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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Part 49 out of 51

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Part I-(26 developed countries) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada,
Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan,
Kuwait, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Russia, South
Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UAE, UK, US
Part II-(133 less developed countries) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria,
Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin,
Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina
Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African
Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic
of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire,
Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea,
Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Grenada,
Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary,
India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,
Kiribati, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho,
Liberia, Libya, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia,
Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan,
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Rwanda,
Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Swaziland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga,
Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu,
Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
_________________________________________________________________

International Energy Agency (IEA)
address-2 rue Andre Pascal, F-75775 Paris CEDEX 16, France
telephone-[33] (1) 45 24 82 00
FAX-[33] (1) 45 24 99 88
established-15 November 1974
aim-to promote cooperation on energy matters, especially emergency oil
sharing and relations between oil consumers and oil producers;
established by the OECD
members-(23) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland,
France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey,
UK, US
_________________________________________________________________

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
(IFRCS)
note-formerly known as League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
(LORCS)
address-Chemin des Crets 17, CP 372, Petit-Saconnex, CH-1211 Geneva
19, Switzerland
telephone-[41] (22) 730 4222
FAX-[41] (22) 733 0395
established-5 May 1919
aim-to organize, coordinate, and direct international relief actions;
to promote humanitarian activities; to represent and encourage the
development of National Societies; to bring help to victims of armed
conflicts, refugees, and displaced people; to reduce the vulnerability
of people through development programs
members-(170) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua
and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso,
Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central
African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of
the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia,
Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia,
Fiji, Finland, France, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada,
Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary,
Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan,
Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Latvia,
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco,
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia,
Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,
Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand,
Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan,
Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela,
Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe
associate members-(13) Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Comoros, Cyprus,
Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kiribati, Namibia, Saint Kitts and Nevis,
Seychelles, Suriname, Tuvalu, Vanuatu
_________________________________________________________________

International Finance Corporation (IFC)
address-1850 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, US
telephone-[1] (202) 473 0631
FAX-[1] (202) 676 0631
established-25 May 1955
effective-20 July 1956
aim-to support private enterprise in international economic
development; a UN specialized agency and IBRD affiliate
members-(170) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and
Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria,
Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central
African Republic, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic
of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire,
Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,
Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia,
Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,
Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,
Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico,
Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco,
Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger,
Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay,
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint
Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon
Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland,
Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo,
Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK,
US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia,
Zimbabwe
_________________________________________________________________

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
address-Via del Serafico 107, I-00142 Rome, Italy
telephone-[39] (6) 54591
FAX-[39] (6) 5043463
established-NA November 1974
aim-to promote agricultural development; a UN specialized agency
members-(160)
Category I-(22 industrialized aid contributors) Australia, Austria,
Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland,
Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US
Category II-(12 petroleum-exporting aid contributors) Algeria, Gabon,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia,
UAE, Venezuela
Category III-(126 aid recipients) Afghanistan, Albania, Angola,
Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh,
Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia,
Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook
Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti,
Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial
Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, The Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Grenada,
Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India,
Israel, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan,
Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique,
Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New
Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and
Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome
and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands,
Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria,
Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Uruguay, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia
(suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe
_________________________________________________________________

International Hydrographic Organization (IHO)
note-name changed from International Hydrographic Bureau on 22
September 1970
address-BP 445, 7 avenue President J F Kennedy, Monte Carlo MC 98011
CEDEX, Monaco
telephone-[33] (93) 50 65 87
FAX-[33] (93) 25 20 03
established-NA June 1919
effective-NA June 1921
aim-to train hydrographic surveyors and nautical cartographers to
achieve standardization in nautical charts and electronic chart
displays; to provide advice on nautical cartography and hydrography;
to develop the sciences in the field of hydrography and techniques
used for descriptive oceanography
members-(60) Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Belgium, Brazil, Canada,
Chile, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Cuba, Cyprus, Denmark,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany,
Greece, Guatemala, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Japan,
North Korea, South Korea, Malaysia, Monaco, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria,
Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland,
Portugal, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname,
Sweden, Syria, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, UAE, US,
UK, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia
permanent members-(10) Algeria, Bulgaria, Colombia, Croatia, Estonia,
Jamaica, Mauritania, Morocco, Qatar, Tunisia
_________________________________________________________________

International Investment Bank (IIB)
established on 7 July 1970; to promote economic development; members
were Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Mongolia,
Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam; now it is a Russian bank with a new
charter
_________________________________________________________________

International Labor Organization (ILO)
address-International Labor Office, 4 route des Morillons, CH-1211
Geneva 22, Switzerland
telephone-[41] (22) 799 61 11
FAX-[41] (22) 798 86 85
established-11 April 1919 (affiliated with the UN 14 December 1946)
aim-to deal with world labor issues; a UN specialized agency
members-(174) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and
Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria,
Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde,
Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros,
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica,
Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,
Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France,
Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada,
Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary,
Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy,
Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait,
Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova,
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New
Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania,
Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and
the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,
Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania,
Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan,
Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam,
Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe
_________________________________________________________________

International Maritime Organization (IMO)
note-name changed from Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative
Organization (IMCO) on 22 May 1982
address-4 Albert Embankment, London SE1 7SR, UK
telephone-[44] (171) 735 7611
FAX-[44] (171) 587 3210
established-17 March 1958
aim-to deal with international maritime affairs; a UN specialized
agency
members-(155) Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda,
Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burma, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the
Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia,
Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea,
Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia,
Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,
Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,
North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,
Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal,
Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama,
Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal,
Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia,
South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland,
Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela,
Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended)
associate members-(2) Hong Kong, Macau
_________________________________________________________________

International Maritime Satellite Organization (Inmarsat)
see International Mobile Satellite Organization (Inmarsat)
_________________________________________________________________

International Mobile Satellite Organization (Inmarsat)
note-formerly International Maritime Satellite Organization
address-99 City Road, London EC1Y 1AX, UK
telephone-[44] (171) 728 1212
FAX-[44] (171) 728 1602
established-3 September 1976
effective-26 July 1979
aim-to provide worldwide communications for commercial, distress, and
safety applications, at sea, in the air, and on land
members-(79) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, The Bahamas, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Cameroon,
Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,
Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Gabon, Georgia,
Germany, Ghana, Greece, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel,
Italy, Japan, South Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Liberia, Malaysia, Malta,
Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mozambique, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria,
Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal,
Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Singapore, Slovakia,
South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand,
Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Yugoslavia
_________________________________________________________________

International Monetary Fund (IMF)
address-700 19th Street NW, Washington, DC 20431, US
telephone-[1] (202) 623 7000
FAX-[1] (202) 623 4661, 623 7491, 623 4662
established-22 July 1944
effective-27 December 1945
aim-to promote world monetary stability and economic development; a UN
specialized agency
members-(182) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and
Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil,
Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the
Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El
Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji,
Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece,
Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras,
Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel,
Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South
Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,
Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,
Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of
Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal,
Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan,
Palua, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland,
Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint
Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome
and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa,
Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland,
Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and
Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US,
Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia,
Zimbabwe
_________________________________________________________________

International Olympic Committee (IOC)
note-there are 194 National Olympic Committees of which 185 are
recognized by the International Olympic Committee
address-Chateau de Vidy, CH-1007 Lausanne, Switzerland
telephone-[41] (21) 621 61 11
FAX-[41] (21) 621 62 16
established-23 June 1894
aim-to promote the Olympic ideals and administer the Olympic games:
1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, United States (20 July-4 August);
1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan (date NA); 2000 Summer Olympics
in Sydney, Australia (date NA); 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake
City, United States (date NA)
National Olympic Committees-(196 and the Palestine Liberation
Organization) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, American Samoa, Andorra,
Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Australia,
Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados,
Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Brunei,
Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada,
Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile,
China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic
of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba,
Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The
Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guam, Guatemala,
Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,
Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,
Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,
Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger,
Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay,
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Romania,
Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and
the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi
Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan,
Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,
Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virgin Islands, Yemen,
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), Zambia, Zimbabwe, Palestine
Liberation Organization
_________________________________________________________________

International Organization for Migration (IOM)
note-established as Provisional Intergovernmental Committee for the
Movement of Migrants from Europe; renamed Intergovernmental Committee
for European Migration (ICEM) on 15 November 1952; renamed
Intergovernmental Committee for Migration (ICM) in November 1980;
current name adopted 14 November 1989
address-17 route des Morillons, CP 71, CH-1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland
telephone-[41] (22) 717 91 11
FAX-[41] (22) 798 61 50
established-5 December 1951
aim-to facilitate orderly international emigration and immigration
members-(59) Albania, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria,
Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa
Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kenya,
South Korea, Liberia, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway,
Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal,
Senegal, Slovakia, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan,
Thailand, Uganda, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia
observers-(48) Afghanistan, Belarus, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Brazil, Cape Verde, Federation of Ethnic Communities' Council of
Australia Inc., Georgia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Holy See,
India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Japan International Friendship and
Welfare Foundation, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta,
Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, NZ, Niwano Peace
Foundation, Partnership with the Children of the Third World,
Presiding Bishop's Fund for World Relief/Episcopal Church, Refugee
Council of Australia, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, San Marino, Sao Tome
and Principe, Slovenia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sudan, Turkey,
Ukraine, UK, Vietnam, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe
_________________________________________________________________

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
address-CP 56, 1 rue de Varembe, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland
telephone-[41] (22) 749 01 11
FAX-[41] (22) 733 34 30
established-NA February 1947
aim-to promote the development of international standards with a view
to facilitating international exchange of goods and services and to
developing cooperation in the sphere of intellectual, scientific,
technological and economic activity
members-(86 national standards organizations) Albania, Algeria,
Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium,
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China,
Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece,
Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy,
Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Libya,
The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malaysia, Mauritius,
Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan,
Panama, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia,
Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden,
Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,
Turkey, Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam,
Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe
correspondent members-(24) Bahrain, Barbados, Botswana, Brunei,
Estonia, Hong Kong, Jordan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon,
Lithuania, Malawi, Malta, Mozambique, Nepal, Oman, Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Peru, Qatar, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE
subscriber members-(9) Antigua and Barbuda, Bolivia, Cambodia,
Dominican Republic, Fiji, Grenada, Guyana, Namibia, Saint Lucia
_________________________________________________________________

International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (ICRM)
address-CICR, 19 avenue de la Paix, CH-1202 Geneva, Switzerland
telephone-[41] (22) 734 60 01
FAX-[41] (22) 733 20 57
established-NA 1928
aim-to promote worldwide humanitarian aid through the International
Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in wartime, and International
Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS; formerly
League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies or LORCS) in peacetime
National Societies-(163 countries) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria,
Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria,
The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin,
Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi,
Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic,
Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo,
Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji,
Finland, France, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada,
Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary,
Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan,
Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Latvia,
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,
Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan,
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland,
Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint
Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome
and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa,
Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland,
Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,
Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela,
Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe
_________________________________________________________________

International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
address-Place des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland
telephone-[41] (22) 730 6184
FAX-[41] (22) 733 7256, 730 6614
established-9 December 1932
effective-1 January 1934
affiliated with the UN-15 November 1947
aim-to deal with world telecommunications issues; a UN specialized
agency
members-(187) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua
and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil,
Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the
Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia,
Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,
Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy
See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,
Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia,
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco,
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New
Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania,
Russia, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino,
Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri
Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria,
Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US,
Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia
(suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe
_________________________________________________________________

International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Intelsat)
address-Intelsat, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC
20008-3098, US
telephone-[1] (202) 944 7500
FAX-[1] (202) 944 7890
established-20 August 1971
effective-12 February 1973
aim-to develop and operate a global commercial telecommunications
satellite system
members-(140) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia,
Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh,
Barbados, Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia,
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica,
Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia,
Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala,
Guinea, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia,
Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,
Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya,
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Monaco,
Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,
Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia,
Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Singapore, Somalia, South Africa,
Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria,
Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,
Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen,
Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe
nonsignatory users-(44) Albania, Antigua and Barbuda, Belarus, Belize,
Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Comoros, Cook Islands, Cuba, Djibouti,
Eritrea, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Kiribati, North Korea,
Laos, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Lithuania, The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Moldova, Mongolia,
Nauru, Niue, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao
Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Solomon Islands, Suriname, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Ukraine,
Vanuatu
_________________________________________________________________

Islamic Development Bank (IDB)
address-P.O. Box 5925, Jeddah 21432, Saudi Arabia
telephone-[966] (2) 6361400
FAX-[966] (2) 6366871
established-15 December 1973
aim-to promote Islamic economic aid and social development
members-(48 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan,
Albania, Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Brunei,
Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, The
Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait,
Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania,
Morocco, Mozambique, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia,
Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization
_________________________________________________________________

Latin American Economic System (LAES)
note-also known as Sistema Economico Latinoamericana (SELA)
address-SELA, Avda Francisco de Miranda, Torre Europa, piso 4,
Chacaito, Apartado de Correos 17035, Caracas 1010-A, Venezuela
telephone-[58] (2) 905 5111
FAX-[58] (2) 951 6953, 951 7246
established-17 October 1975
aim-to promote economic and social development through regional
cooperation
members-(27) Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile,
Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador,
Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico,
Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago,
Uruguay, Venezuela
_________________________________________________________________

Latin American Integration Association (LAIA)
note-also known as Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion (ALADI)
address-Calle Cebollati 1461, Casilla de Correo 577, 11000 Montevideo,
Uruguay
telephone-[598] (2) 40 11 21, 49 59 15
FAX-[598] (2) 49 06 49
established-12 August 1980
effective-18 March 1981
aim-to promote freer regional trade
members-(11) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador,
Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela
observers-(20) China, Commission of the European Communities, Costa
Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras,
Inter-American Development Bank, Italy, Nicaragua, Organization of
American States, Panama, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain,
Switzerland, United Nations Development Program, United Nations
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
_________________________________________________________________

League of Arab States (LAS)
see Arab League (AL)
_________________________________________________________________

League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (LORCS)
see International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
(IFRCS)
_________________________________________________________________

least developed countries (LLDCs)
that subgroup of the less developed countries (LDCs) initially
identified by the UN General Assembly in 1971 as having no significant
economic growth, per capita GDPs normally less than $1,000, and low
literacy rates; also known as the undeveloped countries; the 42 LLDCs
are: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Botswana, Burkina Faso,
Burma, Burundi, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros,
Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Kiribati, Laos, Lesotho, Malawi, Maldives, Mali,
Mauritania, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Rwanda, Samoa, Sao Tome and
Principe, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Tuvalu,
Uganda, Vanuatu, Yemen
_________________________________________________________________

less developed countries (LDCs)
the bottom group in the hierarchy of developed countries (DCs), former
USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE), and less developed countries
(LDCs); mainly countries and dependent areas with low levels of
output, living standards, and technology; per capita GDPs are
generally below $5,000 and often less than $1,500; however, the group
also includes a number of countries with high per capita incomes,
areas of advanced technology, and rapid rates of growth; includes the
advanced developing countries, developing countries, Four Dragons
(Four Tigers), least developed countries (LLDCs), low-income
countries, middle-income countries, newly industrializing economies
(NIEs), the South, Third World, underdeveloped countries, undeveloped
countries; the 172 LDCs are: Afghanistan, Algeria, American Samoa,
Angola, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, The Bahamas,
Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia,
Botswana, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burma,
Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central
African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Christmas Island, Cocos Islands,
Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the
Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus,
Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,
Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Islands, Fiji, French
Guiana, French Polynesia, Gabon, The Gambia, Gaza Strip, Ghana,
Gibraltar, Greenland, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guatemala, Guernsey,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jersey, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, North
Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,
Macau, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Isle of Man,
Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte,
Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Montserrat, Morocco,
Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New
Caledonia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern
Mariana Islands, Oman, Palau, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Islands, Puerto Rico, Qatar,
Reunion, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,
Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa,
Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra
Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau,
Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu,
UAE, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virgin Islands,
Wallis and Futuna, West Bank, Western Sahara, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe;
note-similar to the new International Monetary Fund (IMF) term
"developing countries" which adds Malta, Mexico, South Africa, and
Turkey but omits in its recently published statistics American Samoa,
Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cayman Islands, Christmas
Island, Cocos Islands, Cook Islands, Cuba, Eritrea, Falkland Islands,
French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gaza Strip, Gibraltar, Greenland,
Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guernsey, Jersey, North Korea, Macau, Isle
of Man, Martinique, Mayotte, Montserrat, Nauru, New Caledonia, Niue,
Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Pitcairn Islands,
Puerto Rico, Reunion, Saint Helena, Saint Pierre and Miquelon,
Tokelau, Tonga, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, Virgin Islands,
Wallis and Futuna, West Bank, Western Sahara
_________________________________________________________________

low-income countries
another term for those less developed countries with below-average per
capita GDPs; see less developed countries (LDCs)
_________________________________________________________________

London Suppliers Group
see Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)
_________________________________________________________________

Mercado Comun del Cono Sur (Mercosur)
see Southern Cone Common Market
_________________________________________________________________

middle-income countries
another term for those less developed countries with above-average per
capita GDPs; see less developed countries (LDCs)
_________________________________________________________________

Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)
established-16 April 1987
aim-to arrest the proliferation of missiles (unmanned delivery
vehicles of mass destruction) by controlling the export of key missile
technologies and equipment
members-(28) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada,
Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,
Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Russia,
South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US
_________________________________________________________________

Near Abroad
Russian term for the 14 non-Russian successor states of the USSR, in
which 25 million ethnic Russians live and in which Moscow has
expressed a strong national security interest; the 14 countries are
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan,
Ukraine, Uzbekistan
_________________________________________________________________

newly industrializing countries (NICs)
former term for the newly industrializing economies; see newly
industrializing economies (NIEs)
_________________________________________________________________

newly industrializing economies (NIEs)
that subgroup of the less developed countries (LDCs) that has
experienced particularly rapid industrialization of their economies;
formerly known as the newly industrializing countries (NICs); also
known as advanced developing countries; usually includes the Four
Dragons (Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan), and Brazil
_________________________________________________________________

Nonaligned Movement (NAM)
address-Permanent Rep of Colombia to the United Nations, New York, NY
10017, US
telephone-[1] (212) 963 1234
FAX-[1] (212) 758 2718
established-1-6 September 1961
aim-to establish political and military cooperation apart from the
traditional East or West blocs
members-(112 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan,
Algeria, Angola, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize,
Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burma,
Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic,
Chad, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo,
Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Ecuador,
Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana,
Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, Kuwait,
Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mongolia, Morocco,
Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan,
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Saint
Lucia, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and
Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu,
Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Palestine
Liberation Organization
observers-(20) Afro-Asian Solidarity Organization, Antigua and
Barbuda, Arab League, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Brazil, China, Costa Rica,
Croatia, Dominica, El Salvador, Kanaka Socialist National Liberation
Front (New Caledonia), Mexico, Mongolia, Organization of African
Unity, Organization of the Islamic Conference, Socialist Party of
Puerto Rico, UN, Uruguay
guests-(22) Australia, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria,
Canada, Dominican Republic, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy,
Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino,
Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland
_________________________________________________________________

Nordic Council (NC)
address-Store Strandstraede 18, PB 3043, DK-1021 Kobenhavn K, Denmark
telephone-[45] 33 96 04 00
FAX-[45] 33 11 18 70
established-16 March 1952
effective-12 February 1953
aim-to promote regional economic, cultural, and environmental
cooperation
members-(5) Denmark (including Faroe Islands and Greenland), Finland
(including Aland Islands), Iceland, Norway, Sweden
observers-(3) the Sami (Lapp) local parliaments of Finland, Norway,
and Sweden
_________________________________________________________________

Nordic Investment Bank (NIB)
address-Fabianinkatu 34, P.O. Box 249, FIN-00171 Helsinki, Finland
telephone-[358] (0) 18001
FAX-[358] (0) 1800210
established-4 December 1975
effective-1 June 1976
aim-to promote economic cooperation and development
members-(5) Denmark (including Faroe Islands and Greenland), Finland
(including Aland Islands), Iceland, Norway, Sweden
_________________________________________________________________

North
a popular term for the rich industrialized countries generally located
in the northern portion of the Northern Hemisphere; the counterpart of
the South; see developed countries (DCs)
_________________________________________________________________

North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC)
note-see Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC)
_________________________________________________________________

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
address-B-1110 Brussels, Belgium
telephone-[32] (2) 707 4111
FAX-[32] (2) 707 4579
established-17 September 1949
aim-to promote mutual defense and cooperation
members-(16) Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece,
Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain,
Turkey, UK, US
_________________________________________________________________

Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)
address-AEN/NEA, Le Seine St. Germain, 12 bd des Iles, F-92130
Issy-les-Moulineaux, France
telephone-[33] (1) 45 24 10 10
FAX-[33] (1) 45 24 11 10
established-NA 1958
aim-to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy; associated with
OECD
members-(23) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland,
France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK,
US
_________________________________________________________________

Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)
note-also known as the London Suppliers Group or the London Group
address-c/o Permanent Mission of Japan in Vienna, Prinz-Eugen Strasse
8-10, A-1040 Vienna, Austria
telephone-[43] (1) 505 5467
FAX-[43] (1) 505 6167
established-NA 1974
effective-NA 1975
aim-to establish guidelines for exports of nuclear materials,
processing equipment for uranium enrichment, and technical information
to countries of proliferation concern and regions of conflict and
instability
members-(34) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria,
Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Luxembourg, Netherlands,
NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, South Africa,
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, UK, US
observer-(1) European Commission (a policy-planning body for the EU)
_________________________________________________________________

Organismo para la Proscripcion de las Armas Nucleares en la America
Latina y el Caribe (OPANAL)
see Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and
the Caribbean (OPANAL)
_________________________________________________________________

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
address-2 rue Andre Pascal, F-75775 Paris CEDEX 16, France
telephone-[33] (1) 45 24 82 00
FAX-[33] (1) 45 24 85 00, 45 24 81 76
established-14 December 1960
effective-30 September 1961
aim-to promote economic cooperation and development
members-(29) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,
Italy, Japan, South Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, NZ,
Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US
special members-(1) EU
_________________________________________________________________

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
note-formerly the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe
(CSCE)
address-Karntner Ring 5-7, A-1010 Vienna, Austria
telephone-[43] (1) 514 36-190
FAX-[43] (1) 514 36-96
established-1 January 1995
aim-to foster the implementation of human rights, fundamental
freedoms, democracy, and the rule of law; to act as an instrument of
early warning, conflict prevention and crisis management; and to serve
as a framework for conventional arms control and confidence building
measures
members-(55) Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus,
Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus,
Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany,
Greece, Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Netherlands,
Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia (suspended)
partners for cooperation-(7) Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Japan, South
Korea, Morocco, Tunisia
_________________________________________________________________

Organization of African Unity (OAU)
address-P. O. Box 3243, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
telephone-[251] (1) 517700
FAX-[251] (1) 512622
established-25 May 1963
aim-to promote unity and cooperation among African states
members-(53) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi,
Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros,
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote
d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia,
Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho,
Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sahrawi Arab Democratic
Republic, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia,
Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
_________________________________________________________________

Organization of American States (OAS)
address-corner of 17th Street and Constitution Avenue NW, Washington,
DC 20006, US
telephone-[1] (202) 458 3000
FAX-[1] (202) 458 3967
established-30 April 1948
effective-13 December 1951
aim-to promote regional peace and security as well as economic and
social development
members-(35) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados,
Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba
(excluded from formal participation since 1962), Dominica, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti,
Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint
Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, US, Uruguay, Venezuela
observers-(31) Algeria, Angola, Austria, Belgium, Central American
Parliament, Commission of the European Communities, Cyprus, Egypt,
Equatorial Guinea, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Holy See,
Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Morocco,
Netherlands, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi
Arabia, Spain, Switzerland, Tunisia
_________________________________________________________________

Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC)
address-P.O. Box 20501, Safat 13066, Kuwait
telephone-[965] 4844500
FAX-[965] 4815747
established-9 January 1968
aim-to promote cooperation in the petroleum industry
members-(10) Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar,
Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE
_________________________________________________________________

Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS)
address-OECS, P.O. Box 179, The Morne, Castries, St. Lucia
telephone-[1] (809) 45 22537, 45 22538, 45 36401
FAX-[1] (809) 45 31628
established-18 June 1981
effective-4 July 1981
aim-to promote political, economic, and defense cooperation
members-(7) Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint
Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
associate members-(2) Anguilla, British Virgin Islands
_________________________________________________________________

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
address-Obere Donaustrasse 93, A-1020 Vienna, Austria
telephone-[43] (1) 21 11 20
FAX-[43] (1) 216 43 20
established-14 September 1960
aim-to coordinate petroleum policies
members-(11) Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria,
Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Venezuela
_________________________________________________________________

Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC)
address-6 km Makkah Al-Mukarramah Road, P.O. Box 178, Jeddah 21411,
Saudi Arabia
telephone-[966] (2) 680-0800
FAX-[966] (2) 687-6568
established-22-25 September 1969
aim-to promote Islamic solidarity in economic, social, cultural, and
political affairs
members-(53 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan,
Albania, Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Brunei,
Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, The
Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan,
Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives,
Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan,
Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Suriname,
Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE,
Uzbekistan, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization
observers-(6) Bosnia and Herzegovina, Central African Republic,
Guyana, Moro National Liberation Front (Philippines), Togo, "Turkish
Republic of Northern Cyprus"
_________________________________________________________________

Paris Club
see Group of 10
_________________________________________________________________

Partnership for Peace (PFP)
address-NATO Office of Information and Press, B-1110 Brussels, Belgium
telephone-[32] (2) 728 44 15
FAX-[32] (2) 728 45 79
established-10-11 January 1994
aim-to expand and intensify political and military cooperation
throughout Europe, increase stability, diminish threats to peace, and
build relationships by promoting the spirit of practical cooperation
and commitment to democratic principles that underpin NATO; program
under the auspices of NATO
members-(27) Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria,
Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Sweden, Switzerland, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan
_________________________________________________________________

Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)
address-Peace Palace, Carnegieplein 2, NL-2517 KJ The Hague,
Netherlands
telephone-[31] (70) 302 42 42
FAX-[31] (70) 302 41 67
established-29 July 1899
aim-to facilitate the settlement of international disputes
members-(83) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia,
Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile,
China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,
Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras,
Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan,
Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Libya, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta,
Mauritius, Mexico, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway,
Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia,
Senegal, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, Uganda,
Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zimbabwe
_________________________________________________________________

Population Commission
see Commission on Population and Development
_________________________________________________________________

Rio Group (RG)
note-formerly known as Grupo de los Ocho, established in December 1986
established-NA 1988
aim-to consult on regional Latin American issues
members-(12) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador,
Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela
_________________________________________________________________

Second World
another term for the traditionally Marxist-Leninist states of the USSR
and Eastern Europe, with authoritarian governments and command
economies based on the Soviet model; the term is fading from use; see
centrally planned economies
_________________________________________________________________

Sistema Economico Latinoamericana (SELA)
note-see Latin American Economic System (LAES)
_________________________________________________________________

Social Commission
see Commission for Social Development
_________________________________________________________________

socialist countries
in general, countries in which the government owns and plans the use
of the major factors of production;
note-the term is sometimes used incorrectly as a synonym for communist
countries
_________________________________________________________________

South
a popular term for the poorer, less industrialized countries generally
located south of the developed countries; the counterpart of the
North; see less developed countries (LDCs)
_________________________________________________________________

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
address-P.O. Box 4222, Kathmandu, Nepal
telephone-[977] (1) 221785, 226350, 221792, 228029
FAX-[977] (1) 227033, 223991
established-8 December 1985
aim-to promote economic, social, and cultural cooperation
members-(7) Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri
Lanka
_________________________________________________________________

South Pacific Commission (SPC)
address-Anse Vata, BP D5, 98848 Noumea CEDEX, New Caledonia
telephone-[687] 26 20 00
FAX-[687] 26 38 18
established-6 February 1947
effective-29 July 1948
aim-to promote regional cooperation in economic and social matters
members-(26) American Samoa, Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, France,
French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States
of Micronesia, Nauru, New Caledonia, NZ, Niue, Northern Mariana
Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn Islands, Samoa, Solomon
Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, US, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna
_________________________________________________________________

South Pacific Forum (SPF)
address-c/o Forum Secretariat, Ratu Sukuna Road, Private Mail Bag,
Suva, Fiji
telephone-[679] 312 600, 303 106
FAX-[679] 301 102, 305 573
established-5 August 1971
aim-to promote regional cooperation in political matters
members-(16) Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall
Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, NZ, Niue, Palau, Papua
New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu
_________________________________________________________________

South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement
(Sparteca)
address-c/o forum Secretariat, Ratu Sukuna Road GPO Box 856, Suva,
Fiji
telephone-[679] 312 600, 303 106
FAX-[679] 302 204
established-NA 1981
aim-to redress unequal trade relationships of Australia and New
Zealand with small island economies in the Pacific region
members-(15) Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall
Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, NZ, Niue, Papua New
Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu
_________________________________________________________________

Southern African Customs Union (SACU)
address-Director, State Revenue, Private Bag 13185, Windhoek, Namibia,
or Director General, Trade and Industry, Private Bag X84, Pretoria
0001, South Africa, or Director of Customs and Excise, Private Bag
0041, Gaborone, Botswana, or Director of Customs and Excise, P. O. Box
891, Maseru 100, Lesotho, or Chief Customs Officer, P.O. Box 489,
Manzini, Swaziland
established-11 December 1969
aim-to promote free trade and cooperation in customs matters
members-(5) Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland
_________________________________________________________________

Southern African Development Community (SADC)
note-evolved from the Southern African Development Coordination
Conference (SADCC)
address-Private Bag 0095, Gaborone, Botswana
telephone-[267] (31) 351863, 351864, 351865
FAX-[267] (31) 372848
established-17 August 1992
aim-to promote regional economic development and integration
members-(12) Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique,
Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe
_________________________________________________________________

Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur)
note-also known as Mercado Comun del Cono Sur (Mercosur)
address-Rincon 575 P 12, 11000 Montevideo, Uruguay
telephone-[598] (2) 964590
FAX-[598] (2) 964591
established-26 March 1991
aim-to increase regional economic cooperation
members-(4) Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay
associate member-(1) Chile
_________________________________________________________________

Statistical Commission
address-Division for Policy and Coordination and ECOSOC Affairs,
Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development, United
Nations, Room 2963, New York, NY 10017, US
telephone-[1] (212) 963 1234
FAX-[1] (212) 963 5935
established-21 June 1946
aim-to deal with development and standardization of national
statistics of interest to the UN, as part of the Economic and Social
Council organization
members-(24) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
_________________________________________________________________

Third World
another term for the less developed countries; the term is fading from
use; see less developed countries (LDCs)
_________________________________________________________________

underdeveloped countries
refers to those less developed countries with the potential for
above-average economic growth; see less developed countries (LDCs)
_________________________________________________________________

undeveloped countries
refers to those extremely poor less developed countries (LDCs) with
little prospect for economic growth; see least developed countries
(LLDCs)
_________________________________________________________________

Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale (UDEAC)
see Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC)
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations (UN)
address-United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
telephone-[1] (212) 963 1234
FAX-[1] (212) 963 4879
established-26 June 1945
effective-24 October 1945
aim-to maintain international peace and security and to promote
cooperation involving economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian
problems
members-(184 excluding Yugoslavia) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria,
Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia,
Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados,
Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma,
Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African
Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic
of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire,
Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,
Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia,
Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,
Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,
Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco,
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama,
Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal,
Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and
Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri
Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Syria, Tajikistan,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan,
Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia,
Zimbabwe; note-all UN members are represented in the General Assembly
observers-(2 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Holy See,
Switzerland, Palestine Liberation Organization
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III)
successor to original UNAVEM and UNAVEM II; established 20 December
1988; renewed for third time 8 February 1995; aim was to assist the
parties in restoring peace and achieving national reconciliation in
Angola on the basis of the Peace Accords, the Lusaka Protocol, and
relevant Security Council resolutions; established by the UN Security
Council; members Bangladesh, Brazil, Bulgaria, Egypt, Fiji,
Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, India, Jordan, Mongolia, Mali, Morocco,
Netherlands, Nigeria, Portugal, Sweden, Tanzania, Uruguay, Zambia,
Zimbabwe; disbanded 30 June 1997
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR)
established 5 October 1993 to support and provide safe conditions for
displaced persons and human rights monitors, and to assist in training
a new national police force; established by the UN Security Council;
members were Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Canada, Chad,
Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Fiji, Germany, Ghana, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, India, Jordan, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan,
Russia, Senegal, Switzerland, Tunisia, Uruguay, Zambia, Zimbabwe;
terminated 8 March 1996
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
note-acronym retained from the predecessor organization UN
International Children's Emergency Fund
address-UNICEF House, Three United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017,
US
telephone-[1] (212) 326 7000
FAX-[1] (212) 888 7465, 888 7454
established-11 December 1946
aim-to help establish child health and welfare services
members-(36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
address-UNCTAD, Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland
telephone-[41] (22) 917 12 34, 907 12 34
FAX-[41] (22) 907 00 57
established-30 December 1964
aim-to promote international trade
members-(188) all UN members plus Holy See, Switzerland, Tonga
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation in Croatia (UNCRO)
established 31 March 1995 to separate Croatian and Krajina Serb
forces; to monitor demilitarization of the Prevlaka Peninsula; to
maintain a presence on Croatia's international borders; to monitor and
report the crossing of military personnel, equipment, supplies and
weapons; to facilitate delivery of humanitarian assistance; to aid
refugees and displaced persons; to protect ethnic minorities; and to
clear mines; established by the UN Security Council; members were
Argentina, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Indonesia,
Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Lithuania, Malaysia, Nepal, Netherlands,
Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Senegal,
Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, US; disbanded
January 1996
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Development Program (UNDP)
address-One United National Plaza, New York, NY 10017, US
telephone-[1] (212) 906 5788, 906 5000
FAX-[1] (212) 906 5365
established-22 November 1965
aim-to provide technical assistance to stimulate economic and social
development
members-(36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF)
address-c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, United Nations,
Room S-3260E, New York, NY 10017, US
telephone-[1] (212) 963 1234
FAX-[1] (212) 963 4879
established-31 May 1974
aim-to observe the 1973 Arab-Israeli cease-fire; established by the UN
Security Council
members-(4) Austria, Canada, Japan, Poland
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO)
address-7 place de Fontenoy, F-75352 Paris 07SP, France
telephone-[33] (1) 45 68 10 00
FAX-[33] (1) 45 67 16 90
established-16 November 1945
effective-4 November 1946
aim-to promote cooperation in education, science, and culture
members-(185) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua
and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil,
Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia,
Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook
Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia,
Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,
Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,
Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland,
Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati,
North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon,
Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali,
Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova,
Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal,
Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norway, Oman,
Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,
Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and
Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San
Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South
Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,
Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga,
Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda,
Ukraine, UAE, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen,
Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe
associate members-(4) Aruba, British Virgin Islands, Macau,
Netherlands Antilles
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)
address-P.O. Box 30552, Nairobi, Kenya
telephone-[254] (2) 230800, 520600
FAX-[254] (2) 226890
established-15 December 1972
aim-to promote international cooperation on all environmental matters
members-(58) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)
address-Chief of Mission, P.O. Box 1642, Nicosia, Cyprus
telephone-[357] (2) 359 700
FAX-[357] (2) 359 753
established-4 March 1964
aim-to serve as a peacekeeping force between Greek Cypriots and
Turkish Cypriots in Cyprus; established by the UN Security Council
members-(8) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Canada, Finland, Hungary,
Ireland, UK
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations General Assembly
address-see United Nations
established-26 June 1945
effective-24 October 1945
aim-to function as the primary deliberative organ of the UN
members-(185) all UN members are represented in the General Assembly
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
address-Vienna International Center, P.O. Box 300, A-1400 Vienna,
Austria
telephone-[43] (1) 211 310
FAX-[43] (1) 23 21 56
established-17 November 1966
effective-1 January 1967
aim-UN specialized agency that promotes industrial development
especially among the members
members-(169) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina,
Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan,
Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina
Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central
African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic
Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote
d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,
Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial
Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia,
Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia,
Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya,
North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon,
Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique,
Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway,
Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,
Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and
Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and
Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland,
Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo,
Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK,
US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen,
Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)
address-Palais des Nations, Bureau 1070, CH-1211, Geneva 10,
Switzerland
telephone-[41] (22) 798-58-50, 798-84-00
FAX-[41] (22) 733-13-83
established-11 December 1963
aim-to help the UN become more effective through training and research
members (Board of Trustees)-(17) Argentina, Australia, Austria,
Cameroon, Chile, China, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Ireland, Italy,
Japan, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, Switzerland; note-the UN Secretary
General can appoint up to 30 members
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)
address-c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E,
United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
telephone-[1] (212) 963 1234
FAX-[1] (212) 963 4879
established-19 March 1978
aim-to confirm the withdrawal of Israeli forces, and assist in
reestablishing Lebanese authority in southern Lebanon; established by
the UN Security Council
members-(9) Fiji, Finland, France, Ghana, Ireland, Italy, Nepal,
Norway, Poland
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM)
address-c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E,
United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA
telephone-[1] (212) 963 1234
FAX-[1] (212) 963 4879
established-9 April 1991
aim-to observe and monitor the demilitarized zone established between
Iraq and Kuwait; established by the UN Security Council
members-(33) Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Canada, China, Denmark,
Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, India,
Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Poland,
Romania, Russia, Senegal, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand, Turkey, UK, US,
Uruguay, Venezuela
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP)
address-c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room 3727, United
Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
telephone-[1] (212) 963 5721
FAX-[1] (212) 758 2718
established-13 August 1948
aim-to observe the 1949 India-Pakistan cease-fire; established by the
UN Security Council
members-(8) Belgium, Chile, Denmark, Finland, Italy, South Korea,
Sweden, Uruguay
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO)
address-c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E,
United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
telephone-[1] (212) 963 1234
FAX-[1] (212) 963 4879
established-29 April 1991
aim-to supervise the cease-fire and conduct a referendum in Western
Sahara; established by the UN Security Council
members-(28) Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, China, Egypt, El
Salvador, France, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Honduras, Hungary, Ireland,
Italy, Kenya, South Korea, Malaysia, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan,
Poland, Portugal, Russia, Togo, Tunisia, US, Uruguay, Venezuela
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNMIBH)
address-c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E,
United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
telephone-[1] (212) 963 1234
FAX-[1] (212) 758 2718
established-13 December 1995
aim-to establish a UN civilian police force (IPTF) to implement the
Peace Agreement in Bosnia
members-(39) Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile,
Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece,
Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Malaysia,
Nepal, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal,
Russia, Senegal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine,
UK, US
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH)
established 23 September 1993;aim was to assist in implementing the
agreement to transfer power back into the civilian government;
established by the UN Security Council; became the United Nations
Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH) 28 June 1996 with the aim to assist
in the professionalization of the Haitian National Police; members
were Algeria, Canada, France, India, Mali, Pakistan, Togo, US;
disbanded 31 July 1997
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP)
address-c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E,
United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
telephone-[1] (212) 963 1234
FAX-[1] (212) 758 2718
established-13 December 1992
aim-to monitor the demilitarization of the Prevlaka peninsula
members-(25) Argentina, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, Ghana, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan,
Kenya, Nepal, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Russia,
Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT)
address-c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E,
United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
telephone-[1] (212) 963 1234
FAX-[1] (212) 758 2718
established-16 December 1994
aim-to monitor and investigate violations of the cease-fire of 17
September 1994 between Tajikistan and the Tajik opposition and to
assist in the political negotiation process; established by the UN
Security Council
members-(9) Austria, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Denmark, Jordan, Poland,
Switzerland, Ukraine, Uruguay
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA)
address-c/o Department of Peace-keeping operations, Room S-3260E,
United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
telephone-[1] (212) 963 1234
FAX-[1] (212) 758 2718
established-1 July 1997
aim-to assist in implementation of peace agreement; oversee
normalization of state administration throughout National territory;
established by UN Security Council
members-(17) Bangladesh, Brazil, Bulgaria, Egypt, Guinea-Bissau,
Hungary, India, Jordan, Malaysia, Mali, Nigeria, Portugal, Sweden,
Tanzania, Uruguay, Zambia, Zimbabwe
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL)
established 20 May 1991 to verify cease-fire arrangements and to
monitor the maintenance of public order pending the organization of a
new National Civil Police; established by the UN Security Council;
members were Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia,
France, Guyana, Ireland, Italy, Mexico, Spain, Sweden, Venezuela;
disbanded April 1995
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG)
address-c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E,
United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
telephone-[1] (212) 963 1234
FAX-[1] (212) 963 4879
established-August 1993
aim-to verify compliance with the cease-fire agreement, to monitor
weapons exclusion zone, and to supervise CIS peacekeeping force for
Abkhazia; established by the UN Security Council
members-(22) Albania, Austria, Bangladesh, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Indonesia, Jordan, South
Korea, Pakistan, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US,
Uruguay
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL)
address-c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E,
United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
telephone-[1] (212) 963 1234
FAX-[1] (212) 963 4879
established-22 September 1993
aim-to assist in the implementation of the peace agreement;
established by the UN Security Council
members-(6) Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Kenya, Malaysia, Pakistan
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda (UNOMUR)
established 1993 for six months to monitor the Uganda/Rwanda border to
verify that no military assistance reaches Rwanda across the border;
established by the UN Security Council; members were Bangladesh,
Botswana, Brazil, Hungary, Netherlands, Senegal, Slovakia, Zimbabwe;
subsumed by UNAMIR
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
address-Case postale 2500, Depot, CH-1211 Geneva 2, Switzerland
telephone-[41] (22) 739 81 11
FAX-[41] (22) 731 95 46
established-3 December 1949
effective-1 January 1951
aim-to ensure the humanitarian treatment of refugees and find
permanent solutions to refugee problems
members-(50) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh,
Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the
Congo, Denmark, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Holy See,
Hungary, India, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Lesotho,
Madagascar, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway,
Pakistan, Philippines, Russia, Somalia, Spain, Sudan, Sweden,
Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UK, US,
Venezuela, Yugoslavia
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Operation in Mozambique (UNOMOZ)
established 16 December 1992 to supervise the cease-fire; established
by the UN Security Council; members were Argentina, Austria,
Bangladesh, Botswana, Brazil, Canada, Cape Verde, China, Czech
Republic, Egypt, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan,
Jordan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Russia, Spain,
Sweden, US, Uruguay, Zambia; shut down operations 31 January 1995
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II)
established 24 April 1992 to facilitate an immediate cessation of
hostilities, to maintain a cease-fire in order to promote a political
settlement, and to provide urgent humanitarian assistance; established
by the UN Security Council; members were Australia, Bangladesh,
Botswana, Canada, Egypt, India, Ireland, Malaysia, Nepal, NZ, Nigeria,
Pakistan, Romania, Zimbabwe; UN peacekeepers left Somalia on 1 March
1995; some UN personnel remain in Somalia engaged in humanitarian work
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Police Mission in Haiti (MIPONUH)
address-c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E,
United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
established-1 December 1997
aim-to support the professionalization of the Haitian National Police;
established by UN Security Council
members-(11) Argentina, Benin, Canada, France, India, Mali, Niger,
Senegal, Togo, Tunisia, US
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
note-acronym retained from predecessor organization UN Fund for
Population Activities
address-220 East 42nd Street, 19th Floor, Room DN-1901, New York, NY
10017, US
telephone-[1] (212) 297 5000
FAX-[1] (212) 557 6416
established-NA July 1967
aim-to assist both developed and developing countries to deal with
their population problems
members-(34) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP)
address-c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E,
United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
telephone-[1] (212) 963 1234
FAX-[1] (212) 963 4879
established-31 March 1995
aim-to monitor border activity in the Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia
members-(27) Argentina, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, Ghana, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan,
Kenya, Nepal, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Russia,
Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, US
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR)
established 28 February 1992; to create conditions for peace and
security required for the negotiation of an overall settlement of the
"Yugoslav" crisis; established by the UN Security Council; members
were Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan,
Kenya, Malaysia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan,
Poland, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, UK, US;
disbanded December 1995; replaced by the Implementation Force (IFOR),
which has been replaced by the Stabilization Force (SFOR)
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the
Near East (UNRWA)
address-Vienna International Center, P. O. Box 700, A-1400 Vienna,
Austria
telephone-[43] (1) 21345, ext. 4531
FAX-[43] (1) 21345-5877
established-8 December 1949
aim-to provide assistance to Palestinian refugees
members-(11) Austria, Belgium, Egypt, France, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon,
Syria, Turkey, UK, US
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD)
address-Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland
telephone-[41] (22) 798 84 00, 798 58 50
FAX-[41] (22) 740 07 91
established-1 July 1964
aim-to conduct research into the problems of economic development
during different phases of economic growth
members-no country members, but a Board of Directors consisting of a
chairman appointed by the UN secretary general and 10 individual
members
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Secretariat
address-see United Nations
established-26 June 1945
effective-24 October 1945
aim-to serve as the primary administrative organ of the UN; a
Secretary General is appointed for a five-year term by the General
Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council
members-the UN secretary general and staff
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Security Council
address-c/o United Nations, Room S-3520A, New York, NY 10017, US
telephone-[1] (212) 963 1234
FAX-[1] (212) 758 2718
established-26 June 1945
effective-24 October 1945
aim-to maintain international peace and security
permanent members-(5) China, France, Russia, UK, US
nonpermanent members-(10) elected for two-year terms by the UN General
Assembly; Bahrain (1998-99), Brazil (1998-99), Costa Rica (1997-98),
Gabon (1998-99), The Gambia (1998-99), Japan (1997-98), Kenya
(1997-98), Poland (1996-97), Portugal(1997-98), Slovenia (1998-99),
Sweden(1997-98)
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Transitional Administration in Eastern Slavonia,
Baranja, and Western Sirmium (UNTAES)
established 12 November 1995; aim to facilitate and supervise the
Basic Agreement between the government of the Republic of Croatia and
the local Serbian community that will lead to a peaceful integration
of that region into the national state of Croatia; members were
Argentina, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Egypt, Fiji, Finland, Ghana, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal,
NZ, Niger, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Russian, Slovakia, Sweden,
Switzerland, Tunisia, Ukraine, UK, US; disbanded 15 January 1998; a UN
Civilian Police Support Group was established in December 1997 as
follow-on mission to UNTAES; the support group will continue to
monitor the Croatian police in the Danube region, particularly in
connection with the return of displaced people
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC)
established by the UN Security Council on 28 February 1992 to
contribute to the restoration and maintenance of peace and to the
holding of free elections; disbanded sometime after the UN-supervised
election in May 1993; members were Algeria, Argentina, Australia,
Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brunei, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada,
Chile, China, Colombia, Egypt, Fiji, France, Germany, Ghana, Hungary,
India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Malaysia,
Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan,
Philippines, Poland, Russia, Senegal, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand,
Tunisia, UK, US, Uruguay
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)
address-Government House, P.O. Box 490, Jerusalem, Israel
telephone-[972] (2) 734 223
FAX-[972] (2) 735 282, 734 223 extension 400
established-NA May 1948
aim-to supervise the 1948 Arab-Israeli cease-fire; currently supports
timely deployment of reinforcements to other peacekeeping operations
in the region as needed; initially established by the UN Security
Council
members-(20) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile,
China, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands,
NZ, Norway, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, US
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations Trusteeship Council
established on 26 June 1945, effective on 24 October 1945, to
supervise the administration of the 11 UN trust territories; members
were China, France, Russia, UK, US; it formally suspended operations 1
November 1995 after the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau)
became the Republic of Palau, a constitutional government in free
association with the US; the Trusteeship Council was not dissolved
_________________________________________________________________

United Nations University (UNU)
address-53-70 Jingumae 5-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan
telephone-[81] (3) 3499 2811
FAX-[81] (3) 3499 2828
established-6 December 1973
aim-to conduct research in development, welfare, and human survival
and to train scholars
members-(38 associated institutes in 33 countries) Argentina,
Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China,
Colombia, Costa Rica, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Guatemala, Hungary,
Iceland, India, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, Mexico, Netherlands,
Nigeria, Philippines, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Switzerland, Thailand,
Trinidad and Tobago, UK, US, Venezuela
_________________________________________________________________

United National Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA)
address-c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E,
United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
telephone-[1] (212) 963 1234
FAX-[1] (212) 963 4879
established-20 January 1997
aim-to verify fulfillment of cease-fire provisions; established by UN
Security Council
members-(18) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Columbia,
Ecuador, Germany, Italy, Norway, Russia, Singapore, Spain, Sweden,
Ukraine, US, Uruguay, Venezuela
_________________________________________________________________

Universal Postal Union (UPU)
address-Bureau International de l'UPU, Weltpoststrasse 4, CH-3000
Berne 15, Switzerland
telephone-[41] (31) 350 31 11
FAX-[41] (31) 350 31 10
established-9 October 1874, affiliated with the UN 15 November 1947
effective-1 July 1948
aim-to promote international postal cooperation; a UN specialized
agency
members-(189) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and
Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil,
Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the
Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia,
Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,
Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy
See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,
Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia,
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,
Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger,
Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Overseas Territories of the UK, Pakistan,
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland,
Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint
Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome
and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa,
Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland,
Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and
Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE,
UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen,
Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe
_________________________________________________________________

Warsaw Pact (WP)
established 14 May 1955 to promote mutual defense; members met 1 July
1991 to dissolve the alliance; member states at the time of
dissolution were Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania,
and the USSR; earlier members included East Germany and Albania
_________________________________________________________________

West African Development Bank (WADB)
note-also known as Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement (BOAD); is
a financial institution of WAEMU
address-68 av de la Liberation, BP 1172, Lome, Togo
telephone-[228] 21 59 06, 21 42 44, 21 01 13
FAX-[228] 21 52 67, 21 72 69
established-14 November 1973
aim-to promote regional economic development and integration
members-(7) Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Senegal,
Togo
_________________________________________________________________

West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)
note-also known as Union economique et monetaire Ouest africaine
(UEMOA)
address-Commission de l'UEMOA, 01 BP 543, Ouadgadougou, Burkina Faso
telephone-[226] 31 88 73 through 76
FAX-[226] 31 88 72
established-1 August 1994
aim-to increase competitiveneess of members' economic markets; to
create a common market
members-(7) Benin, Burkino Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Senegal,
Togo
_________________________________________________________________

West African Economic Community (CEAO)
note-acronym from Communaute Economique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest
established on 3 June 1972 to promote regional economic development;
its members were Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Mauritania,
Niger, Senegal; it was disbanded in 1994
_________________________________________________________________

Western European Union (WEU)
address-Rue de la Regence 4, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium
telephone-[32] (2) 500 44 11
FAX-[32] (2) 511 32 70
established-23 October 1954
effective-6 May 1955
aim-to provide mutual defense and to move toward political unification
members-(10) Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK
associate members-(3) Iceland, Norway, Turkey
associate partners-(10) Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary,
Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia
observers-(5) Austria, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Sweden
_________________________________________________________________

World Bank
see International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
_________________________________________________________________

World Bank Group
includes International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD),
International Development Association (IDA), and International Finance
Corporation (IFC)
_________________________________________________________________

World Confederation of Labor (WCL)
address-Rue de Treves 33, B-1040 Brussels, Belgium
telephone-[32] (2) 230 62 95
FAX-[32] (2) 230 87 22
established-19 June 1920 as the International Federation of Christian
Trade Unions (IFCTU), renamed 4 October 1968
aim-to promote the trade union movement
members-(99 national organizations) Algeria, Angola, Antigua and
Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bolivia, Bonaire Island, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso,
Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile,
Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire,
Cuba, Curacao, Cyprus, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El
Salvador, France, French Guiana, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada,
Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong,
Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia,
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Malta,
Martinique, Mauritius, Mexico, Montserrat, Namibia, Netherlands,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru,
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, Rwanda, Saint
Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Spain, Sri Lanka,
Suriname, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, UK, US,
Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe
_________________________________________________________________

World Court
see International Court of Justice (ICJ)
_________________________________________________________________

World Customs Organization (WCO)
see Customs Cooperation Council (CCC)
_________________________________________________________________

World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU)
address-Branicka 112, 14000 Prague 4, Czech Republic
telephone-[42] (2) 46 21 40, 46 20 85, 46 29 61
FAX-[42] (2) 46 13 78
established-3 October 1945
aim-to promote the trade union movement
members-(125 and the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan,
Albania, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia,
Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Benin,
Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Canada, Chile, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of
the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea,
Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, French Guiana, The Gambia, Ghana,
Greece, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,
Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Japan,
Jordan, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon,
Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali,
Martinique, Mauritius, Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal, New Caledonia, NZ,
Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru,
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Reunion, Romania, Russia,
Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Solomon

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