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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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(territory of the US)

@Virgin Islands:Geography

Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 20 N, 64 50 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 352 sq km
land: 349 sq km
water: 3 sq km

Area-comparative: twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 188 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: subtropical, tempered by easterly trade winds, relatively low
humidity, little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season May to
November

Terrain: mostly hilly to rugged and mountainous with little level land

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Crown Mountain 474 m

Natural resources: sun, sand, sea, surf

Land use:
arable land: 15%
permanent crops: 6%
permanent pastures: 26%
forests and woodland: 6%
other: 47% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: several hurricanes in recent years; frequent and
severe droughts, floods, and earthquakes

Environment-current issues: lack of natural freshwater resources

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: important location along the Anegada Passage-a key
shipping lane for the Panama Canal; Saint Thomas has one of the best
natural, deepwater harbors in the Caribbean

@Virgin Islands:People

Population: 118,211 (July 1998 est.)
note: West Indian (45% born in the Virgin Islands and 29% born
elsewhere in the West Indies) 74%, US mainland 13%, Puerto Rican 5%,
other 8%

Age structure:
0-14 years: 29% (male 17,310; female 16,502)
15-64 years: 64% (male 34,434; female 40,645)
65 years and over: 7% (male 4,065; female 5,255) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.16% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 16.45 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.01 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.3 years
male: 74.68 years
female: 82.15 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.32 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Virgin Islander(s)
adjective: Virgin Islander

Ethnic groups: black 80%, white 15%, other 5%

Religions: Baptist 42%, Roman Catholic 34%, Episcopalian 17%, other 7%

Languages: English (official), Spanish, Creole

Literacy: NA

@Virgin Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Virgin Islands of the United States
conventional short form: Virgin Islands
former: Danish West Indies

Data code: VQ

Dependency status: organized, unincorporated territory of the US;
administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of the
Interior

Government type: NA

National capital: Charlotte Amalie

Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)

National holiday: Transfer Day, 31 March (1917) (from Denmark to US)

Constitution: Revised Organic Act of 22 July 1954

Legal system: based on US laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; note-indigenous inhabitants are
US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of the US William Jefferson CLINTON (since
20 January 1993); Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January
1993)
head of government: Governor Dr. Roy L. SCHNEIDER (since 5 January
1995) and Lieutenant Governor Kenneth E. MAPP (since 5 January 1995)
cabinet: NA
elections: governor and lieutenant governor of the Virgin Islands
elected by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 22
November 1994 (next to be held NA November 1998)
election results: Dr. Roy L. SCHNEIDER elected governor of the Virgin
Islands; percent of vote-Roy L. SCHNEIDER (ICM) 54.7%, former
Lieutenant Governor Derek HODGE 42.6%

Legislative branch: unicameral Senate (15 seats; members are elected
by popular vote to serve two-year terms)
elections: last held 5 November 1996 (next to be held 2 November 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-independents 6, Democrats 5, Republicans 2, Independent Citizens
Movement 2
note: the Virgin Islands elects one representative to the US House of
Representatives; elections last held 19 November 1996 (next to be held
NA November 1998); results - Dr. Donna GREEN (ICM) 51.5%, Victor O.
FRAZER (independent) 48.5%

Judicial branch: US District Court, handles civil matters over
$200,000, felonies (persons 15 years of age and over), and federal
cases; judges are appointed by the president; Territorial Court,
handles civil matters of unlimited cash amount; felonies, small
claims, juvenile, domestic, misdemeanors, and traffic cases; judges
appointed by the governor

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party, Marilyn STAPLETON;
Independent Citizens' Movement (ICM), Virdin C. BROWN; Republican
Party, Charlotte-Poole DAVIS

International organization participation: ECLAC (associate), IOC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of the US)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of the US)

Flag description: white with a modified US coat of arms in the center
between the large blue initials V and I; the coat of arms shows a
yellow eagle holding an olive branch in one talon and three arrows in
the other with a superimposed shield of vertical red and white stripes
below a blue panel

@Virgin Islands:Economy

Economy-overview: Tourism is the primary economic activity, accounting
for more than 70% of GDP and 70% of employment. The islands normally
host 2 million visitors a year. The number of US tourists in the first
five months of 1996 was down by 55% from the same period in 1995, the
lingering result of the fierce hurricanes of 1995. Unemployment rose
sharply in 1996. The manufacturing sector consists of textile,
electronics, pharmaceutical, and watch assembly plants. The
agricultural sector is small, most food being imported. International
business and financial services are a small but growing component of
the economy. One of the world's largest petroleum refineries is at
Saint Croix. A major economic problem at the beginning of 1997 was the
more than $1 billion in governmental arrears, in income tax refunds,
payments to vendors, and overdue wages.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1.2 billion (1987 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$12,500 (1987 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 47,443 (1990 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 1%, industry 20%, services 62%, other 17%
(1990)

Unemployment rate: 6.2% (March 1994)

Budget:
revenues: $364.4 million
expenditures: $364.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1990 est.)

Industries: tourism, petroleum refining, watch assembly, rum
distilling, construction, pharmaceuticals, textiles, electronics

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 316 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 1 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 10,285 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: truck garden products, fruit, vegetables,
sorghum; Senepol cattle

Exports:
total value: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: refined petroleum products
partners: US, Puerto Rico

Imports:
total value: $2.2 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: crude oil, foodstuffs, consumer goods, building materials
partners: US, Puerto Rico

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Communications

Telephones: 60,000 (1990 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: modern, uses fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay
international: submarine cable and satellite communications; satellite
earth stations - NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 8, shortwave 0 (1988)

Radios: 105,000 (1994 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 66,000 (1994 est.)

@Virgin Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 856 km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Charlotte Amalie, Christiansted, Cruz Bay, Port
Alucroix

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 2
note: international airports on Saint Thomas and Saint Croix; there is
an airfield on St. John (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (1997 est.)

@Virgin Islands:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@Virgin Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

WAKE ISLAND

(territory of the US)

@Wake Island:Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the North Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds
of the way from Hawaii to the Northern Mariana Islands

Geographic coordinates: 19 17 N, 166 36 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 6.5 sq km
land: 6.5 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 11 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 19.3 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: atoll of three coral islands built up on an underwater
volcano; central lagoon is former crater, islands are part of the rim

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 6 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: occasional typhoons

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean;
emergency landing location for transpacific flights

@Wake Island:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there are no permanent US military personnel on the island; some
civilian contract personnel remain (1998 est.)

@Wake Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Wake Island

Data code: WQ

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered
from Washington, DC by the Department of the Interior; occasional
activities on the island are managed by the US Army under a US Air
Force contract

Legal system: NA

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

@Wake Island:Economy

Economy-overview: Economic activity is limited to providing services
to contractors located on the island. All food and manufactured goods
must be imported.

Electricity-capacity: NA kW
note: electricity supplied by the US military

Electricity-production: NA kWh
note: electricity supplied by the US military

Communications

Telephone system: satellite communications; 1 DSN circuit off the
Overseas Telephone System (OTS)
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM NA, shortwave NA
note: Armed Forces Radio/Television Service (AFRTS) radio service
provided by satellite

Television broadcast stations: NA
note: Armed Forces Radio/Television Service (AFRTS) television service
provided by satellite

@Wake Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; two offshore anchorages for large ships

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Transportation-note: formerly an important commercial aviation base,
now occasionally used by US military, some commercial cargo planes,
and for emergency landings

@Wake Island:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@Wake Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: claimed by Marshall Islands

______________________________________________________________________

WALLIS AND FUTUNA

(overseas territory of France)

@Wallis and Futuna:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about
two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 13 18 S, 176 12 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 274 sq km
land: 274 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Ile Uvea (Wallis Island), Ile Futuna (Futuna Island),
Ile Alofi, and 20 islets

Area-comparative: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 129 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, rainy season (November to April); cool, dry
season (May to October); rains 2,500-3,000 mm per year (80% humidity);
average temperature 26.6 degrees C

Terrain: volcanic origin; low hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Singavi 765 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 20%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 75% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: deforestation (only small portions of the
original forests remain) largely as a result of the continued use of
wood as the main fuel source; as a consequence of cutting down the
forests, the mountainous terrain of Futuna is particularly prone to
erosion; there are no permanent settlements on Alofi because of the
lack of natural fresh water resources

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: both island groups have fringing reefs

@Wallis and Futuna:People

Population: 14,974 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.06% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 23.02 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 4.78 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -7.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 20.93 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.82 years
male: 73.24 years
female: 74.4 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.78 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Wallisian(s), Futunan(s), or Wallis and Futuna Islanders
adjective: Wallisian, Futunan, or Wallis and Futuna Islander

Ethnic groups: Polynesian

Religions: Roman Catholic 100%

Languages: French, Wallisian (indigenous Polynesian language)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 50%
male: 50%
female: 50% (1969 est.)

@Wallis and Futuna:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands
conventional short form: Wallis and Futuna
local long form: Territoire des Iles Wallis et Futuna
local short form: Wallis et Futuna

Data code: WF

Dependency status: overseas territory of France

Government type: NA

National capital: Mata-Utu (on Ile Uvea)

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France); there
are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are three kingdoms named Wallis, Sigave, Alo

Independence: none (overseas territory of France)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French legal system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of France Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May
1995), represented by High Administrator Claude PIERRET (since NA)
head of government: President of the Territorial Assembly Victor BRIAL
(since 1 June 1997)
cabinet: Council of the Territory consists of three kings and three
members appointed by the high administrator on the advice of the
Territorial Assembly
note: there are three traditional kings with limited powers
elections: high administrator appointed by the president of France on
the advice of the French Ministry of the Interior; the presidents of
the Territorial Government and the Territorial Assembly are elected by
the members of the assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Assembly or Assemblee
Territoriale (20 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 16 March 1997 (next to be held NA March 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-NA
note: Wallis and Futuna elects one senator to the French Senate and
one deputy to the French National Assembly; French Senate-elections
last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held by NA September 1998);
results-percent of vote by party-NA; seats-(1 total) RPR 1; French
National Assembly-elections last held 25 May-1 June 1997 (next to be
held by NA March 2002); results - percent of vote by party-NA;
seats-(1 total) RPR 1

Judicial branch: none; justice generally administered under French law
by the high administrator, but the three traditional kings administer
customary law and there is a magistrate in Mata-Utu

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic or RPR; Union
Populaire Locale or UPL; Union Pour la Democratie Francaise or UDF;
Lua kae tahi (Giscardians); Mouvement des Radicaux de Gauche or MRG;
Taumu'a Lelei

International organization participation: FZ, SPC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of
France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of
France)

Flag description: a large white modified Maltese cross centered on a
red background; the flag of France outlined in white on two sides is
in the upper hoist quadrant; the flag of France is used for official
occasions

@Wallis and Futuna:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy is limited to traditional subsistence
agriculture, with about 80% of the labor force earning its livelihood
from agriculture (coconuts and vegetables), livestock (mostly pigs),
and fishing. About 4% of the population is employed in government.
Revenues come from French Government subsidies, licensing of fishing
rights to Japan and South Korea, import taxes, and remittances from
expatriate workers in New Caledonia. Wallis and Futuna imports food -
particularly flour, sugar, rice, and beef-fuel, clothing, machinery,
and transport equipment, but its exports are negligible, consisting
mostly of breadfruit, yams, and taro root.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$28.7 million (1995 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,000 (1995 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force: NA
by occupation: agriculture, livestock, and fishing 80%, government 4%
(est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $22 million
expenditures: $22 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997
est.)

Industries: copra, handicrafts, fishing, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: NA kW

Electricity-production: NA kWh

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture-products: breadfruit, yams, taro, bananas; pigs, goats

Exports:
total value: $370,000 (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: copra, handicrafts
partners: NA

Imports:
total value: $13.5 million (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods, transportation equipment,
fuel, clothing
partners: France, Australia, New Zealand

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per
US$1-110.60 (January 1998), 106.11 (1997), 93.00 (1996), 90.75 (1995),
100.94 (1994), 102.96 (1993); note-linked at the rate of 18.18 to the
French franc

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 340 (1985 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: NA

@Wallis and Futuna:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 120 km (Ile Uvea 100 km, Ile Futuna 20 km)
paved: 16 km (all on Ile Uvea)
unpaved: 104 km (Ile Uvea 84 km, Ile Futuna 20 km)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Leava, Mata-Utu

Merchant marine:
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 44,160 GRT/41,656 DWT
ships by type: oil tanker 1, passenger 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Wallis and Futuna:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of France

@Wallis and Futuna:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

WEST BANK

Introduction

Current issues: The Israel-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim
Self-Government Arrangements ("the DOP"), signed in Washington on 13
September 1993, provides for a transitional period not exceeding five
years of Palestinian interim self-government in the Gaza Strip and the
West Bank. Permanent status negotiations began on 5 May 1996, but have
not resumed since the initial meeting. Under the DOP, Israel agreed to
transfer certain powers and responsibilities to the Palestinian
Authority, which includes a Palestinian Legislative Council elected in
January 1996, as part of interim self-governing arrangements in the
West Bank and Gaza Strip. A transfer of powers and responsibilities
for the Gaza Strip and Jericho took place pursuant to the Israel-PLO 4
May 1994 Cairo Agreement on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area and in
additional areas of the West Bank pursuant to the Israel-PLO 28
September 1995 Interim Agreement and the Israel-PLO 15 January 1997
Protocol Concerning Redeployment in Hebron. The DOP provides that
Israel will retain responsibility during the transitional period for
external security and for internal security and public order of
settlements and Israelis. Permanent status is to be determined through
direct negotiations.

@West Bank:Geography

Location: Middle East, west of Jordan

Geographic coordinates: 32 00 N, 35 15 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 5,860 sq km
land: 5,640 sq km
water: 220 sq km
note: includes West Bank, Latrun Salient, and the northwest quarter of
the Dead Sea, but excludes Mt. Scopus; East Jerusalem and Jerusalem No
Man's Land are also included only as a means of depicting the entire
area occupied by Israel in 1967

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries:
total: 404 km
border countries: Israel 307 km, Jordan 97 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate, temperature and precipitation vary with altitude,
warm to hot summers, cool to mild winters

Terrain: mostly rugged dissected upland, some vegetation in west, but
barren in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m
highest point: Tall Asur 1,022 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 27%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 32%
forests and woodland: 1%
other: 40%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: adequacy of fresh water supply; sewage
treatment

Environment-international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: landlocked; highlands are main recharge area for
Israel's coastal aquifers; there are 207 Israeli settlements and
civilian land use sites in the West Bank and 29 in East Jerusalem
(August 1997 est.)

@West Bank:People

Population: 1,556,919 (July 1998 est.)
note: in addition, there are 155,000 Israeli settlers in the West Bank
and 164,000 in East Jerusalem (August 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 359,848; female 342,173)
15-64 years: 52% (male 405,929; female 396,928)
65 years and over: 3% (male 21,853; female 30,188) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.71% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 36.65 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 4.35 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 26.35 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.47 years
male: 70.7 years
female: 74.33 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.92 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: NA
adjective: NA

Ethnic groups: Palestinian Arab and other 83%, Jewish 17%

Religions: Muslim 75% (predominantly Sunni), Jewish 17%, Christian and
other 8%

Languages: Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by Israeli settlers and many
Palestinians), English (widely understood)

Literacy: NA

@West Bank:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: West Bank

Data code: WE

@West Bank:Economy

Economy-overview: Economic progress in the West Bank has been hampered
by tight Israeli security restrictions. Industries using advanced
technology or requiring sizable investment have been discouraged by a
lack of local capital and Israeli policies that block the movement of
goods and people. Capital investment consists largely of residential
housing, not productive assets that would enable local Palestinian
firms to compete with Israeli industry. GDP has been substantially
supplemented by workers who commute to jobs in Israel. Worker
remittances from the Persian Gulf states dropped after Iraq invaded
Kuwait in August 1990. In the wake of the Persian Gulf crisis, many
Palestinians have returned to the West Bank, increasing unemployment,
and export revenues have dropped because of the decline of markets in
Jordan and the Gulf states. An estimated 147,000 people were in
refugee camps in 1996.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$2.8 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: -6.9% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,600 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 33%
industry: 25%
services: 42% (1995 est., includes Gaza Strip)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 8.4% (1996 est.)

Labor force: NA
by occupation: agriculture 13%, industry 13%, commerce, restaurants,
and hotels 12%, construction 8%, other services 54% (1996)
note: excluding Israeli settlers

Unemployment rate: 28% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $684 million
expenditures: $779 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996)
note: includes Gaza Strip

Industries: generally small family businesses that produce cement,
textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs;
the Israelis have established some small-scale, modern industries in
the settlements and industrial centers

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: NA kW
note: most electricity imported from Israel; East Jerusalem Electric
Company buys and distributes electricity to Palestinians in East
Jerusalem and its concession in the West Bank; the Israel Electric
Company directly supplies electricity to most Jewish residents and
military facilities; at the same time, some Palestinian
municipalities, such as Nabulus and Janin, generate their own
electricity from small power plants

Electricity-production: NA kWh
note: most electricity imported from Israel; East Jerusalem Electric
Company buys and distributes electricity to Palestinians in East
Jerusalem and its concession in the West Bank; the Israel Electric
Company directly supplies electricity to most Jewish residents and
military facilities; at the same time, some Palestinian
municipalities, such as Nabulus and Janin, generate their own
electricity from small power plants

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture-products: olives, citrus and other fruits, vegetables;
beef, dairy products

Exports:
total value: $630 million (f.o.b., 1997 est.) (includes Gaza Strip)
commodities: olives, fruit, vegetables, limestone
partners: Jordan, Israel

Imports:
total value: $1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1997 est.) (includes Gaza Strip)
commodities: food, consumer goods, construction materials
partners: Jordan, Israel

Debt-external: $51 million (1995)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot; 1 Jordanian
dinar (JD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1-3.5340 (December
1997), 3.4494 (1997), 3.1917 (1996), 3.0113 (1995), 3.0111 (1994),
2.8301 (1993); Jordanian dinars (JD) per US$1-0.7090 (January 1998),
0.7090 (1997), 0.7090 (1996), 0.7005 (1995), 0.6987 (1994), 0.6928
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year (since 1 January 1992)

Communications

Telephones: NA
note: 3.1% of Palestinian households have telephones

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: NA
note: Israeli company BEZEK and the Palestinian company PALTEL are
responsible for communication services in the West Bank

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA; note-82% of Palestinian households have radios (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: about 25 low-powered stations

Televisions: NA; note-54% of Palestinian households have televisions
(1992 est.)

@West Bank:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 4,500 km
paved: 2,700 km
unpaved: 1,800 km (1997 est.)
note: Israelis have developed many highways to service Jewish
settlements

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@West Bank:Military

Military branches: NA

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@West Bank:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli-occupied
with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim
Agreement-permanent status to be determined through further
negotiation

______________________________________________________________________

WESTERN SAHARA

@Western Sahara:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Mauritania and Morocco

Geographic coordinates: 24 30 N, 13 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 266,000 sq km
land: 266,000 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about the size of Colorado

Land boundaries:
total: 2,046 km
border countries: Algeria 42 km, Mauritania 1,561 km, Morocco 443 km

Coastline: 1,110 km

Maritime claims: contingent upon resolution of sovereignty issue

Climate: hot, dry desert; rain is rare; cold offshore air currents
produce fog and heavy dew

Terrain: mostly low, flat desert with large areas of rocky or sandy
surfaces rising to small mountains in south and northeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sebjet Tah -55 m
highest point: unnamed location 463 m

Natural resources: phosphates, iron ore

Land use:
arable land: 19%
permanent crops: 24%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 47%
other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind can occur
during winter and spring; widespread harmattan haze exists 60% of
time, often severely restricting visibility

Environment-current issues: sparse water and arable land

Environment-international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Western Sahara:People

Population: 233,730 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 2.4% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 45.78 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 17.05 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 139.74 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 48.41 years
male: 47.32 years
female: 49.83 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.75 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Sahrawi(s), Sahraoui(s)
adjective: Sahrawian, Sahraouian

Ethnic groups: Arab, Berber

Religions: Muslim

Languages: Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan Arabic

Literacy: NA

@Western Sahara:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Western Sahara

Data code: WI

Government type: legal status of territory and question of sovereignty
unresolved; territory contested by Morocco and Polisario Front
(Popular Front for the Liberation of the Saguia el Hamra and Rio de
Oro), which in February 1976 formally proclaimed a government-in-exile
of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR); territory partitioned
between Morocco and Mauritania in April 1976, with Morocco acquiring
northern two-thirds; Mauritania, under pressure from Polisario
guerrillas, abandoned all claims to its portion in August 1979;
Morocco moved to occupy that sector shortly thereafter and has since
asserted administrative control; the Polisario's government-in-exile
was seated as an OAU member in 1984; guerrilla activities continued
sporadically, until a UN-monitored cease-fire was implemented 6
September 1991

National capital: none

Administrative divisions: none (under de facto control of Morocco)

Suffrage: none; a UN sponsored voter identification campaign has yet
to be completed

Executive branch: none

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none

Diplomatic representation from the US: none

@Western Sahara:Economy

Economy-overview: Western Sahara, a territory poor in natural
resources and lacking sufficient rainfall, depends on pastoral
nomadism, fishing, and phosphate mining as the principal sources of
income for the population. Most of the food for the urban population
must be imported. All trade and other economic activities are
controlled by the Moroccan Government. Incomes and standards of living
are substantially below the Moroccan level.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$NA

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$NA

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: 40%-45% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 12,000
by occupation: animal husbandry and subsistence farming 50%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: phosphate mining, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 56,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 85 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 391 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: fruits and vegetables (grown in the few oases);
camels, sheep, goats (kept by the nomads)

Exports: $NA
commodities: phosphates 62%
partners: Morocco claims and administers Western Sahara, so trade
partners are included in overall Moroccan accounts

Imports: $NA
commodities: fuel for fishing fleet, foodstuffs
partners: Morocco claims and administers Western Sahara, so trade
partners are included in overall Moroccan accounts

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Moroccan dirham (DH) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Moroccan dirhams (DH) per US$1-9.822 (January 1998),
9.527 (1997), 8.716 (1996), 8.540 (1995), 9.203 (1994), 9.299 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 2,000

Telephone system: sparse and limited system
domestic: NA
international: tied into Morocco's system by microwave radio relay,
tropospheric scatter, and satellite; satellite earth stations-2
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) linked to Rabat, Morocco

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2

Televisions: NA

@Western Sahara:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 6,200 km
paved: 1,350 km
unpaved: 4,850 km (1991 est.)

Ports and harbors: Ad Dakhla, Cabo Bojador, El Aaiun

Airports: 12 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 3 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Western Sahara:Military

Military branches: NA

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Western Sahara:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: claimed and administered by Morocco, but
sovereignty is unresolved and the UN is attempting to hold a
referendum on the issue; the UN-administered cease-fire has been in
effect since September 1991

______________________________________________________________________

WORLD

@World:Geography

Map references: World, Time Zones

Area:
total: 510.072 million sq km
land: 148.94 million sq km
water: 361.132 million sq km
note: 70.8% of the world's surface is water, 29.2% is land

Area-comparative: land area about 15 times the size of the US

Land boundaries: the land boundaries in the world total 251,480.24 km
(not counting shared boundaries twice)

Coastline: 356,000 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm claimed by most but can vary
continental shelf: 200-m depth claimed by most or to depth of
exploitation, others claim 200 nm or to the edge of the continental
margin
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm claimed by most but can vary
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm claimed by most but can vary
territorial sea: 12 nm claimed by most but can vary
note: boundary situations with neighboring states prevent many
countries from extending their fishing or economic zones to a full 200
nm; 43 nations and other areas that are landlocked include
Afghanistan, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bhutan,
Bolivia, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic,
Chad, Czech Republic, Ethiopia, Holy See (Vatican City), Hungary,
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg,
Malawi, Mali, Moldova, Mongolia, Nepal, Niger, Paraguay, Rwanda, San
Marino, Slovakia, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tajikistan, The Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, West
Bank, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Climate: two large areas of polar climates separated by two rather
narrow temperate zones from a wide equatorial band of tropical to
subtropical climates

Terrain: the greatest ocean depth is the Mariana Trench at 10,924 m in
the Pacific Ocean

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,848 m

Natural resources: the rapid using up of nonrenewable mineral
resources, the depletion of forest areas and wetlands, the extinction
of animal and plant species, and the deterioration in air and water
quality (especially in Eastern Europe and the former USSR) pose
serious long-term problems that governments and peoples are only
beginning to address

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 26%
forests and woodland: 32%
other: 31% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,481,250 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: large areas subject to severe weather (tropical
cyclones), natural disasters (earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis,
volcanic eruptions)

Environment-current issues: large areas subject to overpopulation,
industrial disasters, pollution (air, water, acid rain, toxic
substances), loss of vegetation (overgrazing, deforestation,
desertification), loss of wildlife, soil degradation, soil depletion,
erosion

Environment-international agreements: selected international
environmental agreements are included under the
Environment-international agreements entry for each country and in the
Selected International Environmental Agreements appendix

@World:People

Population: 5,926,466,814 (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.3% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 58 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63 years
male: 61 years
female: 65 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1998 est.)

@World:Government

Data code: none; there is no FIPS 10-4 country code for the World, so
the Factbook uses the "W" data code from DIAM 65-18 "Geopolitical Data
Elements and Related Features," Data Standard No. 3, March 1984,
published by the Defense Intelligence Agency; see the Cross-Reference
List of Country Data Codes appendix

Administrative divisions: 266 nations, dependent areas, other, and
miscellaneous entries

Legal system: varies by individual country; 186 (not including
Yugoslavia) are parties to the UN International Court of Justice (ICJ
or World Court)

@World:Economy

Economy-overview: Real global output-gross world product (GWP)-rose an
estimated 4.0% in 1997. And, once more, results varied widely among
regions and countries. With its solid 3.8% growth, the US again
accounted for 21% of GWP in 1997. Western Europe grew at 2.5%, not
enough to cut into its high unemployment, and accounted for another
21% of GWP. Japan's faltering economy grew at only 0.9% with its share
of GWP at 8%. The advanced countries as a whole accounted for an
estimated 53% of GWP, with overall growth at 3.0%. The 15 former
Soviet republics and the countries of Eastern Europe posted growth of
1.8%, reversing the long downturn that followed the collapse of
communism. Growth varied widely among these countries, e.g., Ukraine
at a negative 3.2%, Russia at a positive 0.4%, and the Baltic
countries at a strong 7%. The area as a whole accounted for 5% of
global output. China and India, with a combined population of 2.2
billion or 37% of the world total, grew at 8.8% and 5%, respectively.
(China's official GDP statistics probably are overstated.) The
developing countries as a whole contributed 42% to GWP with an overall
growth rate of 5.7%. Externally, the nation-state, as a bedrock
economic-political institution, is steadily losing control over
international flows of people, goods, funds, and technology.
Internally, the central government in a number of cases is losing
control over resources as separatist regional movements-typically
based on ethnicity - gain momentum, e.g., in the successor states of
the former Soviet Union, in the former Yugoslavia, in India, and in
Canada. In Western Europe, governments face the difficult political
problem of channeling resources away from welfare programs in order to
increase investment and strengthen incentives to seek employment. The
addition of more than 80 million people each year to an already
overcrowded globe is exacerbating the problems of pollution,
desertification, underemployment, epidemics, and famine. Because of
their own internal problems, the industrialized countries have
inadequate resources to deal effectively with the poorer areas of the
world, which, at least from the economic point of view, are becoming
further marginalized. Toward the end of 1997 and on into 1998, serious
financial difficulties in several high-growth East Asia countries cast
a shadow over short-term global economic prospects. The introduction
of the euro as the common currency of much of Western Europe in
January 1999 will pose serious economic risks because of varying
levels of income and cultural and political differences among the
participating nations. (For specific economic developments in each
country of the world in 1997, see the individual country entries.)

GDP: GWP (gross world product)-purchasing power parity-$38 trillion
(1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$6,500 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: all countries 25%; developed
countries 2% to 4% typically; developing countries 10% to 60%
typically (1997 est.)
note: national inflation rates vary widely in individual cases, from
stable prices in Japan to hyperinflation in a number of Third World
countries

Labor force:
total: 2.24 billion (1992)
by occupation: NA

Unemployment rate: 30% combined unemployment and underemployment in
many non-industrialized countries; developed countries typically
5%-12% unemployment (1997 est.)

Industries: dominated by the onrush of technology, especially in
computers, robotics, telecommunications, and medicines and medical
equipment; most of these advances take place in OECD nations; only a
small portion of non-OECD countries have succeeded in rapidly
adjusting to these technological forces; the accelerated development
of new industrial (and agricultural) technology is complicating
already grim environmental problems

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 4 billion kW (1994)

Electricity-production: 12.34268 trillion kWh (1994)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,996 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture-products: the whole gamut of crops, livestock, forest
products, and fish

Exports:
total value: $5 trillion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and
services
partners: in value, about 75% of exports from the developed countries

Imports:
total value: $5.1 trillion (c.i.f., 1997 est.)
commodities: the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and
services
partners: in value, about 75% of imports by the developed countries

Debt-external: $2 trillion for less developed countries (1997 est.)

Economic aid: worldwide traditional foreign aid $50 billion (1995
est.)

Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA

@World:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,201,337 km includes about 190,000 to 195,000 km of
electrified routes of which 147,760 km are in Europe, 24,509 km in the
Far East, 11,050 km in Africa, 4,223 km in South America, and 4,160 km
in North America; note-fastest speed in daily service is 300 km/hr
attained by France's Societe Nationale des Chemins-de-Fer Francais
(SNCF) Le Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV)-Atlantique line
broad gauge: 251,153 km
standard gauge: 710,754 km
narrow gauge: 239,430 km

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Chiba, Houston, Kawasaki, Kobe, Marseille, Mina' al
Ahmadi (Kuwait), New Orleans, New York, Rotterdam, Yokohama

Merchant marine:
total: 27,052 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 477,514,362
GRT/743,923,664 DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 21, bulk 5,623, cargo 8,426, chemical
tanker 1,048, combination bulk 321, combination ore/oil 246, container
2,378, liquefied gas tanker 768, livestock carrier 58, multifunction
large-load carrier 86, oil tanker 4,435, passenger 306,
passenger-cargo 126, railcar carrier 20, refrigerated cargo 1,056,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1,084, short-sea passenger 491, specialized
tanker 93, vehicle carrier 466 (1997 est.)

@World:Military

Military branches: ground, maritime, and air forces at all levels of
technology

Military expenditures-dollar figure: aggregate real expenditure on
arms worldwide in 1997 remained at about the 1996 level, about
three-quarters of a trillion dollars in money terms (1997 est.)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: roughly 2% of gross world
product (1997 est.)

______________________________________________________________________

YEMEN

@Yemen:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and
Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 48 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 527,970 sq km
land: 527,970 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Perim, Socotra, the former Yemen Arab Republic (YAR or
North Yemen), and the former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen
(PDRY or South Yemen)

Area-comparative: slightly larger than twice the size of Wyoming

Land boundaries:
total: 1,746 km
border countries: Oman 288 km, Saudi Arabia 1,458 km

Coastline: 1,906 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 18 nm in the North; 24 nm in the South
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in
western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot,
dry, harsh desert in east

Terrain: narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged
mountains; dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the
desert interior of the Arabian Peninsula

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal an Nabi Shu'ayb 3,760 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, rock salt, marble, small deposits
of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper, fertile soil in west

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 30%
forests and woodland: 4%
other: 63% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,600 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: sandstorms and dust storms in summer

Environment-current issues: very limited natural fresh water
resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; overgrazing; soil
erosion; desertification

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: strategic location on Bab el Mandeb, the strait
linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active
shipping lanes

@Yemen:People

Population: 16,387,963 (July 1998 est.)
note: other estimates range as high as 16.6 million

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (male 4,016,052; female 3,859,079)
15-64 years: 49% (male 4,066,601; female 3,902,686)
65 years and over: 3% (male 280,152; female 263,393) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.31% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 43.36 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 10.27 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 72.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 59.47 years
male: 57.71 years
female: 61.32 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.14 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Yemeni(s)
adjective: Yemeni

Ethnic groups: predominantly Arab; Afro-Arab concentrations in western
coastal locations; South Asians in southern regions; small European
communities in major metropolitan areas

Religions: Muslim including Shaf'i (Sunni) and Zaydi (Shi'a), small
numbers of Jewish, Christian, and Hindu

Languages: Arabic

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 38%
male: 53%
female: 26% (1990 est.)

@Yemen:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Yemen
conventional short form: Yemen
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Yamaniyah
local short form: Al Yaman

Data code: YM

Government type: republic

National capital: Sanaa

Administrative divisions: 17 governorates (muhafazat,
singular-muhafazah); Abyan, Aden, Al Bayda, Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al
Mahrah, Al Mahwit, 'Ataq, Dhamar, Hadhramaut, Hajjah, Ibb, Lahij,
Ma'rib, Sa'dah, San'a', Ta'izz
note: there may be a new governorate for the capital city of Sanaa

Independence: 22 May 1990 Republic of Yemen was established on 22 May
1990 with the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic {Yemen (Sanaa) or
North Yemen} and the Marxist-dominated People's Democratic Republic of
Yemen {Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen}; previously North Yemen had become
independent on NA November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and South
Yemen had become independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK)

National holiday: Proclamation of the Republic, 22 May (1990)

Constitution: 16 May 1991; amended 29 September 1994

Legal system: based on Islamic law, Turkish law, English common law,
and local tribal customary law; does not accept compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Ali Abdallah SALIH (since 22 May
1990, the former president of North Yemen, assumed office upon the
merger of North and South Yemen); Vice President Maj. Gen. Abd al-Rab
Mansur al-HADI (since NA October 1994)
head of government: Acting Prime Minister Dr. Abd al-Karim Ali
al-IRYANI (since NA April 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice
of the prime minister
elections: President SALIH was elected by the House of Representatives
for a five-year term, however, future presidents will be elected by
direct, popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 1 October
1994 (next to be held NA 1999); vice president appointed by the
president; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the
president
election results: Ali Abdallah SALIH elected president; percent of
House of Representatives vote-NA

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (301 seats;
members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 27 April 1997 (next to be held NA April 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-GPC 189,
Islaah 52, Nasserite Unionist Party 3, National Arab Socialist Baath
Party 2, independents 54, election pending 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: there are over 12 political parties
active in Yemen, some of the more prominent are: General People's
Congress (GPC), President Ali Abdallah SALIH; Islamic Reform Grouping
(Islaah), Shaykh Abdallah bin Husayn al-AHMAR; Yemeni Socialist Party
(YSP), Ali Salih UBAYD; Nasserite Unionist Party, leader NA; National
Arab Socialist Baath Party, Dr. Qassim SALAAM
note: President SALIH's General People's Congress (GPC) won a
landslide victory in the April 1997 legislative election and no longer
governs in coalition with Shaykh Abdallah bin Husayn al-AHMAR's
Islamic Reform Grouping (Islaah) - the two parties had been in
coalition since the end of the civil war in 1994; the YSP, a loyal
opposition party, boycotted the April 1997 legislative election

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU,
CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OIC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
(applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Abd al-Wahhab Abdallah al-HAJRI
chancery: Suite 705, 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 965-4760
FAX: [1] (202) 337-2017

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Barbara K. BODINE
embassy: Dhahr Himyar Zone, Sheraton Hotel District, Sanaa
mailing address: P. O. Box 22347, Sanaa
telephone: [967] (1) 238843 through 238852
FAX: [967] (1) 251563

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and black; similar to the flag of Syria which has two green stars and
of Iraq which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a
horizontal line centered in the white band; also similar to the flag
of Egypt which has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

@Yemen:Economy

Economy-overview: The northern city Sanaa is the political capital of
a united Yemen, and the southern city Aden, with its refinery and port
facilities, is the economic and commercial capital. Future economic
development depends heavily on the attraction of foreign investment to
diversify the economy. Former South Yemen's willingness to merge
stemmed partly from the sharp decline in Soviet economic support. The
low level of domestic industry and agriculture has made northern Yemen
dependent on imports for practically all of its essential needs. Once
self-sufficient in food production, northern Yemen has become a major
importer. Land once used for export crops-cotton, fruit, and
vegetables - has been turned over to growing a shrub called qat, whose
leaves are chewed for their stimulant effect by Yemenis and which has
no significant export market. Economic growth in former South Yemen
has been constrained by a lack of incentives, partly stemming from
centralized control over production decisions, investment allocation,
and import choices. Yemen's GDP has been supplemented by remittances
from Yemenis working abroad and by foreign aid. Since the Gulf crisis,
however, remittances have dropped substantially. Floods in June 1996
caused the loss of much valuable topsoil in the agricultural sector,
increasing the need for imports of foodstuffs. Oil production and GDP
as a whole are expected to increase moderately in 1998.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$31.8 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,300 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 15%
industry: 39%
services: 46% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 5% (1997 est.)

Labor force: no reliable estimates exist, most people are employed in
agriculture and herding or as expatriate laborers; services,
construction, industry, and commerce account for less than one-half of
the labor force

Unemployment rate: 30% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.6 billion
expenditures: $2.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.1
billion (1998 est.)

Industries: crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale
production of cotton textiles and leather goods; food processing;
handicrafts; small aluminum products factory; cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 810,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 1.85 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 126 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: grain, fruits, vegetables, qat (mildly narcotic
shrub), coffee, cotton; dairy products, poultry, meat; fish

Exports:
total value: $2.3 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: crude oil, cotton, coffee, dried and salted fish
partners: China 23%, South Korea 19%, Thailand 14%, Brazil 13%, Japan
12%, Thailand 7% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $2.3 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: textiles and other manufactured consumer goods, petroleum
products, foodstuffs, cement, machinery, chemicals
partners: US 12%, France 11%, UAE 10%, Saudi Arabia 7%, UK 5% (1995)

Debt-external: $8 billion (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $148 million (1993)

Currency: Yemeni rial (YRl) (new currency)

Exchange rates: Yemeni rials (YRl) per US$1-129.158 (1997), 94.157
(1996), 40.839 (1995), 12.010 (official fixed rate 1991-94)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 131,655 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: since unification in 1990, efforts have been made to
create a national telecommunications network
domestic: the network consists of microwave radio relay, cable, and
tropospheric scatter
international: satellite earth stations-3 Intelsat (2 Indian Ocean and
1 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 2
Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and Djibouti

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 325,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 10

Televisions: 100,000 (1993 est.)

@Yemen:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 64,725 km
paved: 5,243 km
unpaved: 59,482 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 644 km; petroleum products 32 km

Ports and harbors: Aden, Al Hudaydah, Al Mukalla, As Salif, Mocha,
Nishtun

Merchant marine:
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 12,059 GRT/18,563 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, oil tanker 2 (1997 est.)

Airports: 48 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 37
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 3 (1997 est.)

@Yemen:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary (includes
Police)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 3,611,419 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 2,026,175 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 204,674 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $407 million (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 5% (1998 est.)

@Yemen:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: a large section of boundary with Saudi Arabia
is not defined; a dispute with Eritrea over sovereignty of the Hanish
Islands in the southern Red Sea has been submitted to arbitration
under the auspices of the International Court of Justice; a decision

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