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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Part 50 out of 51

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Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Syria,
Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,
Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu,
Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization
_________________________________________________________________

World Food Council (WFC)
established 17 December 1974; to study world food problems and to
recommend solutions; ECOSOC organization; there were 36 members
selected on a rotating basis from all regions; subsumed by the World
Food Program and Food and Agriculture Organization
_________________________________________________________________

World Food Program (WFP)
address-Via Cristoforo Colombo 426, I-00145 Rome, Italy
telephone-[39] (6) 522821
FAX-[39] (6) 5123700, 5133537, 52282840
established-24 November 1961
aim-to provide food aid in support of economic development or disaster
relief; an ECOSOC organization
members-(36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
_________________________________________________________________

World Health Organization (WHO)
address-CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
telephone-[41] (22) 791 21 11, 791 32 23
FAX-[41] (22) 791 07 46
established-22 July 1946
effective-7 April 1948
aim-to deal with health matters worldwide; a UN specialized agency
members-(191) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua
and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil,
Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the
Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,
Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia,
Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany,
Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,
Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,
Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia,
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia,
Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Nicaragua, Niue, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau,
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland,
Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint
Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome
and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa,
Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland,
Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and
Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE,
UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen,
Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe
associate members-(2) Puerto Rico, Tokelau
_________________________________________________________________

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
address-34 chemin des Colombettes, Case Postale 18, CH-1211 Geneva 20,
Switzerland
telephone-[41] (22) 730 9111
FAX-[41] (22) 733 5428
established-14 July 1967
effective-26 April 1970
aim-to furnish protection for literary, artistic, and scientific
works; a UN specialized agency
members-(161) Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Argentina, Armenia,
Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh,
Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi,
Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile,
China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the
Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia,
Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,
Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See,
Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Ireland, Israel,
Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South
Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,
Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique,
Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway,
Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal,
Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, South Africa,
Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland,
Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,
Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,
Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia,
Zimbabwe
_________________________________________________________________

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
address-Case Postale 2300, 41 Av Giuseppe-Motta, CH-1211 Geneva 2,
Switzerland
telephone-[41] (22) 730 81 11
FAX-[41] (22) 734 23 26
established-11 October 1947
effective-4 April 1951
aim-to sponsor meteorological cooperation; a UN specialized agency
members-(184) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and
Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, British
Caribbean Territories, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi,
Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic,
Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the
Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire,
Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia,
Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, French Polynesia, Gabon, The Gambia,
Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,
Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,
Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,
Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg,
Macau, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi,
Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico,
Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco,
Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, New
Caledonia, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan,
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland,
Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Samoa, Sao Tome
and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa,
Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland,
Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and
Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US,
Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia
(suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe
_________________________________________________________________

World Tourism Organization (WToO)
address-Calle Capitan Haya 42, 28020 Madrid, Spain
telephone-[34] (1) 571 06 28
FAX-[34] (1) 571 37 33
established-2 January 1975
aim-to promote tourism as a means of contributing to economic
development, international understanding, and peace
members-(131) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola,
Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi,
Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo,
Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,
Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia,
Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,
Haiti, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jamaica,
Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait,
Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali,
Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco,
Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan,
Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania,
Russia, Rwanda, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal,
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri
Lanka, Sudan, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela,
Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
associate members-(4) Aruba, Macau, Madeira Islands, Netherlands
Antilles
observer-(1) Holy See
_________________________________________________________________

World Trade Organization (WTrO)
note-succeeded General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT)
address-Centre William Rappard, 154 rue de Lausanne, CH-1211 Geneva
21, Switzerland
telephone-[41] (22) 739 51 11
FAX-[41] (22) 739 54 58
established-15 April 1994
effective-1 January 1995
aim-to provide a means to resolve trade conflicts between members and
to carry on negotiations with the goal of further lowering and/or
eliminating tariffs and other trade barriers
members-(139) Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,
Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso,
Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad,
Chile, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the
Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El
Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, EU, Fiji, Finland,
France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary,
Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan,
Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Libya, Luxembourg,
Macau, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,
Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Papua
New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar,
Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and
the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra
Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa,
Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia, Zimbabwe
observers-(5) Azerbaijan, Laos, Somalia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan
applicants-(31) Albania, Armenia, The Bahamas, Belarus, Cambodia, Cape
Verde, China, Comoros, Croatia, Estonia, Georgia, Jordan, Kazakhstan,
Kiribati, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, The Former Yugoslav Republic
of Macedonia, Moldova, Nepal, Oman, Panama, Russia, Saudi Arabia,
Tuvalu, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Yemen, Taiwan;
note-some of these countries applied to GATT and are still under
consideration for membership in WTrO
note-the following member of GATT had not become a member of WTrO as
of 1 January 1998: Yugoslavia (suspended)
_________________________________________________________________

Zangger Committee (ZC)
established-early 1970s
aim-to establish guidelines for the export control provisions of the
Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty (NPT)
members-(29) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland,
Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Russia, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
UK, US
_________________________________________________________________

Note: The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) ceases to
exist. None of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia,
including Serbia and Montenegro, have been permitted to participate
solely on the basis of the membership of the former Yugoslavia in the
United Nations General Assembly and Economic and Social Council and
their subsidiary bodies and in various United Nations specialized
agencies. The United Nations, however, permits the seat and nameplate
of the SFRY to remain, permits the SFRY mission to continue to
function, and continues to fly the flag of the former Yugoslavia. For
a variety of reasons, a number of other organizations have not yet
taken action with regard to the membership of the former Yugoslavia.
The World Factbook therefore continues to list Yugoslavia under
international organizations where the SFRY seat remains or where no
action has yet been taken.

______________________________________________________________________

@APPENDIXES

Appendix D: Selected International Environmental Agreements

Air Pollution see Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution
Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides see Protocol to the 1979 Convention on
Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of
Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or Their Transboundary Fluxes
Air Pollution-Sulphur 85 see Protocol to the 1979 Convention on
Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on the Reduction of Sulphur
Emissions or Their Transboundary Fluxes by at least 30%
Air Pollution-Sulphur 94 see Protocol to the 1979 Convention on
Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Further Reduction of Sulphur
Emissions
Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds see Protocol to the 1979
Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the
Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or Their
Transboundary Fluxes
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol see Protocol on Environmental
Protection to the Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty

opened for signature-1 December 1959
entered into force-23 June 1961
objective- to ensure that Antarctica is used for peaceful purposes,
such as, for international cooperation in scientific research, and
that it does not become the scene or object of international discord
parties-(43) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria,
Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, India,
Italy, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Papua
New Guinea, Peru, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, South Africa,
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay
Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of
Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal

note-abbreviated as Hazardous Wastes
opened for signature-22 March 1989
entered into force-5 May 1992
objective-to reduce transboundary movements of wastes subject to the
Convention to a minimum consistent with the environmentally sound and
efficient management of such wastes; to minimize the amount and
toxicity of wastes generated and ensure their environmentally sound
management as closely as possible to the source of generation; and to
assist LDCs in environmentally sound management of the hazardous and
other wastes they generate
parties-(118) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin,
Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burundi, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia,
Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire,
Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, El
Salvador, Estonia, EU, Finland, France, The Gambia, Germany, Greece,
Guatemala, Guinea, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran,
Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, South Korea, Kuwait,
Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, The Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Monaco,
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia,
Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,
South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania,
Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, UAE, UK,
Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia
countries that have signed, but not yet ratified-(3) Afghanistan,
Haiti, US
Biodiversity see Convention on Biological Diversity
Convention on Biological Diversity

note-abbreviated as Biodiversity
opened for signature-5 June 1992
entered into force- 29 December 1993
objective-to develop national strategies for the conservation and
sustainable use of biological diversity
parties-(173) Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda,
Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan,
Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi,
Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic,
Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the
Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire,
Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,
Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, EU, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The
Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,
Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan,
Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg,
The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi,
Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia,
Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua
New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar,
Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Senegal, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South
Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,
Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UK, Uruguay,
Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
countries that have signed, but not yet ratified- (12) Afghanistan,
Azerbaijan, Kuwait, Liberia, Libya, Malta, Sao Tome and Principe,
Thailand, Tuvalu, UAE, US, former Yugoslavia
Climate Change see United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol see Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change
Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High
Seas

note-abbreviated as Marine Life Conservation
opened for signature-29 April 1958
entered into force-20 March 1966
objective-to solve through international cooperation the problems
involved in the conservation of living resources of the high seas,
considering that because of the development of modern technology some
of these resources are in danger of being overexploited
parties-(37) Australia, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso,
Cambodia, Colombia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Fiji, Finland,
France, Haiti, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Mauritius, Mexico, Netherlands, Nigeria, Portugal, Senegal, Sierra
Leone, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Thailand,
Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, UK, US, Venezuela, former
Yugoslavia
countries that have signed, but not yet ratified-(21) Afghanistan,
Argentina, Bolivia, Canada, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ghana, Iceland,
Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Lebanon, Liberia, Nepal, NZ,
Pakistan, Panama, Sri Lanka, Tunisia, Uruguay
Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution

note-abbreviated as Air Pollution
opened for signature-13 November 1979
entered into force-16 March 1983
objective-to protect the human environment against air pollution and
to gradually reduce and prevent air pollution, including long-range
transboundary air pollution
parties-(43) Armenia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, EU, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,
Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands,
Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, US, former Yugoslavia
countries that have signed, but not yet ratified-(2) Holy See, San
Marino
Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
Flora and Fauna (CITES)

note-abbreviated as Endangered Species
opened for signature-3 March 1973
entered into force-1 July 1975
objective-to protect certain endangered species from overexploitation
by means of a system of import/export permits
parties-(134) Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, The
Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia,
Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon,
Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia,
Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo,
Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial
Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The
Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,
Guyana, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Italy,
Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Liberia, Liechtenstein,
Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritius,
Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal,
Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama,
Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra
Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand,
Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Tuvalu, Uganda, UAE, UK, US,
Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe
countries that have signed, but not yet ratified-(4) Cambodia,
Ireland, Kuwait, Lesotho
Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and
Other Matter (London Convention)

note-abbreviated as Marine Dumping
opened for signature-29 December 1972
entered into force-30 August 1975
objective-to control pollution of the sea by dumping and to encourage
regional agreements supplementary to the Convention
parties-(77) Afghanistan, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia,
Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil,
Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo,
Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Denmark, Dominican
Republic, Egypt, EU, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Greece,
Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica,
Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Libya, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico,
Monaco, Morocco, Nauru, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Oman,
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Saint
Lucia, Seychelles, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain,
Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Tonga, Tunisia, Tuvalu, Ukraine, UAE,
UK, US, Vanuatu, former Yugoslavia
Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of
Environmental Modification Techniques

note-abbreviated as Environmental Modification
opened for signature-10 December 1976
entered into force-5 October 1978
objective- to prohibit the military or other hostile use of
environmental modification techniques in order to further world peace
and trust among nations
parties-(64) Afghanistan, Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,
Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Brazil,
Bulgaria, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Egypt, Finland, Germany, Ghana, Greece,
Guatemala, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, North Korea, South
Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Malawi, Mauritius, Mongolia, Netherlands, NZ,
Niger, Norway, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Romania, Russia,
Saint Lucia, Sao Tome and Principe, Slovakia, Solomon Islands, Spain,
Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay,
Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen
countries that have signed, but not yet ratified-(17) Bolivia,
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Holy See, Iceland, Iran,
Iraq, Lebanon, Liberia, Luxembourg, Morocco, Nicaragua, Portugal,
Sierra Leone, Syria, Turkey, Uganda
Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as
Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar)

note-abbreviated as Wetlands
opened for signature-2 February 1971
entered into force- 21 December 1975
objective-to stem the progressive encroachment on and loss of wetlands
now and in the future, recognizing the fundamental ecological
functions of wetlands and their economic, cultural, scientific, and
recreational value
parties-(97) Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria,
Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Canada,
Chad, Chile, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote
d'Ivoire, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia,
Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia,
Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Latvia, Lesotho,
Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Malawi, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mexico,
Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, NZ, Niger, Norway, Pakistan, Panama,
Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Russia, Senegal, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri
Lanka, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, former
Yugoslavia, Zambia
Desertification see United Nations Convention to Combat
Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/
or Desertification, Particularly in Africa
Endangered Species see Convention on the International Trade in
Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES)
Environmental Modification see Convention on the Prohibition of
Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification
Techniques
Hazardous Wastes see Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary
Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal
International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling

note-abbreviated as Whaling
opened for signature-2 December 1946
entered into force- 10 November 1948
objective-to protect all species of whales from overhunting; to
establish a system of international regulation for the whale fisheries
to ensure proper conservation and development of whale stocks; and to
safeguard for future generations the great natural resources
represented by whale stocks
parties-(57) Antigua and Barbuda, Austria, The Bahamas, Barbados,
Belize, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Cyprus, Denmark (including Greenland),
Dominica, Ecuador, Egypt, Fiji, Finland, France, The Gambia, Ghana,
Grenada, Guyana, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Kiribati, Latvia, Malaysia,
Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Netherlands (Netherlands also
extended the convention to Netherlands Antilles), NZ, Nicaragua,
Nigeria, Norway, Poland, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia,
Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,
Switzerland, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Tuvalu, UK,
US, former Yugoslavia
International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1983

note-abbreviated as Tropical Timber 83
opened for signature-18 November 1983
entered into force-1 April 1985; this agreement will expire when the
International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1994, goes into force
objective- to provide an effective framework for cooperation between
tropical timber producers and consumers and to encourage the
development of national policies aimed at sustainable utilization and
conservation of tropical forests and their genetic resources
parties-(54) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma,
Cameroon, Canada, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo,
Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, EU,
Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guyana,
Honduras, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea,
Liberia, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Panama,
Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, US, Venezuela
International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1994

note-abbreviated as Tropical Timber 94
opened for signature-26 January 1994, but not yet in force
objective-to ensure that by the year 2000 exports of tropical timber
originate from sustainably managed sources; to establish a fund to
assist tropical timber producers in obtaining the resources necessary
to reach this objective
parties-(51) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma,
Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, China, Colombia,
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote
d'Ivoire, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, EU, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon,
Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guyana, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Japan,
South Korea, Liberia, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Norway, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Thailand, Togo, UK, US, Venezuela
countries that have signed, but not yet ratified-(3) Ireland, Italy,
Portugal
Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change

note-abbreviated as Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
opened for signature-16 March 1998, but not yet in force
objective-to further reduce greenhouse gas emissions by enhancing the
national programs of developed countries aimed at this goal and by
establishing percentage reduction targets for the developed countries
parties-(0)
countries that have signed, but not yet ratified-(12) Antigua and
Barbuda, Argentina, Maldives, Malta, Marshall Islands, Federated
States of Micronesia, Philippines, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Samoa, Seychelles, Switzerland
Law of the Sea see United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
(LOS)
Marine Dumping see Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by
Dumping Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention)
Marine Life Conservation see Convention on Fishing and Conservation of
Living Resources of the High Seas
Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer

note-abbreviated as Ozone Layer Protection
opened for signature-16 September 1987
entered into force-1 January 1989
objective-to protect the ozone layer by controlling emissions of
substances that deplete it
parties-(165) Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia,
Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados,
Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi,
Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the
Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El
Salvador, Estonia, Ethiopia, EU, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The
Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,
Guyana, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland,
Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea,
South Korea, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,
Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,
Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of
Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,
Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan,
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland,
Portugal (Portugal has also extended the protocol to Macau), Qatar,
Romania, Russia, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and
the Grenadines, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Singapore,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,
Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, former Yugoslavia,
Zambia, Zimbabwe
Nuclear Test Ban see Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the
Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water
Ozone Layer Protection see Montreal Protocol on Substances That
Deplete the Ozone Layer
Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for the
Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973 (MARPOL)

note-abbreviated as Ship Pollution
opened for signature-17 February 1978
entered into force-2 October 1983
objective-to preserve the marine environment through the complete
elimination of pollution by oil and other harmful substances and the
minimization of accidental discharge of such substances
parties-(96) Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia,
Austria, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Brazil, Brunei,
Bulgaria, Burma, Cambodia, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cote
d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,
Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Finland, France, Gabon,
The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,
North Korea, South Korea, Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco,
Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New
Guinea, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Seychelles, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa,
Spain, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Togo, Tonga, Tunisia,
Turkey, Tuvalu, Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam,
former Yugoslavia
Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty

note-abbreviated as Antarctic-Environmental Protocol
opened for signature-4 October 1991
entered into force-14 January 1998
objective- to enhance the protection of the Antarctic environment and
dependent and associated ecosystems
parties-(27) Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, China,
Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, India, Italy, Japan, South
Korea, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Peru, Poland, Russia, South Africa,
Spain, Sweden, UK, US, Uruguay
countries that have signed, but not yet ratified-(16) Austria,
Bulgaria, Canada, Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Guatemala,
Hungary, North Korea, Papua New Guinea, Romania, Slovakia,
Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine
Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air
Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or
Their Transboundary Fluxes

note-abbreviated as Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides
opened for signature-31 October 1988
entered into force-14 February 1991
objective- to provide for the control or reduction of nitrogen oxides
and their transboundary fluxes
parties-(25) Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic,
Denmark, EU, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy,
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Russia, Slovakia,
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, UK, US
countries that have signed, but not yet ratified-(3) Belgium, Greece,
Poland
Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air
Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic
Compounds or Their Transboundary Fluxes

note-abbreviated as Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
opened for signature-18 November 1991, but not yet in force
objective-to provide for the control and reduction of emissions of
volatile organic compounds in order to reduce their transboundary
fluxes so as to protect human health and the environment from adverse
effects
parties-(17) Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland,
France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK
countries that have signed, but not yet ratified-(7) Belgium, Canada,
EU, Greece, Portugal, Ukraine, US
Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air
Pollution on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions

note-abbreviated as Air Pollution-Sulphur 94
opened for signature-14 June 1994, but not yet in force
objective-to provide for a further reduction in sulfur emissions or
transboundary fluxes
parties-(14) Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Greece,
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Slovakia, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland, UK
countries that have signed, but not yet ratified-(14) Austria,
Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, EU, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Ireland,
Italy, Poland, Russia, Slovenia, Ukraine
Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air
Pollution on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or Their Transboundary
Fluxes by at Least 30%

note-abbreviated as Air Pollution-Sulphur 85
opened for signature-8 July 1985
entered into force- 2 September 1987
objective-to provide for a 30% reduction in sulfur emissions or
transboundary fluxes by 1993
parties-(21) Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy,
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Russia, Slovakia,
Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine
Ship Pollution see Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International
Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973 (MARPOL)
Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space,
and Under Water

note-abbreviated as Nuclear Test Ban
opened for signature-5 August 1963
entered into force-10 October 1963
objective-to obtain an agreement on general and complete disarmament
under strict international control in accordance with the objectives
of the United Nations; to put an end to the armaments race and
eliminate incentives for the production and testing of all kinds of
weapons, including nuclear weapons
parties-(125) Afghanistan, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia,
Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin,
Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria,
Burma, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile,
China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote
d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji,
Finland, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala,
Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran,
Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, South
Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Luxembourg, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia,
Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway,
Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland,
Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Samoa, San Marino, Senegal, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri
Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Uganda, Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yemen, former Yugoslavia,
Zambia
countries that have signed, but not yet ratified-(11) Algeria, Burkina
Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Haiti, Mali, Paraguay, Portugal,
Somalia, Vietnam
Tropical Timber 83 see International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1983
Tropical Timber 94 see International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1994
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS)
note-abbreviated as Law of the Sea
opened for signature-10 December 1982
entered into force-16 November 1994
objective-to set up a comprehensive new legal regime for the sea and
oceans; to include rules concerning environmental standards as well as
enforcement provisions dealing with pollution of the marine
environment parties-(125) Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda,
Argentina, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Belize,
Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei,
Bulgaria, Burma, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Comoros,
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote
d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Djibouti, Dominica,
Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, EU, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The
Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Iceland, India, Indonesia,
Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea,
Kuwait, Lebanon, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malaysia,
Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico,
Federated States of Micronesia, Monaco, Mongolia, Mozambique, Namibia,
Nauru, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau,
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Philippines, Portugal, Romania,
Russia, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon
Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden,
Tanzania, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, UK,
Uruguay, Vietnam, Yemen, former Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe
countries that have signed, but not yet ratified-(46) Afghanistan,
Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia,
Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Republic of the
Congo, Denmark, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Hungary,
Iran, North Korea, Laos, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein,
Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Morocco, Nepal, Nicaragua,
Niger, Niue, Poland, Qatar, Rwanda, Suriname, Swaziland, Switzerland,
Thailand, Tuvalu, Ukraine, UAE, Vanuatu
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries
Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in
Africa

note-abbreviated as Desertification
opened for signature-14 October 1994
entered into force-26 December 1996
objective-to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of
drought through national action programs that incorporate long-term
strategies supported by international cooperation and partnership
arrangements
parties-(124) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda,
Argentina, Armenia, Austria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium,
Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi,
Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic,
Chad, Chile, China, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Costa
Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea,
Ethiopia, EU, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana,
Greece, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras,
Iceland, India, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Jordan,
Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho,
Liberia, Libya, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia,
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Nicaragua,
Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru,
Portugal, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South
Africa, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria,
Tajikistan, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UK,
Uzbekistan, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
countries that have signed, but not yet ratified- (12) Australia,
Colombia, Republic of the Congo, Croatia, Georgia, Indonesia, South
Korea, Philippines, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, US, Vanuatu
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

note-abbreviated as Climate Change
opened for signature-9 May 1992
entered into force- 21 March 1994
objective-to achieve stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in
the atmosphere at a low enough level to prevent dangerous
anthropogenic interference with the climate system
parties-(174) Albania, Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,
Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia,
Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia,
Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile,
China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic
of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba,
Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Ecuador, Egypt,
El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, EU, Fiji, Finland, France,
Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada,
Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary,
Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica,
Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea,
Kuwait, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malawi,
Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco,
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua
New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar,
Romania, Russia, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and
the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South
Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,
Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and
Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US,
Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, former
Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe
countries that have signed, but not yet ratified- (9) Afghanistan,
Angola, Belarus, Dominican Republic, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar,
Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe
Wetlands see Convention on Wetlands of International Importance
Especially As Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar)
Whaling see International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling

______________________________________________________________________

@APPENDIXES

Appendix E: Weights and Measures

Mathematical Notation

Mathematical Power Name
1018or 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 one quintillion
1015or 1,000,000,000,000,000 one quadrillion
1012or 1,000,000,000,000 one trillion
109or 1,000,000,000 one billion
106or 1,000,000 one million
103or 1,000 one thousand
102or 100 one hundred
101or 10 ten
100or 1 one
10-1or 0.1 one tenth
10-2or 0.01 one hundredth
10-3or 0.001 one thousandth
10-6or 0.000 001 one millionth
10-9or 0.000 000 001 one billionth
10-12or 0.000 000 000 001 one trillionth
10-15or 0.000 000 000 000 001 one quadrillionth
10-18or 0.000 000 000 000 000 001 one quintillionth

Metric Interrelationships

Prefix Symbol Length, weight, or capacity Area Volume
exa E 1018 1036 1054
peta P 1015 1030 1045
tera T 1012 1024 1036
giga G 109 1018 1027
mega M 106 1012 1018
hectokilo hk 105 1010 1015
myria ma 104 108 1012
kilo k 103 106 109
hecto h 102 104 106
basic unit -- 1 meter, 1 gram, 1 liter 1 meter2 1 meter3
deci d 10-1 10-2 10-3
centi c 10-2 10-4 10-6
milli m 10-3 10-6 10-9
decimilli dm 10-4 10-8 10-12
centimilli cm 10-5 10-10 10-15
micro u 10-6 10-12 10-18
nano n 10-9 10-18 10-27
pico p 10-12 10-24 10-36
femto f 10-15 10-30 10-45
atto a 10-18 10-36 10-54

Conversion Factors

To Convert From To Multiply by
acres ares 40.468 564 224
acres hectares 0.404 685 642 24
acres square feet 43,560
acres square kilometers 0.004 046 856 422 4
acres square meters 4,046.856 422 4
acres square miles (statute) 0.001 562 50
acres square yards 4,840
ares square meters 100
ares square yards 119.599
barrels, US beer gallons 31
barrels, US beer liters 117.347 77
barrels, US petroleum gallons (British) 34.97
barrels, US petroleum gallons (US) 42
barrels, US petroleum liters 158.987 29
barrels, US proof spirits gallons 40
barrels, US proof spirits liters 151.416 47
bushels (US) bushels (British) 0.968 9
bushels (US) cubic feet 1.244 456
bushels (US) cubic inches 2,150.42
bushels (US) cubic meters 0.035 239 07
bushels (US) cubic yards 0.046 090 96
bushels (US) dekaliters 3.523 907
bushels (US) dry pints 64
bushels (US) dry quarts 32
bushels (US) liters 35.239 070 17
bushels (US) pecks 4
cables fathoms 120
cables meters 219.456
cables yards 240
carat milligrams 200
centimeters feet 0.032 808 40
centimeters inches 0.393 700 8
centimeters meters 0.01
centimeters yards 0.010 936 13
centimeters, cubic cubic inches 0.061 023 744
centimeters, square square feet 0.001 076 39
centimeters, square square inches 0.155 000 31
centimeters, square square meters 0.000 1
centimeters, square square yards 0.000 119 599
chains, square surveyor's ares 4.046 86
chains, square surveyor's square feet 4,356
chains, surveyor's feet 66
chains, surveyor's meters 20.116 8
chains, surveyor's rods 4
cords of wood cubic feet 128
cords of wood cubic meters 3.624 556
cords of wood cubic yards 4.740 7
cups liquid ounces (US) 8
cups liters 0.236 588 2
degrees Celsius degrees Fahrenheit multiply by 1.8 and add 32
degrees Fahrenheit degrees Celsius subtract 32 and divide by 1.8
dekaliters bushels 0.283 775 9
dekaliters cubic feet 0.353 146 7
dekaliters cubic inches 610.237 4
dekaliters dry pints 18.161 66
dekaliters dry quarts 9.080 829 8
dekaliters liters 10
dekaliters pecks 1.135 104
drams, avoirdupois avoirdupois ounces 0.062 55
drams, avoirdupois grains 27.344
drams, avoirdupois grams 1.771 845 2
drams, troy grains 60
drams, troy grams 3.887 934 6
drams, troy scruples 3
drams, troy troy ounces 0.125
drams, liquid (US) cubic inches 0.226
drams, liquid (US) liquid drams (British) 1.041
drams, liquid (US) liquid ounces 0.125
drams, liquid (US) milliliters 3.696 69
drams, liquid (US) minims 60
fathoms feet 6
fathoms meters 1.828 8
feet centimeters 30.48
feet inches 12
feet kilometers 0.000 304 8
feet meters 0.304 8
feet statute miles 0.000 189 39
feet yards 0.333 333 3
feet, cubic bushels 0.803 563 95
feet, cubic cubic decimeters 28.316 847
feet, cubic cubic inches 1,728
feet, cubic cubic meters 0.028 316 846 592
feet, cubic cubic yards 0.037 037 04
feet, cubic dry pints 51.428 09
feet, cubic dry quarts 25.714 05
feet, cubic gallons 7.480 519
feet, cubic gills 239.376 6
feet, cubic liquid ounces 957.506 5
feet, cubic liquid pints 59.844 16
feet, cubic liquid quarts 29.922 08
feet, cubic liters 28.316 846 592
feet, cubic pecks 3.214 256
feet, square acres 0.000 022 956 8
feet, square square centimeters 929.030 4
feet, square square decimeters 9.290 304
feet, square square inches 144
feet, square square meters 0.092 903 04
feet, square square yards 0.111 111 1
furlongs feet 660
furlongs inches 7,920
furlongs meters 201.168
furlongs statute miles 0.125
furlongs yards 220
gallons, liquid (US) cubic feet 0.133 680 6
gallons, liquid (US) cubic inches 231
gallons, liquid (US) cubic meters 0.003 785 411 784
gallons, liquid (US) cubic yards 0.004 951 13
gallons, liquid (US) gills (US) 32
gallons, liquid (US) liquid gallons (British) 0.832 67
gallons, liquid (US) liquid ounces 128
gallons, liquid (US) liquid pints 8
gallons, liquid (US) liquid quarts 4
gallons, liquid (US) liters 3.785 411 784
gallons, liquid (US) milliliters 3,785.411 784
gallons, liquid (US) minims 61,440
gills (US) centiliters 11.829 4
gills (US) cubic feet 0.004 177 517
gills (US) cubic inches 7.218 75
gills (US) gallons 0.031 25
gills (US) gills (British) 0.832 67
gills (US) liquid ounces 4
gills (US) liquid pints 0.25
gills (US) liquid quarts 0.125
gills (US) liters 0.118 294 118 25
gills (US) milliliters 118.294 118 25
gills (US) minims 1,920
grains avoirdupois drams 0.036 571 43
grains avoirdupois ounces 0.002 285 71
grains avoirdupois pounds 0.000 142 86
grains grams 0.064 798 91
grains kilograms 0.000 064 798 91
grains milligrams 64.798 910
grains pennyweights 0.042
grains scruples 0.05
grains troy drams 0.016 6
grains troy ounces 0.002 083 33
grains troy pounds 0.000 173 61
grams avoirdupois drams 0.564 383 39
grams avoirdupois ounces 0.035 273 961
grams avoirdupois pounds 0.002 204 622 6
grams grains 15.432 361
grams kilograms 0.001
grams milligrams 1,000
grams troy ounces 0.032 150 746 6
grams troy pounds 0.002 679 23
hands (height of horse) centimeters 10.16
hands (height of horse) inches 4
hectares acres 2.471 053 8
hectares square feet 107,639.1
hectares square kilometers 0.01
hectares square meters 10,000
hectares square miles 0.003 861 02
hectares square yards 11,959.90
hundredweights, long avoirdupois pounds 112
hundredweights, long kilograms 50.802 345
hundredweights, long long tons 0.05
hundredweights, long metric tons 0.050 802 345
hundredweights, long short tons 0.056
hundredweights, short avoirdupois pounds 100
hundredweights, short kilograms 45.359 237
hundredweights, short long tons 0.044 642 86
hundredweights, short metric tons 0.045 359 237
hundredweights, short short tons 0.05
inches centimeters 2.54
inches feet 0.083 333 33
inches meters 0.025 4
inches millimeters 25.4
inches yards 0.027 777 78
inches, cubic bushels 0.000 465 025
inches, cubic cubic centimeters 16.387 064
inches, cubic cubic feet 0.000 578 703 7
inches, cubic cubic meters 0.000 016 387 064
inches, cubic cubic yards 0.000 021 433 47
inches, cubic dry pints 0.029 761 6
inches, cubic dry quarts 0.014 880 8
inches, cubic gallons 0.004 329 0
inches, cubic gills 0.138 528 1
inches, cubic liquid ounces 0.554 112 6
inches, cubic liquid pints 0.034 632 03
inches, cubic liquid quarts 0.017 316 02
inches, cubic liters 0.016 387 064
inches, cubic milliliters 16.387 064
inches, cubic minims (US) 265.974 0
inches, cubic pecks 0.001 860 10
inches, square square centimeters 6.451 600
inches, square square feet 0.006 944 44
inches, square square meters 0.000 645 16
inches, square square yards 0.000 771 605
kilograms avoirdupois drams 564.383 4
kilograms avoirdupois ounces 35.273 962
kilograms avoirdupois pounds 2.204 622 622
kilograms grains 15,432.36
kilograms grams 1,000
kilograms long tons 0.000 984 2
kilograms metric tons 0.001
kilograms short hundredweights 0.022 046 23
kilograms short tons 0.001 102 31
kilograms troy ounces 32.150 75
kilograms troy pounds 2.679 229
kilometers meters 1,000
kilometers statute miles 0.621 371 192
kilometers, square acres 247.105 38
kilometers, square hectares 100
kilometers, square square meters 1,000,000
kilometers, square statute miles 0.386 102 16
knots (nautical mi/hr) kilometers/hour 1.852
knots (nautical mi/hr) statute miles/hour 1.151
leagues, nautical kilometers 5.556
leagues, nautical nautical miles 3
leagues, statute kilometers 4.828 032
leagues, statute statute miles 3
links, square surveyor's square centimeters 404.686
links, square surveyor's square inches 62.726 4
links, surveyor's centimeters 20.116 8
links, surveyor's chains 0.01
links, surveyor's inches 7.92
liters bushels 0.028 377 59
liters cubic feet 0.035 314 67
liters cubic inches 61.023 74
liters cubic meters 0.001
liters cubic yards 0.001 307 95
liters dekaliters 0.1
liters dry pints 1.816 166
liters dry quarts 0.908 082 98
liters gallons 0.264 172 052
liters gills (US) 8.453 506
liters liquid ounces 33.814 02
liters liquid pints 2.113 376
liters liquid quarts 1.056 688 2
liters milliliters 1,000
liters pecks 0.113 510 4
meters centimeters 100
meters feet 3.280 839 895
meters inches 39.370 079
meters kilometers 0.001
meters millimeters 1,000
meters statute miles 0.000 621 371
meters yards 1.093 613 298
meters, cubic bushels 28.377 59
meters, cubic cubic feet 35.314 666 7
meters, cubic cubic inches 61,023.744
meters, cubic cubic yards 1.307 950 619
meters, cubic gallons 264.172 05
meters, cubic liters 1,000
meters, cubic pecks 113.510 4
meters, square acres 0.000 247 105 38
meters, square hectares 0.000 1
meters, square square centimeters 10,000
meters, square square feet 10.763 910 4
meters, square square inches 1,550.003 1
meters, square square yards 1.195 990 046
microns meters 0.000 001
microns inches 0.000 039 4
mils inches 0.001
mils millimeters 0.025 4
miles, nautical kilometers 1.852 0
miles, nautical statute miles 1.150 779 4
miles, statute centimeters 160,934.4
miles, statute feet 5,280
miles, statute furlongs 8
miles, statute inches 63,360
miles, statute kilometers 1.609 344
miles, statute meters 1,609.344
miles, statute rods 320
miles, statute yards 1,760
miles, square nautical square kilometers 3.429 904
miles, square nautical square statute miles 1.325
miles, square statute acres 640
miles, square statute hectares 258.998 811 033 6
miles, square statute sections 1
miles, square statute square kilometers 2.589 988 110 336
miles, square statute square nautical miles 0.755 miles
miles, square statute square rods 102,400
milligrams grains 0.015 432 358 35
milliliters cubic inches 0.061 023 744
milliliters gallons 0.000 264 17
milliliters gills (US) 0.008 453 5
milliliters liquid ounces 0.033 814 02
milliliters liquid pints 0.002 113 4
milliliters liquid quarts 0.001 056 7
milliliters liters 0.001
milliliters minims 16.230 73
millimeters inches 0.039 370 078 7
minims (US) cubic inches 0.003 759 77
minims (US) gills (US) 0.000 520 83
minims (US) liquid ounces 0.002 083 33
minims (US) milliliters 0.061 611 52
minims (US) minims (British) 1.041
ounces, avoirdupois avoirdupois drams 16
ounces, avoirdupois avoirdupois pounds 0.062 5
ounces, avoirdupois grains 437.5
ounces, avoirdupois grams 28.349 523 125
ounces, avoirdupois kilograms 0.028 349 523 125
ounces, avoirdupois troy ounces 0.911 458 3
ounces, avoirdupois troy pounds 0.075 954 86
ounces, liquid (US) cubic feet 0.001 044 38
ounces, liquid (US) centiliters 2.957 35
ounces, liquid (US) cubic inches 1.804 687 5
ounces, liquid (US) gallons 0.007 812 5
ounces, liquid (US) gills (US) 0.25
ounces, liquid (US) liquid drams 8
ounces, liquid (US) liquid ounces (British) 1.041
ounces, liquid (US) liquid pints 0.062 5
ounces, liquid (US) liquid quarts 0.031 25
ounces, liquid (US) liters 0.029 573 53
ounces, liquid (US) milliliters 29.573 529 6
ounces, liquid (US) minims 480
ounces, troy avoirdupois drams 17.554 29
ounces, troy avoirdupois ounces 1.097 143
ounces, troy avoirdupois pounds 0.068 571 43
ounces, troy grains 480
ounces, troy grams 31.103 476 8
ounces, troy pennyweights 20
ounces, troy troy drams 8
ounces, troy troy pounds 0.083 333 3
paces (US) centimeters 76.2
paces (US) inches 30
pecks (US) bushels 0.25
pecks (US) cubic feet 0.311 114
pecks (US) cubic inches 537.605
pecks (US) cubic meters 0.008 809 77
pecks (US) cubic yards 0.011 522 74
pecks (US) dekaliters 0.880 976 75
pecks (US) dry pints 16
pecks (US) dry quarts 8
pecks (US) liters 8.809 767 5
pecks (US) pecks (British) 0.968 9
pennyweights grains 24
pennyweights grams 1.555 173 84
pennyweights troy ounces 0.05
pints, dry (US) bushels 0.015 625
pints, dry (US) cubic feet 0.019 444 63
pints, dry (US) cubic inches 33.600 312 5
pints, dry (US) dekaliters 0.055 061 05
pints, dry (US) dry pints (British) 0.968 9
pints, dry (US) dry quarts 0.5
pints, dry (US) liters 0.550 610 47
pints, liquid (US) cubic feet 0.016 710 07
pints, liquid (US) cubic inches 28.875
pints, liquid (US) deciliters 4.731 76
pints, liquid (US) gallons 0.125
pints, liquid (US) gills (US) 4
pints, liquid (US) liquid ounces 16
pints, liquid (US) liquid pints (British) 0.832 67
pints, liquid (US) liquid quarts 0.5
pints, liquid (US) liters 0.473 176 473
pints, liquid (US) milliliters 473.176 473
pints, liquid (US) minims 7,680
points (typographical) inches 0.013 837
points (typographical) millimeters 0.351 459 8
pounds, avoirdupois avoirdupois drams 256
pounds, avoirdupois avoirdupois ounces 16
pounds, avoirdupois grains 7,000
pounds, avoirdupois grams 453.592 37
pounds, avoirdupois kilograms 0.453 592 37
pounds, avoirdupois long tons 0.000 446 428 6
pounds, avoirdupois metric tons 0.000 453 592 37
pounds, avoirdupois quintals 0.004 535 92
pounds, avoirdupois short tons 0.000 5
pounds, avoirdupois troy ounces 14.583 33
pounds, avoirdupois troy pounds 1.215 278
pounds, troy avoirdupois drams 210.651 4
pounds, troy avoirdupois ounces 13.165 71
pounds, troy avoirdupois pounds 0.822 857 1
pounds, troy grains 5,760
pounds, troy grams 373.241 721 6
pounds, troy kilograms 0.373 241 721 6
pounds, troy pennyweights 240
pounds, troy troy ounces 12
quarts, dry (US) bushels 0.031 25
quarts, dry (US) cubic feet 0.038 889 25
quarts, dry (US) cubic inches 67.200 625
quarts, dry (US) dekaliters 0.110 122 1
quarts, dry (US) dry pints 2
quarts, dry (US) dry quarts (British) 0.968 9
quarts, dry (US) liters 1.101 221
quarts, dry (US) pecks 0.125
quarts, dry (US) pints, dry (US) 2
quarts, liquid (US) cubic feet 0.033 420 14
quarts, liquid (US) cubic inches 57.75
quarts, liquid (US) deciliters 9.463 53
quarts, liquid (US) gallons 0.25
quarts, liquid (US) gills (US) 8
quarts, liquid (US) liquid ounces 32
quarts, liquid (US) liquid pints (US) 2
quarts, liquid (US) liquid quarts (British) 0.832 67
quarts, liquid (US) liters 0.946 352 946
quarts, liquid (US) milliliters 946.352 946
quarts, liquid (US) minims 15,360
quintals avoirdupois pounds 220.462 26
quintals kilograms 100
quintals metric tons 0.1
rods feet 16.5
rods meters 5.029 2
rods yards 5.5
rods, square acres 0.006 25
rods, square square meters 25.292 85
rods, square square yards 30.25
scruples grains 20
scruples grams 1.295 978 2
scruples troy drams 0.333
sections (US) square kilometers 2.589 988 1
sections (US) square statute miles 1
spans centimeters 22.86
spans inches 9
steres cubic meters 1
steres cubic yards 1.307 95
tablespoons milliliters 14.786 76
tablespoons teaspoons 3
teaspoons milliliters 4.928 922
teaspoons tablespoons 0.333 333
ton-miles, long metric ton-kilometers 1.635 169
ton-miles, short metric ton-kilometers 1.459 972
tons, gross register cubic feet of permanently enclosed space 100
tons, gross register cubic meters of permanently enclosed space 2.831
684 7
tons, long (deadweight) avoirdupois ounces 35,840
tons, long (deadweight) avoirdupois pounds 2,240
tons, long (deadweight) kilograms 1,016.046 909 8
tons, long (deadweight) long hundredweights 20
tons, long (deadweight) metric tons 1.016 046 908 8
tons, long (deadweight) short hundredweights 22.4
tons, long (deadweight) short tons 1.12
tons, metric avoirdupois pounds 2,204.623
tons, metric kilograms 1,000
tons, metric long hundredweights 19.684 130 3
tons, metric long tons 0.984 206 5
tons, metric quintals 10
tons, metric short hundredweights 22.046 23
tons, metric short tons 1.102 311 3
tons, metric troy ounces 32,150.75
tons, net register cubic feet of permanently enclosed space for cargo
and passengers 100
tons, net register cubic meters of permanently enclosed space for
cargo and passengers 2.831 684 7
tons, shipping cubic feet of permanently enclosed cargo space 42
tons, shipping cubic meters of permanently enclosed cargo space 1.189
307 574
tons, short avoirdupois pounds 2,000
tons, short kilograms 907.184 74
tons, short long hundredweights 17.857 14
tons, short long tons 0.892 857 1
tons, short metric tons 0.907 184 74
tons, short short hundredweights 20
townships (US) sections 36
townships (US) square kilometers 93.239 572
townships (US) square statute miles 36
miles, square statute acres 640
miles, square statute hectares 258.998 811 033 6
miles, square statute square feet 27,878,400
miles, square statute square meters 2,589,988.110 336
miles, square statute square yards 3,097,600
yards centimeters 91.44
yards feet 3
yards inches 36
yards meters 0.914 4
yards miles 0.000 568 18
yards, cubic bushels 21.696 227
yards, cubic cubic feet 27
yards, cubic cubic inches 46,656
yards, cubic cubic meters 0.764 554 857 984
yards, cubic gallons 201.974 0
yards, cubic liters 764.554 857 984
yards, cubic pecks 86.784 91
yards, square acres 0.000 206 611 6
yards, square hectares 0.000 083 612 736
yards, square square centimeters 8,361.273 6
yards, square square feet 9
yards, square square inches 1,296
yards, square square meters 0.836 127 36
yards, square square miles 0.000 000 322 830 6
_________________________________________________________________

Note: At this time, only three countries-Burma, Liberia, and the
US-have not adopted the International System of Units (SI, or metric
system) as their official system of weights and measures. Although use
of the metric system has been sanctioned by law in the US since 1866,
it has been slow in displacing the American adaptation of the British
Imperial System known as the US Customary System. The US is the only
industrialized nation that does not mainly use the metric system in
its commercial and standards activities, but there is increasing
acceptance in science, medicine, government, and many sectors of
industry.
_________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

@APPENDIXES

Appendix F: Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes

FIPS 10-4: Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and
Their Principal Administrative Divisions (FIPS PUB 10-4) is maintained
by the Office of the Geographer and Global Issues (Department of
State) and published by the National Institute of Standards and
Technology (Department of Commerce). These two-character alphabetic
codes are included in the text of the Factbook in the Data code entry
under the Government category. FIPS 10-4 codes are intended for
general use throughout the US Government, especially in activities
associated with the mission of the Department of State and national
defense programs.

ISO 3166: Codes for the Representation of Names of Countries (ISO
3166) is prepared by the International Organization for
Standardization. ISO 3166 includes two- and three-character alphabetic
codes and three-digit numeric codes that may be needed for activities
involving exchange of data with international organizations that have
adopted that standard. Except for the numeric codes, ISO 3166 codes
have been adopted in the US as FIPS 104-1: American National Standard
Codes for the Representation of Names of Countries, Dependencies, and
Areas of Special Sovereignty for Information Interchange.

Internet: This is a provisional compilation that generally agrees with
the ISO 3166 two-character alphabetic codes.

Entity FIPS 10-4 ISO 3166 ISO 3166 ISO 3166 Internet Comment
Afghanistan AF AF AFG 004 AF
Albania AL AL ALB 008 AL
Algeria AG DZ DZA 012 DZ
American Samoa AQ AS ASM 016 AS
Andorra AN AD AND 020 AD
Angola AO AO AGO 024 AO
Anguilla AV AI AIA 660 AI
Antarctica AY AQ ATA 010 AQ ISO defines as the territory south of 60
degrees south latitude
Antigua and Barbuda AC AG ATG 028 AG
Argentina AR AR ARG 032 AR
Armenia AM AM ARM 051 AM
Aruba AA AW ABW 533 AW
Ashmore and Cartier AT -- -- -- -- ISO includes with Australia
Australia AS AU AUS 036 AU ISO includes Ashmore and Cartier
Islands,Coral Sea Islands
Austria AU AT AUT 040 AT
Azerbaijan AJ AZ AZE 031 AZ
The Bahamas BF BS BHS 044 BS
Bahrain BA BH BHR 048 BH
Baker Island FQ -- -- -- -- ISO includes with the US Minor Outlying
Islands
Bangladesh BG BD BGD 050 BD
Barbados BB BB BRB 052 BB
Bassas da India BS -- -- -- -- ISO includes with the Miscellaneous
(French) Indian Ocean Islands
Belarus BO BY BLR 112 BY
Belgium BE BE BEL 056 BE
Belize BH BZ BLZ 084 BZ
Benin BN BJ BEN 204 BJ
Bermuda BD BM BMU 060 BM
Bhutan BT BT BTN 064 BT
Bolivia BL BO BOL 068 BO
Bosnia and Herzegovina BK BA BIH 070 BA
Botswana BC BW BWA 072 BW
Bouvet Island BV BV BVT 074 BV
Brazil BR BR BRA 076 BR
British Indian Ocean Territory IO IO IOT 086 IO
British Virgin Islands VI VG VGB 092 VG
Brunei BX BN BRN 096 BN
Bulgaria BU BG BGR 100 BG
Burkina Faso UV BF BFA 854 BF
Burma BM MM MMR 104 MM ISO uses the name Myanmar
Burundi BY BI BDI 108 BI
Cambodia CB KH KHM 116 KH
Cameroon CM CM CMR 120 CM
Canada CA CA CAN 124 CA
Cape Verde CV CV CPV 132 CV
Cayman Islands CJ KY CYM 136 KY
Central African Republic CT CF CAF 140 CF
Chad CD TD TCD 148 TD
Chile CI CL CHL 152 CL
China CH CN CHN 156 CN see also Taiwan
Christmas Island KT CX CXR 162 CX
Clipperton Island IP -- -- -- -- ISO includes with French Polynesia
Cocos (Keeling) Islands CK CC CCK 166 CC
Colombia CO CO COL 170 CO
Comoros CN KM COM 174 KM
Congo, Democratic Republic of the CG ZR ZAR 180 ZR formerly Zaire
Congo, Republic of the CF CG COG 178 CG
Cook Islands CW CK COK 184 CK
Coral Sea Islands CR -- -- -- -- ISO includes with Australia
Costa Rica CS CR CRI 188 CR
Cote d'Ivoire IV CI CIV 384 CI
Croatia HR HR HRV 191 HR
Cuba CU CU CUB 192 CU
Cyprus CY CY CYP 196 CY
Czech Republic EZ CZ CZE 203 CZ
Denmark DA DK DNK 208 DK
Djibouti DJ DJ DJI 262 DJ
Dominica DO DM DMA 212 DM
Dominican Republic DR DO DOM 214 DO
East Timor -- TP TMP 626 TP FIPS includes with Indonesia
Ecuador EC EC ECU 218 EC
Egypt EG EG EGY 818 EG
El Salvador ES SV SLV 222 SV
Equatorial Guinea EK GQ GNQ 226 GQ
Eritrea ER ER ERI 232 ER
Estonia EN EE EST 233 EE
Ethiopia ET ET ETH 231 ET
Europa Island EU -- -- -- -- ISO includes with the Miscellaneous
(French) Indian Ocean Islands
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) FA FK FLK 238 FK
Faroe Islands FO FO FRO 234 FO
Fiji FJ FJ FJI 242 FJ
Finland FI FI FIN 246 FI
France FR FR FRA 250 FR
France, Metropolitan -- FX FXX 249 FX ISO limits to the European part
of France, excluding French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern
and Antarctic Lands, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia,
Reunion, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Wallis and Futuna
French Guiana FG GF GUF 254 GF
French Polynesia FP PF PYF 258 PF ISO includes Clipperton Island
French Southern and Antarctic Lands FS TF ATF 260 -- FIPS 10-4 does
not include the French-claimed portion of Antarctica (Terre Adelie)
Gabon GB GA GAB 266 GA
The Gambia GA GM GMB 270 GM
Gaza Strip GZ -- -- -- --
Georgia GG GE GEO 268 GE
Germany GM DE DEU 276 DE
Ghana GH GH GHA 288 GH
Gibraltar GI GI GIB 292 GI
Glorioso Islands GO -- -- -- -- ISO includes with the Miscellaneous
(French) Indian Ocean Islands
Greece GR GR GRC 300 GR
Greenland GL GL GRL 304 GL
Grenada GJ GD GRD 308 GD
Guadeloupe GP GP GLP 312 GP
Guam GQ GU GUM 316 GU
Guatemala GT GT GTM 320 GT
Guernsey GK -- -- -- -- ISO includes with the United Kingdom
Guinea GV GN GIN 324 GN
Guinea-Bissau PU GW GNB 624 GW
Guyana GY GY GUY 328 GY
Haiti HA HT HTI 332 HT
Heard Island and McDonald Islands HM HM HMD 334 HM
Holy See (Vatican City) VT VA VAT 336 VA
Honduras HO HN HND 340 HN
Hong Kong HK HK HKG 344 HK
Howland Island HQ -- -- -- -- ISO includes with the US Minor Outlying
Islands
Hungary HU HU HUN 348 HU
Iceland IC IS ISL 352 IS
India IN IN IND 356 IN
Indonesia ID ID IDN 360 ID
Iran IR IR IRN 364 IR
Iraq IZ IQ IRQ 368 IQ
Ireland EI IE IRL 372 IE
Israel IS IL ISR 376 IL
Italy IT IT ITA 380 IT
Jamaica JM JM JAM 388 JM
Jan Mayen JN -- -- -- -- ISO includes with Svalbard
Japan JA JP JPN 392 JP
Jarvis Island DQ -- -- -- -- ISO includes with the US Minor Outlying
Islands
Jersey JE -- -- -- -- ISO includes with the United Kingdom
Johnston Atoll JQ -- -- -- -- ISO includes with the US Minor Outlying
Islands
Jordan JO JO JOR 400 JO
Juan de Nova Island JU -- -- -- -- ISO includes with the Miscellaneous
(French) Indian Ocean Islands
Kazakhstan KZ KZ KAZ 398 KZ
Kenya KE KE KEN 404 KE
Kingman Reef KQ -- -- -- -- ISO includes with the US Minor Outlying
Islands
Kiribati KR KI KIR 296 KI
Korea, North KN KP PRK 408 KP
Korea, South KS KR KOR 410 KR
Kuwait KU KW KWT 414 KW
Kyrgyzstan KG KG KGZ 417 KG
Laos LA LA LAO 418 LA
Latvia LG LV LVA 428 LV
Lebanon LE LB LBN 422 LB
Lesotho LT LS LSO 426 LS
Liberia LI LR LBR 430 LR
Libya LY LY LBY 434 LY
Liechtenstein LS LI LIE 438 LI
Lithuania LH LT LTU 440 LT
Luxembourg LU LU LUX 442 LU
Macau MC MO MAC 446 MO
Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of MK MK MKD 807 MK
Madagascar MA MG MDG 450 MG
Malawi MI MW MWI 454 MW
Malaysia MY MY MYS 458 MY
Maldives MV MV MDV 462 MV
Mali ML ML MLI 466 ML
Malta MT MT MLT 470 MT
Man, Isle of IM -- -- -- -- ISO includes with the United Kingdom
Marshall Islands RM MH MHL 584 MH
Martinique MB MQ MTQ 474 MQ
Mauritania MR MR MRT 478 MR
Mauritius MP MU MUS 480 MU
Mayotte MF YT MYT 175 YT
Mexico MX MX MEX 484 MX
Micronesia, Federated States of FM FSM 583 FM
Midway Islands MQ -- -- -- -- ISO includes with the US Minor Outlying
Islands
Miscellaneous (French) -- -- -- -- ISO includes Bassas da India,
Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, Tromelin Island
Moldova MD MD MDA 498 MD
Monaco MN MC MCO 492 MC
Mongolia MG MN MNG 496 MN
Montenegro* MW -- -- -- -- see footnote at end of table
Montserrat MH MS MSR 500 MS
Morocco MO MA MAR 504 MA
Mozambique MZ MZ MOZ 508 MZ
Myanmar -- -- -- -- -- see Burma
Namibia WA NA NAM 516 NA
Nauru NR NR NRU 520 NR
Navassa Island BQ -- -- -- --
Nepal NP NP NPL 524 NP
Netherlands NL NL NLD 528 NL
Netherlands Antilles NT AN ANT 530 AN
New Caledonia NC NC NCL 540 NC
New Zealand NZ NZ NZL 554 NZ
Nicaragua NU NI NIC 558 NI
Niger NG NE NER 562 NE
Nigeria NI NG NGA 566 NG
Niue NE NU NIU 570 NU
Norfolk Island NF NF NFK 574 NF
Northern Mariana Islands CQ MP MNP 580 MP
Norway NO NO NOR 578 NO
Oman MU OM OMN 512 OM
Pakistan PK PK PAK 586 PK
Palau PS PW PLW 585 PW
Palmyra Atoll LQ -- -- -- -- ISO includes with the US Minor Outlying
Islands
Panama PM PA PAN 591 PA
Papua New Guinea PP PG PNG 598 PG
Paracel Islands PF -- -- -- --
Paraguay PA PY PRY 600 PY
Peru PE PE PER 604 PE
Philippines RP PH PHL 608 PH
Pitcairn Islands PC PN PCN 612 PN
Poland PL PL POL 616 PL
Portugal PO PT PRT 620 PT
Puerto Rico RQ PR PRI 630 PR
Qatar QA QA QAT 634 QA
Reunion RE RE REU 638 RE
Romania RO RO ROM 642 RO
Russia RS RU RUS 643 RU
Rwanda RW RW RWA 646 RW
Saint Helena SH SH SHN 654 SH
Saint Kitts and Nevis SC KN KNA 659 KN
Saint Lucia ST LC LCA 662 LC
Saint Pierre and Miquelon SB PM SPM 666 PM
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines VC VC VCT 670 VC
Samoa WS WS WSM 882 WS --
San Marino SM SM SMR 674 SM
Sao Tome and Principe TP ST STP 678 ST
Saudi Arabia SA SA SAU 682 SA
Senegal SG SN SEN 686 SN
Serbia* SR -- -- -- -- see footnote at end of table
Serbia and Montenegro* -- -- -- -- -- see footnote at end of table
Seychelles SE SC SYC 690 SC
Sierra Leone SL SL SLE 694 SL
Singapore SN SG SGP 702 SG
Slovakia LO SK SVK 703 SK
Slovenia SI SI SVN 705 SI
Solomon Islands BP SB SLB 090 SB
Somalia SO SO SOM 706 SO
South Africa SF ZA ZAF 710 ZA
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands SX GS SGS 239 GS
Spain SP ES ESP 724 ES
Spratly Islands PG -- -- -- --
Sri Lanka CE LK LKA 144 LK
Sudan SU SD SDN 736 SD
Suriname NS SR SUR 740 SR
Svalbard SV SJ SJM 744 SJ ISO includes Jan Mayen
Swaziland WZ SZ SWZ 748 SZ
Sweden SW SE SWE 752 SE
Switzerland SZ CH CHE 756 CH
Syria SY SY SYR 760 SY
Taiwan TW TW TWN 158 TW
Tajikistan TI TJ TJK 762 TJ
Tanzania TZ TZ TZA 834 TZ
Thailand TH TH THA 764 TH
Togo TO TG TGO 768 TG
Tokelau TL TK TKL 772 TK
Tonga TN TO TON 776 TO
Trinidad and Tobago TD TT TTO 780 TT
Tromelin Island TE -- -- -- -- ISO includes with the Miscellaneous
(French) Indian Ocean Islands
Tunisia TS TN TUN 788 TN
Turkey TU TR TUR 792 TR
Turkmenistan TX TM TKM 795 TM
Turks and Caicos Islands TK TC TCA 796 TC
Tuvalu TV TV TUV 798 TV
Uganda UG UG UGA 800 UG
Ukraine UP UA UKR 804 UA
United Arab Emirates TC AE ARE 784 AE
United Kingdom UK GB GBR 826 UK/GB ISO includes Guernsey, Isle of Man,
Jersey
United States US US USA 840 US
United States Minor Outlying Islands -- UM UMI 581 UM ISO includes
Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman
Reef, Midway Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Wake Island
Uruguay UY UY URY 858 UY
Uzbekistan UZ UZ UZB 860 UZ
Vanuatu NH VU VUT 548 VU
Venezuela VE VE VEN 862 UE
Vietnam VM VN VNM 704 VN
Virgin Islands VQ VI VIR 850 VI
Virgin Islands (UK) -- -- -- -- -- see British Virgin Islands
Virgin Islands (US) -- -- -- -- -- see Virgin Islands
Wake Island WQ -- -- -- -- ISO includes with the US Minor Outlying
Islands
Wallis and Futuna WF WF WLF 876 WF
West Bank WE -- -- -- --
Western Sahara WI EH ESH 732 EH
Western Samoa -- -- -- -- -- see Samoa
World -- -- -- -- -- the Factbook uses the W data code from DIAM
65--18 Geopolitical Data Elements and Related Features, Data Standard
No. 3, December 1994, published by the Defense Intelligence Agency
Yemen YM YE YEM 887 YE
Yugoslavia* -- YU YUG 891 YU see footnote at end of table
Zaire -- -- -- -- -- see Democratic Republic of the Congo
Zambia ZA ZM ZWB 894 ZM
Zimbabwe ZI ZW ZWE 716 ZW
_________________________________________________________________

Serbia and Montenegro have asserted the formation of a joint
independent state,but this entity has not been formally recognized as
a state by the US; the US view is that the Socialist Federal Republic
of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and that none of the successor
republics represents its continuation.

______________________________________________________________________

@APPENDIXES

Appendix G: Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Codes
_________________________________________________________________

IHO 23-4th: Limits of Oceans and Seas, Special Publication 23, Draft
4th Edition 1986, published by the International Hydrographic Bureau
of the International Hydrographic Organization

IHO 23-3rd: Limits of Oceans and Seas, Special Publication 23, 3rd
Edition 1953, published by the International Hydrographic Organization

ACIC M 49-1: Chart of Limits of Seas and Oceans, revised January 1958,
published by the Aeronautical Chart and Information Center (ACIC),
United States Air Force; note--ACIC is now part of the National
Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA)

DIAM 65-18: Geopolitical Data Elements and Related Features, Data
Standard No. 4, Defense Intelligence Agency Manual 65-18, December
1994, published by the Defense Intelligence Agency

The US Government has not yet adopted a standard for hydrographic
codes similar to the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS)
10-4 country codes. The names and limits of the following oceans and
seas are not always directly comparable because of differences in the
customers, needs, and requirements of the individual organizations.
Even the number of principal water bodies varies from organization to
organization. Factbook users, for example, find the Atlantic Ocean and
Pacific Ocean entries useful, but none of the following standards
include those oceans in their entirety. Nor is there any provision for
combining codes or overcodes to aggregate water bodies.

Principal Oceans and Seas of the World With Hydrographic Codes by
Institution
IHO 23-4th IHO 23-3rd* ACIC M 49-1 DIAM 65-18
Arctic Ocean 9 17 A 5A
Atlantic Ocean -- -- -- --
North Atlantic Ocean 1 23 B 1A
South Atlantic Ocean 4 32 C 2A
Baltic Sea 2 1 B26 7B
Indian Ocean 5 45 F 6A
Mediterranean Sea 3.1 28 B11 --
Eastern Mediterranean 3.1.2 28 B -- 8E
Western Mediterranean 3.1.1 28 A -- 8W
Pacific Ocean -- -- -- --
North Pacific Ocean 7 57 D 3A
South Pacific Ocean 8 61 E 4A
South China and Eastern Archipelagic Seas 6 49 and 48 D18 plus others
3U plus others
Oceans and Seas of the World With Hydrographic Codes by Institution

IHO 23-4th IHO 23-3rd* ACIC M 49-1 DIAM 65-18
ARCTIC OCEAN 9 17 A 5A
East Siberian Sea 9.1 11 A6 5S
Laptev Sea 9.2 10 A5 5P
Kara Sea 9.3 9 A4 5K
Barents Sea 9.4 7 A2 5B
White Sea 9.5 8 A3 5W
North Greenland Sea 9.6 -- -- --
Norwegian Sea 9.7 6 B30 5N
Iceland Sea 9.8 -- -- --
Davis Strait 9.9 15 B2 1V
Hudson Strait 9.10 16 A A15 1U
Hudson Bay 9.11 16 A10 1H
Baffin Bay 9.12 14 A A12 1P
Lincoln Sea 9.13 17 A A13 5L
Northwest Passages (Northwest Passage, Northwestern Passages) 9.14 14
A9 5T
Beaufort Sea 9.15 13 A8 5U
Chukchi Sea 9.16 12 A7 5C
James Bay -- -- A11 --
Kane Basin -- -- A14 --
ATLANTIC OCEAN (see North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean) --
-- -- --
BALTIC SEA 2 1 B26 7B
Gulf of Bothnia 2.1 1 (a) B29 7T
Gulf of Finland 2.2 1 (b) B28 7F
Gulf of Riga 2.3 1 (c) B27 7H
The Sound 2.4 2 -- --
The Great Belt 2.5 2 -- --
The Little Belt 2.6 2 -- --
Kattegat 2.7 2 B25 7K
INDIAN OCEAN 5 45 F 6A
Mozambique Channel 5.1 45 A F1 6Z
Gulf of Suez 5.2 35 F5 6W
Gulf of Aqaba 5.3 36 -- 6Q
Red Sea 5.4 37 F4 6E
Gulf of Aden 5.5 38 F3 6D
Persian Gulf (Gulf of Iran) 5.6 41 F7 6P
Gulf of Oman 5.7 40 F6 6M
Arabian Sea 5.8 39 F2 6R
Laccadive Sea (Ladshadweep Sea) 5.9 42 F9 6L
Gulf of Mannar 5.10 -- F8 --
Palk Strait and Palk Bay 5.11 -- -- --
Bay of Bengal 5.12 43 F10 6B
Andaman Sea (Burma Sea) 5.13 44 F11 6N
Strait of Malacca (Malacca Strait) 5.14 46 (a) F12 6C
Great Australian Bight 5.15 62 F21 6G
Suez Canal -- -- -- 6U
MEDITERRANEAN REGION 3 -- -- --
Mediterranean Sea 3.1 28 B11 --
Mediterranean Sea, Western Basin 3.1.1 28 A -- 8W
Strait of Gibraltar 3.1.1.1 28 (a) B7 8S
Alboran Sea 3.1.1.2 28 (b) -- 8Y
Balearic Sea (Balear Sea, Iberian Sea) 3.1.1.3 28 (c) B9 8J
Ligurian Sea (Ligure Sea) 3.1.1.4 28 (d) B10 8L
Tyrrhenian Sea (Tirreno Sea) 3.1.1.5 28 (e) B12 8T
Mediterranean Sea, Eastern Basin 3.1.2 28 B -- 8E
Adriatic Sea 3.1.2.1 28 (g) B14 8D
Strait of Sicily (Strait of Sicilia) 3.1.2.2 -- -- --
Ionian Sea 3.1.2.3 28 (f) B13 8N
Aegean Sea 3.1.2.4 28 (h) B15 8G
Sea of Marmara 3.2 29 B16 8M
Black Sea 3.3 30 B17 8B
Sea of Azov 3.4 31 B18 8Z
Gulf of Lion (Gulf of Lions) -- -- B8 8X
Aral Sea -- -- -- 8R
Bosporus -- -- -- 8P
Caspian Sea -- -- -- 8C
Dardanelles -- -- -- 8U
NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN 1 23 B 1A
Skagerrak 1.1 3 B24 1S
North Sea 1.2 4 B23 1N
Inner Seas off the West Coast of Scotland 1.3 18 -- 1K
Irish Sea and Saint Georges Channel 1.4 19 B22 1R, 1Q
Bristol Channel 1.5 20 B21 1C
Celtic Sea 1.6 21 A -- --
English Channel 1.7 21 B20 1E
Bay of Biscay 1.8 22 B19 1B
Canarias Sea 1.9 -- -- --
Gulf of Guinea 1.10 34 C4 1G
Caribbean Sea 1.11 27 B6 1X
Gulf of Mexico 1.12 26 B5 1M
Bay of Fundy 1.13 25 B4 1F
Gulf of Saint Lawrence 1.14 24 B3 1T
Labrador Sea 1.15 15 A -- 1L
Greenland Sea 1.16 5 A1 5G
Denmark Strait -- -- B1 1D
Lake Erie -- -- -- 9E
Lake Huron -- -- -- 9H
Lake Michigan -- -- -- 9M
Lake Ontario -- -- -- 9N
Lake Superior -- -- -- 9S
Panama Canal -- -- -- 1J
Saint Lawrence Seaway -- -- -- 9L
NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN 7 57 D 3A
Philippine Sea 7.1 56 D26 3P
Taiwan Strait (Formosa Strait) 7.2 -- D17 3F
East China Sea (Tung Hai) 7.3 50 D13 3E
Yellow Sea (Huang Hai, Hwang Hai) 7.4 51 D14 3Y
Bo Hai (Bo Sea, Gulf of Chihli) 7.5 -- D16 3X
Liaodong Wan (Liaodong Gulf) 7.6 -- -- --
Inland Sea of Japan (Seto Naikai) 7.7 53 -- 3N
Sea of Japan (Japan Sea) 7.8 52 D11 3J
Gulf of Tartary 7.9 -- D10 --
Sea of Okhotsk 7.10 54 D8 3Q
Bering Sea 7.11 55 D6 5D
Anadyrskiy Zaliv (Anadyrskiy Gulf) 7.12 -- -- 5Y
Gulf of Alaska 7.13 58 D4 5F
Coastal Waters of Southeast Alaska and British Columbia 7.14 59 D3 5E
Gulf of California 7.15 60 D2 3L
Gulf of Panama 7.16 -- D1 --
Amurskiy Liman -- -- D27 --
Bering Strait -- -- D7 5R
Bristol Bay -- -- D5 --
Korea Bay -- -- D15 3R
Korea Strait -- -- D12 --
Sakhalinskiy Zaliv -- -- D28 3B
Zaliv Shelikhova (Zaliv Shelekhova) -- -- D9 3K
Luzon Strait -- -- -- 3I
Tatar Strait -- -- -- 3D
PACIFIC OCEAN (see North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean) -- --
-- --
SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN 4 32 C 2A
Rio de la Plata 4.1 33 C1 2R
Drake Passage -- -- C5 2D
Golfo San Matias -- -- C2 2M
Golfo San Jorge -- -- C3 2J
Scotia Sea -- -- C6 2S
Weddell Sea -- -- C7 2W
SOUTH CHINA AND EASTERN ARCHIPELAGIC SEAS 6 49 and 48 D18 plus others
3U plus others
South China Sea (Nan Hai) 6.1 49 D18 3U
Gulf of Tonkin 6.2 -- D19 3G
Gulf of Thailand (Gulf of Siam) 6.3 47 D20 3T
Natuna Sea 6.4 -- -- --
Singapore Strait 6.5 46 (b) -- 3Z
Sunda Strait 6.6 -- -- --
Java Sea (Jawa Sea) 6.7 48 (n) F13 4J
Makassar Strait (Makasar Strait) 6.8 48 (m) E1 4M
Bali Sea 6.9 48 (l) F14 4L
Flores Sea 6.10 48 (j) F16 4F
Sumba Strait 6.11 -- -- --
Savu Sea (Sawu Sea) 6.12 48 (o) F15 6S
Timor Sea 6.13 48 (i) F19 6T
Joseph Bonaparte Gulf 6.14 -- F20 --
Gulf of Carpentaria 6.15 -- E4 4P
Arafura Sea 6.16 48 (h) E3 4U
Aru Sea 6.17 -- -- --
Banda Sea 6.18 48 (g) E2 4B
Teluk Bone (Gulf of Bone, Gulf of Boni) 6.19 48 (k) F17 4E
Ceram Sea (Seram Sea) 6.20 48 (f) D25 4Q
Gulf of Berau 6.21 -- -- --
Halmahera Sea 6.22 48 (e) D24 3H
Molucca Sea (Molukka Sea, Maluku Sea) 6.23 48 (c) D23 3M
Teluk Tomini (Gulf of Tomini) 6.24 48 (d) F18 3V
Sulawesi Sea 6.25 -- -- --
Mindanao Sea 6.26 -- -- --
Sulu Sea 6.27 48 (a) D21 3S
Celebes Sea -- 48 (b) D22 3C
SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN 8 61 E 4A
Bismarck Sea 8.1 66 E6 4K
Solomon Sea 8.2 65 E7 4S
Torres Strait 8.3 -- E5 --
Coastal Waters of Great Barrier Reefs 8.4 -- -- --
Coral Sea 8.5 64 E9 4C
Tasman Sea 8.6 63 E10 4T
Bass Strait 8.7 62 A F22 6F
Amundsen Sea -- -- E12 4D
Bellingshausen Sea -- -- E13 4G
Cook Strait -- -- E8 --
Ross Sea -- -- E11 4R
_________________________________________________________________

* The letters after the numbers are subdivisions, not footnotes.
_________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

@APPENDIXES

Appendix H: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names
_________________________________________________________________

This list indicates where various geographic names-including the
location of all United States Foreign Service Posts, alternate names
of countries, former names, and political or geographical portions of
larger entities-can be found in The World Factbook. Spellings are
normally, but not always, those approved by the US Board on Geographic
Names (BGN). Additional information is included in brackets.

Name Entry in The World Factbook Latitude Longitude
---- --------------------------- -------- ---------

A Abidjan [US Embassy] Cote d'Ivoire 5 19 N 4 02 W
Abkhazia [region] Georgia 43 00 N 41 00 E
Abu Dhabi [US Embassy] United Arab Emirates 24 28 N 54 22 E
Abu Musa [island] Iran 25 52 N 55 03 E
Abuja [US Embassy Branch Office] Nigeria 9 12 N 7 11 E
Abyssinia Ethiopia 8 00 N 38 00 E
Acapulco Mexico 16 51 N 99 55 W
Accra [US Embassy] Ghana 5 33 N 0 13 W
Adamstown Pitcairn Islands 25 04 S 130 05 W
Adana [US Consulate] Turkey 37 01 N 35 18 E
Addis Ababa [US Embassy] Ethiopia 9 02 N 38 42 E
Adelie Land (Terre Adelie) [claimed by France] Antarctica 66 30 S
139 00 E

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