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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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Economy-overview: All economic activity is concentrated on the largest
island of Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities are
located. Construction projects and various services needed to support
the military installations are done by military and contract employees
from the UK, Mauritius, the Philippines, and the US. There are no
industrial or agricultural activities on the islands.

Electricity-capacity: NA kW
note: electricity supplied by the US military

Electricity-production: NA kWh
note: electricity supplied by the US military

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: facilities for military needs only
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: NA

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Transportation

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: short stretch of paved road of NA km between port and airfield
on Diego Garcia
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Diego Garcia

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the UK; the US lease
on Diego Garcia expires in 2016

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: the island of Diego Garcia is claimed by
Mauritius; the Chagos Archipelago is claimed by Seychelles

______________________________________________________________________

BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS

(dependent territory of the UK)

@British Virgin Islands:Geography

Location: Caribbean, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic
Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 30 N, 64 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 150 sq km
land: 150 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes the island of Anegada

Area-comparative: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 80 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

Terrain: coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Sage 521 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 7%
permanent pastures: 33%
forests and woodland: 7%
other: 33% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)

Environment-current issues: limited natural fresh water resources
(except for a few seasonal streams and springs on Tortola, most of the
islands' water supply comes from wells and rainwater catchment)

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto
Rico

@British Virgin Islands:People

Population: 18,705 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 21% (male 2,008; female 1,957)
15-64 years: 74% (male 7,079; female 6,689)
65 years and over: 5% (male 535; female 437) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.41% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 16.15 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 4.76 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 12.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.22 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 22.97 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.94 years
male: 74.19 years
female: 75.73 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.72 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: British Virgin Islander(s)
adjective: British Virgin Islander

Ethnic groups: black 90%, white, Asian

Religions: Protestant 86% (Methodist 45%, Anglican 21%, Church of God
7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%,
other 2%), Roman Catholic 6%, none 2%, other 6% (1981)

Languages: English (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.8% (1991 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@British Virgin Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: British Virgin Islands
abbreviation: BVI

Data code: VI

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: Road Town

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Territory Day, 1 July

Constitution: 1 June 1977

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor David MACKILLIGIN (since NA June 1995)
head of government: Chief Minister Ralph T. O'NEAL (since 15 May 1995;
appointed after the death of former Chief Minister H. Lavity STOUTT)
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from members of
the Legislative Council
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor appointed
by the queen; chief minister appointed by the governor from among the
members of the Legislative Council

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (13 seats; members
are elected by direct popular vote, 1 member from each of 9 electoral
districts, 4 at large members; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 20 February 1995 (next to be held NA February
2000)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-VIP 6,
CCM 2, UP 2, independents 3

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, one judge of the
Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the High
Court

Political parties and leaders: United Party or UP [Conrad MADURO];
Virgin Islands Party or VIP [Ralph T. O'NEAL]; Concerned Citizens
Movement or CCM [E. Walwyn BREWLEY]; Independent People's Movement or
IPM [Omar HODGE and Allen O'NEAL]

International organization participation: Caricom (associate), CDB,
ECLAC (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, OECS (associate), UNESCO
(associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
the UK)

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer
half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either
side by a vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing the
Latin word VIGILATE (Be Watchful)

@British Virgin Islands:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy, one of the most prosperous in the
Caribbean, is highly dependent on tourism, which generates an
estimated 45% of the national income. In 1985, the government began
offering offshore registration to companies wishing to incorporate in
the islands, and incorporation fees now generate substantial revenues.
An estimated 210,000 companies were on the offshore registry by
yearend 1996. The adoption of a comprehensive insurance law in late
1994, which provides a blanket of confidentiality with regulated
statutory gateways for investigation of criminal offenses, is expected
to make the British Virgin Islands even more attractive to
international business. Livestock raising is the most important
agricultural activity; poor soils limit the islands' ability to meet
domestic food requirements. Because of traditional close links with
the US Virgin Islands, the British Virgin Islands has used the dollar
as their currency since 1959.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$144 million (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4.5% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$11,000 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 3%
industry: 14%
services: 83% (1989)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.5% (1990 est.)

Labor force:
total: 4,911 (1980)
by occupation: tourism NA%

Unemployment rate: 3% (1995)

Budget:
revenues: $77.1 million
expenditures: $76.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY93/94)

Industries: tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete
block, offshore financial center

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1985)

Electricity-capacity: 13,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 42 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 3,224 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: fruits, vegetables; livestock, poultry; fish

Exports:
total value: $3.4 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities: rum, fresh fish, fruits, animals; gravel, sand
partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Imports:
total value: $11.5 million (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities: building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery
partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Debt-external: $4.5 million (1985)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 6,291 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: worldwide telephone service
domestic: NA
international: submarine cable to Bermuda

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1995)

Radios: 9,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 4,000 (1992 est.)

@British Virgin Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 113 km (1995 est.)
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Road Town

Merchant marine: none (1995 est.)

Airports: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@British Virgin Islands:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@British Virgin Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

BRUNEI

@Brunei:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and
Malaysia

Geographic coordinates: 4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 5,770 sq km
land: 5,270 sq km
water: 500 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries:
total: 381 km
border countries: Malaysia 381 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland
in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 85%
other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are very
rare

Environment-current issues: seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest
fires in Indonesia

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea
linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by
Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia

@Brunei:People

Population: 315,292 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33% (male 53,219; female 50,906)
15-64 years: 63% (male 103,949; female 93,370)
65 years and over: 4% (male 7,569; female 6,279) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.44% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 24.92 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.17 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.21 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 23.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.69 years
male: 70.17 years
female: 73.29 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.35 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bruneian(s)
adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic groups: Malay 64%, Chinese 20%, other 16%

Religions: Muslim (official) 63%, Buddhism 14%, Christian 8%,
indigenous beliefs and other 15% (1981)

Languages: Malay (official), English, Chinese

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.2%
male: 92.6%
female: 83.4% (1995 est.)

@Brunei:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form: Brunei

Data code: BX

Government type: constitutional sultanate

National capital: Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah,
singular-daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984)

Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a
State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1
January 1984)

Legal system: based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic
Shari'a law supersedes civil law in a number of areas

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri
Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5
October 1967); note-the sultan is both the chief of state and head of
government
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri
Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5
October 1967); note-the sultan is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by
the sultan; deals with executive matters
note: there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the
sultan) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members
appointed by the sultan) that deals with constitutional matters, and
the Council of Succession (members appointed by the sultan) that
determines the succession to the throne if the need arises
elections: none; the sultan is a traditional Islamic monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council or Majlis Masyuarat
Megeri (a privy council that serves only in a consultative capacity;
NA seats; members appointed by the sultan)
elections: last held in March 1962
note: in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by decree
of the sultan; an elected Legislative Council is being considered as
part of constitutional reform, but elections are unlikely for several
years

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice and judges are sworn in
by the sultan for three-year terms

Political parties and leaders: Brunei United National Party
(inactive), Anak HASANUDDIN, chairman; Brunei National Solidarity
Party (the first legal political party and now banned), Mohamad HATTA
bin Maji Zainal Abidin, secretary general; Brunei Peoples Party
(banned), Sheik A. M. AZAHARI, leader; Brunei National Democratic
Party or BNDP (deregistered), Haji Abdul LATIF bin Abdul Hamad,
president

International organization participation: APEC, ASEAN, C, CCC, ESCAP,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Pengiran Anak Dato Haji PUTEH Ibni
Mohammad Alam
chancery: Watergate, Suite 300, 3rd floor, 2600 Virginia Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 342-0159
FAX: [1] (202) 342-0158

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Glen Robert RASE
embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri
Begawan
mailing address: American Embassy Box B, Bandar Seri Begawan, APO AP
96440
telephone: [673] (2) 229670
FAX: [673] (2) 225293

Flag description: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost
double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the
national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem
includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an
upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

@Brunei:Economy

Economy-overview: This small, wealthy economy is a mixture of foreign
and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation and welfare
measures, and village tradition. It is almost totally supported by
exports of crude oil and natural gas, with revenues from the petroleum
sector accounting for perhaps half of GDP. Per capita GDP is far above
most other Third World countries, and substantial income from overseas
investment supplements income from domestic production. The government
provides for all medical services and subsidizes food and housing. The
government is beginning to show progress on its basic policy of
diversifying the economy away from oil and gas. Brunei's leaders are
concerned that steadily increased integration in the world economy
will undermine internal social cohesion.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$5.4 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$18,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 46%
services: 49% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 144,000 (1995 est.); note-includes foreign workers and military
personnel
by occupation: government 48%, production of oil, natural gas,
services, and construction 42%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 4%,
other 6% (1986 est.)
note: temporary residents make up 41% of labor force (1991)

Unemployment rate: 4.8% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.5 billion
expenditures: $2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $768
million (1995 est.)

Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas,
construction

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 646,000 kW (1997 est.)

Electricity-production: 1.26 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 4,311 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: rice, cassava (tapioca), bananas; water buffalo

Exports:
total value: $2.62 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products
partners: ASEAN 31%, Japan 27%, South Korea 26%, UK, Taiwan (1996
est.)

Imports:
total value: $2.65 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods,
food, chemicals
partners: Singapore 29%, UK 19%, US 13%, Malaysia 9%, Japan 5% (1994
est.)

Debt-external: $0

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Bruneian dollar (B$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1-1.7533 (January 1998),
1.4848 (1997), 1.4100 (1996), 1.4174 (1995), 1.5274 (1994), 1.6158
(1993); note-the Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 90,000 (1997 est.)

Telephone system: service throughout country is excellent;
international service good to Europe, US, and East Asia
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and
1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 284,000 (1995 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1984 est.)

Televisions: 173,000 (1995 est.)

@Brunei:Transportation

Railways:
total: 13 km (private line)
narrow gauge: 13 km 0.610-m gauge

Highways:
total: 1,150 km
paved: 399 km
unpaved: 751 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m

Pipelines: crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas
920 km

Ports and harbors: Bandar Seri Begawan, Kuala Belait, Muara, Seria,
Tutong

Merchant marine:
total: 7 liquefied gas tankers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476
GRT/340,635 DWT (1997 est.)

Airports: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1997 est.)

@Brunei:Military

Military branches: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei Police

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 87,048 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 50,408 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 3,126 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $312 million (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 6.2% (1994)

@Brunei:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient
that divides the country; possibly involved in a complex dispute over
the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, and
Vietnam; in 1984, Brunei established an exclusive fishing zone that
encompasses Louisa Reef in the southern Spratly Islands, but has not
publicly claimed the island

______________________________________________________________________

BULGARIA

@Bulgaria:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between
Romania and Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 43 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 110,910 sq km
land: 110,550 sq km
water: 360 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries:
total: 1,808 km
border countries: Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Montenegro 318 km (all
with Serbia), Turkey 240 km

Coastline: 354 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Musala 2,925 m

Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable
land

Land use:
arable land: 37%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 16%
forests and woodland: 35%
other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,370 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes, landslides

Environment-current issues: air pollution from industrial emissions;
rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents;
deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid
rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants
and industrial wastes

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

Geography-note: strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key
land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia

@Bulgaria:People

Population: 8,240,426 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 16% (male 696,131; female 662,335)
15-64 years: 68% (male 2,756,695; female 2,812,192)
65 years and over: 16% (male 564,698; female 748,375) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.6% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 8.08 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 13.24 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 12.78 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.96 years
male: 68.39 years
female: 75.74 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.14 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bulgarian(s)
adjective: Bulgarian

Ethnic groups: Bulgarian 85.3%, Turk 8.5%, Gypsy 2.6%, Macedonian
2.5%, Armenian 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, other 0.6%

Religions: Bulgarian Orthodox 85%, Muslim 13%, Jewish 0.8%, Roman
Catholic 0.5%, Uniate Catholic 0.2%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian,
and other 0.5%

Languages: Bulgarian, secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic
breakdown

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 97% (1992 est.)

@Bulgaria:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria
conventional short form: Bulgaria

Data code: BU

Government type: republic

National capital: Sofia

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (oblasti, singular-oblast);
Burgas, Grad Sofiya, Khaskovo, Lovech, Montana, Plovdiv, Ruse, Sofiya,
Varna

Independence: 22 September 1908 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 March (1878)

Constitution: adopted 12 July 1991

Legal system: civil law and criminal law based on Roman law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Petar STOYANOV (since 22 January 1997); Vice
President Todor KAVALDZHIEV (since 22 January 1997)
head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime
Minister) Ivan Kostov (since 19 May 1997); Deputy Prime Ministers
Aleksandur BOZHKOV (since 12 February 1997 Evgeniy BAKURDZHIEV (since
21 May 1997), Veselin METODIEV (since 21 May 1997)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 27 October and 3
November 1996 (next to be held NA 2001); chairman of the Council of
Ministers (prime minister) nominated by the president
election results: Petar STOYANOV elected president; percent of
vote-Petar STOYANOV 59.73%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sobranie
(240 seats; members are popularly elected to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 19 April 1997 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party-UDF 52%, BSP 22%, ANS 7%,
Euro-left 5.5%, BBB 4.95%; seats by party-UDF 137, BSP 58, ANS 19,
Euro-left 14, BBB 12

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman appointed for a seven-year
term by the president; Constitutional Court, 12 justices appointed or
elected for a nine-year term

Political parties and leaders: Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP
[Georgi PURVANOV, chairman]; Union of Democratic Forces or UDF (an
alliance of pro-Democratic parties) [Ivan KOSTOV]; Euro-left
[Aleksandur TOMOV]; Alliance for National Salvation or ANS (coalition
led mainly by Movement for Rights and Freedoms or DPS [Ahmed DOGAN]);
Bulgarian Business Bloc or BBB [Georgi GANCHEV]; People's Union
[Anastasiya MOZER and Stefan SAVOV, cochairmen]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Democratic Alliance for the
Republic or DAR; New Union for Democracy or NUD; Podkrepa Labor
Confederation; Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria
or CITUB; Bulgarian Agrarian National Union-United or BZNS; Bulgarian
Democratic Center; "Nikola Petkov" Bulgarian Agrarian National Union;
Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or IMRO; Agrarian
movement; numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with
various agendas

International organization participation: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE,
CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, IIB, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MONUA, NAM (guest), NSG, OSCE, PCA,
PFP, UN, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMOT, UPU, WEU (associate partner),
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Philip DIMITROV
chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-7969
FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973
consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Avis T. BOHLEN
embassy: 1 Saborna Street, Sofia
mailing address: Unit 1335, APO AE 09213-1335
telephone: [359] (2) 980-52-41 through 48
FAX: [359] (2) 981-89-77

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green,
and red; the national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white
stripe has been removed-it contained a rampant lion within a wreath of
wheat ears below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing
the dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation
from Nazi control)

@Bulgaria:Economy

Economy-overview: One of the poorest countries of central Europe,
Bulgaria has slowly been moving from its old command economy towards a
market-oriented economy. The economy faced a major crisis in 1996,
marked by a banking system in turmoil, a depreciating currency, and
contracting production and foreign trade. Foreign exchange reserves
dwindled to $518 million, while dramatically hiked interest rates
added to the domestic debt burden and stifled growth. GDP fell by 11%
in 1996, after experiencing 2.0% growth in 1995. Privatization of
state-owned industries stagnated, although the first auction of a mass
privatization program was undertaken in late 1996. Lagging progress on
structural reforms led to postponement of IMF disbursements under a
$580 million standby loan agreed to in July 1996. In November 1996,
the IMF proposed a currency board as Bulgaria's best chance to restore
confidence in the lev, eliminate unnecessary spending, and avoid
hyperinflation. The board was set up on 1 July 1997. Its establishment
was followed by a reduction in inflation and interest rates and by a
rise in foreign investment. Simultaneously the government pledged to
sell off some of the most attractive state assets. GDP in 1997 dropped
7.4%, but is expected to rebound to an estimated 2% in 1998. Other
government objectives include: the completion of land reform, the
privatization and strengthening of the banking system, and the
modernization of the legal environment of business.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$35.6 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: -7.4% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$4,100 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 12%
industry: 31%
services: 57% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1% (1998 est.)

Labor force:
total: 3.57 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: industry 41%, agriculture 18%, other 41% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 14% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.7 billion
expenditures: $3.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: machine building and metal working, food processing,
chemicals, textiles, construction materials, ferrous and nonferrous
metals

Industrial production growth rate: -7.4% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 12.087 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 41.449 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 4,821 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: grain, oilseed, vegetables, fruits, tobacco;
livestock

Exports:
total value: $4.9 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: machinery and equipment 15.2%; agriculture and food
18.9%; textiles and apparel 14.8%; metals, minerals, and fuels 26.5%;
chemicals and plastics 20%; other 4.6% (1996)
partners: OECD 50.0% (EU 37.2%); CIS and Central and Eastern Europe
32.4%; Arab countries 5.8%; other 11.8% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $4.5 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: fuels, minerals, and raw materials 40.7%; machinery and
equipment 18.4%; textiles and apparel 11.6%; agricultural products
7.5%; metals and ores 5.2%; chemicals and plastics 12.2%; other 4.4%
(1996)
partners: OECD 45.5% (EU 38.1%); CIS and Central and Eastern European
countries 41.1%; Arab countries 1.8%; other 11.6% (1995)

Debt-external: $10 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid: NA

Currency: 1 lev (Lv) = 100 stotinki

Exchange rates: leva (Lv) per US$1-1,740 (1997), 483.4 (1996), 70.7
(1995), 54.2 (1994), 27.1 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 2,773,293 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: almost two-thirds of the lines are residential; 67%
of Sofia households have telephones (November 1988 est.)
domestic: extensive but antiquated transmission system of coaxial
cable and microwave radio relay; telephone service is available in
most villages
international: direct dialing to 36 countries; satellite earth
stations-1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region); Intelsat available
through a Greek earth station

Radio broadcast stations: AM 20, FM 15, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 29 (Russian repeater in Sofia 1)

Televisions: 2.1 million (May 1990 est.)

@Bulgaria:Transportation

Railways:
total: 4,292 km
standard gauge: 4,047 km 1.435-m gauge (2,650 km electrified; 917
double track)
other gauge: 245 km 0.760-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 36,720 km
paved: 33,746 km (including 314 km of expressways)
unpaved: 2,974 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 470 km (1987)

Pipelines: crude oil 193 km; petroleum products 525 km; natural gas
1,400 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Burgas, Lom, Nesebur, Ruse, Varna, Vidin

Merchant marine:
total: 94 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,027,117 GRT/1,541,266
DWT
ships by type: bulk 45, cargo 23, chemical tanker 4, container 2, oil
tanker 9, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 6, short-sea passenger 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 34 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 34
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
under 914 m: 10 (1997 est.)

@Bulgaria:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border
Troops, Internal Troops

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 2,042,441 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,703,879 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 61,643 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $418.6 million (1996)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.0% to 2.5% (1996)

@Bulgaria:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: twenty bilateral agreements remain unsigned in
a dispute over Bulgarian nonrecognition of Macedonian as a language
distinct from Bulgarian

Illicit drugs: major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian
heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the
European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals; significant
producer of amphetamines, much of which are consumed in the Middle
East

______________________________________________________________________

BURKINA FASO

@Burkina Faso:Geography

Location: Western Africa, north of Ghana

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 274,200 sq km
land: 273,800 sq km
water: 400 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Colorado

Land boundaries:
total: 3,192 km
border countries: Benin 306 km, Ghana 548 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km,
Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain: mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west
and southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mouhoun (Black Volta) River 200 m
highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m

Natural resources: manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of
gold, antimony, copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc,
silver

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 22%
forests and woodland: 50%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 200 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts

Environment-current issues: recent droughts and desertification
severely affecting agricultural activities, population distribution,
and the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography-note: landlocked

@Burkina Faso:People

Population: 11,266,393 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (male 2,721,564; female 2,687,770)
15-64 years: 49% (male 2,616,375; female 2,899,923)
65 years and over: 3% (male 146,195; female 194,566) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.72% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 46.24 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 17.65 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 109.15 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 46.1 years
male: 45.38 years
female: 46.85 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.64 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)
adjective: Burkinabe

Ethnic groups: Mossi about 24%, Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande,
Fulani

Religions: indigenous beliefs 40%, Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly Roman
Catholic) 10%

Languages: French (official), tribal languages belonging to Sudanic
family, spoken by 90% of the population

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 19.2%
male: 29.5%
female: 9.2% (1995 est.)

@Burkina Faso:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Burkina Faso
former: Upper Volta

Data code: UV

Government type: parliamentary

National capital: Ouagadougou

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba,
Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houe, Kadiogo,
Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi, Kouritenga, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri,
Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno,
Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Yatenga, Zoundweogo
note: there may be a new administrative structure of 45 provinces
(Bale, Bam, Banwa, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Comoe,
Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Ioba, Kadiogo, Kenedougou,
Komandjari, Kompienga, Kossi, Koupelogo, Kouritenga, Kourweogo,
Leraba, Loroum, Mouhoun, Nahouri, Namentenga, Nayala, Naumbiel,
Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Samentenga, Sanguie, Seno,
Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Tuy, Yagha, Yatenga, Ziro, Zondomo,
Zoundweogo)

Independence: 5 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 4 August (1983)

Constitution: 2 June 1991

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Captain Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October
1987)
head of government: Prime Minister Kadre Desire OUEDRAOGO (since 6
February 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
the number of terms which a president may serve is not limited;
election last held 1 December 1991 (next to be held NA 1998); prime
minister appointed by the president with the consent of the
legislature
election results: Blaise COMPAORE elected president with 90.4% percent
of the votes of those who voted (the abstention rate was 74.7%)

Legislative branch: bicameral; consists of a National Assembly or
Assemblee des Deputes Populaires (ADP) (111 seats; members are
popularly elected to serve five-year terms) and the purely
consultative Chamber of Representations or Chambre des Representants
(120 seats; members are appointed to serve three-year terms)
elections: last held 11 May 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-CDP 101,
PDP 6, RDA 2, ADF 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: African Democratic Assembly or RDA
[Gerard Kango OUEDRAOGO]; Alliance for Democracy and Federation or ADF
[Herman YAMEOGO]; Burkinabe Bolshevic Party or PBB; Burkinabe
Socialist Party or PSB; Burkinabe Socialist Bloc or BSB [Earnest
Nongma OUEDRAOGO, president]; Burkinabe Environmentalist Party or
UVDB; Congress for Democracy and Progress or CDP [Din Salif SAWADAGO]
(the strongest party in the 1997 legislative elections); Front for
Social Forces or FFS [Fide'le KIENTEGA]; Group of Democratic Patriots
or GDP; Movement for Social Tolerance and Progress or MTP; New Social
Democrats or NSD; Open Revolutionary Party or POR; Organization for
People's Democracy-Labor Movement or ODP-MT (ruling party at time of
1992 elections but was incorporated, with about a dozen smaller
parties, into the powerful CDP in February 1996); Party for Democracy
and Progress or PDP [Joseph KI-ZERBO]; Party for Progress and Social
Development or PPDS; Party for African Independence or PAI

Political pressure groups and leaders: watchdog/political action
groups throughout the country in both organizations and communities;
Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB; National
Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB; National Organization of
Free Unions or ONSL

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM,
OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Bruno Nongoma ZIDOUEMBA
chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577, 6895

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sharon P. WILKINSON (16 July 1996)
embassy: Avenue Raoul Follerau, Ouagadougou
mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou
telephone: [226] 306723 through 306726
FAX: [226] 303890

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green
with a yellow five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular
pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Burkina Faso:Economy

Economy-overview: One of the poorest countries in the world,
landlocked Burkina Faso has a high population density, few natural
resources, and a fragile soil. Over 80% of the population is engaged
in subsistence agriculture which is highly vulnerable to variations in
rainfall. Industry remains dominated by unprofitable
government-controlled corporations. Following the African franc
currency devaluation in January 1994 the government updated its
development program in conjunction with international agencies, and
exports and economic growth have increased.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$10.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$950 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 32%
industry: 26%
services: 42% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3% (1996 est.)

Labor force: NA (most adults are employed in subsistence agriculture)
by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry 15%, commerce, services, and
government 5%
note: 20% of male labor force migrates annually to neighboring
countries for seasonal employment (1984)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $277 million
expenditures: $492 million, including capital expenditures of $233
million (1995 est.)

Industries: cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap,
cigarettes, textiles, gold

Industrial production growth rate: 4.2% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 78,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 220 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 21 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, cotton, sorghum,
millet, corn, rice; livestock

Exports:
total value: $298 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: cotton, animal products, gold
partners: Cote d'Ivoire, France, Italy, Mali

Imports:
total value: $500 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: machinery, food products, petroleum
partners: Cote d'Ivoire, France, Togo, Nigeria

Debt-external: $715 million (December 1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1-608.36 (January 1998),
583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16
(1993)
note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100
per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 21,000 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: all services only fair
domestic: microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone
communication stations
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 32, shortwave 1

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 3 (1997)

Televisions: 49,000 (1991 est.)

@Burkina Faso:Transportation

Railways:
total: 622 km (517 km from Ouagadougou to the Cote d'Ivoire border and
105 km from Ouagadougou to Kaya)
narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways:
total: 12,506 km
paved: 2,001 km
unpaved: 10,505 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 33 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 31
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 14 (1997 est.)

@Burkina Faso:Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National
Police, People's Militia

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 2,317,227 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,187,840 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $104 million (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 6.4% (1994)

@Burkina Faso:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

BURMA

@Burma:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of
Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 N, 98 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 678,500 sq km
land: 657,740 sq km
water: 20,760 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,876 km
border countries: Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km,
Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline: 1,930 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers
(southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall,
mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon,
December to April)

Terrain: central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Andaman Sea 0 m
highest point: Hkakabo Razi 5,881 m

Natural resources: petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper,
tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural
gas

Land use:
arable land: 15%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 49%
other: 34% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,680 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and
landslides common during rainy season (June to September); periodic
droughts

Environment-current issues: deforestation; industrial pollution of
air, soil, and water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment
contribute to disease

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the
Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping
lanes

@Burma:People

Population: 47,305,319 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (male 8,798,474; female 8,461,791)
15-64 years: 59% (male 14,052,386; female 14,019,244)
65 years and over: 5% (male 888,773; female 1,084,651) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.65% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 28.96 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 12.51 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 78.35 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 54.51 years
male: 53.03 years
female: 56.08 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Burmese (singular and plural)
adjective: Burmese

Ethnic groups: Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%,
Mon 2%, Indian 2%, other 5%

Religions: Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%),
Muslim 4%, animist beliefs 1%, other 2%

Languages: Burmese, minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.1%
male: 88.7%
female: 77.7% (1995 est.)

@Burma:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Union of Burma
conventional short form: Burma
local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the US
Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar)
local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw
former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma

Data code: BM

Government type: military regime

National capital: Rangoon (regime refers to the capital as Yangon)

Administrative divisions: 7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular-yin) and 7
states (pyine-mya, singular - pyine); Chin State, Ayeyarwady*, Bago*,
Kachin State, Kayin State, Kayah State, Magway*, Mandalay*, Mon State,
Rakhine State, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tanintharyi*, Yangon*

Independence: 4 January 1948 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948)

Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988);
national convention started on 9 January 1993 to draft a new
constitution; chapter headings and three of 15 sections have been
approved

Legal system: does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Prime Minister and Chairman of the State Peace and
Development Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992); note-the
prime minister is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: Prime Minister and Chairman of the State Peace and
Development Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992); note-the
prime minister is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC); military junta,
so named 15 November 1997, which initially assumed power 18 September
1988 under the name State Law and Order Restoration Council; the SPDC
oversees the cabinet
elections: none; the prime minister assumed power upon resignation of
the former prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Pyithu Hluttaw
(485 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never convened
election results: percent of vote by party-NA%; seats by party-NLD
396, NUP 10, other 79

Judicial branch: limited; remnants of the British-era legal system in
place, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary
is not independent of the executive

Political parties and leaders: Union Solidarity and Development
Association (USDA, proregime), THAN AUNG, general secretary; National
Unity Party (NUP, proregime), THA KYAW; National League for Democracy
(NLD), AUNG SHWE, chairman, AUNG SAN SUU KYI, general secretary; and
eight minor legal parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Coalition Government
of the Union of Burma (NCGUB), headed by Dr. SEIN WIN-consists of
individuals legitimately elected to the People's Assembly but not
recognized by the military regime; the group fled to a border area and
joined with insurgents in December 1990 to form a parallel government;
Kachin Independence Army (KIA); United Wa State Army (UWSA); Karen
National Union (KNU); several Shan factions; All Burma Student
Democratic Front (ABSDF)

International organization participation: AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP,
FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador TIN WINN
chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-9044, 9045
FAX: [1] (202) 332-9046
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kent M.
WIEDEMANN
embassy: 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (GPO 521)
mailing address: Box B, APO AP 96546
telephone: [95] (1) 282055, 282181 (operator assistance required)
FAX: [95] (1) 280409

Flag description: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side
corner bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a
cogwheel containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14
administrative divisions

@Burma:Economy

Economy-overview: Burma has a mixed economy with private activity
dominant in agriculture, light industry, and transport, and with
substantial state-controlled activity, mainly in energy, heavy
industry, and the rice trade. Government policy in the last nine
years, 1989-97, has aimed at revitalizing the economy after three
decades of tight central planning. Thus, private activity has markedly
increased; foreign investment has been encouraged, so far with
moderate success; and efforts continue to increase the efficiency of
state enterprises. Published estimates of Burma's foreign trade are
greatly understated because of the volume of black-market trade. A
major ongoing problem is the failure to achieve monetary and fiscal
stability. Although Burma remains a poor Asian country, its rich
resources furnish the potential for substantial long-term increases in
income, exports, and living standards.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$55.7 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,190 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 61%
industry: 10%
services: 29% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 30%-40% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 18.8 million (FY95/96 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 65.2%, industry 14.3%, trade 10.1%,
government 6.3%, other 4.1% (FY88/89 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $7.9 billion
expenditures: $12.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.7
billion (FY96/97)

Industries: agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and
wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials;
pharmaceuticals; fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: 9.2% (FY95/96 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 1.212 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 4.1 billion kWh (FY95/96 est.)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 79 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: paddy rice, corn, oilseed, sugarcane, pulses;
hardwood

Exports:
total value: $693 million (1996)
commodities: pulses and beans, teak, rice, rubber, hardwood
partners: Singapore, China, Indonesia, India, Thailand

Imports:
total value: $1.4 billion (1996)
commodities: machinery, transport equipment, construction materials,
food products, consumer goods
partners: Japan, Singapore, China, Thailand, Malaysia

Debt-external: $5.3 billion (FY94/95 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $61 million (1993)

Currency: 1 kyat (K) = 100 pyas

Exchange rates: kyats (K) per US$1-6.3941 (January 1998) 6.2418
(1997), 5.9176 (1996), 5.6670 (1995), 5.9749 (1994), 6.1570 (1993);
unofficial-310-350 (1998)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 122,195 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: meets minimum requirements for local and intercity
service for business and government; international service is good
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1985 est.)
note: radiobroadcast coverage is limited to the most populous areas

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 88,000 (1992 est.)

@Burma:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,569 km
narrow gauge: 3,569 km 1.000-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 28,200 km
paved: 3,440 km
unpaved: 24,760 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels

Pipelines: crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km

Ports and harbors: Bassein, Bhamo, Chauk, Mandalay, Moulmein,
Myitkyina, Rangoon, Akyab (Sittwe), Tavoy

Merchant marine:
total: 45 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 561,786 GRT/742,450 DWT
ships by type: bulk 15, cargo 18, chemical tanker 1, container 2, oil
tanker 3, passenger-cargo 3, refrigerated cargo 1, vehicle carrier 2
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships of 2 countries:
Japan owns 2 ships, US 3 (1997 est.)

Airports: 80 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 24
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 7 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 56
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 19
under 914 m: 32 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Burma:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 12,208,916
females age 15-49: 11,983,225 (1998 est.)
note: both sexes liable for military service

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 6,523,797
females: 6,387,291 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 488,818
females: 469,850 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $380 million (FY96/97 est.)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Burma:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: world's largest illicit producer of opium (cultivation
in 1997-155,150 hectares, a 5% decline from 1996; potential
production-2,365 metric tons, an 8% drop from 1996) and a minor
producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; surrender of
drug warlord KHUN SA's Mong Tai Army in January 1996 was hailed by
Rangoon as a major counternarcotics success, but lack of serious
government commitment and resources continue to hinder the overall
antidrug effort; growing role in the production of methamphetamines
for regional consumption

______________________________________________________________________

BURUNDI

Introduction

Current issues: in a number of waves since October 1993, hundreds of
thousands of refugees have fled the ethnic violence between the Hutu
and Tutsi factions in Burundi and crossed into Rwanda, Tanzania, and
Zaire (now called Democratic Republic of the Congo); since October
1996, an estimated 92,000 Hutu refuguees have been forced to return to
Burundi by Tutsi rebel forces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo,
leaving an estimated 35,000 still dispersed there; in Burundi, the
ethnic violence between the Hutus and the Tutsis continued in 1996,
causing an additional 150,000 Hutus to flee to Tanzania, thus raising
their numbers in that country to about 250,000

@Burundi:Geography

Location: Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 3 30 S, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 27,830 sq km
land: 25,650 sq km
water: 2,180 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 974 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda 290
km, Tanzania 451 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation
(772 m to 2,760 m); average annual temperature varies with altitude
from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the
average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about
150 cm; wet seasons from February to May and September to November,
and dry seasons from June to August and December to January

Terrain: hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some
plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
highest point: Mount Heha 2,760 m

Natural resources: nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt,
copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium

Land use:
arable land: 44%
permanent crops: 9%
permanent pastures: 36%
forests and woodland: 3%
other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 140 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding, landslides

Environment-current issues: soil erosion as a result of overgrazing
and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation
(little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees
for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography-note: landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo
watershed

@Burundi:People

Population: 5,537,387 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 47% (male 1,313,112; female 1,309,600)
15-64 years: 50% (male 1,331,336; female 1,417,228)
65 years and over: 3% (male 69,718; female 96,393) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.51% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 41.61 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 17.38 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 10.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

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