Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Books, poems, drama…

The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Part 45 out of 51

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 5.2 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

Mexico and the Caribbean; consumer of heroin, marijuana, and
increasingly methamphetamines from Mexico; consumer of high-quality
Southeast Asian heroin; illicit producer of cannabis, marijuana,
depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, and methamphetamines; drug
money-laundering center

______________________________________________________________________

URUGUAY

@Uruguay:Geography

Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean,
between Argentina and Brazil

Geographic coordinates: 33 00 S, 56 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 176,220 sq km
land: 173,620 sq km
water: 2,600 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Washington State

Land boundaries:
total: 1,564 km
border countries: Argentina 579 km, Brazil 985 km

Coastline: 660 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 200 nm; overflight and navigation guaranteed beyond
12 nm

Climate: warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown

Terrain: mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro Catedral 514 m

Natural resources: fertile soil, hydropower, minor minerals, fisheries

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 77%
forests and woodland: 6%
other: 10% (1997 est.)

Irrigated land: 7,700 sq km (1997 est.)

Natural hazards: seasonally high winds (the pampero is a chilly and
occasional violent wind which blows north from the Argentine pampas),
droughts, floods; because of the absence of mountains, which act as
weather barriers, all locations are particularly vulnerable to rapid
changes in weather fronts

Environment-current issues: substantial pollution from Brazilian
industry along border; one-fifth of country affected by acid rain
generated by Brazil; water pollution from meat packing/tannery
industry; inadequate solid/hazardous waste disposal

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation

@Uruguay:People

Population: 3,284,841 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24% (male 405,894; female 386,479)
15-64 years: 63% (male 1,019,682; female 1,048,844)
65 years and over: 13% (male 176,467; female 247,475) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.71% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 16.92 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.89 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.11 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.53 years
male: 72.39 years
female: 78.84 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.29 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Uruguayan(s)
adjective: Uruguayan

Ethnic groups: white 88%, mestizo 8%, black 4%, Amerindian,
practically nonexistent

Religions: Roman Catholic 66% (less than one-half of the adult
population attends church regularly), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%,
nonprofessing or other 30%

Languages: Spanish, Portunol, or Brazilero (Portuguese-Spanish mix on
the Brazilian frontier)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.3%
male: 96.9%
female: 97.7% (1995 est.)

@Uruguay:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Oriental Republic of Uruguay
conventional short form: Uruguay
local long form: Republica Oriental del Uruguay
local short form: Uruguay

Data code: UY

Government type: republic

National capital: Montevideo

Administrative divisions: 19 departments (departamentos,
singular-departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia,
Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu,
Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo,
Treinta y Tres

Independence: 25 August 1825 (from Brazil)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 August (1825)

Constitution: 27 November 1966, effective February 1967, suspended 27
June 1973, new constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980;
two constitutional reforms approved by plebiscite 26 November 1989 and
7 January 1997

Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Julio Maria SANGUINETTI (since 1 March 1995)
and Vice President Hugo BATALLA (since 1 March 1995); note-the
president is both the chief of state and head of government; the
vice-president is also the Senate president
head of government: President Julio Maria SANGUINETTI (since 1 March
1995) and Vice President Hugo BATALLA (since 1 March 1995); note-the
president is both the chief of state and head of government; the
vice-president is also the Senate president
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president with
parliamentary approval
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 27 November 1994
(next to be held 31 October 1999 with run-off election if necessary on
28 November 1999)
election results: Julio Maria SANGUINETTI elected president; percent
of vote-23%

Legislative branch: bicameral General Assembly or Asamblea General
consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (30 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and
Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (99 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators-last held 27 November 1994 (next to be
held 31 October 1999); Chamber of Representatives-last held 27
November 1994 (next to be held 31 October 1999)
election results: Chamber of Senators-percent of vote by
party-Colorado 36%, Blanco 34%, Encuentro Progresista 27%, New Sector
3%; seats by party-Colorado 11, Blanco 10, Encuentro Progresista 8,
New Sector 1; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by
party-Colorado 32%, Blanco 31%, Encuentro Progresista 31%, New Sector
5%; seats by party-Colorado 32, Blanco 31, Encuentro Progresista 31,
New Sector 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are nominated by the president
and elected for 10-year terms by the General Assembly

Political parties and leaders: National (Blanco) Party, Alberto
VOLONTE Berro; Herrerista faction of the Blanco Party, Luis LACALLE;
Colorado Party, Julio M. SANGUINETTI, Jorge BATLLE; Broad Front
Coalition, Tabare VAZQUEZ (until 28 September 1997); New Sector
Coalition, Rafael MICHELINI; Progressive Encounter (Encuentro
Progresista), Tabare VAZQUEZ
note: Hugo BATALLA and host of People's Government Party (PGP) have
rejoined the Colorado Party

International organization participation: AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC,
FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES,
LAIA, Mercosur, MINUGUA, MINURSO, MONUA, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL,
PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNMOT, UNOMIG,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alvaro DIEZ DE MEDINA SUAREZ
chancery: 2715 M Street, NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 331-1313 through 1316
FAX: [1] (202) 331-8142
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Miami, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher A. ASHBY
embassy: Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo
mailing address: APO AA 34035
telephone: [598] (2) 203 60 61, 408 77 77
FAX: [598] (2) 408 86 11

Flag description: nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and
bottom) alternating with blue; there is a white square in the upper
hoist-side corner with a yellow sun bearing a human face known as the
Sun of May and 16 rays alternately triangular and wavy

@Uruguay:Economy

Economy-overview: Uruguay's small economy benefits from a favorable
climate for agriculture and substantial hydropower potential. Economic
development has been restrained in recent years by high-though
declining-inflation and extensive government regulation. The
SANGUINETTI government's conservative monetary and fiscal policies are
aimed at continuing to reduce inflation; other priorities include
extensive reform of the social security system and increased
investment in education. Economic performance remains sensitive to
conditions in Argentina and Brazil, largely because more than half of
Uruguay's trade is conducted with its partners in Mercosur (the
Southern Cone Common Market).

GDP: purchasing power parity-$29.1 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5.1% (1997)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$8,900 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 10.8%
industry: 27.4%
services: 61.8% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 15.2% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 1.38 million (1997 est.)
by occupation: government 25%, manufacturing 19%, agriculture 11%,
commerce 12%, utilities, construction, transport, and communications
12%, other services 21% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: 10.3% (December 1997)

Budget:
revenues: $4 billion
expenditures: $4.3 billion, with capital expenditures of $385 million
(1997 est.)

Industries: meat processing, wool and hides, sugar, textiles,
footwear, leather apparel, tires, cement, petroleum refining, wine

Industrial production growth rate: 5.6% (1997)

Electricity-capacity: 2.055 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 7.6 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,852 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, rice, corn, sorghum; livestock; fishing

Exports:
total value: $2.7 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: wool and textile manufactures, beef and other animal
products, rice, fish and shellfish, chemicals
partners: Brazil, Argentina, US, Germany, Italy

Imports:
total value: $3.7 billion (c.i.f., 1997)
commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles, chemicals, minerals,
plastics, oil
partners: Brazil, Argentina, US, Italy, Germany

Debt-external: $4.6 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $63 million (1994)

Currency: 1 Uruguayan peso ($Ur) = 100 centesimos

Exchange rates: Uruguayan pesos ($Ur) per US$1-9.98 (January 1998),
9.4448 (1997), 7.9718 (1996), 6.3491 (1995), 5.0529 (1994), 3.9484
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 767,333 (1997)

Telephone system: some modern facilities
domestic: most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; new
nationwide microwave radio relay network
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 72, FM 0, shortwave 28

Radios: 1.89 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 42

Televisions: 1,131,065 (1996)

@Uruguay:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,998 km (918 km closed) (1997)
standard gauge: 2,075 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways:
total: 8,420 km
paved: 7,578 km
unpaved: 842 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,600 km; used by coastal and shallow-draft river craft

Ports and harbors: Fray Bentos, Montevideo, Nueva Palmira, Paysandu,
Punta del Este, Colonia, Piriapolis

Merchant marine:
total: 2 oil tanker ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 44,042
GRT/83,684 DWT (1997 est.)

Airports: 64 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 49
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 33 (1997 est.)

@Uruguay:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Air Arm, Coast Guard,
Marines), Air Force, Police (Coracero Guard, Grenadier Guard)

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 799,977 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 648,999 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $172 million (1996)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 0.9% (1996)

@Uruguay:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: two short sections of the boundary with Brazil
are in dispute-Arroyo de la Invernada (Arroio Invernada) area of the
Rio Cuareim (Rio Quarai) and the islands at the confluence of the Rio
Cuareim (Rio Quarai) and the Uruguay River

______________________________________________________________________

UZBEKISTAN

@Uzbekistan:Geography

Location: Central Asia, north of Afghanistan

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 64 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 447,400 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total: 6,221 km
border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan
1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km

Coastline: 0 km
note: Uzbekistan borders the Aral Sea (420 km)

Maritime claims: none (doubly landlocked)

Climate: mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters;
semiarid grassland in east

Terrain: mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat
intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Sirdaryo,
and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous
Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sariqarnish Kuli -12 m
highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium,
silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 3%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 40,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: drying up of the Aral Sea is resulting in
growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these
substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and
contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes
and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many
human health disorders; increasing soil salinization; soil
contamination from agricultural chemicals, including DDT

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly
landlocked countries in the world

@Uzbekistan:People

Population: 23,784,321 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 38% (male 4,591,140; female 4,451,246)
15-64 years: 57% (male 6,755,371; female 6,874,483)
65 years and over: 5% (male 435,036; female 677,045) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.33% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 23.69 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.68 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 71.04 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.11 years
male: 60.49 years
female: 67.91 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.87 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Uzbekistani(s)
adjective: Uzbekistani

Ethnic groups: Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%,
Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)

Religions: Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%

Languages: Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 98%
female: 96% (1989 est.)

@Uzbekistan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form: Uzbekistan
local long form: Uzbekiston Respublikasi
local short form: none
former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: UZ

Government type: republic; effectively authoritarian presidential
rule, with little power outside the executive branch and executive
power concentrated in the presidency

National capital: Tashkent (Toshkent)

Administrative divisions: 12 wiloyatlar (singular-wiloyat), 1
autonomous republic* (respublikasi), and 1 city** (shahri); Andijon
Wiloyati, Bukhoro Wiloyati, Jizzakh Wiloyati, Farghona Wiloyati,
Qoraqalpoghiston* (Nukus), Qashqadaryo Wiloyati (Qarshi), Khorazm
Wiloyati (Urganch), Namangan Wiloyati, Nawoiy Wiloyati, Samarqand
Wiloyati, Sirdaryo Wiloyati (Guliston), Surkhondaryo Wiloyati
(Termiz), Toshkent Shahri**, Toshkent Wiloyati
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name
following in parentheses)

Independence: 31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 September (1991)

Constitution: new constitution adopted 8 December 1992

Legal system: evolution of Soviet civil law; still lacks independent
judicial system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he
was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet)
head of government: Prime Minister Otkir SULTONOV (since 21 December
1995); First Deputy Prime Minister Ismoil JURABEKOV (since NA 1991);
Deputy Prime Ministers Viktor CHZHEN (since NA 1994), Bakhtiyor
HAMIDOV (since NA 1992), Kayim HAKKULOV (since NA 1991), Dilbar
GHOLOMOVA (since NA 1995), Alisher AZIZKHOJAYEV (since NA 1996),
Mirabror USMONOV (since NA 1995), Rustam YUNUSOV (since NA 1994)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval
of the Supreme Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 29 December 1991 (next to be held NA January 2000;
note-extension of President KARIMOV's term for an additional four
years overwhelmingly approved - 99.6% of total vote in favor-by
national referendum held 26 March 1995); prime minister and deputy
prime ministers appointed by the president
election results: Islom KARIMOV elected president; percent of
vote-Islom KARIMOV 86%, Muhammed SOLIH 12%, other 2%

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis (250
seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 25 December 1994 (next to be held NA December
1999)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-People's
Democratic Party 207, Fatherland Progress Party 12, other 31;
note-final runoffs were held 22 January 1995; seating was as follows:
People's Democratic Party 69, Fatherland Progress Party 14, Social
Democratic Party 47, local government 120
note: all parties in parliament support President KARIMOV

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are nominated by the president
and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly

Political parties and leaders: People's Democratic Party or HDP
(formerly Communist Party) [Abdulkhafiz JALOLOV, first secretary];
Fatherland Progress Party (Vatan Tarakiyoti) or VTP [Anwar YULDASHEV,
chairman]; Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party [Turgunpulat
DAMINOV, first secretary]; Democratic National Rebirth Party (Milly
Tiklanish) or MTP [Ibrahim GAFUROV, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Birlik (Unity) Movement
[Abdurakhim PULATOV, chairman]; Islamic Rebirth Party or IRP [Abdullah
UTAYEV, chairman], note-is banned; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party
[Muhamd SOLIH, chairman] was banned 9 December 1992
note: all of the above groups are illegal; UTAYEV disappeared in 1992
and probably was detained by the government, but his whereabouts is
unknown

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, CIS, EAPC, EBRD,
ECE, ECO, ESCAP, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sadyk SAFAYEV
chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300, 293-6801 through 6803
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph A. PRESEL (since November 1997)
embassy: 82 Chilanzarskaya, Tashkent 700115
mailing address: use embassy street address; Embassy Tashkent,
Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7110
telephone: [7] (3712) 77-14-07, 77-10-81, 77-69-86, 77-11-32, 77-12-62
FAX: [7] (3712) 40-63-35

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white,
and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon and
12 white stars in the upper hoist-side quadrant

@Uzbekistan:Economy

Economy-overview: Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which 10%
consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys. It was one
of the poorest areas of the former Soviet Union with more than 60% of
its population living in densely populated rural communities.
Uzbekistan is now the world's third largest cotton exporter, a major
producer of gold and natural gas, and a regionally significant
producer of chemicals and machinery. Following independence in
December 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style
command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and
prices. Faced with high rates of inflation, however, the government
began to reform in mid-1994, by introducing tighter monetary policies,
expanding privatization, slightly reducing the role of the state in
the economy, and improving the environment for foreign investors.
Nevertheless, the state continues to be a dominating influence in the
economy, and reforms have so far failed to bring about much-needed
structural changes. The IMF suspended Uzbekistan's $185 million
standby arrangement in late 1996 because of governmental steps that
made impossible fulfillment of Fund conditions.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$60.7 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.4% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,500 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 26%
industry: 27%
services: 47% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 55% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 8.6 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: agriculture and forestry 44%, industry and construction
20%, other 36% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 5% plus another 10% underemployed (December 1996
est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy,
natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 11.822 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 45.42 billion kWh (1996 est.)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,916 kWh (1996 est.)

Agriculture-products: cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock

Exports:
total value: $3.8 billion (1996)
commodities: cotton, gold, natural gas, mineral fertilizers, ferrous
metals, textiles, food products, autos
partners: Russia, Ukraine, Eastern Europe, Western Europe

Imports:
total value: $4.7 billion (1996)
commodities: grain, machinery and parts, consumer durables, other
foods
partners: principally other FSU, Czech Republic, Western Europe

Debt-external: $2.3 billion (of which $510 million to Russia) (1996
est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $71 million (1993)
note: commitments, $2,915 million ($135 million in disbursements)
(1992-95)

Currency: introduced provisional som-coupons 10 November 1993 which
circulated parallel to the Russian rubles; became the sole legal
currency 31 January 1994; was replaced in July 1994 by the som
currency

Exchange rates: Uzbekistani soms (UKS) per US$1-75.8 (September 1997),
41.1 (1996), 30.2 (1995), 11.4 (1994), 1.0 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 1.458 million (1995 est.)

Telephone system: poorly developed
domestic: NMT-450 analog cellular network established in Tashkent
international: linked by landline or microwave radio relay with CIS
member states and to other countries by leased connection via the
Moscow international gateway switch; new Intelsat links to Tokyo and
Ankara give Uzbekistan international access independent of Russian
facilities; satellite earth stations-NA Orbita and NA Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA; note-there is at
least one state-owned broadcast station of NA type

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2 national, over 30 local

Televisions: NA

@Uzbekistan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,380 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines
broad gauge: 3,380 km 1.520-m gauge (300 km electrified) (1993)

Highways:
total: 81,600 km
paved: 71,237 km (note-these roads are said to be hard surfaced,
meaning that some are paved and some are all-weather gravel surfaced)
unpaved: 10,363 km dirt (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,100 (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 40 km; natural gas 810
km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Termiz (Amu Darya river)

Airports: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Uzbekistan:Military

Military branches: Ministry of Defense (Army, Air, and Air Defense),
Security Forces (internal and border troops)
note: National Guard is a component of the Army

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 5,996,041 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 4,874,324 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 246,706 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: 39.2 billion soms (1996);
note-conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 7% (1996)

@Uzbekistan:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivator of cannabis and small
amounts of opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption; limited
government eradication program; increasingly used as transshipment
point for illicit drugs from Afghanistan to Russia and Western Europe
and for acetic anhydride destined for Afghanistan

______________________________________________________________________

VANUATU

@Vanuatu:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about
three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to Australia

Geographic coordinates: 16 00 S, 167 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 14,760 sq km
land: 14,760 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes more than 80 islands

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2,528 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by southeast trade winds

Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin; narrow coastal plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Tabwemasana 1,877 m

Natural resources: manganese, hardwood forests, fish

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 10%
permanent pastures: 2%
forests and woodland: 75%
other: 11% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: tropical cyclones or typhoons (January to April);
volcanism causes minor earthquakes

Environment-current issues: a majority of the population does not have
access to a potable and reliable supply of water; deforestation

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Marine
Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Law of the Sea

@Vanuatu:People

Population: 185,204 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 39% (male 36,865; female 35,576)
15-64 years: 58% (male 55,066; female 52,142)
65 years and over: 3% (male 3,013; female 2,542) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.07% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 29.18 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.44 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.19 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 61.27 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 61 years
male: 59.02 years
female: 63.07 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.74 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ni-Vanuatu (singular and plural)
adjective: Ni-Vanuatu

Ethnic groups: indigenous Melanesian 94%, French 4%, Vietnamese,
Chinese, Pacific Islanders

Religions: Presbyterian 36.7%, Anglican 15%, Catholic 15%, indigenous
beliefs 7.6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6.2%, Church of Christ 3.8%, other
15.7%

Languages: English (official), French (official), pidgin (known as
Bislama or Bichelama)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 53%
male: 57%
female: 48% (1979 est.)

@Vanuatu:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Vanuatu
conventional short form: Vanuatu
former: New Hebrides

Data code: NH

Government type: republic

National capital: Port-Vila

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces; Malampa, Penama, Sanma, Shefa,
Tafea, Torba

Independence: 30 July 1980 (from France and UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 July (1980)

Constitution: 30 July 1980

Legal system: unified system being created from former dual French and
British systems

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jean Marie LEYE (since 2 March 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Donald KALPOKAS (since 30 March
1998); Deputy Prime Minister Father Walter LINI (since 30 March 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister,
responsible to Parliament
elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of
Parliament and the presidents of the regional councils for a five-year
term; election for president last held 2 March 1994 (next to be held
NA 1999); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority
party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by
Parliament from among its members; election for prime minister last
held 6 March 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: Jean Marie LEYE elected president; percent of
electoral college vote - NA; Donald KALPOKAS elected prime minister by
Parliament with a total of 35 votes, other candidate, Rialuth Serge
VOHOR, received 17 votes
note: the general legislative elections in November 1995 did not give
a majority to any of the political parties; since the election, there
have been four changes of government-all of which have been coalitions
formed by Parliamentary vote; Rialuth Serge VOHOR was prime minister
from November 1995 until he resigned 7 February 1996 when faced with a
no-confidence vote in Parliament; Maxime Carlot KORMAN was then
elected prime minister and served until he was ousted in a
no-confidence motion on 30 September 1996; VOHOR was then elected
prime minister for a second time; as a result of legislative elections
in March 1998, KALPOKAS was elected prime minister and formed a
coalition government with Father LINI's National United Party (NUP)

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (52 seats; members elected
by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 6 March 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-VP 18,
UMP 12, NUP 11, other and independent 11; note-political party
associations are fluid; there have been four changes of government
since the November 1995 elections
note: the National Council of Chiefs advises on matters of custom and
land

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice is appointed by the
president after consultation with the prime minister and the leader of
the opposition, three other justices are appointed by the president on
the advice of the Judicial Service Commission

Political parties and leaders: Union of Moderate Parties (UMP), Serge
VOHOR; National United Party (NUP), Walter LINI; Vanuatu Party (VP),
Donald KALPOKAS; Melanesian Progressive Party (MPP), Barak SOPE; Tan
Union (TU), Vincent BOULEKONE; Na-Griamel Movement, Frankie STEVENS;
Friend Melanesian Party, Albert RAVUTIA; John Frum Movement, leader
NA; Vanuatu Republican Party, Maxime Carlot KORMAN

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, NAM, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Vanuatu does not have an embassy
in the US

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Vanuatu; the ambassador to Papua New Guinea is accredited to
Vanuatu

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green
with a black isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) all
separated by a black-edged yellow stripe in the shape of a horizontal
Y (the two points of the Y face the hoist side and enclose the
triangle); centered in the triangle is a boar's tusk encircling two
crossed namele leaves, all in yellow

@Vanuatu:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy is based primarily on subsistence or
small-scale agriculture which provides a living for 65% of the
population. Fishing, offshore financial services, and tourism, with
46,000 visitors in 1996, are other mainstays of the economy. Mineral
deposits are negligible; the country has no known petroleum deposits.
A small light industry sector caters to the local market. Tax revenues
come mainly from import duties. Economic development is hindered by
dependence on relatively few commodity exports, vulnerability to
natural disasters, and long distances from main markets and between
constituent islands.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$231 million (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,300 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 23%
industry: 13%
services: 64% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.2% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: NA
by occupation: agriculture 65%, services 32%, industry 3% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $94.4 million
expenditures: $99.8 million, including capital expenditures of $30.4
million (1996 est.)

Industries: food and fish freezing, wood processing, meat canning

Industrial production growth rate: 6.4% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 11,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 30 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 173 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: copra, coconuts, cocoa, coffee, taro, yams,
coconuts, fruits, vegetables; fish, beef

Exports:
total value: $30 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: copra, beef, cocoa, timber, coffee
partners: Japan 28%, Spain 21%, Germany 14%, UK 7%, Cote d'Ivoire 7%,
Australia, New Caledonia (1996 est.)

Imports:
total value: $97 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machines and vehicles, food and beverages, basic
manufactures, raw materials and fuels, chemicals
partners: Japan 47%, Australia 23%, Singapore 8%, New Zealand 6%,
France 3%, Fiji (1996 est.)

Debt-external: $63 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $9.6 million from Australia (FY96/97 est.); $3.1
million from NZ (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 vatu (VT) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: vatu (VT) per US$1-124.56 (January 1998), 115.87
(1997), 111.72 (1996), 112.11 (1995), 116.41 (1994), 121.58 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 4,000 (1994 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 49,000 (1994 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 2,000 (1994 est.)

@Vanuatu:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 1,070 km
paved: 256 km
unpaved: 814 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Forari, Port-Vila, Santo (Espiritu Santo)

Merchant marine:
total: 88 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,407,737 GRT/1,761,413
DWT
ships by type: bulk 31, cargo 24, chemical tanker 2, combination bulk
1, liquefied gas tanker 4, oil tanker 5, refrigerated cargo 13,
vehicle carrier 8
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 15 countries
among which are ships of Japan 30, India 10, US 8, Netherlands 6,
Greece 4, Hong Kong 4, Australia 2, Canada 1, China 1, and Poland 1
(1997 est.)

Airports: 31 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 29
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 18 (1997 est.)

@Vanuatu:Military

Military branches: no regular military forces; Vanuatu Police Force
(VPF; includes the paramilitary Vanuatu Mobile Force or VMF)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Vanuatu:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: claims Matthew and Hunter Islands east of New
Caledonia

______________________________________________________________________

VENEZUELA

@Venezuela:Geography

Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the
North Atlantic Ocean, between Colombia and Guyana

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 66 00 W

Map references: South America, Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 912,050 sq km
land: 882,050 sq km
water: 30,000 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:
total: 4,993 km
border countries: Brazil 2,200 km, Colombia 2,050 km, Guyana 743 km

Coastline: 2,800 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 15 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: Andes Mountains and Maracaibo Lowlands in northwest; central
plains (llanos); Guiana Highlands in southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Pico Bolivar (La Columna) 5,007 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite,
other minerals, hydropower, diamonds

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland: 34%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,900 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: subject to floods, rockslides, mud slides; periodic
droughts

Environment-current issues: sewage pollution of Lago de Valencia; oil
and urban pollution of Lago de Maracaibo; deforestation; soil
degradation; urban and industrial pollution, especially along the
Caribbean coast

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping

Geography-note: on major sea and air routes linking North and South
America

@Venezuela:People

Population: 22,803,409 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34% (male 3,979,045; female 3,733,364)
15-64 years: 62% (male 7,054,525; female 7,011,814)
65 years and over: 4% (male 469,799; female 554,862) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.77% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 22.96 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 4.98 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 27.52 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.66 years
male: 69.68 years
female: 75.87 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.7 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Venezuelan(s)
adjective: Venezuelan

Ethnic groups: mestizo 67%, white 21%, black 10%, Amerindian 2%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%

Languages: Spanish (official), native dialects spoken by about 200,000
Amerindians in the remote interior

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.1%
male: 91.8%
female: 90.3% (1995 est.)

@Venezuela:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Venezuela
conventional short form: Venezuela
local long form: Republica de Venezuela
local short form: Venezuela

Data code: VE

Government type: republic

National capital: Caracas

Administrative divisions: 22 states (estados, singular-estado),1
federal district* (distrito federal), and 1 federal dependency**
(dependencia federal); Amazonas, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas,
Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro, Dependencias Federales**,
Distrito Federal*, Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas,
Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Yaracuy, Zulia
note: the federal dependency consists of 11 federally controlled
island groups with a total of 72 individual islands

Independence: 5 July 1811 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1811)

Constitution: 23 January 1961

Legal system: based on Napoleonic code; judicial review of legislative
acts in Cassation Court only; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Rafael CALDERA Rodriguez (since 2 February
1994); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
head of government: President Rafael CALDERA Rodriguez (since 2
February 1994); note-the president is both the chief of state and head
of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 5 December 1993 (next to be held 6 December 1998)
election results: Rafael CALDERA Rodriguez elected president; percent
of vote-Rafael CALDERA Rodriguez (National Convergence) 30.45%,
Claudio FERMIN (AD) 23.59%, Oswaldo ALVAREZ PAZ (COPEI) 22.72%, Andres
VELASQUEZ (Causa R) 21.94%, other 1.3%

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress of the Republic or Congreso de
la Republica consists of the Senate or Senado (52 seats, two from each
state and the Federal District (50), and retired presidents (2);
members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and
Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (207 seats; members are
elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate-last held 5 December 1993 (next to be held 6
December 1998); Chamber of Deputies-last held 5 December 1993 (next to
be held 6 December 1998)
election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-AD 16, COPEI 14, Causa R 9, National Convergence 5, MAS 3,
independents 5; note-two former presidents (1 from AD, 1 from COPEI)
hold lifetime Senate seats; Chamber of Deputies-percent of vote by
party-AD 25.6%, COPEI 24.6%, MAS 10.6%, National Convergence 8.7%,
Causa R 19.3%; seats by party-AD 53, COPEI 51, Causa R 40, MAS 22,
National Convergence 18, other 23

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia),
magistrates are elected by both chambers in joint session for a
nine-year term, a third are re-elected every three years

Political parties and leaders: National Convergence (Convergencia),
Jose Miguel UZCATEGUI, president, Juan Jose CALDERA, national
coordinator; Social Christian Party (COPEI), Luis HERRERA Campins,
president, and Donald RAMIREZ, secretary general; Democratic Action
(AD), David MORALES Bello, president, and Luis ALFARO Ucero, secretary
general; Movement Toward Socialism (MAS), Felipe MUJICA, president,
and Leopoldo PUCHI, secretary general; Radical Cause (La Causa R),
Lucas MATHEUS, secretary general; Homeland for All (PPT), Alexis
ROSAS, director

Political pressure groups and leaders: FEDECAMARAS, a conservative
business group; Venezuelan Confederation of Workers (CTV, labor
organization dominated by the Democratic Action); VECINOS groups

International organization participation: AG, Caricom (observer), CCC,
CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G- 3, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, MINUGUA, MINURSO,
NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPEC, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Pedro Luis ECHEVERRIA
chancery: 1099 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 342-2214
FAX: [1] (202) 342-6820
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans,
New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John Francis MAISTO
embassy: Calle F con Calle Suapure, Colinas de Valle Arriba, Caracas
1060
mailing address: P. O. Box 62291, Caracas 1060-A; APO AA 34037
telephone: [58] (2) 977-2011
FAX: [58] (2) 977-0843

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue,
and red with the coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and
an arc of seven white five-pointed stars centered in the blue band

@Venezuela:Economy

Economy-overview: The petroleum sector dominates the economy,
accounting for 27% of GDP, 78% of export earnings, and more than half
of government operating revenues. It is likely to become even more
important as the state petroleum company plans to double its
production over the next 10 years. Realizing the failure of
interventionist policies, the CALDERA administration embarked on a
comprehensive economic reform program, which included negotiation of a
stand-by agreement with the IMF in 1996, elimination of price and
exchange controls, and revitalization of Venezuela's stalled
privatization program. The influx of foreign capital, and the currency
depreciation that followed exchange liberalization, led to 103%
inflation in 1996, the highest in Venezuelan history. The government
stepped in toward the end of 1996, propping up the Bolivar by using a
stable nominal exchange rate as a restraint on inflation-which fell in
1997 to 38%. The macroeconomic adjustments, bolstered by strong oil
prices, resulted in strong growth in 1997. However, the East Asian
financial crisis and the decline of international oil prices toward
the end of 1997 brought pressure on the currency, which Caracas was
able to stave off. Caracas readjusted its exchange rate bands and
began to allow quicker depreciation of the Bolivar; the government
also tightened monetary policy. Concerned over potential revenue
shortfalls from soft oil prices for the 1998 budget, Caracas has
implemented budget cuts to compensate for previously optimistic oil
revenue estimates. The government also has pushed ahead with sale of
the state-owned steel company and the strategic aluminum sector,
thereby reassuring domestic and international investors of Venezuela's
commitment to reform. The monetary and fiscal measures have been well
received by the international financial community. As a result,
financial analysts believe the economy will still grow at a healthy
pace in 1998, though they have lowered their initial projections for
GDP growth due to the soft oil market.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$185 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5% (1997)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$8,300 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 63%
services: 33% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 38% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 9.2 million
by occupation: services 64%, industry 23%, agriculture 13% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 11.5% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $11.99 billion
expenditures: $11.48 billion, including capital expenditures of $3
billion (1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum, iron ore mining, construction materials, food
processing, textiles, steel, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly

Industrial production growth rate: 0.5% (1995 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 18.975 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 74 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 3,508 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: corn, sorghum, sugarcane, rice, bananas,
vegetables, coffee; beef, pork, milk, eggs; fish

Exports:
total value: $20.8 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: petroleum 78%, bauxite and aluminum, steel, chemicals,
agricultural products, basic manufactures
partners: US and Puerto Rico 55%, Japan, Netherlands, Italy

Imports:
total value: $10.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: raw materials, machinery and equipment, transport
equipment, construction materials
partners: US 40%, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Canada

Debt-external: $26.5 billion (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $46 million (1993)

Currency: 1 bolivar (Bs) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: bolivares (Bs) per US$1-507.447 (January 1998),
488.635 (1997), 417.333 (1996), 176.843 (1995), 148.503 (1994), 90.826
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 1.44 million (1987 est.)

Telephone system: modern and expanding
domestic: domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations
international: 3 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth station-1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 181, FM 0, shortwave 26

Radios: 9.04 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 59

Televisions: 3.3 million (1992 est.)

@Venezuela:Transportation

Railways:
total: 584 km (336 km single track; 248 km privately owned)
standard gauge: 584 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways:
total: 84,300 km
paved: 33,214 km
unpaved: 51,086 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 7,100 km; Rio Orinoco and Lago de Maracaibo accept
oceangoing vessels

Pipelines: crude oil 6,370 km; petroleum products 480 km; natural gas
4,010 km

Ports and harbors: Amuay, Bajo Grande, El Tablazo, La Guaira, La
Salina, Maracaibo, Matanzas, Palua, Puerto Cabello, Puerto la Cruz,
Puerto Ordaz, Puerto Sucre, Punta Cardon

Merchant marine:
total: 28 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 526,832 GRT/933,135 DWT
ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 5, combination bulk 1, container 1,
liquefied gas tanker 2, oil tanker 9, passenger-cargo 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 4, short-sea passenger 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 377 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 126
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 35
914 to 1,523 m: 61
under 914 m: 15 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 251
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 96
under 914 m: 147 (1997 est.)

@Venezuela:Military

Military branches: National Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas Nacionales
or FAN) includes Ground Forces or Army (Fuerzas Terrestres or
Ejercito), Naval Forces (Fuerzas Navales or Armada), Air Force
(Fuerzas Aereas or Aviacion), Armed Forces of Cooperation or National
Guard (Fuerzas Armadas de Cooperacion or Guardia Nacional)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 6,134,691 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 4,429,265 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 240,506 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $902 million (1996)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.4% (1996)

@Venezuela:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: claims all of Guyana west of the Essequibo
River; maritime boundary dispute with Colombia in the Gulf of
Venezuela

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, opium, and coca leaf for
the international drug trade on a small scale; however, large
quantities of cocaine and heroin transit the country from Colombia;
important money-laundering hub; active eradication program primarily
targeting opium

______________________________________________________________________

VIETNAM

@Vietnam:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of
Tonkin, and South China Sea, alongside China, Laos, and Cambodia

Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 106 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 329,560 sq km
land: 325,360 sq km
water: 4,200 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 4,639 km
border countries: Cambodia 1,228 km, China 1,281 km, Laos 2,130 km

Coastline: 3,444 km (excludes islands)

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season
(mid-May to mid-September) and warm, dry season (mid-October to
mid-March)

Terrain: low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly,
mountainous in far north and northwest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Ngoc Linh 3,143 m

Natural resources: phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate,
offshore oil and gas deposits, forests

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 30%
other: 48% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 18,600 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive
flooding

Environment-current issues: logging and slash-and-burn agricultural
practices contribute to deforestation and soil degradation; water
pollution and overfishing threaten marine life populations;
groundwater contamination limits potable water supply; growing urban
industrialization and population migration are rapidly degrading
environment in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

@Vietnam:People

Population: 76,236,259 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35% (male 13,570,312; female 12,796,687)
15-64 years: 60% (male 22,222,286; female 23,621,122)
65 years and over: 5% (male 1,613,103; female 2,412,749) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.43% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 21.55 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 6.69 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 36.02 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 67.74 years
male: 65.37 years
female: 70.25 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.5 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Vietnamese (singular and plural)
adjective: Vietnamese

Ethnic groups: Vietnamese 85%-90%, Chinese 3%, Muong, Tai, Meo, Khmer,
Man, Cham

Religions: Buddhist, Taoist, Roman Catholic, indigenous beliefs,
Islam, Protestant, Cao Dai, Hoa Hao

Languages: Vietnamese (official), Chinese, English, French, Khmer,
tribal languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.7%
male: 96.5%
female: 91.2% (1995 est.)

@Vietnam:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Socialist Republic of Vietnam
conventional short form: Vietnam
local long form: Cong Hoa Chu Nghia Viet Nam
local short form: Viet Nam
abbreviation: SRV

Data code: VM

Government type: Communist state

National capital: Hanoi

Administrative divisions: 50 provinces (tinh, singular and plural), 3
municipalities* (thu do, singular and plural); An Giang, Ba Ria-Vung
Tau, Bac Thai, Ben Tre, Binh Dinh, Binh Thuan, Can Tho, Cao Bang, Dac
Lac, Dong Nai, Dong Thap, Gia Lai, Ha Bac, Ha Giang, Ha Noi*, Ha Tay,
Ha Tinh, Hai Hung, Hai Phong*, Ho Chi Minh*, Hoa Binh, Khanh Hoa, Kien
Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Lao Cai, Long An, Minh
Hai, Nam Ha, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Ninh Thuan, Phu Yen, Quang Binh,
Quang Nam-Da Nang, Quang Ngai, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Soc Trang, Son
La, Song Be, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien-Hue, Tien
Giang, Tra Vinh, Tuyen Quang, Vinh Long, Vinh Phu, Yen Bai
note: eight existing provinces (Bac Thai, Ha Bac, Hai Hung, Minh Hai,
Nam Ha, Quang Nam-Da Nang, Song Be, and Vinh Phu) may have been
abolished and from their territory 15 new provinces and one new
municipality* (Bac Can, Bac Giang, Bac Lieu, Bac Ninh, Binh Duong,
Binh Phuoc, Ca Mau, Da Nang City*, Ha Nam, Hai Duong, Hung Yen, Nam
Dinh, Phu Tho, Quang Nam, Thai Nguyen, and Vinh Phuc) may have been
created

Independence: 2 September 1945 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 2 September (1945)

Constitution: 15 April 1992

Legal system: based on communist legal theory and French civil law
system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Tran Duc LUONG (since 24 September 1997) and
Vice President Nguyen Thi BINH (since NA October 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Phan Van KHAI (since 25 September
1997); First Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Tan DUNG (since 29 September
1997); Deputy Prime Ministers Nguyen Cong TAN (since 29 September
1997), Ngo Xuan LOC (since 29 September 1997), Nguyen Manh CAM (since
29 September 1997), and Pham Gia KHIEM (since 29 September 1997)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the proposal of the
prime minister and ratification of the National Assembly
elections: president elected by the National Assembly from among its
members for a five-year term; election last held 25 September 1997
(next to be held when National Assembly meets following legislative
elections in NA 2002); prime minister appointed by the president from
among the members of the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers
appointed by the prime minister
election results: Tran Duc LUONG elected president; percent of
National Assembly vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Quoc-Hoi (450
seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 20 July 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party-CPV 92%, other 8% (the 8%
are not CPV members but are approved by the CPV to stand for
election); seats by party-CPV or CPV-approved 450

Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court, chief justice is elected for
a five-year term by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the
president

Political parties and leaders: only party-Communist Party of Vietnam
(CPV), Le Kha PHIEU, general secretary

International organization participation: will become a member at the
next APEC meeting in the fall of 1998, ACCT, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, ESCAP,
FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
(applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador LE VAN BANG
chancery: 1233 20th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036, Suite 501
telephone: [1] (202) 861-0737
FAX: [1] (202) 861-0917

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Douglas "Pete" Peterson
embassy: 7 Lang Ha Road, Ba Dinh District, Hanoi
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 400, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [84] (4) 8431500
FAX: [84] (4) 8350484 or 8431510

Flag description: red with a large yellow five-pointed star in the
center

@Vietnam:Economy

Economy-overview: Vietnam is a poor, densely populated country that
has had to recover from the ravages of war, the loss of financial
support from the old Soviet Bloc, and the rigidities of a centrally
planned economy. Substantial progress has been achieved over the past
10 years in moving forward from an extremely low starting point.
Economic growth continued at a strong pace during 1997 with industrial
output rising by 12% and real GDP expanding by 8.5%. These positive
numbers, however, masked some major difficulties that are emerging in
economic performance. Many domestic industries, including coal,
cement, steel, and paper, reported large stockpiles of inventory and
tough competition from more efficient foreign producers, giving
Vietnam a trade deficit of $3.3 billion in 1997. While disbursements
of aid and foreign direct investment have risen, they are not large
enough to finance the rapid increase in imports; and it is widely
believed that Vietnam may be using short-term trade credits to bridge
the gap-a risky strategy that could result in a foreign exchange
crunch. Meanwhile, Vietnamese authorities continue to move slowly
toward implementing the structural reforms needed to revitalize the
economy and produce more competitive, export-driven industries.
Privatization of state enterprises remains bogged down in political
controversy, while the country's dynamic private sector is denied both
financing and access to markets. Reform of the banking sector is
proceeding slowly, raising concerns that the country will be unable to
tap sufficient domestic savings to maintain current high levels of
growth. Administrative and legal barriers are also causing costly
delays for foreign investors and are raising similar doubts about
Vietnam's ability to maintain the inflow of foreign capital.
Ideological bias in favor of state intervention and control of the
economy is slowing progress toward a more liberalized investment
environment.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$128 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 8.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,700 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 28%
industry: 30%
services: 42% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 5% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 32.7 million
by occupation: agriculture 65%, industry and services 35% (1990 est.)

Unemployment rate: 25% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $5.6 billion
expenditures: $6 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.7
billion (1996 est.)

Industries: food processing, garments, shoes, machine building,
mining, cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil

Industrial production growth rate: 12% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 5.32 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 12.3 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 165 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: paddy rice, corn, potatoes, rubber, soybeans,
coffee, tea, bananas; poultry, pigs; fish

Exports:
total value: $7.1 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: crude oil, marine products, rice, coffee, rubber, tea,
garments, shoes
partners: Japan, Germany, Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong, France, South
Korea

Imports:
total value: $11.1 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, petroleum products, fertilizer,
steel products, raw cotton, grain, cement, motorcycles
partners: Singapore, South Korea, Japan, France, Hong Kong, Taiwan

Debt-external: $7.3 billion Western countries; $4.5 billion CEMA debts
primarily to Russia; $9 billion to $18 billion nonconvertible debt
(former CEMA, Iraq, Iran)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: $2.4 billion in credits and grants pledged by international
donors for 1997

Currency: 1 new dong (D) = 100 xu

Exchange rates: new dong (D) per US$1-12,300 (January 1998), 11,100
(December 1996), 11,193 (1995 average), 11,000 (October 1994), 10,800
(November 1993), 8,100 (July 1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 800,000 (1995 est.)

Telephone system: while Vietnam's telecommunication sector lags far
behind other countries in Southeast Asia, Hanoi has made considerable
progress since 1991 in upgrading the system; Vietnam has digitized all
provincial switch boards, while fiber-optic and microwave transmission
systems have been extended from Hanoi, Da Nang, and Ho Chi Minh City
to all provinces; the density of telephone receivers nationwide
doubled from 1993 to 1995, but is still far behind other countries in
the region; Vietnam's telecommunications strategy aims to increase
telephone density to 30 per 1,000 inhabitants by the year 2000 and
authorities estimate that approximately $2.7 billion will be spent on
telecommunications upgrades through the end of the decade
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean
region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM 228, shortwave 0

Radios: 7.215 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 36 (repeaters 77)

Televisions: 2.9 million (1992 est.)

@Vietnam:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,835 km (in addition, there are 224 km not restored to service
after war damage)
standard gauge: 151 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 2,454 km 1.000-m gauge
other gauge: 230 km NA-m dual gauge (three rails)

Highways:
total: 93,300 km
paved: 23,418 km
unpaved: 69,882 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 17,702 km navigable; more than 5,149 km navigable at all
times by vessels up to 1.8 m draft

Pipelines: petroleum products 150 km

Ports and harbors: Cam Ranh, Da Nang, Haiphong, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong
Gai, Qui Nhon, Nha Trang

Merchant marine:
total: 121 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 487,427 GRT/750,000 DWT
ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 97, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk
1, oil tanker 9, refrigerated cargo 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1
note: Vietnam owns an additional 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
97,531 DWT operating under the registries of The Bahamas, Honduras,
Liberia, Malta, and Panama (1997 est.)

Airports: 48 (1994 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 36
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 7 (1994 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 5 (1994 est.)

@Vietnam:Military

Military branches: People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) (includes Ground
Forces, Navy, and Air Force), Coast Guard

Military manpower-military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 19,818,187 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 12,519,072 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 811,382 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $544 million (1995)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.7% (1995)

@Vietnam:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: maritime boundary with Cambodia not defined;
involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China,
Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, and possibly Brunei; maritime boundary
with Thailand resolved, August 1997; maritime boundary dispute with
China in the Gulf of Tonkin; Paracel Islands occupied by China but
claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; offshore islands and sections of
boundary with Cambodia are in dispute; sections of land border with
China are indefinite

Illicit drugs: key growing areas in Vietnam cultivated 6,150 hectares
of poppy in 1997 (an increase of 95% over 1996), with a potential
production of 45 metric tons (an increase of 80% over 1996) of opium;
opium producer and probably minor transit point for Southeast Asian
heroin destined for the US and Europe; growing opium addiction;
possible small-scale heroin production

______________________________________________________________________

VIRGIN ISLANDS

Book of the day: