout the country
and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with
Thailand are resulting in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in
particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural
fisheries); deforestation; soil erosion; in rural areas, a majority of
the population does not have access to potable water

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Marine Life
Conservation, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping

Geography-note: a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong
River and Tonle Sap

@Cambodia:People

Population: 11,339,562 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 2,611,684; female 2,533,313)
15-64 years: 52% (male 2,729,598; female 3,119,579)
65 years and over: 3% (male 142,836; female 202,552) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.51% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 41.63 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 16.49 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 106.76 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 47.99 years
male: 46.64 years
female: 49.41 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.81 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cambodian(s)
adjective: Cambodian

Ethnic groups: Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%

Religions: Theravada Buddhism 95%, other 5%

Languages: Khmer (official), French

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 35%
male: 48%
female: 22% (1990 est.)

@Cambodia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
conventional short form: Cambodia
local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea
local short form: Kampuchea

Data code: CB

Government type: multiparty liberal democracy under a constitutional
monarchy established in September 1993

National capital: Phnom Penh

Administrative divisions: 20 provinces (khett, singular and plural)
and 3 municipalities* (krong, singular and plural); Banteay Mean
Cheay, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe,
Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Keb*, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri,
Otdar Mean Cheay, Phnum Penh*, Pouthisat, Preah Seihanu*
(Sihanoukville), Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab,
Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev
note: there may be a new municipality called Pailin

Independence: 9 November 1949 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 November 1949

Constitution: promulgated 21 September 1993

Legal system: currently being defined

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated 24 September 1993)
head of government: power shared between First Prime Minister UNG HUOT
(since NA August 1997) and Second Prime Minister HUN SEN (since NA
1993); note-former First Prime Minister Prince Norodom RANARIDDH
deposed in July 1997 by forces loyal to HUN SEN
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the king
elections: none; the king is a constitutional monarch; prime ministers
appointed by the king

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (120 seats; members
elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 23 May 1993 (next to be held 26 July 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-FUNCINPEC 58, CPP 51, BLDP 10, MOLINAKA 1
note: the May 1993 elections were for the Constituent Assembly which
became the National Assembly after the new constitution was
promulgated in September 1993

Judicial branch: Supreme Council of the Magistracy, provided for in
the constitution, was formed in December 1997

Political parties and leaders: National United Front for an
Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC),
Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH; Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian
People's Party (CPP), CHEA SIM; Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party
(BLDP), SON SANN; Buddhist Liberal Party (BLP), IENG MOULY; National
Solidarity Party (also known as Democratic Kampuchea, also known as
the Khmer Rouge), KHIEU SAMPHAN; Movement Pour La Liberation Nationale
Khmere (MOLINAKA), PROM NEAKAREACH; Khmer Nation Party (KNP), SAM
RANGSI

International organization participation: ACCT, AsDB, ASEAN
(observer), CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO
(subscriber), ITU, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador VAR HUOTH
chancery: 4500 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742
FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth M. QUINN
embassy: 27 EO Street 240, Phnom Penh
mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546
telephone: [855] (23) 216-436, 216-438
FAX: [855] (23) 216-437

Flag description: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double
width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor
Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band

@Cambodia:Economy

Economy-overview: After four years of solid macroeconomic performance,
Cambodia's economy slowed dramatically in 1997 due to the twin shocks
of the regional economic crisis and the July violence and political
infighting. Economic growth fell from 6.5% in 1996 to 1.5% in 1997,
foreign investment slowed, and tourism declined 16% from 1996 levels.
Despite these difficulties, inflation accelerated only slightly to
9.5%; the government managed to keep the national budget in balance
even with increased expenditures on the military and police; and the
economy ran a small balance of payments surplus. The future payments
could be adversely affected by the currency crises in Thailand,
Malaysia, and Indonesia, which tends to make Cambodia's exports more
expensive at the same time imports from these countries become
cheaper. The long-term development of the economy after decades of war
remains a daunting challenge. Human resource levels in the population
are low, particularly in the poverty-ridden countryside. The almost
total lack of basic infrastructure in the countryside will continue to
hinder development. Recurring political instability hinders foreign
investment. Corruption and inexperience among Cambodia's government
officials will serve as a further drag on the economy.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$7.7 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 1.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$715 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 47.3%
industry: 15.4%
services: 37.3% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 9.5% (1997 est.)

Labor force: 2.5 million to 3 million
by occupation: agriculture 80% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $261 million
expenditures: $496 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995 est.)

Industries: rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber,
cement, gem mining, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1995 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 35,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 190 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 18 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: rice, rubber, corn, vegetables

Exports:
total value: $615 million (1996 est.)
commodities: timber, garments, rubber, soybeans, sesame
partners: Singapore, Japan, Thailand, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia,
US

Imports:
total value: $1 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: cigarettes, construction materials, petroleum products,
machinery, motor vehicles
partners: Singapore, Vietnam, Japan, Australia, Hong Kong, Indonesia

Debt-external: $2.2 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: international donors pledged a total of $1.8 billion in 1995 and
1996

Currency: 1 new riel (CR) = 100 sen

Exchange rates: riels (CR) per US$1-3,537.0 (January 1998), 2,946.3
(1997), 2,624.1 (1996), 2,450.8 (1995), 2,545.3 (1994), 2,689.0 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 7,000 (1981 est.)

Telephone system: service barely adequate for government requirements
and virtually nonexistent for general public
domestic: NA
international: landline international service limited to Vietnam and
other adjacent countries; satellite earth station-1 Intersputnik
(Indian Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 10, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 5

Televisions: 800,000 (1996 est.)

@Cambodia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 603 km
narrow gauge: 603 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 35,769 km
paved: 4,165 km
unpaved: 31,604 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 3,700 km navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 m; 282 km
navigable to craft drawing 1.8 m

Ports and harbors: Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville), Kampot, Krong Kaoh
Kong, Phnom Penh

Merchant marine:
total: 87 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 390,566 GRT/556,743 DWT
ships by type: bulk 10, cargo 66, container 2, livestock carrier 2,
oil tankers 3, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships of 7 countries:
Aruba 1, Cyprus 8, Egypt 1, South Korea 1, Malta 1, Panama 1, Russia 5
(1997 est.)

Airports: 20 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 10 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1997 est.)

@Cambodia:Military

Military branches: Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF)-created in 1993
by the merger of the Cambodian People's Armed Forces and the two
noncommunist resistance armies
note: there are also resistance forces comprised of the Khmer Rouge
(also known as the National United Army or NUA) and a separate
royalist resistance movement

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 2,477,842 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,381,787 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 113,098 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $160 million (1996)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Cambodia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: offshore islands and sections of the boundary
with Vietnam are in dispute; maritime boundary with Vietnam not
defined; parts of border with Thailand are indefinite; maritime
boundary with Thailand not clearly defined

Illicit drugs: transshipment site for Golden Triangle heroin en route
to West; possible money-laundering; high-level narcotics-related
corruption reportedly involving government, military, and police;
possible small-scale opium, heroin, and amphetamine production; large
producer of cannabis for the international market

______________________________________________________________________

CAMEROON

@Cameroon:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between
Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 N, 12 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 475,440 sq km
land: 469,440 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total: 4,591 km
border countries: Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km,
Republic of the Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km,
Nigeria 1,690 km

Coastline: 402 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 50 nm

Climate: varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid
and hot in north

Terrain: diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau
in center, mountains in west, plains in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Fako 4,095 m

Natural resources: petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower
potential

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 78%
other: 3% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 210 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recent volcanic activity with release of poisonous
gases

Environment-current issues: water-borne diseases are prevalent;
deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography-note: sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa

@Cameroon:People

Population: 15,029,433 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (male 3,468,861; female 3,436,814)
15-64 years: 51% (male 3,795,748; female 3,829,824)
65 years and over: 3% (male 224,881; female 273,305) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.81% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 42.06 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 13.96 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 76.88 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 51.44 years
male: 49.9 years
female: 53.03 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.86 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cameroonian(s)
adjective: Cameroonian

Ethnic groups: Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi
11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other
African 13%, non-African less than 1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 33%, Muslim 16%

Languages: 24 major African language groups, English (official),
French (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 63.4%
male: 75%
female: 52.1% (1995 est.)

@Cameroon:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon
conventional short form: Cameroon
former: French Cameroon

Data code: CM

Government type: unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime
(opposition parties legalized 1990)

National capital: Yaounde

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est,
Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest

Independence: 1 January 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French
administration)

National holiday: National Day, 20 May (1972)

Constitution: 20 May 1972

Legal system: based on French civil law system, with common law
influence; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)
head of government: Prime Minister Peter Mafany MUSONGE (since 19
September 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
election last held 12 October 1997 (next to be held NA October 2004);
prime minister appointed by the president
election results: President Paul BIYA reelected; percent of vote-Paul
BIYA 93%; note - supporters of the opposition candidates boycotted the
elections, making a comparison of vote shares relatively meaningless

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (180 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve five-year terms; note-the president can either lengthen or
shorten the term of the legislature)
elections: last held 11 May 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-CDPM
109, SDF 43, UNDP 13, UDC 5, UPC-K 1, MDR 1, MLJC 1; note-7 contested
seats will be filled in an election at a time to be set by the Supreme
Court
note: the constitution calls for an upper chamber for the legislature,
to be called Senate, which the government says will be established in
1998

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Cameroon People's Democratic Movement
or CPDM (government-controlled and the only party until legalization
of opposition parties in 1990) [Paul BIYA, president]
major opposition parties: Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou
NDAM NJOYA]; Movement for the Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole
DAISSALA, leader]; Movement for the Youth of Cameroon or MLJC [ Marcel
YANDO, leader]; National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP
[Maigari BELLO BOUBA, chairman]; Social Democratic Front or SDF [John
FRU NDI, leader]; Union of Cameroonian Populations or UPC [Augustin
Frederick KODOG, leader]; Union of Cameroonian Democratic Forces or
UFOC [Victorin Hameni BIELEU]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Alliance for Change or FAC;
Cameroon Anglophone Movement or CAM [Vishe FAI, secretary general]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, C,
CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UNITAR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jerome MENDOUGA
chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-8790 through 8794

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Charles H. TWINING
embassy: Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde
mailing address: B. P. 817, Yaounde; Pouch: American Embassy DOS,
Washington, DC 20521-2520
telephone: [237] 23-40-14, 23-05-12
FAX: [237] 23-07-53

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side),
red, and yellow with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red
band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Cameroon:Economy

Economy-overview: Because of its oil resources and favorable
agricultural conditions, Cameroon has one of the best-endowed primary
commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Still, it faces many of the
serious problems facing other underdeveloped countries, such as a
top-heavy civil service and a generally unfavorable climate for
business enterprise. The development of the oil sector led to rapid
economic growth between 1970 and 1985. Growth came to an abrupt halt
in 1986, precipitated by steep declines in the prices of major
exports: petroleum, coffee, and cocoa. Export earnings were cut by
almost one-third, and inefficiencies in fiscal management were
exposed. Since 1990, the government has embarked on various IMF and
World Bank programs designed to spur business investment, increase
efficiency in agriculture, improve trade, and recapitalize the
nation's banks. The government, however, failed to press forward
vigorously with these programs. The latest enhanced structural
adjustment agreement was signed in October 1997; the parties hope this
will prove more successful, yet government mismanagement remains a
problem. Inflation, which rose to 48% after the devaluation of 1994,
has been brought back under control. Progress toward privatization of
remaining state industry remains slow. President BIYA's new government
of December 1997 has replaced old hands in the government economic
control structure with promising technocrats.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$30.9 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,100 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 32%
industry: 27%
services: 41% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3% (1997 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $2.23 billion
expenditures: $2.23 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY96/97 est.)

Industries: petroleum production and refining, food processing, light
consumer goods, textiles, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 627,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 2.715 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 201 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed,
grains, root starches; livestock; timber

Exports:
total value: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans,
aluminum, coffee, cotton
partners: EU (particularly France, Italy, and Spain) about 60%,
African countries, Korea, Taiwan, and China

Imports:
total value: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machines and electrical equipment, food, consumer goods,
transport equipment, petroleum products
partners: EU (France 40%), African countries, US 7%

Debt-external: $10 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid: France signed two loan agreements totaling $55 million
in September 1997 and the Paris Club agreed in October 1997 to reduce
the official debt by 50% and to reschedule it on favorable terms with
a consolidation of payments due through 2000

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1-608.36 (January 1998),
583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16
(1993)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 36,737 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: available only to business and government
domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 11, shortwave 0

Radios: 2 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: NA

@Cameroon:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,104 km
narrow gauge: 1,104 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways:
total: 34,300 km
paved: 4,288 km
unpaved: 30,012 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 2,090 km; of decreasing importance

Ports and harbors: Bonaberi, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Tiko

Merchant marine:
total: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,122 GRT/33,509
DWT (1996 est.)

Airports: 52 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 41
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 19
under 914 m: 14 (1997 est.)

@Cameroon:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry), Air Force,
National Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 3,287,626 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,663,852 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 160,640 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $102 million (FY93/94)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Cameroon:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: demarcation of international boundaries in the
vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in
the past, is completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad,
Niger, and Nigeria; dispute with Nigeria over land and maritime
boundaries in the vicinity of the Bakasi Peninsula has been referred
to the ICJ with a ruling expected in 1998

______________________________________________________________________

CANADA

@Canada:Geography

Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean
and North Pacific Ocean, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map references: North America

Area:
total: 9,976,140 sq km
land: 9,220,970 sq km
water: 755,170 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than US

Land boundaries:
total: 8,893 km
border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Coastline: 243,791 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in
north

Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in
southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Logan 5,950 m

Natural resources: nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum,
potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 3%
forests and woodland: 54%
other: 38% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 7,100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle
to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a
result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North
American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow

Environment-current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain
severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting,
coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on
agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming
contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry
activities

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Life
Conservation

Geography-note: second-largest country in world (after Russia);
strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; nearly
90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US/Canada
border

@Canada:People

Population: 30,675,398 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20% (male 3,106,331; female 2,961,328)
15-64 years: 68% (male 10,457,686; female 10,328,953)
65 years and over: 12% (male 1,619,704; female 2,201,396) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.09% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 12.12 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.25 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.59 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.16 years
male: 75.86 years
female: 82.63 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.65 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Canadian(s)
adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups: British Isles origin 40%, French origin 27%, other
European 20%, Amerindian 1.5%, other, mostly Asian 11.5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 45%, United Church 12%, Anglican 8%, other
35% (1991)

Languages: English (official), French (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97% (1986 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Canada:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Canada

Data code: CA

Government type: federation with parliamentary democracy

National capital: Ottawa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 2 territories*; Alberta,
British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest
Territories*, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec,
Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*
note: the Northwest Territories will be split in two as of April 1999;
the eastern section, which will be self-governing, will be renamed
Nunavut, the west is as yet unnamed

Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK)

National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution: 17 April 1982 (Constitution Act); originally, the
machinery of the government was set up in the British North America
Act of 1867; charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where
civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Romeo LeBLANC (since 8 February 1995)
head of government: Prime Minister Jean CHRETIEN (since 4 November
1993)
cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister from among the
members of his own party sitting in Parliament
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
appointed by the queen on the advice of the prime minister for a
five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the
majority party in the House of Commons is automatically designated by
the governor general to become prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the
Senate or Senat (a body whose members are appointed to serve until
reaching 75 years of age by the governor general and selected on the
advice of the prime minister; its normal limit is 104 senators) and
the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (301 seats; members
elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Commons-last held 2 June 1997 (next to be held by
NA June 2002)
election results: percent of votes by party-Liberal Party 38%, Reform
Party 19%, Tories 19%, Bloc Quebecois 11%, New Democratic Party 11%,
other 2%; seats by party - Liberal Party 155, Reform Party 60, Bloc
Quebecois 44, New Democratic Party 21, Progressive Conservative Party
20, independents 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the prime
minister through the governor general

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party [Jean CHRETIEN]; Bloc
Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Reform Party [Preston MANNING]; New
Democratic Party [Alexa MCDONOUGH]; Progressive Conservative Party
[Jean CHAREST]

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer),
APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE
(observer), CP, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state), FAO,
G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIPONUH, MTCR, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS,
OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Raymond A. J. CHRETIEN
chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740
FAX: [1] (202) 682-7726
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas,
Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and Seattle
consulate(s): Miami, Princeton, San Diego, San Francisco, and San Jose

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gordon GIFFIN
embassy: 100 Wellington Street, K1P 5T1, Ottawa
mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430
telephone: [1] (613) 238-5335, 4470
FAX: [1] (613) 238-5720
consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and
Vancouver

Flag description: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white
(double width, square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the
white band

@Canada:Economy

Economy-overview: As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada
today closely resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system,
pattern of production, and high living standards. Since World War II,
the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service
sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into
one primarily industrial and urban. Canada started the 1990s in
recession, and real rates of growth have averaged only 1.1% so far
this decade. Because of slower growth, Canada still faces high
unemployment-especially in Quebec and the Maritime Provinces-and a
large public sector debt. With its great natural resources, skilled
labor force, and modern capital plant, however, Canada will enjoy
better economic prospects in the future. The continuing constitutional
impasse between English- and French-speaking areas is raising the
possibility of a split in the federation, making foreign investors
somewhat edgy.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$658 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$21,700 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 3%
industry: 31%
services: 66% (1997)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1.8% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 15.3 million (1997)
by occupation: services 75%, manufacturing 16%, agriculture 3%,
construction 5%, other 1% (1997)

Unemployment rate: 8.6% (December 1997)

Budget:
revenues: $106.5 billion
expenditures: $117.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.7
billion (1996)

Industries: processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood
and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish
products, petroleum and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 1.7% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 113.645 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 532.64 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 17,448 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits,
vegetables; dairy products; forest products; commercial fisheries
provide annual catch of 1.5 million metric tons, of which 75% is
exported

Exports:
total value: $208.6 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: newsprint, wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, machinery,
natural gas, aluminum, motor vehicles and parts; telecommunications
equipment
partners: US, Japan, UK, Germany, South Korea, Netherlands, China

Imports:
total value: $194.4 billion (c.i.f., 1997)
commodities: crude oil, chemicals, motor vehicles and parts, durable
consumer goods, computers; telecommunications equipment and parts
partners: US, Japan, UK, Germany, France, Mexico, Taiwan, South Korea

Debt-external: $253 billion (1996)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $1.6 billion (1995)
note: ODA and OOF commitments, $10.1 billion (1986-91)

Currency: 1 Canadian dollar (Can$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1-1.4408 (January
1998), 1.3846 (1997), 1.3635 (1996), 1.37241 (1995), 1.3656 (1994),
1.2901 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 15.3 million (1990)

Telephone system: excellent service provided by modern technology
domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
international: 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations-5
Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik
(Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 900, FM 29, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 70 (repeaters 1,400) (1991)

Televisions: 11.53 million (1983 est.)

@Canada:Transportation

Railways:
total: 72,963 km; note-there are two major transcontinental freight
railway systems: Canadian National (privatized November 1995) and
Canadian Pacific Railway; passenger service provided by
government-operated firm VIA, which has no trackage of its own
standard gauge: 72,963 km 1.435-m gauge (183 km electrified) (1996)

Highways:
total: 1.021 million km
paved: 358,371 km (including 19,000 km of expressways)
unpaved: 662,629 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 3,000 km, including Saint Lawrence Seaway

Pipelines: crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km

Ports and harbors: Becancour (Quebec), Churchill, Halifax, Hamilton,
Montreal, New Westminster, Prince Rupert, Quebec, Saint John (New
Brunswick), Saint John's (Newfoundland), Sept Isles, Sydney,
Trois-Rivieres, Thunder Bay, Toronto, Vancouver, Windsor

Merchant marine:
total: 57 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 638,267 GRT/902,923 DWT
ships by type: bulk 10, cargo 9, chemical tanker 4, oil tanker 16,
passenger 2, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 7, short-sea passenger 5, specialized tanker 1
note: does not include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes (1997
est.)

Airports: 1,393 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 515
over 3,047 m: 17
2,438 to 3,047 m: 16
1,524 to 2,437 m: 149
914 to 1,523 m: 240
under 914 m: 93 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 878
1,524 to 2,437 m: 73
914 to 1,523 m: 350
under 914 m: 455 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 17 (1997 est.)

@Canada:Military

Military branches: Canadian Armed Forces (includes Land Forces Command
or LC, Maritime Command or MC, Air Command or AC, Communications
Command or CC, Training Command or TC), Royal Canadian Mounted Police
(RCMP)

Military manpower-military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 8,200,963 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 7,033,996 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 209,679 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $7.1 billion (FY97/98)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY97/98)

@Canada:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: maritime boundary disputes with the US (Dixon
Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Machias Seal Island)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug
market; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large
quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; growing role as a
transit point for heroin and cocaine entering the US market

______________________________________________________________________

CAPE VERDE

@Cape Verde:Geography

Location: Western Africa, group of Islands in the North Atlantic
Ocean, west of Senegal

Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 24 00 W

Map references: World

Area:
total: 4,030 sq km
land: 4,030 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 965 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very
erratic

Terrain: steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico 2,829 m

Natural resources: salt, basalt rock, pozzuolana (a siliceous volcanic
ash used to produce hydraulic cement), limestone, kaolin, fish

Land use:
arable land: 11%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 6%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 83% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can obscure
visibility; volcanically and seismically active

Environment-current issues: overgrazing of livestock and improper land
use such as the cultivation of crops on steep slopes has led to soil
erosion; demand for wood used as fuel has resulted in deforestation;
desertification; environmental damage has threatened several species
of birds and reptiles; overfishing

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental
Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa
near major north-south sea routes; important communications station;
important sea and air refueling site

@Cape Verde:People

Population: 399,857 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (male 92,175; female 90,557)
15-64 years: 48% (male 90,183; female 102,541)
65 years and over: 6% (male 9,765; female 14,636) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.49% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 34.47 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.04 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -12.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 47.53 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.5 years
male: 67.21 years
female: 73.89 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.08 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cape Verdean(s)
adjective: Cape Verdean

Ethnic groups: Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%

Religions: Roman Catholicism fused with indigenous beliefs

Languages: Portuguese, Crioulo, a blend of Portuguese and West African
words

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.6%
male: 81.4%
female: 63.8% (1995 est.)

@Cape Verde:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Cape Verde
conventional short form: Cape Verde
local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde
local short form: Cabo Verde

Data code: CV

Government type: republic

National capital: Praia

Administrative divisions: 14 districts (concelhos, singular-concelho);
Boa Vista, Brava, Fogo, Maio, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande,
Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Nicolau, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal
note: there may be a new administrative structure of 16 districts (Boa
Vista, Brava, Maio, Mosteiros, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira
Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Domingos, Sao Nicolau,
Sao Filipe, Sao Vicente, Tarrafa)

Independence: 5 July 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1975)

Constitution: new constitution came into force 25 September 1992

Legal system: derived from the legal system of Portugal

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro (since 22 March
1991)
head of government: Prime Minister Carlos Alberto Wahnon de Carvalho
VEIGA (since 13 January 1991)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the prime minister from among the members of the
National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 18 February 1996 (next to be held NA February
2001); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and appointed
by the president
election results: Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro elected president;
percent of vote-Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro (independent) 80.1%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia
Nacional (72 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 17 December 1995 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party-MPD 59%, PAICV 28%, PCD 6%;
seats by party - MPD 50, PAICV 21, PCD 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal de
Justia

Political parties and leaders: Movement for Democracy or MPD [Prime
Minister Carlos VEIGA, founder and president]; African Party for
Independence of Cape Verde or PAICV [Pedro Verona Rodrigues PIRES,
chairman]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD; Social Democratic
Party or PSD [Joao ALEM, president]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Deputy Chief of Mission is
Charge d'Affaires Manuel MATOS
chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 965-6820
FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207
consulate(s) general: Boston

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lawrence Neal BENEDICT (17 June 1996)
embassy: Rua Abilio Macedo 81, Praia
mailing address: C. P. 201, Praia
telephone: [238] 61 56 16
FAX: [238] 61 13 55

Flag description: three horizontal bands of light blue (top, double
width), white (with a horizontal red stripe in the middle third), and
light blue; a circle of 10 yellow five-pointed stars is centered on
the hoist end of the red stripe and extends into the upper and lower
blue bands

@Cape Verde:Economy

Economy-overview: Cape Verde's low per capita GDP reflects a poor
natural resource base, serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles
of long-term drought, and a high birth rate. The economy is
service-oriented, with commerce, transport, and public services
accounting for almost 70% of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the
population lives in rural areas, the share of agriculture in GDP in
1995 was only 8%, of which fishing accounts for 1.5%. About 90% of
food must be imported. The fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna,
is not fully exploited. Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit,
financed by foreign aid and remittances from emigrants; remittances
constitute a supplement to GDP of more than 20%. Economic reforms,
launched by the new democratic government in 1991, are aimed at
developing the private sector and attracting foreign investment to
diversify the economy. Prospects for 1998 depend heavily on the
maintenance of aid flows, remittances, and the momentum of the
government's development program.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$538 million (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,370 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 8%
industry: 18%
services: 74% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 6.2% (1996)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA %

Budget:
revenues: $188 million
expenditures: $228 million, including capital expenditures of $116
million (1996)

Industries: food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments,
salt mining, ship repair,

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 7,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 40 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 92 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes, sugarcane,
coffee, peanuts; fish

Exports:
total value: $12.8 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: shoes, garments, fish, bananas, hides,
partners: Portugal, Spain, France, UK

Imports:
total value: $237 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, consumer goods, industrial products,
transport equipment, fuels
partners: Portugal 41%, Netherlands, France, Spain, US

Debt-external: $202 million (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $70 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Cape Verdean escudo (CVEsc) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Cape Verdean escudos (CVEsc) per US$1-95.400 (December
1997), 93.177 (1997), 82.591 (1996), 76.853 (1995), 81.891 (1994),
80.427 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 22,900 (1995 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: interisland microwave radio relay system with both analog
and digital exchanges; work is in progress on a submarine fiber-optic
cable system scheduled for completion in 1998
international: 2 coaxial submarine cables; HF radiotelephone to
Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station-1 Intelsat
(Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997 est.)

Televisions: 7,000 (1991 est.)

@Cape Verde:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 1,100 km
paved: 858 km
unpaved: 242 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Mindelo, Praia, Tarrafal

Merchant marine:
total: 4 (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,620 GRT/13,920 DWT
ships by type: cargo 3, chemical tanker 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 6 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 5 (1997 est.)

@Cape Verde:Military

Military branches: People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARP; includes
Army and Navy), Security Service

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 81,265 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 46,235 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $3.4 million (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.2% (1997 est.)

@Cape Verde:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment point for illicit
drugs moving from Latin America and Africa destined for Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________

CAYMAN ISLANDS

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Cayman Islands:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island group in Caribbean Sea, nearly one-half of
the way from Cuba to Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 19 30 N, 80 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 260 sq km
land: 260 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 160 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and
cool, relatively dry winters (November to April)

Terrain: low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: The Bluff 43 m

Natural resources: fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 8%
forests and woodland: 23%
other: 69% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes (July to November)

Environment-current issues: no natural fresh water resources, drinking
water supplies must be met by rainwater catchment

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: important location between Cuba and Central America

@Cayman Islands:People

Population: 37,716 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 4.22% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 13.95 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 4.98 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 33.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)
note: major destination for Cubans trying to migrate to the US

Infant mortality rate: 8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.1 years
male: 75.37 years
female: 78.81 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.34 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Caymanian(s)
adjective: Caymanian

Ethnic groups: mixed 40%, white 20%, black 20%, expatriates of various
ethnic groups 20%

Religions: United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational), Anglican,
Baptist, Roman Catholic, Church of God, other Protestant denominations

Languages: English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 98%
male: 98%
female: 98% (1970 est.)

@Cayman Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Cayman Islands

Data code: CJ

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: George Town

Administrative divisions: 8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland, South
Town, Spot Bay, Stake Bay, West End, Western

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Constitution Day (first Monday in July)

Constitution: 1959, revised 1972 and 1992

Legal system: British common law and local statutes

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Governor and President of the Executive Council
John Wynne OWEN (since 15 September 1995)
cabinet: Executive Council (three members appointed by the governor,
four members elected by the Legislative Assembly)
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; the governor is
appointed by the queen

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (18 seats, 3
official members and 15 elected by popular vote; members serve
four-year terms)
elections: last held 20 November 1996 (next to be held NA November
2000)
election results: percent of vote-NA; seats-National Team coalition 9,
independents 6

Judicial branch: Grand Court; Cayman Islands Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: no formal political parties

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CDB,
Interpol (subbureau), IOC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
the UK)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and the Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk
centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms includes a
pineapple and turtle above a shield with three stars (representing the
three islands) and a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto HE HATH
FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS

@Cayman Islands:Economy

Economy-overview: With no direct taxation, the Islands are a thriving
offshore financial center; 28,000 foreign companies do business with
the 600 registered banks and trust companies; banking assets exceed
$500 billion. Tourism is also a mainstay, accounting for about 70% of
GDP and 75% of foreign currency earnings. The tourist industry is
aimed at the luxury market and caters mainly to visitors from North
America. Total tourist arrivals exceeded 1 million visitors in 1995
and again in 1996. About 90% of the islands' food and consumer goods
must be imported. The Caymanians enjoy one of the highest outputs per
capita and one of the highest standards of living in the world.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$860 million (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4.5% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$23,800 (1996 est.)

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