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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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Imports:
total value: $104.1 million (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts,
vehicles, fabrics, rice
partners: India 77%, Japan, UK, Germany, US

Debt-external: $129 million (FY94/95)

Economic aid:
recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 ngultrum (Nu) = 100 chetrum; note-Indian currency is also
legal tender

Exchange rates: ngultrum (Nu) per US$1-39.358 (January 1998), 36.313
(1997), 35.433 (1996), 32.427 (1995), 31.374 (1994), 30.493 (1993);
note-the Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 4,620 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: domestic telephone service is very poor with very few
telephones in use
international: international telephone and telegraph service is by
landline through India; a satellite earth station was planned (1990)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1990)

Radios: 23,000 (1989 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1990 est.)

Televisions: 200 (1985 est.)

@Bhutan:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 3,285 km
paved: 1,994 km
unpaved: 1,291 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Bhutan:Military

Military branches: Royal Bhutan Army, Palace Guard, Militia

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 466,594 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 248,985 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 18,946 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Bhutan:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: with Nepal over 91,000 Bhutanese refugees in
Nepal

______________________________________________________________________

BOLIVIA

@Bolivia:Geography

Location: Central South America, southwest of Brazil

Geographic coordinates: 17 00 S, 65 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 1,098,580 sq km
land: 1,084,390 sq km
water: 14,190 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
total: 6,743 km
border countries: Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km,
Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

Terrain: rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano),
hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m
highest point: Cerro Illimani 6,882 m

Natural resources: tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten,
antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 24%
forests and woodland: 53%
other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,750 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cold, thin air of high plateau is obstacle to
efficient fuel combustion, as well as to physical activity by those
unaccustomed to it from birth; flooding in the northeast (March-April)

Environment-current issues: the clearing of land for agricultural
purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are
contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor
cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture);
desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water
supplies used for drinking and irrigation

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Tropical
Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping,
Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

Geography-note: landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's
highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru

@Bolivia:People

Population: 7,826,352 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 39% (male 1,559,149; female 1,526,646)
15-64 years: 56% (male 2,139,680; female 2,245,268)
65 years and over: 5% (male 161,431; female 194,178) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 31.43 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 9.89 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 63.86 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 60.89 years
male: 57.98 years
female: 63.94 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.05 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bolivian(s)
adjective: Bolivian

Ethnic groups: Quechua 30%, Aymara 25%, mestizo (mixed white and
Amerindian ancestry) 25%-30%, white 5%-15%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)

Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.1%
male: 90.5%
female: 76% (1995 est.)

@Bolivia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Bolivia
conventional short form: Bolivia
local long form: Republica de Bolivia
local short form: Bolivia

Data code: BL

Government type: republic

National capital: La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital
and seat of judiciary)

Administrative divisions: 9 departments (departamentos,
singular-departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro,
Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija

Independence: 6 August 1825 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

Constitution: 2 February 1967; revised in August 1994

Legal system: based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21
years of age, universal and compulsory (single)

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Hugo BANZER Suarez (since 6 August 1997);
Vice President Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez (since 6 August 1997);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Hugo BANZER Suarez (since 6 August
1997); Vice President Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez (since 6 August
1997); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from a panel of candidates
proposed by the Senate
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 1 June 1997 (next
to be held June 2002)
election results: Hugo BANZER Suarez elected president; percent of
vote-Hugo BANZER Suarez (ADN) 22%; Jaime PAZ Zamora (MIR) 17%, Juan
Carlos DURAN (MNR) 18%, Ivo KULJIS (UCS) 16%, Remedios LOZA (CONDEPA)
17%; no candidate received a majority of the popular vote; Hugo BANZER
Suarez won a congressional runoff election on 5 August 1997 after
forming a "megacoalition" with MIR, UCS, CONDEPA, NFR and PCD

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (27 seats;
members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
and Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; members are
directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies-last held 1
June 1997 (next to be held June 2002)
election results: Chamber of Senators-percent of vote by party-NA;
seats by party - ADN 11, MIR 7, MNR 4, CONDEPA 3, UCS 2; Chamber of
Deputies-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-ADN 32, MNR 26,
MIR 23, UCS 21, CONDEPA 19, MBL 5, IU 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges appointed for a
10-year term by National Congress

Political parties and leaders:
Left Parties: Free Bolivia Movement or MBL [Antonio ARANIBAR];
Patriotic Axis of Convergence or EJE-P [Ramiro BARRANECHEA]; April 9
Revolutionary Vanguard or VR-9 [Carlos SERRATE]; Alternative of
Democratic Socialism or ASD [Jerjes JUSTINIANO]; Revolutionary Front
of the Left or FRI [Oscar ZAMORA]; Bolivian Communist Party or PCB
[Marcos DOMIC]; United Left or IU [Marcos DOMIC]; Front of National
Salvation or FSN [Manual MORALES Davila]; Socialist Party One or PS-1;
Bolivian Socialist Falange or FSB; Socialist Unzaguista Movement or
MAS
Center-Left Parties: Movement of the Revolutionary Left or MIR [Oscar
EID]; Christian Democrat or PDC [Benjamin MIGUEL]; New Youth Force
[Alfonso SAAVEDRA Bruno]
Center Party: Nationalist Revolutionary Movement or MNR [Gonzalo
SANCHEZ DE LOZADA]
Center-Right Parties: Nationalist Democratic Action or ADN [Enrique
TORO]; New Republican Force or NFR [Manfred REYES VILLA]
Populist Parties: Civic Solidarity Union or UCS [Johnny FERNANDEZ];
Conscience of the Fatherland or CONDEPA [Remedios LOZA Alvarado];
Solidarity and Democracy or SYD; Unity and Progress Movement or MUP
[Ivo KULJIS]; Popular Patriotic Movement or MPP [Julio MANTILLA]
Evangelical Party: Bolivian Renovating Alliance or ARBOL [Marcelo
FERNANDEZ, Hugo VILLEGAS]
Indigenous Parties: Tupac Katari Revolutionary Liberation Movement or
MRTK-L [Victor Hugo CARDENAS Conde]; Nationalist Katarista Movement or
MKN [Fernando UNTOJA]; Front of Katarista Unity or FULKA [Genaro
FLORES]; Katarismo National Unity or KND [Filepe KITTELSON]

International organization participation: AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM,
OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Marcelo PEREZ Monasterios
chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410 through 4412
FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Donna Jean HRINAK
embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, San Jorge, La Paz
mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032
telephone: [591] (2) 430251
FAX: [591] (2) 433900

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow,
and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar
to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star
centered in the yellow band

@Bolivia:Economy

Economy-overview: With its long history of semifeudal social controls,
dependence on volatile prices for its mineral exports, and bouts of
hyperinflation, Bolivia has remained one of the poorest and least
developed Latin American countries. However, Bolivia has experienced
generally improving economic conditions since the PAZ Estenssoro
administration (1985-89) introduced market-oriented policies which
reduced inflation from 11,700% in 1985 to about 20% in 1988. PAZ
Estenssoro was followed as president by Jaime PAZ Zamora (1989-93) who
continued the free-market policies of his predecessor, despite
opposition from his own party and from Bolivia's once powerful labor
movement. By maintaining fiscal discipline, PAZ Zamora helped reduce
inflation to 9.3% in 1993, while GDP grew by an annual average of
3.25% during his tenure. President SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (1993-1997) vowed
to advance the market-oriented economic reforms he helped launch as
PAZ Estenssoro's planning minister. His successes included the signing
of a free trade agreement with Mexico and the Southern Cone Common
Market (Mercosur) as well as the privatization of the state airline,
phone company, railroad, electric power company, and oil company.
Furthermore, SANCHEZ DE LOZADA sponsored legislation creating private
social security accounts for all adult Bolivians and capitalized these
new accounts with the state's remaining 50% share in the privatized
companies. Hugo BANZER Suarez took office in August 1997 and has
proclaimed his commitment to the economic reforms of the previous
administration.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$23.1 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4.4% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$3,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 17%
industry: 26%
services: 57% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 7% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 2.5 million
by occupation: agriculture NA%, services and utilities NA%,
manufacturing, mining and construction NA%

Unemployment rate: 10%

Budget:
revenues: $3.75 billion
expenditures: $3.75 billion, including capital expenditures of $556.2
million (1995 est.)

Industries: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco,
handicrafts, clothing

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1995 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 786,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 2.9 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 370 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice,
potatoes; timber

Exports:
total value: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: metals 34%, natural gas 9.4%, soybeans 8.4%, jewelry 11%,
wood 6.9%
partners: US 22%, UK 9.3%, Colombia 8.7%, Peru 7.4%, Argentina 7.2%

Imports:
total value: $1.7 billion (c.i.f. 1997)
commodities: capital goods 48%, chemicals 11%, petroleum 5%, food 5%
(1993 est.)
partners: US 20%, Japan 13%, Brazil 12, Chile 7.5% (1996)

Debt-external: $4.2 billion (1997)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $588 million (1997)

Currency: 1 boliviano ($B) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: bolivianos ($B) per US$1-5.3724 (January 1998), 5.2543
(1997), 5.0746 (1996), 4.8003 (1995), 4.6205 (1994), 4.2651 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 144,300 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties; most
telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities
domestic: microwave radio relay system being expanded
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 129, FM 0, shortwave 68

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 43

Televisions: 500,000 (1993 est.)

@Bolivia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,691 km (single track)
narrow gauge: 3,652 km 1.000-m gauge; 39 km 0.760-m gauge (13 km
electrified) (1995)

Highways:
total: 52,216 km
paved: 2,872 km (including 27 km of expressways)
unpaved: 49,344 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways

Pipelines: crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural gas
1,495 km

Ports and harbors: none; however, Bolivia has free port privileges in
the maritime ports of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay

Merchant marine:
total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,214 GRT/6,390 DWT
(1997 est.)

Airports: 1,153 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1,142
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 73
914 to 1,523 m: 229
under 914 m: 837 (1997 est.)

@Bolivia:Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy (Fuerza Naval
Boliviana, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana),
National Police Force (Policia Nacional de Bolivia)

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,859,823 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,209,537 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 82,670 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $154 million (1997)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.9% (1996)

@Bolivia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South
Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884;
dispute with Chile over Rio Lauca water rights

Illicit drugs: world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Peru
and Colombia) with an estimated 46,900 hectares under cultivation in
1997, a 2.5% decrease in overall cultivation of coca from 1996 levels;
Bolivia, however, is the second-largest producer of coca leaf; even
so, farmer abandonment and voluntary and forced eradication programs
resulted in leaf production dropping from 75,100 metric tons in 1996
to 73,000 tons in 1997, a 3% decrease from 1996; government considers
all but 12,000 hectares illicit; intermediate coca products and
cocaine exported to or through Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile
to the US and other international drug markets; alternative crop
program aims to reduce illicit coca cultivation

______________________________________________________________________

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

Introduction

Current issues: On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the former
Yugoslavia's three warring parties signed a peace agreement that
brought to a halt over three years of interethnic civil strife in
Bosnia and Herzegovina (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14
December 1995). The Dayton Agreement, signed then by Bosnian President
IZETBEGOVIC, Croatian President TUDJMAN, and Serbian President
MILOSEVIC, divides Bosnia and Herzegovina roughly equally between the
Muslim/Croat Federation and the Bosnian Serbs while maintaining
Bosnia's currently recognized borders. In 1995-96, a NATO-led
international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in
Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement.
IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR)
whose mission is to deter renewed hostilities. SFOR will remain in
place until June 1998. A High Representative appointed by the UN
Security Council is responsible for civilian implementation of the
accord, including monitoring implementation, facilitating any
difficulties arising in connection with civilian implementation, and
coordinating activities of the civilian organizations and agencies in
Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Bosnian conflict began in the spring of
1992 when the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina held a referendum
on independence and the Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring
Serbia-responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the
republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a
"greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosnia's Muslims and Croats reduced
the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an
agreement in Washington creating their joint Muslim/Croat Federation
of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Federation, formed by the Muslims and
Croats in March 1994, is one of two entities (the other being the
Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska) that comprise Bosnia and
Herzegovina.

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 18 00 E

Map references: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Europe

Area:
total: 51,233 sq km
land: 51,233 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 1,459 km
border countries: Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km (312 km
with Serbia, 215 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 20 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have
short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters
along coast

Terrain: mountains and valleys

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources: coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, forests, copper,
chromium, lead, zinc

Land use:
arable land: 14%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland: 39%
other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes

Environment-current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants;
sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; widespread casualties,
water shortages, and destruction of infrastructure because of the
1992-95 civil strife

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders,
the country is divided into a joint Muslim/Croat Federation (about 51%
of the territory) and a Serb Republic, The Republika Srpska [RS]
(about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is
contiguous to Croatia and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic
Croat majority

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:People

Population: 3,365,727 (July 1998 est.)
note: all data dealing with population is subject to considerable
error because of the dislocations caused by military action and ethnic
cleansing

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 307,857; female 291,424)
15-64 years: 71% (male 1,177,516; female 1,195,419)
65 years and over: 11% (male 156,041; female 237,470) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.63% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 8.72 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 12.32 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 39.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 30.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.03 years
male: 58.35 years
female: 68.02 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.14 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Ethnic groups: Serb 40%, Muslim 38%, Croat 22% (est.)

Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%,
other 10%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian (often called Bosnian) 99%

Literacy: NA

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
local long form: none
local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina

Data code: BK

Government type: emerging democracy

National capital: Sarajevo

Administrative divisions: there are two first-order administrative
divisions approved by the US Government-the Muslim/Croat Federation of
Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and Republika
Srpska; it has been reported that the Muslim/Croat Federation is
comprised of 10 cantons identified by either number or name - Goradzde
(5), Livno (10), Middle Bosnia (6), Neretva (7), Posavina (2),
Sarajevo (9), Tuzla Podrinje (3), Una Sana (1), West Herzegovina (8),
Zenica Doboj (4)

Independence: NA April 1992 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Republika Srpska-"Republic Day," 9 January;
Independence Day, 1 March; Bosnia-"Republic Day," 25 November

Constitution: the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included
a new constitution now in force

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Alija IZETBEGOVIC (since 14
September 1996); other members of the three-member rotating
presidency: Kresimir ZUBAK (since 14 September 1996-Croat) and Momcilo
KRAJISNIK (since 14 September 1996 - Serb)
head of government: Cochairman of the Council of Ministers Haris
SILAJDZIC (since NA January 1997); Cochairman of the Council of
Ministers Boro BOSIC (since NA January 1997) NA
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairmen
note: president of the Muslim/Croat Federation of Bosnia and
Herzegovina: Ejup GANIC (since 1 January 1998); president of the
Republika Srpska: Biljana PLAVSIC (since September 1996)
elections: the three presidency members (one each Muslim, Croat, Serb)
are elected by direct election (first election for a two-year term,
thereafter for a four-year term); the president with the most votes
becomes the chairman; election last held 14 September 1996 (next to be
held September 1998); the cochairmen are nominated by the presidency
election results: Alija IZETBEGOVIC elected chairman of the collective
presidency with the highest number of votes; percent of vote-Alija
IZETBEGOVIC received 80% of the Muslim vote to Haris SILAJDZIC's 14%;
Kresimir ZUBAK received 88% of the Croat vote to Ivo KOMSIC's 11%;
Momcilo KRAJISNIK received 68% of the Serb vote to Mladen IVANIC's 30%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina
consists of the National House of Representatives or Vijece Opcina (42
seats-14 Serb, 14 Croat, and 14 Muslim; members serve two-year terms)
and the House of Peoples or Vijece Gradanstvo (15 seats-5 Muslim, 5
Croat, 5 Serb; members serve two-year terms)
elections: National House of Representatives-elections last held 14
September 1996 (next to be held NA); note-the House of Peoples is
elected by the Muslim/Croat Federation's 140-seat House of
Representatives (two-thirds) and the Republika Srpska's 83-seat
National Assembly (one-third)
election results: National House of Representatives: two-thirds chosen
from the Muslim/Croat Federation: percent of vote by party-NA; seats
by party-SDA 16, HDZ-BiH 7, Joint List of Social Democrats 3, Party
for Bosnia and Herzegovina 2; one-third chosen from the Bosnian Serb
Republic: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-SDS 9, SDA 3,
Democratic Patriotic Front/Union for Peace and Progress 2
note: the Muslim/Croat Federation has a House of Representatives with
140 seats: seats by party-SDA 80, HDZ-BiH 33, Party for Bosnia and
Herzegovina 11, Joint List of Social Democrats 10, other 6; the
Republika Srpska has a National Assembly with 83 seats: seats by
party-SDS 24, Serb Radical Party 15, Serb National Alliance 15,
Socialist Party 9, Independent Social Democrats 2, Coalition for
United Bosnia and Herzegovina and others 18

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, supervised by the Ministry of Justice;
Constitutional Court, supervised by the Ministry of Justice

Political parties and leaders: Party of Democratic Action or SDA
[Alija IZETBEGOVIC]; Croatian Democratic Union of BiH or HDZ-BiH [Bozo
RAJIC]; Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Aleksa BUHA]; Party for Bosnia
and Herzegovina or SBiH [Haris SILAJDZIC]; Joint List (consists of the
following parties: UBSD, RP, MBO, HSG, and SPP); Civic Democratic
Party or GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croatian Peasants' Party of BiH or HSS
[Ivo KOMSIC]; Independent Social Democratic Party or SNSD [Milorad
DODIK]; Liberal Bosniak Organization or LBO [Muhamed FILIPOVIC];
Liberal Party or LS [Rasim KADIC, president]; Muslim-Bosniac
Organization or MBO [Adil ZULFIKARPASIC]; Republican Party of Bosnia
and Herzegovina or RS [Stjepan KLJUIC]; Serb Civic Council or SGV
[Mirko PEJANOVIC]; Social Democratic Party or SDP (formerly the
Democratic Party of Socialists or DSS) [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Socialist
Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS [Zivko RADISIC]; Social Democrats of
Bosnia Herzegovina [Selim BESLAGIC]; Serb Radical Party of RS [Nikola
POPLASEN]; Serb Party of Krojina and Posavina or SSKIP [Predrag
LAZAREVIC]; National Democratic Union (also known as Democratic
People's Union or DNZ) [Fikret ABDIC]; Serb National Alliance or SNS
[Biljana PLAVSIC]; Coalition for a United and Democratic BiH
(coalition of SDA, SBiH, LS, and GDS)
note: 82 parties participated in the September 1997 municipal
elections

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: CE (guest), CEI, EBRD, ECE,
FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), OIC (observer),
OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sven ALKALAJ
chancery: Suite 760, 1707 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-3612, 3613, 3615
FAX: [1] (202) 833-2061
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard KAUZLARICH
embassy: 43 Ul. Dure Dakovica, Sarajevo
mailing address: use street address
telephone: [387] (71) 445-700, 667-391, 667-389, 667-743, 667-390,
659-969, 659-992
FAX: [387] (71) 659-722

Flag description: a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side
with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the
flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full
five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the
hypotenuse of the triangle

Government-note: Until declaring independence in spring 1992, Bosnia
and Herzegovina existed as a republic in the former Yugoslavia. Bosnia
was partitioned by fighting during 1992-95 and governed by competing
ethnic factions. Bosnia's current governing structures were created by
the Dayton Accords, the 1995 peace agreement which was officially
signed in Paris on 14 December 1995 by Bosnian President IZETBEGOVIC,
Croatian President TUDJMAN, and Serbian President MILOSEVIC. This
agreement retained Bosnia's exterior border and created a joint
multi-ethnic and democratic government. This national government-based
on proportional representation similar to that which existed in the
former socialist regime-is charged with conducting foreign, economic,
and fiscal policy. The Dayton Accords also recognized a second tier of
government, comprised of two entities-a joint Muslim/Croat Federation
and the Bosnian Serb Republika Srpska (RS)-each presiding over roughly
one-half the territory. The Federation and RS governments are charged
with overseeing internal functions. As mandated by the Dayton Accords,
the Bosnians on 14 September 1996 participated in the first post-war
elections of national, entity, and cantonal leaders. The Bosnians have
been slow to form and install new joint institutions. A new Federation
cabinet was sworn in 18 December 1996 and the new Bosnian central
government cabinet was confirmed on 3 January 1997. The Bosnians on
13-14 September 1997 participated in municipal elections, postponed in
1996 because of voter registration irregularities.

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Economy

Economy-overview: Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old
Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture has been almost all in
private hands, farms have been small and inefficient, and the republic
traditionally has been a net importer of food. Industry has been
greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the rigidities of communist
central planning and management. TITO had pushed the development of
military industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted
a large share of Yugoslavia's defense plants. The bitter interethnic
warfare in Bosnia caused production to plummet by 80% from 1990 to
1995, unemployment to soar, and human misery to multiply. With an
uneasy peace in place, output has recovered in 1996-97 at high
percentage rates on a low base, but remains less than half the 1990
level. The country, especially in the Muslim-Croat area, receives
substantial amounts of humanitarian aid from the international
community. Wide regional differences in war damage and access to the
outside world have resulted in substantial variations in living
conditions among local areas and individual families.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$4.41 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 35% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,690 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 19%
industry: 23%
services: 58% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 1,026,254
by occupation: NA%

Unemployment rate: 40%-50% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite,
vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank
and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining; much of
capacity damaged or shut down (1995)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 2.339 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 1.4 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 506 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Exports:
total value: $152 million (1995 est.)
commodities: NA
partners: NA

Imports:
total value: $1.1 billion (1995 est.)
commodities: NA
partners: NA

Debt-external: $3.5 billion (yearend 1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: $1.2 billion (1997 pledged)

Currency: 1 convertible marka = 100 convertible pfenniga; former
currencies still used

Exchange rates: NA

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 727,000

Telephone system: telephone and telegraph network is in need of
modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average when
compared with services in other former Yugoslav republics
domestic: NA
international: no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 840,000

Television broadcast stations: 6

Televisions: 1,012,094

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,021 km (electrified 795 km; operating as diesel or steam
until grids are repaired)
standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-m gauge (1995); note-some segments
still need repair and/or reconstruction

Highways:
total: 21,846 km
paved: 11,425 km
unpaved: 10,421 km (1996 est.)
note: roads need maintenance and repair

Waterways: NA km; Sava blocked by downed bridges

Pipelines: crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km (1992); note-pipelines
now disrupted

Ports and harbors: Bosanski Brod (an inland waterway port on the Sava
which is not useable), Orasje (ferry)

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 26 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 17
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 7 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1997 est.)

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Military

Military branches: Army

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 912,536 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 733,931 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 26,114 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: disputes with Serbia over Serbian populated
areas

Illicit drugs: transit point for minor regional marijuana and opiate
trafficking routes

______________________________________________________________________

BOTSWANA

@Botswana:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, north of South Africa

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 600,370 sq km
land: 585,370 sq km
water: 15,000 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 4,013 km
border countries: Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe
813 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain: predominately flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari
Desert in southwest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
highest point: Tsodilo Hill 1,489 m

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash,
coal, iron ore, silver

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 47%
other: 6% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from
the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure
visibility

Environment-current issues: overgrazing; desertification; limited
fresh water resources

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of
the country

@Botswana:People

Population: 1,448,454 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 42% (male 310,253; female 302,960)
15-64 years: 54% (male 370,925; female 409,941)
65 years and over: 4% (male 20,637; female 33,738) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.11% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 32.02 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 20.89 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 59.29 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 40.09 years
male: 39.46 years
female: 40.75 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.03 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic groups: Batswana 95%, Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi 4%, white
1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50%

Languages: English (official), Setswana

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 69.8%
male: 80.5%
female: 59.9% (1995 est.)

@Botswana:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
conventional short form: Botswana
former: Bechuanaland

Data code: BC

Government type: parliamentary republic

National capital: Gaborone

Administrative divisions: 10 districts and four town councils*;
Central, Chobe, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng,
Kweneng, Lobatse*, Ngamiland, North-East, Selebi-Phikwe*, South-East,
Southern

Independence: 30 September 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 September (1966)

Constitution: March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law;
judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) note-the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998)
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year
term; election last held 15 October 1994 (next to be held NA October
1999); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Sir Ketumile MASIRE elected president; percent of
National Assembly vote-NA
note: President MASIRE resigned on 31 March 1998; Vice President MOGAE
assumed the presidency pending elections to be held in 1999; on 2
April 1998, Festus MOGAE, then president, designated S. K. Ian KHAMA
to be vice president after he is elected to the National Assembly in
accordance with constitutional requirements

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the House of
Chiefs (a largely advisory 15-member body consisting of the chiefs of
the eight principal tribes, four elected subchiefs, and three members
selected by the other 12) and the National Assembly (44 seats, 40
members are directly elected by popular vote and 4 appointed by the
majority party; members serve five-year terms)
elections: National Assembly-elections last held 15 October 1994 (next
to be held October 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-BDP 27,
BNF 13

Judicial branch: High Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Botswana Democratic Party or BDP
[Festus MOGAE]; Botswana Freedom Party or BFP [leader NA]; Botswana
National Front or BNF [Kenneth KOMA]; Botswana People's Party or BPP
[Knight MARIPE]; Independence Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO];
Unified Action Party or UAP [Lepetu SETSHWEALD]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Archibald Mooketsa MOGWE
chancery: Suite 7M, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990, 4991
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert C. KRUEGER
embassy: address NA, Gaborone
mailing address: P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
telephone: [267] 353982
FAX: [267] 356947

Flag description: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black
stripe in the center

@Botswana:Economy

Economy-overview: Agriculture still provides a livelihood for more
than 80% of the population but supplies only about 50% of food needs
and accounts for only 4% of GDP. Subsistence farming and cattle
raising predominate. Diamond mining and tourism also are important to
the economy. The sector is plagued by erratic rainfall and poor soils.
Substantial mineral deposits were found in the 1970s and the mining
sector grew from 25% of GDP in 1980 to 35% in 1997. Unemployment
officially is 21% but unofficial estimates place it closer to 40%. On
the plus side is the substantial positive trade balance.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$5 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$3,300 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 45% (including 35% mining)
services: 51% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 10% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 235,000 formal sector employees (1995)
by occupation: 100,000 public sector; 135,000 private sector,
including 14,300 who are employed in various mines in South Africa;
most others engaged in cattle raising and subsistence agriculture
(1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: 20-40% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.6 billion
expenditures: $1.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $560
million (FY96/97)

Industries: diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash, potash;
livestock processing

Industrial production growth rate: 4.6% (FY92/93)

Electricity-capacity: 217,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 1 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 962 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: sorghum, maize, millet, pulses, groundnuts
(peanuts), beans, cowpeas, sunflower seed; livestock

Exports:
total value: $2.31 billion (f.o.b. 1996 est.)
commodities: diamonds 71%, copper and nickel 5%, meat 3%
partners: Europe 74%, Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 22%,
Zimbabwe 3%

Imports:
total value: $1.6 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, vehicles and transport equipment, textiles,
petroleum products
partners: Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 74%, Europe 8%,
Zimbabwe 6%

Debt-external: $619 million (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $189 million (1993)

Currency: 1 pula (P) = 100 thebe

Exchange rates: pula (P) per US$1-3.8547 (January 1998), 3.6508
(1997), 3.3242 (1996), 2.7716 (1995), 2.6831 (1994), 2.4190 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 19,109 (1985 est.)

Telephone system: sparse system
domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay
links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations
international: microwave radio relay links to Zambia, Zimbabwe and
South Africa; satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 13, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 13,800 (1993 est.)

@Botswana:Transportation

Railways:
total: 971 km
narrow gauge: 971 km 1.067-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 18,482 km
paved: 4,343 km
unpaved: 14,139 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 92 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 12
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 80
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 55
under 914 m: 22 (1997 est.)

@Botswana:Military

Military branches: Botswana Defense Force (includes Army and Air
Wing), Botswana National Police

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 335,301 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 177,248 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 18,148 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $199 million (FY93/94)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 5.2% (FY93/94)

@Botswana:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: quadripoint with Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe
is in disagreement; dispute with Namibia over uninhabited Kasikili
(Sidudu) Island in Linyanti (Chobe) River is presently at the ICJ; at
least one other island in Linyanti River is contested

______________________________________________________________________

BOUVET ISLAND

(territory of Norway)

@Bouvet Island:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the South Atlantic Ocean,
south-southwest of the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa)

Geographic coordinates: 54 26 S, 3 24 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
total: 58 sq km
land: 58 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 29.6 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 meters; coast is mostly
inaccessible

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 780 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (all ice)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: covered by glacial ice

@Bouvet Island:People

Population: uninhabited

@Bouvet Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bouvet Island

Data code: BV

Dependency status: territory of Norway; administered from Oslo

Legal system: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Norway)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Norway)

Flag description: the flag of Norway is used

@Bouvet Island:Economy

Economy-overview: no economic activity; declared a nature reserve

Communications

Communications-note: automatic meteorological station

@Bouvet Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

@Bouvet Island:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of Norway

@Bouvet Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

BRAZIL

@Brazil:Geography

Location: Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 55 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 8,511,965 sq km
land: 8,456,510 sq km
water: 55,455 sq km
note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas,
Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao
Paulo

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:
total: 14,691 km
border countries: Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia 1,643
km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru
1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km

Coastline: 7,491 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills,
mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m

Natural resources: bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel,
phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 22%
forests and woodland: 58%
other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 28,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts in northeast; floods and
occasional frost in south

Environment-current issues: deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the
habitat and endangers the existence of a multitude of plant and animal
species indigenous to the area; air and water pollution in Rio de
Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation
and water pollution caused by improper mining activities

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: largest country in South America; shares common
boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

@Brazil:People

Population: 169,806,557 (July 1998 est.)
note: Brazil took a census in August 1996 which showed a total of
157,079,573; this figure is about 5% lower than projections by the US
Census Bureau, which is close to the implied underenumeration of 4.6%
for 1991; since the full results of the census have not been released
for analysis, the numbers shown for Brazil do not take into
consideration the results of this 1996 census

Age structure:
0-14 years: 30% (male 26,090,859; female 25,132,122)
15-64 years: 65% (male 54,199,642; female 55,769,122)
65 years and over: 5% (male 3,499,272; female 5,115,540) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.24% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 20.92 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.53 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 36.96 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.36 years
male: 59.39 years
female: 69.59 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.33 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic groups: white (includes Portuguese, German, Italian, Spanish,
Polish) 55%, mixed white and black 38%, black 6%, other (includes
Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic (nominal) 70%

Languages: Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.3%
male: 83.3%
female: 83.2% (1995 est.)

@Brazil:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
conventional short form: Brazil
local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
local short form: Brasil

Data code: BR

Government type: federal republic

National capital: Brasilia

Administrative divisions: 26 states (estados, singular-estado) and 1
federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas,
Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato
Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana,
Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do
Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

Independence: 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Constitution: 5 October 1988

Legal system: based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70;
compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1 January
1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1 January 1995); note-the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1
January 1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1 January 1995);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 3 October 1994
(next to be held NA October 1998)
election results: Fernando Henrique CARDOSO elected president; percent
of vote-Fernando Henrique CARDOSO 53%, Luis Inacio LULA da Silva 26%,
Eneas CARNEIRO 7%, Orestes QUERCIA 4%, Leonel BRIZOLA 3%, Espiridiao
AMIN 3%; note-second direct presidential election since 1960

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional
consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; three
members from each state or federal district elected according to the
principle of majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third elected
after a four year period, two-thirds elected after the next four-year
period) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513
seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve
four-year terms)
elections: Federal Senate-last held 3 October 1994 for two-thirds of
Senate (next to be held October 1998 for one-third of the Senate);
Chamber of Deputies - last held 3 October 1994 (next to be held
October 1998)
election results: Federal Senate-percent of vote by party-PMDB 28%,
PFL 22%, PSDB 12%, PPR 7%, PDT 7%, PT 6%, PTB 6%, other 12%; seats by
party-NA; Chamber of Deputies-percent of vote by party-PMDB 21%, PFL
18%, PDT 7%, PSDB 12%, PPR 10%, PTB 6%, PT 10%, other 16%; seats by
party-NA
note: party totals since the fall of 1994 have changed considerably
due to extensive party-switching

Judicial branch: Supreme Federal Tribunal, 11 judges are appointed for
life by the president and confirmed by the Senate

Political parties and leaders: Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or
PMDB [Paes DE ANDRADE, president]; Liberal Front Party or PFL [Jose
JORGE, president]; Workers' Party or PT [Jose DIRCEU, president];
Brazilian Workers' Party or PTB [Rodrigues PALMA, president];
Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Leonel BRIZOLA, president]; Brazilian
Progressive Party or PPB [Espiridiao AMIN, president]; Brazilian
Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Artur DA TAVOLA, president]; Popular
Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto FREIRE, president]; Communist Party of
Brazil or PCdoB [Joao AMAZONAS, chairman]; Liberal Party or PL [Alvaro
VALLE, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders: left wing of the Catholic
Church, Landless Worker's Movement, and labor unions allied to leftist
Workers' Party are critical of government's social and economic
policies

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), BIS
(pending member), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIPONUH, MONUA, MTCR, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS,
OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Paulo Tarso FLECHA de LIMA
chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700
FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles,
Miami, New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Melvyn LEVITSKY
embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Lote 3, Brasilia, Distrito Federal
mailing address: Unit 3500, APO AA 34030
telephone: [55] (61) 321-7272
FAX: [55] (61) 225-9136
consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
consulate(s): Recife

Flag description: green with a large yellow diamond in the center
bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one
for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern
as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band
with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

@Brazil:Economy

Economy-overview: Possessing large and well-developed agricultural,
mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's economy outweighs
that of all other South American countries and is expanding its
presence in world markets. Prior to the institution of a stabilization
plan-the Plano Real (Real Plan) in mid-1994, stratospheric inflation
rates had disrupted economic activity and discouraged foreign
investment. Since then, tight monetary policy has brought inflation
under control-consumer prices increased by less than 5% in 1997
compared to more than 1,000% in 1994. At the same time, GDP growth
slowed from 5.7% in 1994 to about 3.0% in 1997 due to tighter credit.
The strong currency, another cornerstone of the Real Plan, has
encouraged imports-contributing to a growing trade deficit-and
restrained export growth. Brazil's more stable economy allowed it to
weather the fallout in 1995 from the Mexican peso crisis relatively
well. Record levels of foreign investment have flowed in, helping
support the Real Plan through financial shocks in October-November
1997 that occurred in the wake of the Asian financial crisis. These
shocks caused Brazil's foreign exchange reserves to drop by $8 billion
to $52 billion and the stock market to decline by about 25%, although
it still ended up more than 30% for the year. President CARDOSO
remains committed to defending the Real Plan, but he faces several key
challenges domestically and abroad. His package of fiscal reforms
requiring constitutional amendments has progressed slowly through the
balkanized Brazilian legislature; in their absence, the government
continues to run deficits and has limited room to relax its interest
and exchange rate policies if it wants to keep inflation under
control. Some foreign investors remain concerned about the viability
of Brazil's exchange rate policy because of the country's fiscal and
current account deficits. The government thus has to contend with the
possibility of capital flight or a speculative attack that could draw
down foreign reserves to a critical level and force a devaluation.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1.04 trillion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3% (1997)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$6,300 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 13%
industry: 38%
services: 49% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 4.8% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 57 million (1989 est.)
by occupation: services 42%, agriculture 31%, industry 27%

Unemployment rate: 7% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $87.5 billion
expenditures: $96 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996)

Industries: textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin,
steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and
equipment

Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 57.64 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 264.895 billion kWh (1995)
note: imported about 36.95 billion kWh of electricity from Paraguay

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,878 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane,
cocoa, citrus; beef

Exports:
total value: $53 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: iron ore, soybean bran, orange juice, footwear, coffee,
motor vehicle parts
partners: EU 28%, Latin America 23%, US 20%, Argentina 12% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $61.4 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: crude oil, capital goods, chemical products, foodstuffs,
coal
partners: EU 26%, US 22%, Argentina 13%, Japan 5% (1996)

Debt-external: $192.9 billion (December 1997)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $107 million (1993)

Currency: 1 real (R$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: R$ per US$1-1.120 (January 1998), 1.078 (1997), 1.005
(1996), 0.918 (1995), 0.639 (1994); CR$ per US$1-390.845 (January
1994), 88.449 (1993)
note: on 1 August 1993 the cruzeiro real (CR$), equal to 1,000
cruzeiros, was introduced; another new currency, the real (R$) was
introduced on 1 July 1994, equal to 2,750 cruzeiro reais

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 14,426,673 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: good working system
domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic
satellite system with 64 earth stations
international: 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations-3
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean Region East)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1,223, FM 0, shortwave 151

Radios: 60 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 112
note: Brazil has the world's fourth largest television broadcasting
system

Televisions: 30 million (1993 est.)

@Brazil:Transportation

Railways:
total: 26,895 km (1,750 km electrified)
broad gauge: 5,730 km 1.600-m gauge
standard gauge: 194 km 1.440-m gauge
narrow gauge: 20,958 km 1.000-m gauge; 13 km 0.760-m gauge
dual gauge: 523 km 1.000-m and 1.600-m gauges

Highways:
total: 1.98 million km
paved: 184,140 km
unpaved: 1,795,860 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 50,000 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 2,000 km; petroleum products 3,804 km; natural
gas 1,095 km

Ports and harbors: Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Imbituba, Manaus,
Paranagua, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador,
Santos, Vitoria

Merchant marine:
total: 188 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,498,081 GRT/7,279,945
DWT
ships by type: bulk 37, cargo 26, chemical tanker 9, combination
ore/oil 11, container 16, liquefied gas tanker 10, multifunction
large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 61, passenger-cargo 5, refrigerated
cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11 (1997 est.)

Airports: 3,291 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 502
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 130
914 to 1,523 m: 319
under 914 m: 29 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 2,789
1,524 to 2,437 m: 76
914 to 1,523 m: 1,324
under 914 m: 1,389 (1997 est.)

@Brazil:Military

Military branches: Brazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (includes Marines),
Brazilian Air Force, Federal Police (paramilitary)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 46,620,486 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 31,337,037 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 1,806,162 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $15.1 billion (1997)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.9% (1997)

@Brazil:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: short section of the boundary with Paraguay,
just west of Salto das Sete Quedas (Guaira Falls) on the Rio Parana,
has not been precisely delimited; two short sections of boundary with
Uruguay are in dispute-Arroio Invernada (Arroyo de la Invernada) area
of the Rio Quarai (Rio Cuareim) and the islands at the confluence of
the Rio Quarai and the Uruguay River

Illicit drugs: limited illicit producer of cannabis, minor coca
cultivation in the Amazon region, mostly used for domestic
consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to
control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian and
Colombian cocaine headed for the US and Europe; increasingly used by
Andean traffickers as a way station between Peru and Colombia

______________________________________________________________________

BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY

(dependent territory of the UK)

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, archipelago in the Indian Ocean, about
one-half the way from Africa to Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 71 30 E

Map references: World

Area:
total: 60 sq km
land: 60 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes the entire Chagos Archipelago

Area-comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 698 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain: flat and low (up to four meters in elevation)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Diego Garcia 15 m

Natural resources: coconuts, fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: archipelago of 2,300 islands; Diego Garcia, largest
and southernmost island, occupies strategic location in central Indian
Ocean; island is site of joint US-UK military facility

@British Indian Ocean Territory:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there are UK-US military personnel and civilian contractors;
approximately 3,000 native inhabitants, known as the Chagosians or
Ilois, were evacuated to Mauritius before construction of UK-US
military facilities

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: British Indian Ocean Territory
conventional short form: none
abbreviation: BIOT

Data code: IO

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK; administered by a
commissioner, resident in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in
London

Legal system: NA

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Commissioner David Ross MACLENNAN (since NA 1994);
Administrator Don CAIRNS (since NA); note-both reside in the UK
cabinet: NA
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; commissioner and
administrator appointed by the queen

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
the UK)

Flag description: white with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and six blue wavy horizontal stripes bearing a
palm tree and yellow crown centered on the outer half of the flag

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Economy

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