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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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on the Islands is expected in mid-1998

______________________________________________________________________

ZAMBIA

@Zambia:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, east of Angola

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 S, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 752,610 sq km
land: 740,720 sq km
water: 11,890 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,664 km
border countries: Angola 1,110 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo
1,930 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique 419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania
338 km, Zimbabwe 797 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to
April)

Terrain: mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
highest point: in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m

Natural resources: copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold,
silver, uranium, hydropower potential

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 40%
forests and woodland: 39%
other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 460 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: tropical storms (November to April)

Environment-current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain in
the mineral extraction and refining region; poaching seriously
threatens rhinoceros and elephant populations; deforestation; soil
erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents
human health risks

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: landlocked

@Zambia:People

Population: 9,460,736 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 49% (male 2,342,043; female 2,316,357)
15-64 years: 48% (male 2,244,251; female 2,326,159)
65 years and over: 3% (male 106,950; female 124,976) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.13% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 44.6 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 22.55 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 92.57 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 37.07 years
male: 36.81 years
female: 37.33 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.41 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Zambian(s)
adjective: Zambian

Ethnic groups: African 98.7%, European 1.1%, other 0.2%

Religions: Christian 50%-75%, Muslim and Hindu 24%-49%, indigenous
beliefs 1%

Languages: English (official), major vernaculars-Bemba, Kaonda, Lozi,
Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga, and about 70 other indigenous languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write in English
total population: 78.2%
male: 85.6%
female: 71.3% (1995 est.)

@Zambia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Zambia
conventional short form: Zambia
former: Northern Rhodesia

Data code: ZA

Government type: republic

National capital: Lusaka

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern,
Luapula, Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western

Independence: 24 October 1964 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 October (1964)

Constitution: 2 August 1991

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; judicial
review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Frederick CHILUBA (since 31 October 1991);
Vice President Christon TEMBO (since December 1997); note-the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Frederick CHILUBA (since 31 October
1991); Vice President Christon TEMBO (since December 1997); note-the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of
the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 18 November 1996 (next to be held October 2001);
vice president appointed by the president
election results: Frederick CHILUBA elected president; percent of
vote-Frederick CHILUBA 70%, Dean MUNGO'MBA 12%, Humphrey MULEMBA 6%,
Akashambatwa LEWANIKA 4%, Chama CHAKOMBOKA 3%, others 5%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (150 seats; members
are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 18 November 1996 (next to be held October 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-MMD 130,
NP 5, ZADECO 2, AZ 2, independents 11

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, justices are appointed by the
president

Political parties and leaders: Agenda for Zambia or AZ [Akashambatwa
LEWANIKA]; Labor Party or LP [Chibiza MFUNI]; Liberal Progressive
Front or LPF [Roger CHONGWE, president]; Movement for Democratic
Process or MDP [Chama CHAKOM BOKA]; Movement for Multiparty Democracy
or MMD [Frederick CHILUBA]; National Lima Party or NLP [Guy SCOTT and
Ben KAPITA]; National Party or NP [Daniel LISULO]; United National
Independence Party or UNIP [Kenneth KAUNDA]; Zambia Democratic
Congress or ZADECO [Dean MUNG'OMBA]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MONUA, NAM, OAU, SADC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dunstan Weston KAMANA
chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Arlene RENDER
embassy: corner of Independence and United Nations Avenues
mailing address: P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka
telephone: [260] (1) 250-955, 252-230
FAX: [260] (1) 252-225

Flag description: green with a panel of three vertical bands of red
(hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the
outer edge of the flag

@Zambia:Economy

Economy-overview: Despite progress in privatization and budgetary
reform, Zambia's economy has a long way to go. Inflation, while
slowing somewhat, continues to be a major concern to the CHILUBA
government. Zambia's copper mining sector, which accounts for over 80%
of the nation's foreign currency intake, is struggling. Production
rates are down as are world copper prices. Aid cuts by Zambia's
donors, arising out of concern for the November 1996 flawed election,
will severely damage Zambia's economic prospects. Urged by the World
Bank, Zambia has embarked on a privatization program which is to
include the all-important copper industry.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$8.8 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$950 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 23%
industry: 40%
services: 37% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 43.9% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 3.4 million
by occupation: agriculture 85%, mining, manufacturing, and
construction 6%, transport and services 9%

Unemployment rate: 22% (1991)

Budget:
revenues: $888 million
expenditures: $835 million, including capital expenditures of $110
million (1995 est.)

Industries: copper mining and processing, construction, foodstuffs,
beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 2.436 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 7.79 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 668 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seed,
tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca); cattle, goats, pigs,
poultry, beef, pork, poultry meat, milk, eggs, hides

Exports:
total value: $975 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: copper, zinc, cobalt, lead, tobacco
partners: EU countries, Japan, South Africa, US, Saudi Arabia, India,
Thailand, Malaysia

Imports:
total value: $990 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery, transportation equipment, foodstuffs, fuels,
petroleum products, electricity, miscellaneous manufactured goods
partners: South Africa, EU countries, Japan, Saudi Arabia, US

Debt-external: $7.2 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $2 billion (1995 est.)

Currency: 1 Zambian kwacha (ZK) = 100 ngwee

Exchange rates: Zambian kwacha (ZK) per US$1-1,351.,35 (October 1997),
1,203.71 (1996), 857.23 (1995), 669.37 (1994), 452.76 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 80,900 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: facilities are among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa
domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger
towns and cities
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and
1 Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 5, shortwave 0

Radios: 1,889,140

Television broadcast stations: 9

Televisions: 215,000 (1995 est.)

@Zambia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,164 km (1995)
narrow gauge: 2,164 km 1.067-m gauge (13 km double track)
note: the total includes 891 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway
Authority (TAZARA), which operates 1,860 km of 1.067-m narrow gauge
track between Dar es Salaam and New Kapiri Mposhi where it connects to
the Zambia Railways system; TAZARA is not a part of Zambia Railways

Highways:
total: 39,700 km
paved: 7,265 km (including 60 km of expressways)
unpaved: 32,435 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 2,250 km, including Zambezi and Luapula rivers, Lake
Tanganyika

Pipelines: crude oil 1,724 km

Ports and harbors: Mpulungu

Airports: 111 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 12
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 99
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 64
under 914 m: 32 (1997 est.)

@Zambia:Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, paramilitary forces, Police

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 2,037,123 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,078,085 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $96 million (1995)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.7% (1995)

@Zambia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and
Zimbabwe is in disagreement; Democratic Republic of the
Congo-Tanzania-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be
indefinite since it has been informally reported that the indefinite
section of the Democratic Republic of the Congo-Zambia boundary has
been settled

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for methaqualone, heroin, and
cocaine bound for Southern Africa and Europe; regional
money-laundering center

______________________________________________________________________

ZIMBABWE

@Zimbabwe:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, northeast of Botswana

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 390,580 sq km
land: 386,670 sq km
water: 3,910 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Montana

Land boundaries:
total: 3,066 km
border countries: Botswana 813 km, Mozambique 1,231 km, South Africa
225 km, Zambia 797 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to
March)

Terrain: mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld);
mountains in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: junction of the Lundi and Savi rivers 162 m
highest point: Inyangani 2,592 m

Natural resources: coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper,
iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 13%
forests and woodland: 23%
other: 57% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,930 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare

Environment-current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; land
degradation; air and water pollution; the black rhinoceros herd-once
the largest concentration of the species in the world-has been
significantly reduced by poaching

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: landlocked

@Zimbabwe:People

Population: 11,044,147 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (male 2,439,907; female 2,397,761)
15-64 years: 54% (male 2,914,336; female 3,000,442)
65 years and over: 2% (male 133,232; female 158,469) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.12% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 31.32 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 20.09 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: there is a small but steady flow of Zimbabweans into South
Africa in search of better paid employment

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 61.75 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 39.16 years
male: 39.12 years
female: 39.19 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.86 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Zimbabwean(s)
adjective: Zimbabwean

Ethnic groups: African 98% (Shona 71%, Ndebele 16%, other 11%), white
1%, mixed and Asian 1%

Religions: syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%,
Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, Muslim and other 1%

Languages: English (official), Shona, Sindebele (the language of the
Ndebele, sometimes called Ndebele), numerous but minor tribal dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write in English
total population: 85%
male: 90%
female: 80% (1995 est.)

@Zimbabwe:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Zimbabwe
conventional short form: Zimbabwe
former: Southern Rhodesia

Data code: ZI

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Harare

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces and 2 cities* with provincial
status; Bulawayo*, Harare*, Manicaland, Mashonaland Central,
Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo, Matabeleland North,
Matabeleland South, Midlands

Independence: 18 April 1980 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 April (1980)

Constitution: 21 December 1979

Legal system: mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31
December 1987); Co-Vice Presidents Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31
December 1987) and Joshua M. NKOMO (since 6 August 1990); note-the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since
31 December 1987); Co-Vice Presidents Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31
December 1987) and Joshua M. NKOMO (since 6 August 1990); note-the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; responsible to the House
of Assembly
elections: president nominated by the House of Assembly for a six-year
term (if more than one nomination, an electoral college consisting of
members of the House of Assembly elects the president); election last
held 26-27 March 1996 (next to be held NA March 2002); co-vice
presidents appointed by the president
election results: Robert Gabriel MUGABE elected president; percent of
electoral college vote-Robert Gabriel MUGABE 92.7%, Abel MUZOREWA
4.8%; Ndabaningi SITHOLE 2.4%

Legislative branch: unicameral parliament, called House of Assembly
(150 seats, 120 of which are directly elected by popular vote for
six-year terms; of the other 30 seats, 12 are nominated by the
president, 10 are occupied by traditional chiefs chosen by their
peers, and 8 by provincial governors)
elections: last held 8-9 April 1995 (next to be held NA April 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-ZANU-PF
117, ZANU-Ndonga 2, independent 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Zimbabwe African National
Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Robert MUGABE]; Zimbabwe African
National Union-NDONGA or ZANU-NDONGA [Ndabaningi SITHOLE]; Zimbabwe
Unity Movement or ZUM [Edgar TEKERE]; Democratic Party or DP [Emmanuel
MAGOCHE]; Forum Party of Zimbabwe [Enock DUMBUTSHENA]; United Parties
[Abel MUZOREWA]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MONUA, NAM,
OAU, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Amos Bernard Muvengwa MIDZI
chancery: 1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 332-7100
FAX: [1] (202) 483-9326

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Tom McDONALD
embassy: 172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare
mailing address: P. O. Box 3340, Harare
telephone: [263] (4) 794521
FAX: [263] (4) 796488

Flag description: seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red,
black, red, yellow, and green with a white equilateral triangle edged
in black based on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird is
superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle

@Zimbabwe:Economy

Economy-overview: Agriculture employs 27% of the labor force of this
landlocked nation and supplies almost 25% of exports. Mining accounts
for only 5% of both GDP and employment, but minerals and metals
account for about 20% of exports. The government is working to
consolidate earlier progress in developing a market-oriented economy.
Although the IMF suspended support for Zimbabwe's economic structural
adjustment program (ESAP) in 1995, due to government failure to meet
key targets, recent talks between the government and the Fund have
held hope for renewed support if Zimbabwe remains committed to
budgetary targets. A key element of the budget is the Zimbabwe Program
for Socio-Economic Transformation (ZIMPREST), the second phase of
ESAP, whose goals include increased commercialization and
privatization of government-owned enterprises and more
"outward-looking" trade and investment policies. The World Bank
resumed balance of payments support to Zimbabwe in early 1998.
Government officials face the difficult task of restraining
expenditures in their effort to keep inflation within bounds.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$24.9 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 8.1% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,200 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 18.3%
industry: 35.3%
services: 46.4% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 21.4% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 4.228 million (1993 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 27%, transport and services 46%, industry
27%

Unemployment rate: at least 45% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.5 billion
expenditures: $2.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $279
million (FY96/97 est.)

Industries: mining (coal, clay, numerous metallic and nonmetallic
ores), copper, steel, nickel, tin, wood products, cement, chemicals,
fertilizer, clothing and footwear, foodstuffs, beverages

Industrial production growth rate: 10% (1994)

Electricity-capacity: 2.148 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 7.1 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 792 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: corn, cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee, sugarcane,
peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs

Exports:
total value: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: agricultural 38% (tobacco 28%), manufactures 34%, gold
12%, textiles 4%, ferrochrome 7% (1996 est.)
partners: South Africa 12%, UK 12%, Germany 6%, Japan 6% (1996 est.)

Imports:
total value: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and transportation equipment 41%, other
manufactures 24%, chemicals 13%, fuels 10% (1996 est.)
partners: South Africa 38%, UK 9%, US 5%, Japan 5% (1996 est.)

Debt-external: $4.8 billion (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $362 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Zimbabwean dollar (Z$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Zimbabwean dollars (Z$) per US$1-18.7970 (January
1998), 11.8906 (1997), 9.9206 (1996), 8.6580 (1995), 8.1500 (1994),
6.4725 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 301,000 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: system was once one of the best in Africa, but now
suffers from poor maintenance
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay links, open-wire lines,
and radiotelephone communication stations
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 18, shortwave 0

Radios: 890,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 8 (1986 est.)

Televisions: 280,000 (1992 est.)

@Zimbabwe:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,759 km (1995)
narrow gauge: 2,759 km 1.067-m gauge (313 km electrified; 42 km double
track) (1995 est.)

Highways:
total: 18,338 km
paved: 8,692 km
unpaved: 9,646 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: the Mazoe and Zambezi rivers are used for transporting
chrome ore from Harare to Mozambique

Pipelines: petroleum products 212 km

Ports and harbors: Binga, Kariba

Airports: 468 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 20
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 10 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 448
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 221
under 914 m: 224 (1997 est.)

@Zimbabwe:Military

Military branches: Zimbabwe National Army, Air Force of Zimbabwe,
Zimbabwe Republic Police (includes Police Support Unit, Paramilitary
Police)

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 2,662,702 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,659,659 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $236 million (FY95/96)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 3.4% (FY95/96)

@Zimbabwe:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zambia
is in disagreement

Illicit drugs: significant transit point for African cannabis and
South Asian heroin, mandrax, and methamphetamines destined for the
South African and European markets

______________________________________________________________________

@NOTES AND DEFINITIONS

There have been some significant changes in this edition. The country
name Western Samoa has been changed to Samoa. The spelling of
Kazakhstan includes the letter "h" once again; the spelling Kazakstan
is no longer used. Introduction is a category with two entries-Current
issues and Historical perspective-that appears in only a few country
profiles at this time. In the future, this category may be added to
more countries.

Abbreviations: This information is included in Appendix A:
Abbreviations, which includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in
the Factbook, with their expansions.

Administrative divisions: This entry generally gives the numbers,
designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as
approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have
been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.

Age structure: This entry provides the distribution of the population
according to age. Information is included by sex and age group (0-14
years, 15-64 years, 65 years and over). The age structure of a
population will affect a country's investment pattern. Countries with
young populations (high percentage under age 15) need to invest more
in schools, while countries with older populations (high percentage
ages 65 and over) need to invest more in the health sector. The age
structure can also be used to help predict potential political issues.
For example, the rapid growth of a young adult population unable to
find employment can lead to unrest.

Agriculture-products: This entry is a rank ordering of major crops and
products starting with the most important.

Airports: This entry gives the total number of airports. The runway(s)
may be paved (concrete or asphalt surfaces) or unpaved (grass, dirt,
sand, or gravel surfaces), but must be usable. Not all airports have
facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.

Airports-with paved runways: This entry gives the total number of
airports with paved runways (concrete or asphalt surfaces). For
airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is
included according to the following five groups-(1) over 3,047 m, (2)
2,438 to 3,047 m, (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m, (4) 914 to 1,523 m, and (5)
under 914 m. Only airports with usable runways are included in this
listing. Not all airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance,
or air traffic control.

Airports-with unpaved runways: This entry gives the total number of
airports with unpaved runways (grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces).
For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is
included according to the following five groups-(1) over 3,047 m, (2)
2,438 to 3,047 m, (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m, (4) 914 to 1,523 m, and (5)
under 914 m. Only airports with usable runways are included in this
listing. Not all airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance,
or air traffic control.

Appendixes: This section includes Factbook-related material by topic.

Area: This entry includes three subfields. Total area is the sum of
all land and water areas delimited by international boundaries and/or
coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by
international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding inland water
bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Water area is the sum of all water
surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines,
including inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers).

Area-comparative: This entry provides an area comparison based on
total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US
or one of the 50 states based on area measurements (1990 revised)
provided by the US Bureau of the Census. The smaller entities are
compared with Washington, DC (178 sq km, 69 sq mi) or The Mall in
Washington, DC (0.59 sq km, 0.23 sq mi, 146 acres).

Birth rate: This entry gives the average annual number of births
during a year per 1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude
birth rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in
determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the
level of fertility and the age structure of the population.

Budget: This entry includes revenues, total expenditures, and capital
expenditures.

Climate: This entry includes a brief description of typical weather
regimes throughout the year.

Coastline: This entry gives the total length of the boundary between
the land area (including islands) and the sea.

Communications: This category deals with the means of exchanging
information and includes the radio, telephone, and television entries.

Communications-note: This entry includes miscellaneous communications
information of significance not included elsewhere.

Constitution: This entry includes the dates of adoption, revisions,
and major amendments.

Country map: Most versions of the Factbook provide a country map in
color. The maps were produced from the best information available at
the time of preparation. Names and/or boundaries may have changed
subsequently.

Country name: This entry includes all forms of the country's name
approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an
example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional
short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short
form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation.
Also see the Terminology note.

Currency: This entry identifies the national medium of exchange and
its basic subunit.

Current issues: This entry at the beginning of a country profile
briefly characterizes major geographic, social, political, and
military developments in the past 12 months and may include a
statement about one or two key future trends. This entry appears for
only a few countries at the present time, but may be added to more
countries in the future.

Data code: This entry gives the official US Government digraph that
precisely identifies every land entity without overlap, duplication,
or omission. AF, for example, is the data code for Afghanistan. This
two-letter country code is a standardized geopolitical data element
promulgated in the Federal Information Processing Standards
Publication (FIPS) 10-4 by the National Institute of Standards and
Technology at the US Department of Commerce and maintained by the
Office of the Geographer and Global Issues at the US Department of
State. The data code is used to eliminate confusion and
incompatibility in the collection, processing, and dissemination of
area-specific data and is particularly useful for interchanging data
between databases. Appendix F cross-references various country codes
and Appendix G does the same thing for hydrographic codes.

Data codes-country: This information is presented in Appendix F:
Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes which includes the US
Government approved Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS)
codes, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) codes,
and Internet codes for land entities.

Data codes-hydrographic: This information is presented in Appendix G:
Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes which includes the
International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) codes, Aeronautical
Chart and Information Center (ACIC; now National Imagery and Mapping
Agency or NIMA) codes, and Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) codes for
hydrographic entities. The US Government has not yet approved a
standard for hydrographic data codes similar to the FIPS 10-4 standard
for country data codes.

Dates of information: The information cutoff date was 1 January 1998,
although a few important changes after that date have been included.
Most demographic statistics are estimates for 1998.

Death rate: This entry gives the average annual number of deaths
during a year per l,000 population at midyear; also known as crude
death rate. The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the
mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current
mortality impact on population growth. This indicator is significantly
affected by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show
a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in
mortality at all ages, as declining fertility results in an aging
population.

Debt-external: This entry gives the total amount of public foreign
financial obligations.

Dependency status: This entry describes the formal relationship
between a particular nonindependent entity and an independent state.

Dependent areas: This entry contains an alphabetical listing of all
nonindependent entities associated in some way with a particular
independent state.

Diplomatic representation: The US Government has diplomatic relations
with 184 independent states, including 178 of the 185 UN members
(excluded UN members are Bhutan, Cuba, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, former
Yugoslavia, and the US itself). In addition, the US has diplomatic
relations with 6 independent states that are not in the UN-Holy See,
Kiribati, Nauru, Switzerland, Tonga, and Tuvalu.

Diplomatic representation from the US: This entry includes the chief
of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX
number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and
consulate locations.

Diplomatic representation in the US: This entry includes the chief of
the foreign mission, chancery address, telephone number, FAX number,
consulate general locations, consulate locations, honorary consulate
general locations, and honorary consulate locations.

Disputes-international: This entry includes a wide variety of
situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to
unilateral claims of one sort or another. Information regarding
disputes over international terrestrial and maritime boundaries has
been reviewed by the US Department of State. References to other
situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such
as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues;
however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance
or recognition by the US Government.

Economic aid: This entry refers to bilateral commitments of official
development assistance (ODA) and other official flows (OOF). ODA is
defined as financial assistance, which is concessional in character,
has the main objective to promote economic development and welfare of
LDCs, and contains a grant element of at least 25%. OOF transactions
are also official government assistance, but with a main objective
other than economic development and with a grant element less than
25%. OOF transactions include official export credits (such as Ex-Im
Bank credits), official equity and portfolio investment, and debt
reorganization by the official sector that does not meet concessional
terms. Aid is considered to have been committed when agreements are
initialed by the parties involved and constitute a formal declaration
of intent. The entry is separated into two components-donor and
recipient.

Economy: This category includes the entries dealing with the size,
development, and management of productive resources, i.e., land,
labor, and capital.

Economy-overview: This entry briefly describes the type of economy,
including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic
development, the most important natural resources, and the unique
areas of specialization. It also characterizes major economic events
and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a
statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.

Electricity-capacity: This entry gives the maximum designed potential
for electricity production expressed in kilowatts.

Electricity-consumption per capita: This entry gives the figure for
annual electricity generation plus imports, minus exports, and divided
by total population for the same year expressed in kilowatt hours.

Electricity-production: This entry gives the annual amount of
electricity actually generated expressed in kilowatt hours.

Elevation extremes: This entry includes both the highest point and the
lowest point.

Entities: Some of the independent states, dependencies, areas of
special sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are
not independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US
Government. "Independent state" refers to a people politically
organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory.
"Dependencies" and "areas of special sovereignty" refer to a broad
category of political entities that are associated in some way with an
independent state. "Country" names used in the table of contents or
for page headings are usually the short-form names as approved by the
US Board on Geographic Names and may include independent states,
dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty, or other geographic
entities. There are a total of 266 separate geographic entities in The
World Factbook that may be categorized as follows:

INDEPENDENT STATES

191 Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and
Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil,
Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the
Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia,
Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,
Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy
See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,
Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia,
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco,
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama,
Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal,
Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and
Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia,
South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,
Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga,
Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda,
Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela,
Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

OTHER

1 Taiwan

DEPENDENCIES AND AREAS OF SPECIAL SOVEREIGNTY

6 Australia-Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos
(Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald
Islands, Norfolk Island
1 China-Hong Kong
2 Denmark-Faroe Islands, Greenland
16 France-Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French
Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands,
Glorioso Islands, Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island, Martinique,
Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tromelin
Island, Wallis and Futuna
2 Netherlands-Aruba, Netherlands Antilles
3 New Zealand-Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
3 Norway-Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
1 Portugal-Macau
15 UK-Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British
Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey,
Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South
Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands
14 US-American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis
Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island,
Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands,
Wake Island

MISCELLANEOUS

6 Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West
Bank, Western Sahara

OTHER ENTITIES

4 oceans-Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean
1 World
__________

266 Total

Environment-current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and
important environmental problems.

Environment-international agreements: This entry separates country
participation in international environmental agreements into two
levels-party to and signed but not ratified. Agreements are listed in
alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.

Environmental agreements: This information is presented in Appendix D:
Selected International Environmental Agreements, which includes the
name, abbreviation, date opened for signature, date entered into
force, objective, and parties by category.

Ethnic groups: This entry provides a rank ordering of ethnic groups
starting with the largest and sometimes includes the percent of total
population.

Exchange rates: This entry provides the official value of a country's
monetary unit at a given date or over a given period of time, as
expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and as determined
by international market forces or official fiat.

Executive branch: This entry includes several subfields. Chief of
state includes the name and title of the titular leader of the country
who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may
not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government. Head
of government includes the name and title of the administrative leader
who is designated to manage the day-to-day activities of the
government. Cabinet includes the official name for this body of
advisers and the method for selection of members. Elections includes
the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last
election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the
percent of vote for each candidate in the last election. In the UK,
the monarch is the chief of state, and the prime minister is the head
of government. In the US, the President is both the chief of state and
the head of government.

Exports: This entry includes three subfields. Total value is the total
US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. basis. Commodities is a rank
ordering of exported products starting with the most important and
sometimes includes the percent of dollar value. Partners is a rank
ordering of trading partners starting with the most important and
sometimes includes the percent of dollar value.

Fiscal year: This entry identifies the beginning and ending months for
a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the
calendar year but may begin in any month. FY93/94 refers to the fiscal
year that began in calendar year 1993 and ended in calendar year 1994.
All yearly references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated
as a noncalendar fiscal year (FY).

Flag description: This entry provides a written flag description
produced from actual flags or the best information available at the
time the entry was written. The flags of independent states are used
by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local
flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.

Flag graphic: Most versions of the Factbook include a color flag at
the beginning of the country profile. The flag graphics were produced
from actual flags or the best information available at the time of
preparation. The flags of independent states are used by their
dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some
disputed and other areas do not have flags.

GDP: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all
final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. GDP
dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power
parity (PPP) calculations. See the note on GDP methodology for more
information.

GDP methodology: In the Economy section, GDP dollar estimates for all
countries are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations
rather than from conversions at official currency exchange rates. The
PPP method involves the use of standardized international dollar price
weights, which are applied to the quantities of final goods and
services produced in a given economy. The data derived from the PPP
method provide a better comparison of economic well-being between
countries. The division of a GDP estimate in domestic currency by the
corresponding PPP estimate in dollars gives the PPP conversion rate.
When converted at PPP rates, $1,000 will buy the same market basket of
goods in any country. Whereas PPP estimates for OECD countries are
quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing countries are often rough
approximations. Most of the GDP estimates are based on extrapolation
of PPP numbers published by the UN International Comparison Program
(UNICP) and by Professors Robert Summers and Alan Heston of the
University of Pennsylvania and their colleagues. In contrast, currency
exchange rates depend on a variety of international and domestic
financial forces that often have little relation to domestic output.
In developing countries with weak currencies the exchange rate
estimate of GDP in dollars is typically one-fourth to one-half the PPP
estimate. Furthermore, exchange rates may suddenly go up or down by
10% or more because of market forces or official fiat whereas real
output has remained unchanged. On 12 January 1994, for example, the 14
countries of the African Financial Community (whose currencies are
tied to the French franc) devalued their currencies by 50%. This move,
of course, did not cut the real output of these countries by half. One
important caution: the proportion of, say, defense expenditures as a
percentage of GDP in local currency accounts may differ substantially
from the proportion when GDP accounts are expressed in PPP terms, as,
for example, when an observer tries to estimate the dollar level of
Russian or Japanese military expenditures.
Note: the numbers for GDP and other economic data can not be chained
together from successive volumes of the Factbook because of changes in
the US dollar measuring rod, revisions of data by statistical
agencies, use of new or different sources of information, and changes
in national statistical methods and practices. For statistical series
on GDP and other economic variables, see the Handbook of International
Economic Statistics available from the same sources as The World
Factbook.

GDP-composition by sector: This entry gives the percentage
contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP.

GDP-per capita: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity
basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.

GDP-real growth rate: This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis
adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.

Geographic coordinates: This entry includes rounded latitude and
longitude figures for the purpose of finding the approximate
geographic center of an entity and is based on the Gazetteer of
Conventional Names, Third Edition, August 1988, US Board on Geographic
Names and on other sources.

Geographic names: This information is presented in Appendix H:
Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names which indicates where various
geographic names-including alternate names, former names, political or
geographical portions of larger entities, and the location of all US
Foreign Service Posts-can be found in The World Factbook. Spellings
are normally, but not always, those approved by the US Board on
Geographic Names (BGN). Alternate names are included in parentheses,
while additional information is included in brackets.

Geography: This category includes the entries dealing with the natural
environment and the effects of human activity.

Geography-note: This entry includes miscellaneous geographic
information of significance not included elsewhere.

GNP: Gross national product (GNP) is the value of all final goods and
services produced within a nation in a given year, plus income earned
by its citizens abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from
domestic production. The Factbook uses GDP rather than GNP to measure
national production.

Government: This category includes the entries dealing with the system
for the adoption and administration of public policy.

Government type: This entry gives the basic form of government (e.g.,
republic, constitutional monarchy, federal republic, parliamentary
democracy, military dictatorship).

Government-note: This entry includes miscellaneous government
information of significance not included elsewhere.

Gross domestic product: see GDP

Gross national product: see GNP

Gross world product: see GWP

GWP: This entry gives the gross world product (GWP) or aggregate value
of all final goods and services produced worldwide in a given year.

Heliports: This entry gives the total number of established helicopter
takeoff and landing sites (which may or may not have fuel or other
services).

Highways: This entry includes the total length of the highway system
as well as the length of the paved and unpaved components.

Historical perspective: This entry at the beginning of a country
profile contains a brief summary of the background information
necessary to understand the current situation in a country. The entry
appears for only a few countries at the present time, but may be added
to more countries in the future.

Illicit drugs: This entry gives information on the five categories of
illicit drugs- narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives),
hallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs
legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally
produced and sold outside of medical channels.
Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which
provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes
marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol
(THC, Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).
Coca (mostly Erythroxylum coca) is a bush with leaves that
contain the stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to be confused
with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making
chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter.
Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca
bush.
Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and
anxiety and include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal,
Seconal, phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium),
methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil,
Placidyl, Valmid).
Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical,
mental, emotional, or behavioral change in an individual.
Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical
substance that results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral
impairment in an individual.
Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking,
self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid,
microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine
variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog),
phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin,
psilocyn).
Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant
(Cannabis sativa).
Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.
Mandrax is a trade name for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical
depressant.
Marijuana is the dried leaves of the cannabis or hemp plant
(Cannabis sativa).
Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, referred to as
mandrax in Southwest Asia.
Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep,
and refer to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes.
Natural narcotics include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine
(MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with
codeine, Robitussan AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include
heroin (horse, smack), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic
narcotics include meperidine or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan),
methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), and others (Darvon, Lomotil).
Opium is the brown, gummy exudate of the incised, unripe
seedpod of the opium poppy.
Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for the
natural and semisynthetic narcotics.
Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid derived from the
mature, dried opium poppy.
Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of
Catha edulis that is chewed or drunk as tea.
Quaaludes is the North American slang term for methaqualone,
a pharmaceutical depressant.
Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase
energy and activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack),
amphetamines (Desoxyn, Dexedrine), phenmetrazine (Preludin),
methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others (Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).

Imports: This entry includes three subfields. Total value is the total
US dollar amount of imports on a c.i.f. or f.o.b. basis. Commodities
is a rank ordering of imported products starting with the most
important and sometimes includes the percent of dollar value. Partners
is a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most
important and sometimes includes the percent of dollar value.

Independence: For most countries, this entry gives the date that
sovereignty was achieved, and from what nation, empire, or
trusteeship. For the other countries, the date given may not represent
''independence'' in the strict sense, but rather some significant
nationhood event such as traditional founding date, date of
unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental
change in the form of government, or state succession. Dependent areas
include the notation ''none'' followed by the nature of their
dependency status. Also see the Terminology note.

Industrial production growth rate: This entry gives the annual
percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing,
mining, and construction).

Industries: This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting
with the largest by value of annual output.

Infant mortality rate: This entry gives the number of deaths of
infants under one year old in a given year per 1,000 live births
occurring in the same year. The infant mortality rate is often used an
indicator of the level of health in a country.

Inflation rate-consumer price index: This entry furnishes the annual
percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's
consumer prices.

International disputes: see Disputes-international

International organization participation: This entry lists in
alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations
in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other
way.

International organizations: This information is presented in Appendix
C: International Organizations and Groups which includes the name,
abbreviation, address, telephone, FAX, date established, aim, and
members by category.

Introduction: This category includes two entries-Current issues and
Historical perspective. At present it appears in only a few country
profiles, but may be added to others in the future.

Irrigated land: This entry gives the number of square kilometers of
land area that is artificially supplied with water.

Judicial branch: This entry contains the name(s) of the highest
court(s) and a brief description of the selection process for members.

Labor force: This entry contains the total labor force figure and a
rank ordering of component parts by occupation.

Land boundaries: This entry contains the total length of all land
boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous
border countries.

Land use: This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area
for five different types of land use. Arable land-land cultivated for
crops that are replanted after each harvest like wheat, maize, and
rice. Permanent crops-land cultivated for crops that are not replanted
after each harvest like citrus, coffee, and rubber. Permanent
pastures-land permanently used for herbaceous forage crops. Forests
and woodland-land under dense or open stands of trees. Other- any land
type not specifically mentioned above, such as urban areas, roads,
desert, etc.

Languages: This entry provides a rank ordering of languages starting
with the largest and sometimes includes the percent of total
population speaking that language.

Legal system: This entry contains a brief description of the legal
system's historical roots, role in government, and acceptance of
International Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction.

Legislative branch: This entry contains information on the structure
(unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and
term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or
accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next
election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number
of seats held by each party in the last election.

Life expectancy at birth: This entry contains the average number of
years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if
mortality at each age remains constant in the future. The entry
includes total population as well as the male and female components.
Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life
in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages. It can also be
thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human
capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial
measures.

Literacy: This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census
Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There
are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless
otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common
definition-the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing
the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to
read and write is beyond the scope of the Factbook. Information on
literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is
probably the most easily available and valid for international
comparisons. Low levels of literacy, and education in general, can
impede the economic development of a country in the current rapidly
changing, technology-driven world.

Location: This entry identifies the country's regional location,
neighboring countries, and adjacent bodies of water.

Map references: This entry includes the name of the Factbook reference
map on which a country may be found. The entry on Geographic
coordinates may be helpful in finding some smaller countries.

Maritime claims: This entry includes the following claims: contiguous
zone, continental shelf, exclusive economic zone, exclusive fishing
zone, extended fishing zone, none (usually for a landlocked country),
other (unique maritime claims like Libya's Gulf of Sidra Closing Line
or North Korea's Military Boundary Line), and territorial sea. The
proximity of neighboring states may prevent some national claims from
being extended the full distance.

Merchant marine: Merchant marine may be defined as all ships engaged
in the carriage of goods; all commercial vessels (as opposed to all
nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil
rigs, etc.; or a grouping of merchant ships by nationality or
register. This entry contains information in two subfields-total and
ships by type. Total includes the total number of ships (1,000 GRT or
over), total DWT for those ships, and total GRT for those ships. Ships
by type includes a listing of barge carriers, bulk cargo ships, cargo
ships, combination bulk carriers, combination ore/oil carriers,
container ships, intermodal ships, liquefied gas tankers, livestock
carriers, multifunction large-load carriers, oil tankers, passenger
ships, passenger-cargo ships, railcar carriers, refrigerated cargo
ships, roll-on/roll-off cargo ships, short-sea passenger ships,
specialized tankers, tanker tug-barges, and vehicle carriers.
A captive register is a register of ships maintained by a
territory, possession, or colony primarily or exclusively for the use
of ships owned in the parent country; it is also referred to as an
offshore register, the offshore equivalent of an internal register.
Ships on a captive register will fly the same flag as the parent
country, or a local variant of it, but will be subject to the maritime
laws and taxation rules of the offshore territory. Although the nature
of a captive register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in
the parent country, just as in the internal register, the ships may
also be owned abroad. The captive register then acts as a flag of
convenience register, except that it is not the register of an
independent state.
A flag of convenience register is a national register
offering registration to a merchant ship not owned in the flag state.
The major flags of convenience (FOC) attract ships to their registers
by virtue of low fees, low or nonexistent taxation of profits, and
liberal manning requirements. True FOC registers are characterized by
having relatively few of the registered ships actually owned in the
flag state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for ships under
a given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where the
majority of the merchant fleet is owned abroad. It is also referred to
as an open register.
A flag state is the nation in which a ship is registered and
which holds legal jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at
home or abroad. Maritime legislation of the flag state determines how
a ship is crewed and taxed and whether a foreign-owned ship may be
placed on the register.
An internal register is a register of ships maintained as a subset of
a national register. Ships on the internal register fly the national
flag and have that nationality but are subject to a separate set of
maritime rules from those on the main national register. These
differences usually include lower taxation of profits, use of foreign
nationals as crew members, and, usually, ownership outside the flag
state (when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian
International Ship Register and Danish International Ship Register are
the most notable examples of an internal register. Both have been
instrumental in stemming flight from the national flag to flags of
convenience and in attracting foreign-owned ships to the Norwegian and
Danish flags.
A merchant ship is a vessel that carries goods against
payment of freight; it is commonly used to denote any nonmilitary ship
but accurately restricted to commercial vessels only.
A register is the record of a ship's ownership and
nationality as listed with the maritime authorities of a country;
also, it is the compendium of such individual ships' registrations.
Registration of a ship provides it with a nationality and makes it
subject to the laws of the country in which registered (the flag
state) regardless of the nationality of the ship's ultimate owner.

Military: This category includes the entries dealing with a country's
military structure, manpower, and expenditures.

Military branches: This entry lists the names of the ground, naval,
air, marine, and other defense or military-type forces.

Military expenditures-dollar figure: This entry gives current military
expenditures in US dollars; the figure is calculated by multiplying
the estimated defense spending in percentage terms by the gross
domestic product (GDP) calculated on an exchange rate basis not
purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. The figure should be treated with
caution because of different price patterns and accounting methods
among nations, as well as wide variations in the strength of their
currencies.

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: This entry gives current
military expenditures as an estimated percent of gross domestic
product (GDP).

Military manpower-availability: This entry gives the total numbers of
males and females age 15-49 and assumes that every individual is fit
to serve.

Military manpower-fit for military service: This entry gives the
number of males and females age 15-49 fit for military service. This
is a more refined measure of potential military manpower availability
which tries to correct for the health situation in the country and
reduces the maximum potential number to a more realistic estimate of
the actual number fit to serve.

Military manpower-military age: This entry gives the minimum age at
which an individual may volunteer for military service or be subject
to conscription.

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: This entry gives the
number of draft-age males and females entering the military manpower
pool in any given year and is a measure of the availability of
draft-age young adults.

Military-note: This entry includes miscellaneous military information
of significance not included elsewhere.

Money figures: All money figures are expressed in contemporaneous US
dollars unless otherwise indicated.

National capital: This entry gives the location of the seat of
government.

National holiday: This entry gives the primary national day of
celebration- usually independence day.

Nationality: This entry provides the identifying terms for
citizens-noun and adjective.

Natural hazards: This entry lists potential natural disasters.

Natural resources: This entry lists a country's mineral, petroleum,
hydropower, and other resources of commercial importance.

Net migration rate: This entry includes the figure for the difference
between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during
the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population). An excess of
persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration (e.g.,
3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the
country as net emigration (e.g., -9.26 migrants/1,000 population). The
net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the
overall level of population change. High levels of migration can cause
problems such as increasing unemployment and potential ethnic strife
(if people are coming in) or reducing the labor force, perhaps in
certain key sectors (if people are leaving).

People: This category includes the entries dealing with the
characteristics of the people and their society.

People-note: This entry includes miscellaneous demographic information
of significance not included elsewhere.

Pipelines: This entry gives the lengths and types of pipelines for
transporting products like natural gas, crude oil, or petroleum
products.

Political parties and leaders: This entry includes a listing of
significant political organizations and their leaders.

Political pressure groups and leaders: This entry includes a listing
of organizations with leaders involved in politics, but not standing
for legislative election.

Population: This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the
Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics
registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past
and on assumptions about future trends. The total population presents
one overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the
world and within its region. Note: starting with the 1993 Factbook,
demographic estimates for some countries (mostly African) have taken
into account the effects of the growing incidence of AIDS infections.
In 1998 these countries are Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma,
Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic
Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia,
Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, Nigeria,
Rwanda, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Zambia,
and Zimbabwe.

Population growth rate: The average annual percent change in the
population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over
deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The
rate may be positive or negative. Also known as growth rate or average
annual rate of growth. The growth rate is a factor in determining how
great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of
its people for infrastructure (e.g., schools, hospitals, housing,
roads), resources (e.g., food, water, electricity), and jobs. Rapid
population growth can be seen as threatening by neighboring countries.

Ports and harbors: This entry lists the major ports and harbors
selected on the basis of overall importance to each country. This is
determined by evaluating a number of factors (e.g., dollar value of
goods handled, gross tonnage, facilities, military significance).

Radio broadcast stations: This entry includes the total number of AM,
FM, and shortwave broadcast stations.

Radios: This entry gives the total number of radio receivers.

Railways: This entry includes the total length of the railway network
and component parts by gauge: broad, dual, narrow, standard, and
other.

Reference maps: This section includes world, regional, and special or
current interest maps.

Religions: This entry includes a rank ordering of religions starting
with the largest and sometimes includes the percent of total
population.

Sex ratio: This entry includes the number of males for each female in
five age groups-at birth, under 15 years, 15-64 years, 65 years and
over, and for the total population. Sex ratio at birth has recently
emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some
countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian
countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide
due to a strong preference for sons. This will affect future marriage
patterns and fertility patterns. Eventually it could cause unrest
among young adult males who are unable to find partners. The sex ratio
at birth for the World is 1.06 (1998 est.).

Suffrage: This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the
right to vote is universal or restricted.

Telephone numbers: All telephone numbers in the Factbook consist of
the country code in brackets, the city or area code (where required)
in parentheses, and the local number. The one component that is not
presented is the international access code, which varies from country
to country. For example, an international direct dial telephone call
placed from the US to Madrid, Spain, would be as follows:
011 [34] (1) 577-xxxx where
011 is the international access code for station-to-station calls
(01 is for calls other than station-to-station calls),
[34] is the country code for Spain,
(1) is the city code for Madrid,
577 is the local exchange, and
xxxx is the local telephone number.

An international direct dial telephone call placed from another
country to the US would be as follows:

international access code + [1] (202) 939-xxxx, where
[1] is the country code for the US,
(202) is the area code for Washington, DC,
939 is the local exchange, and
xxxx is the local telephone number.

Telephone system: This entry includes a brief characterization of the
system with details on the domestic and international components. The
following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:

Arabsat-Arab Satellite Communications Organization (Riyadh,
Saudi Arabia).
Autodin-Automatic Digital Network (US Department of Defense).
CB-citizen's band mobile radio communications.
cellular telephone system-the telephones in this system are
radio transceivers, with each instrument having its own private radio
frequency and sufficient radiated power to reach the booster station
in its area (cell), from which the telephone signal is fed to a
regular telephone exchange.
Central American Microwave System-a trunk microwave radio
relay system that links the countries of Central America and Mexico
with each other.
coaxial cable-a multichannel communication cable consisting
of a central conducting wire, surrounded by and insulated from a
cylindrical conducting shell; a large number of telephone channels can
be made available within the insulated space by the use of a large
number of carrier frequencies.
Comsat-Communications Satellite Corporation (US).
DSN-Defense Switched Network (formerly Automatic Voice
Network or Autovon); basic general-purpose, switched voice network of
the Defense Communications System (US Department of Defense).
Eutelsat-European Telecommunications Satellite Organization
(Paris).
fiber-optic cable-a multichannel communications cable using a
thread of optical glass fibers as a transmission medium in which the
signal (voice, video, etc.) is in the form of a coded pulse of light.
HF-high-frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to
30,000-kHz range.
Inmarsat-International Mobile Satellite Organization
(London); provider of global mobile satellite communications for
commercial, distress, and safety applications at sea, in the air, and
on land.
Intelsat-International Telecommunications Satellite
Organization (Washington, DC).
Intersputnik-International Organization of Space
Communications (Moscow); first established in the former Soviet Union
and the East European countries, it is now marketing its services
worldwide with earth stations in North America, Africa, and East Asia.
landline-communication wire or cable of any sort that is
installed on poles or buried in the ground.
Marecs-Maritime European Communications Satellite used in the
Inmarsat system on lease from the European Space Agency.
Marisat-satellites of the Comsat Corporation that participate
in the Inmarsat system.
Medarabtel-the Middle East Telecommunications Project of the
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) providing a modern
telecommunications network, primarily by microwave radio relay,
linking Algeria, Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Saudi
Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen; it was initially
started in Morocco in 1970 by the Arab Telecommunications Union (ATU)
and was known at that time as the Middle East Mediterranean
Telecommunications Network.
microwave radio relay-transmission of long distance telephone
calls and television programs by highly directional radio microwaves
that are received and sent on from one booster station to another on
an optical path.
NMT-Nordic Mobile Telephone; an analog cellular telephone
system that was developed jointly by the national telecommunications
authorities of the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland,
Norway, and Sweden).
Orbita-a Russian television service; also the trade name of a
packet-switched digital telephone network.
radiotelephone communications-the two-way transmission and
reception of sounds by broadcast radio on authorized frequencies using
telephone handsets.
satellite communication system-a communication system
consisting of two or more earth stations and at least one satellite
that provides long distance transmission of voice, data, and
television; the system usually serves as a trunk connection between
telephone exchanges; if the earth stations are in the same country, it
is a domestic system.
satellite earth station-a communications facility with a
microwave radio transmitting and receiving antenna and required
receiving and transmitting equipment for communicating with
satellites.
satellite link-a radio connection between a satellite and an
earth station permitting communication between them, either one-way
(down link from satellite to earth station-television receive-only
transmission) or two-way (telephone channels).
SHF-super-high-frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000-
to 30,000-MHz range.
shortwave-radio frequencies (from 1.605 to 30 MHz) that fall
above the commercial broadcast band and are used for communication
over long distances.
Solidaridad-geosynchronous satellites in Mexico's system of
international telecommunications in the Western Hemisphere.
Statsionar-Russia's geostationary system for satellite
telecommunications.
submarine cable-a cable designed for service under water.
TAT-Trans-Atlantic Telephone; any of a number of
high-capacity submarine coaxial telephone cables linking Europe with
North America.
telefax-facsimile service between subscriber stations via the
public switched telephone network or the international Datel network.
telegraph-a telecommunications system designed for
unmodulated electric impulse transmission.
telex-a communication service involving teletypewriters
connected by wire through automatic exchanges.
tropospheric scatter-a form of microwave radio transmission
in which the troposphere is used to scatter and reflect a fraction of
the incident radio waves back to earth; powerful, highly directional
antennas are used to transmit and receive the microwave signals;
reliable over-the-horizon communications are realized for distances up
to 600 miles in a single hop; additional hops can extend the range of
this system for very long distances.
trunk network-a network of switching centers, connected by
multichannel trunk lines.
UHF-ultra-high-frequency; any radio frequency in the 300- to
3,000-MHz range.
VHF-very-high-frequency; any radio frequency in the 30- to
300-MHz range.

Telephones: This entry gives the total number of subscribers.

Television-broadcast stations: This entry gives the total number of
separate broadcast stations plus any repeater stations.

Televisions: This entry gives the total number of television sets.

Terminology: Due to the highly structured nature of the Factbook
database, some collective generic terms have to be used. For example,
the word Country in the Country name entry refers to a wide variety of
dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, uninhabited islands, and
other entities in addition to the traditional countries or independent
states. Military is also used as an umbrella term for various civil
defense, security, and defense activities in many entries. The
Independence entry includes the usual colonial independence dates and
former ruling states as well as other significant nationhood dates
such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification,
federation, confederation, establishment, or state succession that are
not strictly independence dates. Dependent areas have the nature of
their dependency status noted in this same entry. The National Capital
entry includes the first-order administrative seat for ''nations'' or
independent states as well as dependencies and other Factbook
entities.

Terrain: This entry contains a brief description of the topography.

Total fertility rate: This entry gives a figure for the average number
of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end
of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given
fertility rate at each age. The total fertility rate is a more direct
measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it
refers to births per woman. This indicator shows the potential for
population growth in the country. High rates will also place some
limits on the labor force participation rates for women. Large numbers
of children born to women indicate large family sizes that might limit
the capacity of the families to educate their children.

Transnational Issues: This category includes only two entries at the
present time-Disputes-international and Illicit drugs-that deal with
current issues going beyond national boundaries.

Transportation: This category includes the entries dealing with the
movement of people or material.

Transportation-note: This entry includes miscellaneous transportation
information of significance not included elsewhere.

Unemployment rate: This entry contains the percent of the labor force
that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.

United Nations System: This information is presented in Appendix B:
United Nations System as a chart, table, or text (depending on the
version of the Factbook) that shows the organization of the UN in
detail.

Waterways: This entry gives the total length and individual names of
navigable rivers, canals, and other inland bodies of water.

Weights and measures: This information is presented in Appendix E:
Weights and Measures and includes mathematical notations (mathematical
powers and names), metric interrelationships (prefix; symbol; length,
weight, or capacity; area; volume), and standard conversion factors.

Years: All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless
indicated as fiscal year (FY). The calendar year is an accounting
period of 12 months from 1 January to 31 December. The fiscal year is
an accounting period of 12 months other than 1 January to 31 December.
FY93/94 refers to the fiscal year that began in calendar year 1993 and
ended in calendar year 1994.

Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from
material in the public domain and does not represent Intelligence
Community estimates. The Handbook of International Economic
Statistics, published annually in September by the Central
Intelligence Agency, contains detailed economic information for the
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
countries, the successor nations to the Soviet Union, and selected
other countries. The Handbook can be obtained wherever the Factbook is
available.

______________________________________________________________________

@APPENDIXES

Appendix A: Abbreviations

A ABEDA Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa
ACC Arab Cooperation Council
ACCT Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique; see Agency for
Cultural and Technical Cooperation; changed name in 1996 to Agence de
la francophonie or Agency for the French-speaking Community
ACP African, Caribbean, and Pacific Countries
AfDB African Development Bank
AFESD Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development
AG Andean Group
Air Pollution Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution
Air Pollution-Nitrogen Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range
Oxides Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions
of Nitrogen Oxides or Their Transboundary Fluxes
Air Pollution-Sulphur 85 Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range
Transboundary Air Pollution on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or
Their Transboundary Fluxes by at Least 30%
Air Pollution-Sulphur 94 Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range
Transboundary Air Pollution on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions
Air Pollution-Volatile Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Organic
Compounds Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the
Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or Their
Transboundary Fluxes
AL Arab League
ALADI Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion; see Latin American
Integration Association (LAIA)
AMF Arab Monetary Fund
AMU Arab Maghreb Union
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol Protocol on Environmental Protection
to the Antarctic Treaty
ANZUS Australia-New Zealand-United States Security Treaty
APEC Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
Arabsat Arab Satellite Communications Organization
AsDB Asian Development Bank
ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Autodin Automatic Digital Network
B BAD Banque Africaine de Developpement; see African Development Bank
(AfDB)
BADEA Banque Arabe de Developpement Economique en Afrique; see Arab
Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA)
BCIE Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economico; see Central
American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE)
BDEAC Banque de Developpment des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale; see
Central African States Development Bank (BDEAC)
Benelux Benelux Economic Union
BID Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo; see Inter-American Development
Bank (IADB)
Biodiversity Convention on Biological Diversity
BIS Bank for International Settlements
BOAD Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement; see West African
Development Bank (WADB)
BSEC Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone
C C Commonwealth
CACM Central American Common Market
CAEU Council of Arab Economic Unity
Caricom Caribbean Community and Common Market
CB Citizen's band mobile radio communications
CBSS Council of the Baltic Sea States
CCC Customs Cooperation Council
CDB Caribbean Development Bank
CE Council of Europe
CEAO Communaute Economique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest; see West African
Economic Community (CEAO)
CEEAC Communaute Economique des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale; see
Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC)
CEI Central European Initiative
CEMA Council for Mutual Economic Assistance; also known as CMEA or
Comecon
CEPGL Communaute Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs; see Economic
Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL)
CERN Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire; see European
Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)
CG Contadora Group
c.i.f. cost, insurance, and freight
CIS Commonwealth of Independent States
CITES see Endangered Species
Climate Change United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change
CMEA Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA); also known as
Comecon
COCOM Coordinating Committee on Export Controls
Comecon Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA); also known as
CMEA
Comsat Communications Satellite Corporation
CP Colombo Plan
CSCE Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe; see
Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
CY calendar year
D DC developed country
Desertification United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in
Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification,
Particularly in Africa
DSN Defense Switched Network
DWT deadweight ton
E EADB East African Development Bank
EAPC Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council
EBRD European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
EC European Community; see European Union (EU)
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECAFE Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East; see Economic and
Social for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLA Economic Commission for Latin America; see Economic Commission
for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ECO Economic Cooperation Organization
ECOSOC Economic and Social Council
ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States
ECSC European Coal and Steel Community; see European Union (EU)
ECWA Economic Commission for Western Asia; see Economic and Social
Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)
EEC European Economic Community; see European Union (EU)
EFTA European Free Trade Association
EIB European Investment Bank
EMU European Monetary Union
Endangered Species Convention on the International Trade in Endangered
Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES)
Entente Council of the Entente
Environmental Modification Convention on the Prohibition of Military
or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques
ESA European Space Agency
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
est. estimate
EU European Union
Euratom European Atomic Energy Community; see European Community (EC)
Eutelsat European Telecommunications Satellite Organization
Ex-Im Export-Import Bank of the United States
F FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
FAX facsimile
f.o.b. free on board
FLS Front Line States
FRG Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany); used for information
dated before 3 October 1990 or CY91
FSU former Soviet Union
FY fiscal year (FY93/94, for example, began in calendar year 1993 and

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