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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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of All-Belarusian Unity and Concord or UPNAZ [Dmitriy BULAKOV,
chairman]; Belarusian Social-Democrat Hramada or SDBP [Nikolay
STATKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian Patriotic Movement (Belarusian
Patriotic Party) or BPR [Anatoliy BARANKEVICH]; Green Party of Belarus
or BPZ [Nikolay KARTASH, chairman]; Republican Party of Labor and
Justice or RPPS [Anatol NETYLKIN, chairman]; Belarusian Popular Front
or BNF [Levon BARSHEVSKIY, chairman]; Belarusian Social Sports Party
or BSSP [Aleksandr ALEKSANDROVICH, chairman]; Ecological Party or BEP
[Liudmila YELIZAROVA, chairman]; United Democratic Party of Belarus or
ADPB [Aleksandr DOBROVOLSKIY]; Slavic Assembly or SAB [Andrey
TSEGALKA]; Liberal-Democratic Party or LDPB [Sergei GAYDUKEVICH,
chairman]; Belarusian Christian-Democratic Unity or BKDZ [Petr SILKO];
Polish Democratic Union or PDZ [Eduard AKHREM]; Party of Beer Lovers
[Yuriy GONCHAR]; Party of Communists Belarusian or KPB [Sergei
KALYAKIN and Vasiliy NOVIKOV, chairmen]; Belarusian Labor Party or BPP
[Aleksandr BUKHVOSTOV]

International organization participation: BIS, CCC, CEI, CIS, EAPC,
EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Inmarsat, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, OSCE,
PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
(applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Valeriy V. TSEPKALO
chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 986-1604
FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel SPECKHARD
embassy: Starovilenskaya #46-220002, Minsk
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [375] (172) 31-50-00
FAX: [375] (172) 34-78-53

Flag description: red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal band
one-half the width of the red band; a white vertical stripe of white
on the hoist side bears in red the Belarusian national ornament

@Belarus:Economy

Economy-overview: The Belarusian government has revived economic
output since mid-1996 by pursuing a policy of rapid credit expansion,
ending years of cumulative decline. Real GDP increased by 2.6% in 1996
and the growth rate tripled in 1997. Lack of profitability and
resurgent inflation-which increased from an average monthly rate of
2.8% in 1996 to 4.4% in 1997-however, have kept enterprises from
making much needed capital investments. As a result, infrastructure
and equipment stocks have continued to deteriorate. Belarus has seen
little structural reform since 1995, when LUKASHENKO launched the
country on the path of "market socialism." Privatization of
enterprises controlled by the central government virtually ceased in
1996. As of May 1997, only about 10% of all enterprises under central
government control had been privatized. In addition, LUKASHENKO has
re-imposed administrative control over prices and the national
currency's exchange rate, and expanded the state's right to intervene
arbitrarily in the management of private enterprise. Lack of
structural reform, and a climate hostile to business, have inhibited
foreign investment in Belarus in 1995-97. In 1995 Belarus ranked
second to last among the 15 former Soviet republics in terms of the
average amount of foreign investment it attracted per capita. Although
it moved up to 11th place in 1996, this was largely due to inflows
from Russia related to the construction of the Yamal natural gas
pipeline. Belarus's trade deficit has grown steadily over the past
three years - from 8% of total trade turnover in 1995 to 14% in the
first quarter of 1997 - despite the government's efforts to promote
exports and limit imports. Given Belarus's limited fiscal reserve, a
continued growth in the trade deficit will increase vulnerability to a
balance of payments crisis.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$50.4 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 8.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$4,800 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 20%
industry: 43%
services: 37% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 65% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 4.3 million
by occupation: industry and construction 40%, agriculture and forestry
19%, services 41% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3.3% officially registered unemployed (July 1997);
large numbers of underemployed workers

Budget:
revenues: $4 billion
expenditures: $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $180
million (1997 est.)

Industries: tractors, metal-cutting machine tools, off-highway dump
trucks up to 110-metric-ton load capacity, wheel-type earth movers for
construction and mining, eight-wheel-drive, high-flotation trucks with
cargo capacity of 25 metric tons for use in tundra and roadless areas,
equipment for animal husbandry and livestock feeding, motorcycles,
television sets, chemical fibers, fertilizer, linen fabric, wool
fabric, radios, refrigerators, other consumer goods

Industrial production growth rate: 17% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 7.21 million kW (1997)

Electricity-production: 23.7 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 3,144 kWh (1996)

Agriculture-products: grain, potatoes, vegetables; meat, milk

Exports:
total value: $5.4 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
partners: Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Germany

Imports:
total value: $6.7 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: fuel, natural gas, industrial raw materials, textiles,
sugar
partners: Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Germany

Debt-external: $970 million (December 1997 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $186 million (1993)
note: commitments, $3,930 million ($1,845 million disbursements),
1992-95

Currency: Belarusian rubel (BR)

Exchange rates: Belarusian rubels per US$1-31,030 (19 January 1998
official Belarusian exchange rate), 28,800 (October 1997 end of
period),15,500 (yearend 1996), 11,500 (yearend 1995), 10,600 (yearend
1994), 699 (yearend 1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 1.849 million (1991 est.)

Telephone system: telephone service inadequate for the purposes of
either business or the population; about 70% of the telephones are in
homes; over 750,000 applications from households for telephones remain
unsatisfied (1992 est.); new investment centers on international
connections and business needs
domestic: the new NMT-450 analog cellular system is now operating in
Minsk
international: international traffic is carried by the Moscow
international gateway switch and also by satellite; satellite earth
stations-1 Intelsat (through Canada) and 1 Eutelsat (through the UK)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 35, FM 18, shortwave 0

Radios: 3.17 million (1991 est.) (5,615,000 with multiple speaker
systems for program diffusion)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (one national and one private; the
license of the private station was suspended during the parliamentary
elections of 1994)

Televisions: 3.5 million (1992 est.)

@Belarus:Transportation

Railways:
total: 5,488 km
broad gauge: 5,488 km 1.520-m gauge (873 km electrified) (1993)

Highways:
total: 52,131 km
paved: 36,544 km
unpaved: 15,587 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: NA km; note-Belarus has extensive and widely used canal and
river systems

Pipelines: crude oil 1,470 km; refined products 1,100 km; natural gas
1,980 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Mazyr

Merchant marine:
note: claims 5% of former Soviet fleet (1995 est.)

Airports: 118 (1996 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 36
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 18
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
under 914 m: 11 (1996 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 82
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 62 (1996 est.)

@Belarus:Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Interior
Ministry Troops, Border Guards

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 2,681,014 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 2,099,860 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 78,780 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: 4.5 trillion rubles (1997 est.);
note-conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.3% (1997 est.)

@Belarus:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: demarcation has begun on border with Lithuania

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly
for the domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to
Russia and Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________

BELGIUM

@Belgium:Geography

Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France and
the Netherlands

Geographic coordinates: 50 50 N, 4 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 30,510 sq km
land: 30,230 sq km
water: 280 sq km

Area-comparative: about the size of Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 1,385 km
border countries: France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km,
Netherlands 450 km

Coastline: 64 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: median line with neighbors
exclusive fishing zone: median line with neighbors (extends about 68
km from coast)
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy

Terrain: flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills,
rugged mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: North Sea 0 m
highest point: Signal de Botrange 694 m

Natural resources: coal, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 24%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland: 21%
other: 34%

Irrigated land: 10 sq km including Luxembourg (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding is a threat in areas of reclaimed coastal
land, protected from the sea by concrete dikes

Environment-current issues: Meuse River, a major source of drinking
water, polluted from steel production wastes; other rivers polluted by
animal wastes and fertilizers; industrial air pollution contributes to
acid rain in neighboring countries

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Law of
the Sea

Geography-note: crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West
European capitals within 1,000 km of Brussels which is the seat of
both the EU and NATO

@Belgium:People

Population: 10,174,922 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 903,954; female 860,940)
15-64 years: 66% (male 3,387,329; female 3,318,221)
65 years and over: 17% (male 693,519; female 1,010,959) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.09% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 10.21 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 10.41 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.27 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.35 years
male: 74.13 years
female: 80.74 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.49 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Belgian(s)
adjective: Belgian

Ethnic groups: Fleming 55%, Walloon 33%, mixed or other 12%

Religions: Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25%

Languages: Flemish 56%, French 32%, German 1%, legally bilingual 11%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1980 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Belgium:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Belgium
conventional short form: Belgium
local long form: Royaume de Belgique/Koninkrijk Belgie
local short form: Belgique/Belgie

Data code: BE

Government type: federal parliamentary democracy under a
constitutional monarch

National capital: Brussels

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (French: provinces,
singular-province; Flemish: provincien, singular-provincie);
Antwerpen, Brabant, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur,
Oost-Vlaanderen, West-Vlaanderen
note: constitutional reforms passed by Parliament in 1993
theoretically increased the number of provinces to 10 by splitting the
province of Brabant into two new provinces, Flemish Brabant and
Walloon Brabant, but this has not been confirmed by the US Government

Independence: 4 October 1830 (from the Netherlands)

National holiday: National Day, 21 July (ascension of King LEOPOLD to
the throne in 1831)

Constitution: 7 February 1831, last revised 14 July 1993; parliament
approved a constitutional package creating a federal state

Legal system: civil law system influenced by English constitutional
theory; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: King ALBERT II (since 9 August 1993); Heir Apparent
Prince PHILIPPE, son of the king
head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Luc DEHAENE (since 6 March
1992)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the king and approved by
Parliament
elections: none; the king is a constitutional monarch; prime minister
appointed by the king and then approved by Parliament

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate or
Senaat in Flemish, Senat in French (71 seats; 40 members are directly
elected, 31 will be indirectly elected at a later date; members serve
four-year terms) and a Chamber of Deputies or Kamer van
Volksvertegenwoordigers in Flemish, Chambre des Representants in
French (150 seats; members are directly elected by proportional
representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate and Chamber of Deputies-last held 21 May 1995 (next
to be held by the end of 1999)
election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-CVP 7, SP 6, VLD 6, VU 2, AGALEV 1, VB 3, PS 5, PRL 5, PSC 3,
ECOLO 2; note-before the 1995 elections, there were 184 seats; Chamber
of Deputies-percent of vote by party-CVP 17.2%, PS 11.9%, SP 12.6%,
VLD 13.1%, PRL 10.3%, PSC 7.7%, VB 7.8%, VU 4.7%, ECOLO 4.0%, AGALEV
4.4%, FN 2.3%; seats by party-CVP 29, PS 21, SP 20, VLD 21, PRL 18,
PSC 12, VB 11, VU 5, ECOLO 6, AGALEV 5, FN 2; note-before the 1995
elections, there were 212 seats
note: as a result of the 1993 constitutional revision that furthered
devolution into a federal state, there are now three levels of
government (federal, regional, and linguistic community) with a
complex division of responsibilities; this reality leaves six
governments each with its own legislative assembly; for other acronyms
of the listed parties see Political parties and leaders

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Hof van Cassatie in
Flemish, Cour de Cassation in French, judges are appointed for life by
the Belgian monarch

Political parties and leaders: Flemish Christian Democrats or CVP
(Christian People's Party) [Marc VAN PEEL, president]; Francophone
Christian Democrats or PSC (Social Christian Party) [Gerard DEPREZ,
president]; Flemish Socialist Party or SP [Louis TOBBACK, president];
Francophone Socialist Party or PS [Philippe BUSQUIN, president];
Flemish Liberal Democrats or VLD [Herman DE CROO, president];
Francophone Liberal Reformation Party or PRL [Louis MICHEL,
president]; Francophone Democratic Front or FDF [Olivier MAINGAIN,
president]; Volksunie or VU [Bert ANCIAUX, president]; Vlaams Blok or
VB [Karel DILLEN]; National Front or FN [Frank VANHECKE, president];
AGALEV (Flemish Greens) [no president]; ECOLO (Francophone Greens) [no
president]; other minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Christian and Socialist Trade
Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries; numerous other associations
representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the
legal and medical professions; various organizations represent the
cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such
as the Flemish Action Committee Against Nuclear Weapons and Pax
Christi

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer),
AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS
(observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Andre ADAM
chancery: 3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-6900
FAX: [1] (202) 333-3079
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alan J. BLINKEN
embassy: 27 Boulevard du Regent, B-1000 Brussels
mailing address: APO AE 09724, PSC 82, Box 002, Brussels
telephone: [32] (2) 508-2111
FAX: [32] (2) 511-2725

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side),
yellow, and red; the design was based on the flag of France

@Belgium:Economy

Economy-overview: This highly developed private enterprise economy has
capitalized on its central geographic location, highly developed
transport network, and diversified industrial and commercial base.
Industry is concentrated mainly in the populous Flemish area in the
north, although the government is encouraging reinvestment in the
southern region of Walloon. With few natural resources, Belgium must
import substantial quantities of raw materials and export a large
volume of manufactures, making its economy unusually dependent on the
state of world markets. Two-thirds of its trade is with other EU
countries. The economy grew at a strong 4% annual pace during the
period 1988-90, slowed to 1% in 1991-92, dropped by 1.5% in 1993,
recovered with moderate 2.3% growth in 1994 and 1995, and fell off
again to 1.4% in 1996, with continued substantial unemployment.
Belgium's public debt fell from 127% of GDP in 1996 to 124% in 1997,
and the government is trying to control its expenditures to bring the
figure more into line with other industrialized countries. GDP growth
of 2.5% is forecast for 1998.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$236.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$23,200 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 2%
industry: 28%
services: 70% (1994)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1.7% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 4.283 million (1997)
by occupation: services 69.7%, industry 27.7%, agriculture 2.6% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 12.75% (1997)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly,
processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles,
glass, petroleum, coal

Industrial production growth rate: 9.7% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 13.592 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 69.56 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 7,306 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture-products: sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain,
tobacco; beef, veal, pork, milk

Exports:
total value: $172 billion (f.o.b., 1997) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic
Union (BLEU)
commodities: iron and steel, transportation equipment, tractors,
diamonds, petroleum products
partners: EU 67.2% (Germany 19%), US 5.8%, former Communist countries
1.4% (1994)

Imports:
total value: $158.5 billion (c.i.f., 1997) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic
Union
commodities: fuels, grains, chemicals, foodstuffs
partners: EU 75% (Germany 22.1%), US 5%, former Communist countries
0.8% (1997)

Debt-external: $31.3 billion (1992 est.)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $808 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Belgian franc (BF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Belgian francs (BF) per US$1-37.459 (January 1998),
35.774 (1997), 30.962 (1996), 29.480 (1995), 33.456 (1994), 34.597
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 5.691 million (1992 est.)

Telephone system: highly developed, technologically advanced, and
completely automated domestic and international telephone and
telegraph facilities
domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; extensive cable
network; limited microwave radio relay network
international: 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat
(Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 39, shortwave 0

Radios: 100,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 32 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 3,315,662 (1993 est.)

@Belgium:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,368 km (2,386 km electrified; 2,563 km double track)
standard gauge: 3,368 km 1.435-m gauge (1996)

Highways:
total: 143,175 km
paved: 143,175 km (including 1,674 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use)

Pipelines: crude oil 161 km; petroleum products 1,167 km; natural gas
3,300 km

Ports and harbors: Antwerp (one of the world's busiest ports), Brugge,
Gent, Hasselt, Liege, Mons, Namur, Oostende, Zeebrugge

Merchant marine:
total: 25 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 60,082 GRT/93,973 DWT
ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 7, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas
tanker 1, oil tanker 10 (1997 est.)

Airports: 42 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 24
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 6 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 15 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Belgium:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 2,549,277 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 2,111,332 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 63,937 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $4.6 billion (1995)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.7% (1995)

@Belgium:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: source of precursor chemicals for South American
cocaine processors; transshipment point for cocaine, heroin, hashish,
and marijuana entering Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________

BELIZE

@Belize:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between
Guatemala and Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 17 15 N, 88 45 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 22,960 sq km
land: 22,800 sq km
water: 160 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
total: 516 km
border countries: Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km

Coastline: 386 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm in the north, 3 nm in the south; note-from the
mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's territorial sea
is 3 nm; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act, 1992, the purpose
of this limitation is to provide a framework for the negotiation of a
definitive agreement on territorial differences with Guatemala

Climate: tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to February)

Terrain: flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Victoria Peak 1,160 m

Natural resources: arable land potential, timber, fish

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 2%
forests and woodland: 92%
other: 3% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent, devastating hurricanes (September to
December) and coastal flooding (especially in south)

Environment-current issues: deforestation; water pollution from
sewage, industrial effluents, agricultural runoff

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Marine Dumping, Ship
Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: national capital moved 80 km inland from Belize City
to Belmopan because of hurricanes; only country in Central America
without a coastline on the North Pacific Ocean

@Belize:People

Population: 230,160 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 42% (male 49,486; female 47,596)
15-64 years: 54% (male 63,259; female 61,567)
65 years and over: 4% (male 4,048; female 4,204) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.42% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 31.05 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.5 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 32.36 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.97 years
male: 67.01 years
female: 71.03 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.87 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Belizean(s)
adjective: Belizean

Ethnic groups: mestizo 44%, Creole 30%, Maya 11%, Garifuna 7%, other
8%

Religions: Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 30% (Anglican 12%, Methodist
6%, Mennonite 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Pentecostal 2%, Jehovah's
Witnesses 1%, other 2%), none 2%, other 6% (1980)

Languages: English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib)

Literacy:
definition: age 14 and over has ever attended school
total population: 70.3%
male: 70.3%
female: 70.3% (1991 est.)
note: other sources list the literacy rate as high as 75%

@Belize:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Belize
former: British Honduras

Data code: BH

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Belmopan

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange
Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo

Independence: 21 September 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1981)

Constitution: 21 September 1981

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG (since 17 November
1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Manuel ESQUIVEL (since July 1993);
Deputy Prime Minister Dean BARROW (since NA July 1993)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
the prime minister
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
appointed by the queen; prime minister appointed by the governor
general

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate
(8 members; members are appointed for five-year terms, five on the
advice of the prime minister, two on the advice of the leader of the
opposition, and one after consultation with the Belize Advisory
Council-this council serves as an independent body to advise the
governor general with respect to difficult decisions such as granting
pardons, commutations, stays of execution, the removal of justices of
appeal who appear to be incompetent, etc.) and the National Assembly
(29 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: National Assembly-last held 30 June 1993 (next to be held
no later than September 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-PUP 13,
UDP 15, NABR 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, the chief justice is appointed by the
governor general on advice of the prime minister

Political parties and leaders: People's United Party or PUP [Said
MUSA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Manuel ESQUIVEL, Dean BARROW];
National Alliance for Belizean Rights or NABR [Philip GOLDSON]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Society for the Promotion of
Education and Research or SPEAR [Assad SHOMAN]; United Workers Front

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer),
ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO,
WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James Schofield MURPHY
chancery: 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-9636
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6888
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
mailing address: 5825 W. Sunset Boulevard, Suite 206, Hollywood, CA
90028
telephone: [1] (213) 469-7343

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Carolyn CURIEL
embassy: Gabourel Lane and Hutson Street, Belize City
mailing address: P. O. Box 286, Unit 7401, APO AA 34025
telephone: [501] (2) 77161 through 77163
FAX: [501] (2) 30802

Flag description: blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the
bottom edges; centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms;
the coat of arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of
a mahogany tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in
the Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland

@Belize:Economy

Economy-overview: The small, essentially private enterprise economy is
based primarily on agriculture, agro-based industry, and
merchandising, with tourism and construction assuming greater
importance. Sugar, the chief crop, accounts for more than one-third of
exports, while the banana industry is the country's largest employer.
The government's tough austerity program in 1997 resulted in an
economic slowdown that is likely to continue in 1998. Political
tension in the run-up to the elections will tend to discourage
investment, already suffering as a result of tight monetary and fiscal
policies. The trade deficit has been growing, mostly as a result of
low export prices for sugar and bananas and could increase further if
a pre-election boost in government spending leads to a rise in
imports. The ruling in 1997 by the World Trade Organization against
the European Union's banana import regime-which had granted Belize
preferential treatment - is also hurting the prospects for growth, and
could contribute to an increase in already high unemployment.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$680 million (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.9% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$3,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 20%
industry: 27%
services: 53% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 71,000
by occupation: agriculture 30%, services 16%, government 15.4%,
commerce 11.2%, manufacturing 10.3%
note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel
(1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 13% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $140 million
expenditures: $142 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY97/98 est.)

Industries: garment production, food processing, tourism, construction

Industrial production growth rate: 0.2% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 23,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 105 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 491 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: bananas, coca, citrus, sugarcane; lumber; fish,
cultured shrimp

Exports:
total value: $166 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: sugar, citrus fruits, bananas, clothing, fish products,
molasses, wood
partners: US 44%, UK 42%, other EU 5%, Canada 3% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $262 million (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, food,
manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
partners: US 55%, Mexico 12%, UK 5% (1997)

Debt-external: $217 million (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Belizean dollar (Bz$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Belizean dollars (Bz$) per US$1-2.0000 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 29,000 (1996 est.)

Telephone system: above-average system
domestic: trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 9, shortwave 1

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2

Televisions: 27,048 (1993 est.)

@Belize:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,248 km
paved: 427 km
unpaved: 1,821 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 825 km river network used by shallow-draft craft;
seasonally navigable

Ports and harbors: Belize City, Big Creek, Corozol, Punta Gorda

Merchant marine:
total: 265 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,298,562 GRT/2,055,027
DWT
ships by type: bulk 26, cargo 184, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk
1, container 6, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 26, passenger-cargo
2, refrigerated cargo 8, roll-on/roll-off cargo 4, specialized tanker
2, vehicle carrier 1
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships of 8 countries:
Cuba 1, Cyprus 1, Greece 1, Hong Kong 1, Panama 1, Singapore 2, UAE 2,
and US 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 44 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 41
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 30 (1997 est.)

@Belize:Military

Military branches: Belize Defense Force (includes Ground Forces,
Maritime Wing, Air Wing, and Volunteer Guard), Belize National Police

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 56,142 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 33,328 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 2,536 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $15 million (FY97/98)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2%

@Belize:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: border with Guatemala in dispute; talks to
resolve the dispute are ongoing

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine; small-scale illicit
producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; minor
money-laundering center

______________________________________________________________________

BENIN

@Benin:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Nigeria and Togo

Geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 2 15 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 112,620 sq km
land: 110,620 sq km
water: 2,000 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
total: 1,989 km
border countries: Burkina Faso 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km,
Togo 644 km

Coastline: 121 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Tanekas 641 m

Natural resources: small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble,
timber

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 31%
other: 48% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north in
winter

Environment-current issues: recent droughts have severely affected
marginal agriculture in north; inadequate supplies of potable water;
poaching threatens wildlife populations; deforestation;
desertification

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: no natural harbors

@Benin:People

Population: 6,100,799 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (male 1,465,067; female 1,455,852)
15-64 years: 50% (male 1,455,224; female 1,582,880)
65 years and over: 2% (male 61,523; female 80,253) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.31% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 45.82 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 12.77 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 100.22 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 53.61 years
male: 51.56 years
female: 55.72 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.48 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Beninese (singular and plural)
adjective: Beninese

Ethnic groups: African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being
Fon, Adja, Yoruba, Bariba), Europeans 5,500

Religions: indigenous beliefs 70%, Muslim 15%, Christian 15%

Languages: French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars
in south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 37%
male: 48.7%
female: 25.8% (1995 est.)

@Benin:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Benin
conventional short form: Benin
local long form: Republique du Benin
local short form: Benin
former: Dahomey

Data code: BN

Government type: republic under multiparty democratic rule; dropped
Marxism-Leninism December 1989; democratic reforms adopted February
1990; transition to multiparty system completed 4 April 1991

National capital: Porto-Novo is the official capital; Cotonou is the
seat of government

Administrative divisions: 6 departments; Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou,
Mono, Oueme, Zou

Independence: 1 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 1 August (1990)

Constitution: 2 December 1990

Legal system: based on French civil law and customary law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government;
Prime Minister Adrien HOUNGBEDJI (since 9 April 1996) acts as
assistant to the president; a prime minister is not provided for in
the constitution but was appointed by President KEREKOU with the
permission of the constitutional court
cabinet: Council of Ministers headed by the prime minister; all are
appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 18 March 1996 (next to be held March 2001)
election results: Mathieu KEREKOU elected president; percent of
vote-Mathieu KEREKOU 52.49%, Nicephore SOGLO 47.51%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (83 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 28 March 1995 (next to be held NA 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-RB 20,
PRD 19, FARD-ALAFIA 10, PSD 7, NCC 3, RDL-VIVOTEN 3, PCB 2, AC 1, RDP
1, other 17

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle,
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme, High Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders: Alliance of the National Party for
Democracy and Development or PNDD and the Democratic Renewal Party or
PRD [Pascal Chabi KAO]; Action for Renewal and Development or
FARD-ALAFIA [Mathieu KEREKOU]; Alliance of the Social Democratic Party
or PSD and the National Union for Solidarity and Progress or UNSP
[Bruno AMOUSSOU]; Alliance Chameleon or AC; Alliance for Democracy and
Progress or ADP [Adekpedjon AKINDES]; Alliance for Social Democracy or
ASD [Robert DOSSOU]; Liberal Democrats' Rally for National
Reconstruction-Vivoten or RDL-Vivoten [Severin ADJOVI]; Communist
Party of Benin or PCB [Pascal TODJINOU, first secretary]; Our Common
Cause or NCC [Albert TEVOEDJRE]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or
RDP; The Renaissance Party of Benin or RB [Nicephore SOGLO]
note: as of February 1996, more than 80 political parties were
officially recognized

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA,
ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU,
MIPONUH, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WAEMU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lucien Edgar TONOUKOUIN
chancery: 2737 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 232-6656, 6657, 6658
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1996

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John M. YATES
embassy: Rue Caporal Bernard Anani, Cotonou
mailing address: B. P. 2012, Cotonou
telephone: [229] 30-06-50, 30-05-13, 30-17-92
FAX: [229] 30-14-39, 30-19-74

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red
with a vertical green band on the hoist side

@Benin:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy of Benin remains underdeveloped and
dependent on subsistence agriculture, cotton production, and regional
trade. Growth in real output, which had averaged a sound 4% during
1990-95, rose to 5.5% in 1996 and was targeted at 4.8% for 1997. Rapid
population growth offset much of this growth in output. Inflation
jumped to 55% in 1994 (compared to 3% in 1993) following the 50%
currency devaluation in January 1994, but has subsided over the past
three years, with a target of 3.5% inflation in 1997. Commercial and
transport activities, which make up a large part of GDP, are extremely
vulnerable to developments in Nigeria, particularly fuel shortages.
Support by the Paris Club and official bilateral creditors has eased
the external debt situation in recent years. The government, still
burdened with money-losing state enterprises and a bloated civil
service, has been gradually implementing a World Bank supported
structural adjustment program since 1991.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$11.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5.8% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,900 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 34%
industry: 14%
services: 52% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3.5% (1997 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $299 million
expenditures: $445 million, including capital expenditures of $14
million (1995 est.)

Industries: textiles, cigarettes; beverages, food; construction
materials, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 15,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 6 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 45 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: corn, sorghum, cassava (tapioca), yams, beans,
rice, cotton, palm oil, peanuts; poultry, livestock

Exports:
total value: $192 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: cotton, crude oil, palm products, cocoa
partners: Brazil 18%, Portugal 14%, Morocco, Libya, France

Imports:
total value: $693 million (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco, petroleum products,
intermediate goods, capital goods, light consumer goods
partners: France 27%, Thailand 9%, China, Hong Kong

Debt-external: $1.7 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1-608.36 (January 1998),
583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16
(1993)
note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100
per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 16,200 (1986 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: fair system of open wire and microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean);
submarine cable

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2

Televisions: 20,000 (1993 est.)

@Benin:Transportation

Railways:
total: 578 km (single track)
narrow gauge: 578 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways:
total: 6,787 km
paved: 1,357 km (including 10 km of expressways)
unpaved: 5,430 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: navigable along small sections, important only locally

Ports and harbors: Cotonou, Porto-Novo

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 6 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1997 est.)

@Benin:Military

Military branches: Armed Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force),
National Gendarmerie

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,311,490
females age 15-49: 1,378,979 (1998 est.)
note: both sexes are liable for military service

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 671,230
females: 698,290 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 65,498
females: 65,112 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $33 million (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 3.2% (1994)

@Benin:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics associated with
Nigerian trafficking organizations and most commonly destined for
Western Europe and the US

______________________________________________________________________

BERMUDA

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Bermuda:Geography

Location: North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean,
east of North Carolina (US)

Geographic coordinates: 32 20 N, 64 45 W

Map references: North America

Area:
total: 50 sq km
land: 50 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 103 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in
winter

Terrain: low hills separated by fertile depressions

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Town Hill 76 m

Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA (1997 est.)
note: developed (55%), and rural and open space (39%) comprise 94% of
Bermudian land area

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes (June to November)

Environment-current issues: asbestos disposal; water pollution;
preservation of open space

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: consists of about 360 small coral islands with ample
rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land, reclaimed and
otherwise, was leased by US Government from 1941 to 1995

@Bermuda:People

Population: 62,009 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20% (male 6,191; female 6,046)
15-64 years: 70% (male 21,330; female 21,912)
65 years and over: 10% (male 2,777; female 3,753) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.77% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 12.21 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.22 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.57 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.77 years
male: 75 years
female: 78.63 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.71 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bermudian(s)
adjective: Bermudian

Ethnic groups: black 61%, white and other 39%

Religions: Anglican 28%, Roman Catholic 15%, African Methodist
Episcopal (Zion) 12%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6%, Methodist 5%, other
34% (1991)

Languages: English (official), Portuguese

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 98%
female: 99% (1970 est.)

@Bermuda:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bermuda

Data code: BD

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: Hamilton

Administrative divisions: 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*;
Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint
Georges, Sandys, Smiths, Southampton, Warwick

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Bermuda Day, 24 May

Constitution: 8 June 1968

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor Thorold MASEFIELD (since June 1997)
head of government: Premier Pamela GORDON (since 25 March 1997);
Deputy Premier Jerome DILL (since 1 September 1995)
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor appointed
by the queen; premier appointed by the governor

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (an
11-member body appointed by the governor) and the House of Assembly
(40 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year
terms)
elections: last held 5 October 1993 (next to be held by NA October
1998)
election results: percent of vote by party-UBP 50%, PLP 46%,
independents 4%; seats by party-UBP 22, PLP 18

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: United Bermuda Party or UBP [Pamela
GORDON]; Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Jennifer SMITH]; National
Liberal Party or NLP [Charles JEFFERS]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU
[Derrick BURGESS]; Bermuda Public Services Association or BPSA
(Leleath BAILEY)

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CCC,
ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Consul General Robert A. FARMER
consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire, Hamilton
mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate
General Hamilton, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5300
telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342
FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592

Flag description: red with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with a
red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea
Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

@Bermuda:Economy

Economy-overview: Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes
in the world, having successfully exploited its location by providing
financial services for international firms and luxury tourist
facilities for 360,000 visitors annually. The tourist industry, which
accounts for an estimated 28% of GDP, attracts 84% of its business
from North America. The industrial sector is small, and agriculture is
severely limited by a lack of suitable land. About 80% of food needs
are imported. International business contributes over 60% of Bermuda's
economic output; a failed independence vote in late 1995 can be
partially attributed to Bermudian fears of scaring away foreign firms.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1.8 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.4% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$29,000 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1.8% (November 1997)

Labor force:
total: 34,633
by occupation: clerical 23%, services 22%, laborers 17%, professional
and technical 17%, administrative and managerial 12%, sales 7%,
agriculture and fishing 2% (1996)

Unemployment rate: NEGL% (1995)

Budget:
revenues: $430.9 million
expenditures: $452.9 million, including capital expenditures of $50
million (FY95/96 est.)

Industries: tourism, finance, insurance, structural concrete products,
paints, perfumes, pharmaceuticals, ship repairing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 145,000 kW (1996)

Electricity-production: 527,526,728 kWh (1996)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 7,856 kWh (1996)

Agriculture-products: bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy
products

Exports:
total value: $67.7 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: reexports of pharmaceuticals
partners: Netherlands 50%, Brazil 13%, Canada 6% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $569 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: miscellaneous manufactured articles, machinery and
transport equipment, food and live animals, chemicals
partners: US 73%, UK 5%, Canada 4% (1996 est.)

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Bermudian dollar (Bd$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bermudian dollar (Bd$) per US$1-1.0000 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 54,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: modern, fully automatic telephone system
international: 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations-3 Intelsat
(Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 78,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3

Televisions: 57,000 (1992 est.)

@Bermuda:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 225 km
paved: 225 km
unpaved: 0 km (1997 est.)
note: in addition, there are 232 km of paved and unpaved roads that
are privately owned

Ports and harbors: Hamilton, Saint George

Merchant marine:
total: 91 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,590,132 GRT/7,440,524
DWT
ships by type: bulk 18, chemical tanker 1, container 18, liquefied gas
tanker 7, oil tanker 26, refrigerated cargo 15, roll-on/roll-off cargo
3, short-sea passenger 2, vehicle carrier 1
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 8 countries
among which are UK 31, Canada 13, US 10, Norway 2, Hong Kong 1,
Nigeria 4, Sweden 4, and Mexico 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Bermuda:Military

Military branches: Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda
Reserve Constabulary

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Bermuda:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

BHUTAN

@Bhutan:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates: 27 30 N, 90 30 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 47,000 sq km
land: 47,000 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about half the size of Indiana

Land boundaries:
total: 1,075 km
border countries: China 470 km, India 605 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot
summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in
Himalayas

Terrain: mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Dangme Chu 97 m
highest point: Khula Kangri I 7,553 m

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 6%
forests and woodland: 66%
other: 26% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 340 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: violent storms coming down from the Himalayas are the
source of the country's name which translates as Land of the Thunder
Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season

Environment-current issues: soil erosion; limited access to potable
water

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography-note: landlocked; strategic location between China and
India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes

@Bhutan:People

Population: 1,908,307 (July 1998 est.)
note: other estimates range as low as 600,000

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40% (male 396,839; female 368,391)
15-64 years: 56% (male 549,050; female 518,780)
65 years and over: 4% (male 38,235; female 37,012) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.27% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 37.33 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 14.6 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 111.66 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 52.31 years
male: 52.77 years
female: 51.83 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.22 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Bhutanese

Ethnic groups: Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35%, indigenous or migrant
tribes 15%

Religions: Lamaistic Buddhism 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced
Hinduism 25%

Languages: Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects,
Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 42.2%
male: 56.2%
female: 28.1% (1995 est.)

People-note: refugee issue over the presence in Nepal of approximately
91,000 Bhutanese refugees, 90% of whom are in seven United Nations
Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) camps

@Bhutan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan
conventional short form: Bhutan

Data code: BT

Government type: monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

National capital: Thimphu

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and
plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi,
Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang,
Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang

Independence: 8 August 1949 (from India)

National holiday: National Day, 17 December (1907) (Ugyen WANGCHUCK
became first hereditary king)

Constitution: no written constitution or bill of rights
note: Bhutan uses 1953 Royal decree for the Constitution of the
National Assembly

Legal system: based on Indian law and English common law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: each family has one vote in village-level elections

Executive branch:
chief of state: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972);
note-the king is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972);
note-the king is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) appointed by the
king
note: there is also a Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), members
nominated by the king
elections: none; the king is a hereditary monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu (150
seats; 105 elected from village constituencies, 10 represent religious
bodies, and 35 are designated by the king to represent government and
other secular interests; members serve three-year terms)
elections: last held NA (next to be held NA)
election results: NA

Judicial branch: the Supreme Court of Appeal is the king; High Court,
judges appointed by the king

Political parties and leaders: no legal parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Buddhist clergy; Indian
merchant community; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant
antigovernment campaign

International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note-Bhutan has a Permanent
Mission to the UN; address: 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New
York, NY 10017; telephone [1] (212) 826-1919; the Bhutanese mission to
the UN has consular jurisdiction in the US
consulate(s) general: New York
honorary consulate(s): San Francisco; Washington, DC

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US and Bhutan have no
formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained
between the Bhutanese and US Embassy in New Delhi (India)

Flag description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner;
the upper triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange;
centered along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon
facing away from the hoist side

@Bhutan:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy, one of the world's smallest and least
developed, is based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the
main livelihood for 90% of the population and account for about 40% of
GDP. Agriculture consists largely of subsistence farming and animal
husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building
of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy
is closely aligned with India's through strong trade and monetary
links. The industrial sector is technologically backward, with most
production of the cottage industry type. Most development projects,
such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's
hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are key
resources. The Bhutanese Government has made some progress in
expanding the nation's productive base and improving social welfare.
Model education, social, and environment programs in Bhutan are
underway with support from multilateral development organizations.
Each economic program takes into account the government's desire to
protect the country's environment and cultural traditions. GDP growth
averaged 5% per year in 1991-95, with information not yet available
for 1996-97. Detailed controls and uncertain policies in areas like
industrial licensing, trade, labor, and finance continue to hamper
foreign investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1.3 billion (1995 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6.9% (1995 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$730 (1995 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 42%
industry: 32%
services: 26% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 7% (FY96/97 est.)

Labor force: NA
by occupation: agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and commerce 2%
note: massive lack of skilled labor

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $146 million
expenditures: $152 million, including capital expenditures of $94
million (FY95/96 est.)
note: the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of Bhutan's
budget expenditures

Industries: cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic
beverages, calcium carbide

Industrial production growth rate: 7.6% (1992 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 361,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 1.707 billion kWh (1995)
note: exports electricity to India

Electricity-consumption per capita: 143 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains;
dairy products, eggs

Exports:
total value: $77.4 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit,
electricity (to India), precious stones, spices
partners: India 94%, Bangladesh

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