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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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Congress or UPC [Milton OBOTE], Democratic Party or DP [Paul
SSEMOGERERE], and Conservative Party or CP [Joshua S. MAYANJA-NKANGI];
the new constitution requires the suspension of political party
activity until a referendum is held on the matter in 2000

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB,
ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Edith Grace SSEMPALA
chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100 through 7102, 0416
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nancy J. POWELL
embassy: Parliament Avenue, Kampala
mailing address: P. O. Box 7007, Kampala
telephone: [256] (41) 259792, 259793, 259795
FAX: [256] (41) 259794

Flag description: six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow,
red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the
center and depicts a red-crested crane (the national symbol) facing
the hoist side

@Uganda:Economy

Economy-overview: Uganda has substantial natural resources, including
fertile soils, regular rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of
copper and cobalt. Agriculture is the most important sector of the
economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee is the major
export crop and accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986,
the government-with the support of foreign countries and international
agencies-has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by
undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops,
increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service
wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation
and boosting production and export earnings. In 1990-97, the economy
turned in a solid performance based on: continued investment in the
rehabilitation of infrastructure, improved incentives for production
and exports, reduced inflation, gradually improved domestic security,
and the return of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$34.6 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,700 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 49%
industry: 13%
services: 38% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 6% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 8.361 million (1993 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 86%, industry 4%, services 10% (1980 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $869 million
expenditures: $985 million, including capital expenditures of $69
million (FY95/96)

Industries: sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement

Industrial production growth rate: 19.7% (FY95/96)

Electricity-capacity: 162,000 kW (1998)

Electricity-production: 807 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 35 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (tapioca),
potatoes, corn, millet, pulses; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry

Exports:
total value: $604 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: coffee, gold, cotton, tea, corn, fish
partners: Spain 23%, France 14%, Germany 14%, Italy 10%, Netherlands
8% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery, chemicals, fuel, cotton piece goods,
transportation equipment, food
partners: Kenya 26%, UK 12%, Japan 8%, Germany 8%, India 5.5% (1995)

Debt-external: $3.5 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Ugandan shilling (USh) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Ugandan shillings (USh) per US$1-1,148.1 (January
1998), 1,083.0 (1997), 1,046.1 (1996), 968.9 (1995), 979.4 (1994),
1,195.0 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 61,600 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: fair system
domestic: microwave radio relay and radiotelephone communications
stations, cellular system
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 2.13 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 220,000 (1993 est.)

@Uganda:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,241 km
narrow gauge: 1,241 km 1.000-m gauge
note: a program to rehabilitate the railroad is underway (1995)

Highways:
total: 27,000 km
paved: 1,800 km
unpaved: 25,200 km (of which about 4,800 km are all-weather roads)
(1990 est.)

Waterways: Lake Victoria, Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, Lake George, Lake
Edward, Victoria Nile, Albert Nile

Ports and harbors: Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell

Merchant marine:
total: 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
5,091 GRT/8,229 DWT (1997 est.)

Airports: 29 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 24
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 8 (1997 est.)

@Uganda:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Wing

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 4,672,307 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 2,534,993 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $56 million (FY93/94)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.7% (FY93/94)

@Uganda:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

UKRAINE

@Ukraine:Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland and
Russia

Geographic coordinates: 49 00 N, 32 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 603,700 sq km
land: 603,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 4,558 km
border countries: Belarus 891 km, Hungary 103 km, Moldova 939 km,
Poland 428 km, Romania (south) 169 km, Romania (west) 362 km, Russia
1,576 km, Slovakia 90 km

Coastline: 2,782 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern
Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest
in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from
cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm
across the greater part of the country, hot in the south

Terrain: most of Ukraine consists of fertile plains (steppes) and
plateaus, mountains being found only in the west (the Carpathians),
and in the Crimean Peninsula in the extreme south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Hora Hoverla 2,061 m

Natural resources: iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt,
sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber

Land use:
arable land: 58%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 13%
forests and woodland: 18%
other: 9% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 26,050 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; air
and water pollution; deforestation; radiation contamination in the
northeast from 1986 accident at Chornobyl' Nuclear Power Plant

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography-note: strategic position at the crossroads between Europe
and Asia; second-largest country in Europe

@Ukraine:People

Population: 50,125,108 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 4,852,461; female 4,656,688)
15-64 years: 67% (male 16,096,737; female 17,481,600)
65 years and over: 14% (male 2,284,960; female 4,752,662) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: -0.64% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 9.53 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 16.31 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 21.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 65.84 years
male: 60.08 years
female: 71.89 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.35 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ukrainian(s)
adjective: Ukrainian

Ethnic groups: Ukrainian 73%, Russian 22%, Jewish 1%, other 4%

Religions: Ukrainian Orthodox-Moscow Patriarchate, Ukrainian
Orthodox-Kiev Patriarchate, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox,
Ukrainian Catholic (Uniate), Protestant, Jewish

Languages: Ukrainian, Russian, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 100%
female: 97% (1989 est.)

@Ukraine:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Ukraine
local long form: none
local short form: Ukrayina
former: Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: UP

Government type: republic

National capital: Kiev (Kyyiv)

Administrative divisions: 24 oblasti (singular-oblast'), 1 autonomous
republic* (avtomnaya respublika), and 2 municipalities (mista,
singular-misto) with oblast status**; Cherkas'ka (Cherkasy),
Chernihivs'ka (Chernihiv), Chernivets'ka (Chernivtsi),
Dnipropetrovs'ka (Dnipropetrovs'k), Donets'ka (Donets'k),
Ivano-Frankivs'ka (Ivano-Frankivs'k), Kharkivs'ka (Kharkiv),
Khersons'ka (Kherson), Khmel'nyts'ka (Khmel'nyts'kyy), Kirovohrads'ka
(Kirovohrad), Kyyiv**, Kyyivs'ka (Kiev), Luhans'ka (Luhans'k),
L'vivs'ka (L'viv), Mykolayivs'ka (Mykolayiv), Odes'ka (Odesa),
Poltavs'ka (Poltava), Avtonomna Respublika Krym* (Simferopol'),
Rivnens'ka (Rivne), Sevastopol'**, Sums'ka (Sumy), Ternopil's'ka
(Ternopil'), Vinnyts'ka (Vinnytsya), Volyns'ka (Luts'k), Zakarpats'ka
(Uzhhorod), Zaporiz'ka (Zaporizhzhya), Zhytomyrs'ka (Zhytomyr)
note: oblasts have the administrative center name following in
parentheses

Independence: 1 December 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 August (1991)

Constitution: adopted 28 June 1996

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Leonid D. KUCHMA (since 19 July 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Valeriy PUSTOVOYTENKO (since 16
July 1997), First Deputy Prime Minister Anatoliy HOLUBCHENKO (since 8
August 1997), and three deputy prime ministers
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president and approved
by the Supreme Council
note: there is also a National Security and Defense Council or NSDC
originally created in 1992 as the National Security Council, but
significantly revamped and strengthened under President KUCHMA; the
NSDC staff is tasked with developing national security policy on
domestic and international matters and advising the president; a
Presidential Administration that helps draft presidential edicts and
provides policy support to the president; and a Council of Regions
that serves as an advisory body created by President KUCHMA in
September 1994 that includes chairmen of the Kiev and Sevastopol city
councils and the chairmen of Oblast
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 26 June and 10 July 1994 (next to be held NA
October 1999); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by
the president and approved by the People's Council
election results: Leonid D. KUCHMA elected president; percent of
vote-Leonid KUCHMA 52.15%, Leonid KRAVCHUK 45.06%

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Council (before 1996 the
Supreme Council) or Narodna Rada (450 seats; under Ukraine's new
election law, half of the Rada's seats are allocated on a proportional
basis to those parties that gain 4% of the national electoral vote;
the other 225 members are elected by popular vote in single mandate
constituencies; all serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 27 March 1994 with repeat elections continuing
through December 1996 to fill empty seats (next to be held 29 March
1998)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-Communists 91, Rukh 22, Agrarians 18, Socialists 15, Republicans
11, Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists 5, Labor 5, Party of Democratic
Revival 4, Democrats 2, Social Democrats 2, Civil Congress 2,
Conservative Republicans 1, Party of Economic Revival of Crimea 1,
Christian Democrats 1, independents 225; note-most recent repeat
election held in April 1996 filling 422 of 450 seats as follows:
independents 238, Communist 95, Rukh 22, Agrarians 18, Socialist 15,
Republicans 11, Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists 5, Labor 5, Party
of Democratic Revival 4, Democratic Party of Ukraine 2, Social
Democrats 2, Civil Congress 2, Conservative Republicans 1, Party of
Economic Revival of Crimea 1, Christian Democrats 1, vacant 28 (in
February 1997 there were 35 vacant seats)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Communist Party of Ukraine [Petro
SYMONENKO]; Hromad [Pavlo LAZARENKO]; Ukrainian Popular Movement or
Rukh [Vyacheslav CHORNOVIL, chairman]; Socialist Party of Ukraine or
SPU [Oleksandr MOROZ, chairman]; Peasant Party of Ukraine or SelPU
[Serhiy DOVAN]; People's Democratic Party or NDPU [Valeriy
PUSTOVOYTENKO, chairman]; Reforms and Order Party [Viktor PYNZENYK];
United Social-Democratic Party of Ukraine [Vasyl ONONENKO]; Christian
Democratic Party of Ukraine [Vitaliy ZHURAVSKYY]; Christian People's
Union [Victor MUSIYAKA]; Ukrainian National Assembly [Oleh VITOVYCH];
Democratic Party of Ukraine or DPU [Volodymyr Oleksandrovych
YAVORIVSKYY, chairman]; Agrarian Party of Ukraine or APU [Kateryna
VASHCHUK]; Liberal Party of Ukraine or LPU [Volodymyr SHCHERBAN];
Party of Labor [Valentyn LANDYK, chairman]; Social Democratic Party of
Ukraine or SDPU [Yuriy BUZDUHAN]; Interregional Reforms Bloc
[Volodymyr HRYNYOV; Republic Christian Party [Mykola POROVSKYY];
Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists or KUN [Yaroslava-Anna STETSKO];
Ukrainian Conservative Republican Party or UKRP [Yuriy VOSKOVNYUK,
chairman]; Ukrainian Republican Party [Bohdan YAROSHYNSKYY]; Green
Party of Ukraine or PZU [Vitaliy KONONOV, leader]; Progressive
Socialist Party [Natalya VITRENKO]; State Independence of Ukraine
[Roman KOVAL]; All-Ukrainian Labor Party [Leonid VERNIYHORA]; Regional
Revival Party of Ukraine [Volodymyr RYBAK]; Liberal Democratic Party
of Ukraine or LDPU [Andriy KOVAL, chairman]; Ukrainian Peasant
Democratic Party or USDP [Viktor PRYSYAZHNYUK]; Ukraine Regional
Revival Party [Volodymyr RYBAK]
note: approximately 30 parties are registered to take part in the 29
March 1998 elections

Political pressure groups and leaders: New Ukraine (Nova Ukrayina);
Congress of National Democratic Forces

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, CIS,
EAPC, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Inmarsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer),
ISO, ITU, MINUGUA, NSG, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNPREDEP, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
(applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Yuriy Mykolayovych SHCHERBAK
chancery: 3350 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 333-0606
FAX: [1] (202) 333-0817
consulate(s) general: Chicago and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Steven Karl PIFER
embassy: 10 Yuria Kotsubynskoho, 254053 Kiev 53
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [380] (44) 244-7345
FAX: [380] (44) 244-7350

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden
yellow represent grainfields under a blue sky

@Ukraine:Economy

Economy-overview: After Russia, the Ukrainian republic was far and
away the most important economic component of the former Soviet Union,
producing about four times the output of the next-ranking republic.
Its fertile black soil generated more than one-fourth of Soviet
agricultural output, and its farms provided substantial quantities of
meat, milk, grain, and vegetables to other republics. Likewise, its
diversified heavy industry supplied equipment and raw materials to
industrial and mining sites in other regions of the former USSR.
Ukraine depends on imports of energy, especially natural gas. Shortly
after the implosion of the USSR in December 1991, the Ukrainian
Government liberalized most prices and erected a legal framework for
privatization, but widespread resistance to reform within the
government and the legislature soon stalled reform efforts and led to
some backtracking. Output in 1992-97 fell to less than half the 1991
level. Loose monetary policies pushed inflation to hyperinflationary
levels in late 1993. Since his election in July 1994, President KUCHMA
has pushed economic reforms, maintained financial discipline, and
tried to remove almost all remaining controls over prices and foreign
trade. Implementation of KUCHMA's economic agenda is encountering
considerable resistance from parliament, entrenched bureaucrats, and
industrial interests; and an environment of corruption continues to
discourage foreign investors. One signal achievement has been the
reduction of the inflation rate to 10% by yearend 1997. If KUCHMA
succeeds in implementing aggressive market reforms during 1998, the
economy should reverse its downward trend, with real growth occurring
by late 1998 and into 1999.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$124.9 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: -3.2% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,500 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 14%
industry: 30%
services: 56% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 10% (yearend 1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 22.8 million (yearend 1997)
by occupation: industry and construction 32%, agriculture and forestry
24%, health, education, and culture 17%, trade and distribution 8%,
transport and communication 7%, other 12% (1996)

Unemployment rate: 2.6% officially registered; large number of
unregistered or underemployed workers (December 1997)

Budget:
revenues: $18 billion
expenditures: $21 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997
est.)

Industries: coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals,
machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food-processing
(especially sugar)

Industrial production growth rate: -1.8% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 52 million kW (1997)

Electricity-production: 177 billion kWh (1997)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 3,431 kWh (1997)

Agriculture-products: grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables;
meat, milk

Exports:
total value: $15.2 billion (1997 est.)
commodities: ferrous and nonferrous metals, chemicals, machinery and
transport equipment, food products
partners: Russia, China, Belarus, Turkey, Germany (1997)

Imports:
total value: $20.2 billion (1997 est.)
commodities: energy, machinery and parts, transportation equipment,
chemicals, plastics and rubber
partners: Russia, Turkmenistan, Belarus, Germany, China

Debt-external: $9.6 billion (including $2.1 billion to Russia)
(yearend 1997 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $220 million (1993)
note: commitments, 1992-95, $4.5 billion ($4.1 billion drawn)

Currency: on 2 September 1996, Ukraine introduced the long-awaited
hryvnia as its national currency, replacing the karbovanets (in
circulation since 12 November 1992) at a rate of 100,000 karbovantsi
to 1 hryvnia

Exchange rates: hryvnia per US$1-1.9359 (February 1998), 1.8617
(1997), 1.8295 (1996), 1.4731 (1995), 0.3275 (1994), 0.0453 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: system is unsatisfactory both for business and for
personal use; 3.56 million applications for telephones had not been
satisfied as of January 1991; electronic mail services have been
established in Kiev, Odessa, and Luhans'k by Sprint
domestic: an NMT-450 analog cellular telephone network operates in
Kiev (Kyyiv) and allows direct dialing of international calls through
Kiev's digital exchange
international: calls to other CIS countries are carried by landline or
microwave radio relay; calls to 167 other countries are carried by
satellite or by the 150 leased lines through the Moscow international
gateway switch; satellite earth stations-NA Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat
(Atlantic and Indian Ocean Regions), and NA Intersputnik

Radio broadcast stations: 2 radio broadcast stations of NA type

Radios: 15 million (1990)

Television broadcast stations: at least 2

Televisions: 17.3 million (1992)

@Ukraine:Transportation

Railways:
total: 23,350 km
broad gauge: 23,350 km 1.524-m gauge (8,600 km electrified)

Highways:
total: 172,565 km
paved: 163,937 km (including 1,875 km of expressways); note-these
roads are said to be hard-surfaced, meaning that some are paved and
some are all-weather gravel surfaced
unpaved: 8,628 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 4,400 km navigable waterways, of which 1,672 km were on the
Pryp''yat' and Dnistr (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 2,010 km; petroleum products 1,920 km; natural
gas 7,800 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Berdyans'k, Illichivs'k, Izmayil, Kerch, Kherson,
Kiev (Kyyiv), Mariupol', Mykolayiv, Odesa, Reni

Merchant marine:
total: 202 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,498,653 GRT/1,709,393
DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 3, bulk 13, cargo 122, chemical tanker 2,
combination bulk 1, container 3, multifunction large-load carrier 2,
oil tanker 19, passenger 7, passenger-cargo 4, railcar carrier 2,
refrigerated cargo 6, roll-on/roll-off cargo 13, short-sea passenger 5
note: Ukraine owns an additional 41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
515,743 DWT operating under the registries of The Bahamas, Cyprus,
Liberia, Malta, Panama, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1997
est.)

Airports: 706 (1994 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 163
over 3,047 m: 14
2,438 to 3,047 m: 55
1,524 to 2,437 m: 34
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 57 (1994 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 543
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 37
under 914 m: 476 (1994 est.)

@Ukraine:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Internal
Troops, National Guard, Border Troops

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 12,431,318 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 9,733,193 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 367,160 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: 1.71 billion hryvni (Ukrainian
Government's forecast for 1998); note - conversion of defense
expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
produce misleading results

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Ukraine:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: dispute with Romania over continental shelf of
the Black Sea under which significant gas and oil deposits may exist;
agreed in 1997 to two-year negotiating period, after which either
party can refer dispute to the International Court of Justice; has
made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to
do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other nation; certain
territory of Moldova and Ukraine-including Bessarabia and Northern
Bukovina-are considered by Bucharest as historically a part of
Romania; this territory was incorporated into the former Soviet Union
following the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1940

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly
for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program; used as
transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs to Western
Europe and Russia

______________________________________________________________________

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

@United Arab Emirates:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian
Gulf, between Oman and Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 24 00 N, 54 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 82,880 sq km
land: 82,880 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
total: 867 km
border countries: Oman 410 km, Saudi Arabia 457 km

Coastline: 1,318 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; cooler in eastern mountains

Terrain: flat, barren coastal plain merging into rolling sand dunes of
vast desert wasteland; mountains in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Jabal Yibir 1,527 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 2%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 98% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 50 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent sand and dust storms

Environment-current issues: lack of natural freshwater resources being
overcome by desalination plants; desertification; beach pollution from
oil spills

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine
Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Law of the Sea

Geography-note: strategic location along southern approaches to Strait
of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil

@United Arab Emirates:People

Population: 2,303,088 (July 1998 est.)
note: includes 1,561,840 non-nationals (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (male 372,413; female 356,834)
15-64 years: 66% (male 995,798; female 535,014)
65 years and over: 2% (male 29,169; female 13,860) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.78% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 18.61 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 3.06 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 2.1 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.77 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.93 years
male: 73.5 years
female: 76.44 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.56 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Emirian(s)
adjective: Emirian

Ethnic groups: Emiri 19%, other Arab and Iranian 23%, South Asian 50%,
other expatriates (includes Westerners and East Asians) 8% (1982)
note: less than 20% are UAE citizens (1982)

Religions: Muslim 96% (Shi'a 16%), Christian, Hindu, and other 4%

Languages: Arabic (official), Persian, English, Hindi, Urdu

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write but definition of
literacy not available
total population: 79.2%
male: 78.9%
female: 79.8% (1995 est.)

@United Arab Emirates:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: United Arab Emirates
conventional short form: none
local long form: Al Imarat al Arabiyah al Muttahidah
local short form: none
former: Trucial States
abbreviation: UAE

Data code: TC

Government type: federation with specified powers delegated to the UAE
federal government and other powers reserved to member emirates

National capital: Abu Dhabi

Administrative divisions: 7 emirates (imarat, singular-imarah); Abu
Zaby (Abu Dhabi), 'Ajman, Al Fujayrah, Ash Shariqah (Sharjah), Dubayy
(Dubai), Ra's al Khaymah, Umm al Qaywayn

Independence: 2 December 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 2 December (1971)

Constitution: 2 December 1971 (made permanent in 1996)

Legal system: federal court system introduced in 1971; all emirates
except Dubayy (Dubai) and Ra's al Khaymah have joined the federal
system; all emirates have secular and Islamic law for civil, criminal,
and high courts

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state: President ZAYID bin Sultan Al Nuhayyan (since 2
December 1971), ruler of Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi) (since 6 August 1966)
and Vice President MAKTUM bin Rashid al-Maktum (since 8 October 1990),
ruler of Dubayy (Dubai)
head of government: Prime Minister MAKTUM bin Rashid al-Maktum (since
8 October 1990), ruler of Dubayy (Dubai); Deputy Prime Minister SULTAN
bin Zayid Al Nuhayyan (since 20 November 1990)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
note: there is also a Federal Supreme Council (FSC) which is composed
of the seven emirate rulers; the council is the highest constitutional
authority in the UAE; establishes general policies and sanctions
federal legislation, Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi) and Dubayy (Dubai) rulers
have effective veto power; meets four times a year
elections: president and vice president elected by the FSC (a group of
seven electors) for five-year terms; election last held NA October
1996 (next to be held NA 2001); prime minister and deputy prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: ZAYID bin Sultan Al Nuhayyan reelected president;
percent of FSC vote - NA, but believed to be unanimous; MAKTUM bin
Rashid al-Maktum elected vice president; percent of FSC vote-NA, but
believed to be unanimous

Legislative branch: unicameral Federal National Council or Majlis
al-Ittihad al-Watani (40 seats; members appointed by the rulers of the
constituent states to serve two-year terms)
elections: none
note: reviews legislation, but cannot change or veto

Judicial branch: Union Supreme Court, judges appointed by the
president

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF,
CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Muhammad bin Husayn al-SHAALI
chancery: Suite 700, 1255 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 955-7999

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador David C. LITT
embassy: Al-Sudan Street, Abu Dhabi
mailing address: P. O. Box 4009, Abu Dhabi; American Embassy Abu
Dhabi, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-6010 (pouch);
note-work week is Saturday through Wednesday
telephone: [971] (2) 436691, 436692
FAX: [971] (2) 434771
consulate(s) general: Dubai

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white,
and black with a thicker vertical red band on the hoist side

@United Arab Emirates:Economy

Economy-overview: The UAE has an open economy with one of the world's
highest per capita incomes and with a sizable annual trade surplus.
Its wealth is based on oil and gas output (about 33% of GDP), and the
fortunes of the economy fluctuate with the prices of those
commodities. Since 1973, the UAE has undergone a profound
transformation from an impoverished region of small desert
principalities to a modern state with a high standard of living. At
present levels of production, oil and gas reserves should last for
over 100 years. The UAE Government is encouraging increased
privatization within the economy, and industrial development is
expected to pick up in 1997-98.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$54.2 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$24,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 3%
industry: 55%
services: 42% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3.6% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.05 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: services 65%, industry and commerce 30%, agriculture 5%
(1996 est.)
note: 75% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national
(July 1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $5.1 billion
expenditures: $5.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $294
million (1997 est.)

Industries: petroleum, fishing, petrochemicals, construction
materials, some boat building, handicrafts, pearling

Industrial production growth rate: 6.1% (1995 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 5.29 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 18 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 6,155 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: dates, vegetables, watermelons; poultry, eggs,
dairy products; fish

Exports:
total value: $33.2 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: crude oil 66%, natural gas, reexports, dried fish, dates
partners: Japan 38%, South Korea 7%, Singapore 7%, India 6%, Oman 4%,
Iran 3% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $23.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment,
chemicals, food
partners: US 10%, Japan 9%, UK 8%, Italy 6%, South Korea 6%, India 6%
(1996)

Debt-external: $14 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Emirian dirham (Dh) = 100 fils

Exchange rates: Emirian dirhams (Dh) per US$1-3.6710 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 677,793 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: modern system consisting of microwave radio relay
and coaxial cable; key centers are Abu Dhabi and Dubai
domestic: microwave radio relay and coaxial cable
international: satellite earth stations-3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
and 2 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; submarine cables to Qatar, Bahrain,
India, and Pakistan; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio
relay to Saudi Arabia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 545,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 12

Televisions: 170,000 (1993 est.)

@United Arab Emirates:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 4,835 km
paved: 4,835 km
unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 830 km; natural gas, including natural gas
liquids, 870 km

Ports and harbors: 'Ajman, Al Fujayrah, Das Island, Khawr Fakkan,
Mina' Jabal 'Ali, Mina' Khalid, Mina' Rashid, Mina' Saqr, Mina' Zayid,
Umm al Qaywayn

Merchant marine:
total: 67 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 945,320 GRT/1,592,164 DWT
ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 18, chemical tanker 3, container 7,
liquefied gas tanker 1, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 27,
refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6 (1997 est.)

Airports: 40 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 22
over 3,047 m: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 4 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 5 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1997 est.)

@United Arab Emirates:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary (includes
Federal Police Force)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 791,770 (1998 est.)
note: includes non-nationals

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 425,373 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 22,040 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $1.59 billion (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 4.3% (1994)

@United Arab Emirates:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: location and status of boundary with Saudi
Arabia is not final, de facto boundary reflects 1974 agreement; no
defined boundary with most of Oman, but Administrative Line in far
north; claims two islands in the Persian Gulf occupied by Iran: Lesser
Tunb (called Tunb as Sughra in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e
Kuchek in Persian by Iran) and Greater Tunb (called Tunb al Kubra in
Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg in Persian by Iran); claims
island in the Persian Gulf jointly administered with Iran (called Abu
Musa in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Abu Musa in Persian by Iran)-over
which Iran has taken steps to exert unilateral control since 1992,
including access restrictions and a military build-up on the island;
the UAE has garnered significant diplomatic support in the region in
protesting these Iranian actions

Illicit drugs: growing role as heroin transshipment and
money-laundering center due to its proximity to southwest Asian
producing countries and the bustling free trade zone in Dubai

______________________________________________________________________

UNITED KINGDOM

@United Kingdom:Geography

Location: Western Europe, islands including the northern one-sixth of
the island of Ireland between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North
Sea, northwest of France

Geographic coordinates: 54 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 244,820 sq km
land: 241,590 sq km
water: 3,230 sq km
note: includes Rockall and Shetland Islands

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries:
total: 360 km
border countries: Ireland 360 km

Coastline: 12,429 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: as defined in continental shelf orders or in
accordance with agreed upon boundaries
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the
North Atlantic Current; more than one-half of the days are overcast

Terrain: mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling
plains in east and southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Fenland -4 m
highest point: Ben Nevis 1,343 m

Natural resources: coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron
ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica

Land use:
arable land: 25%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 10%
other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,080 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: sulfur dioxide emissions from power plants
contribute to air pollution; some rivers polluted by agricultural
wastes and coastal waters polluted because of large-scale disposal of
sewage at sea

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km
from France and now linked by tunnel under the English Channel;
because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km
from tidal waters

@United Kingdom:People

Population: 58,970,119 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 5,832,086; female 5,530,679)
15-64 years: 65% (male 19,304,762; female 19,032,024)
65 years and over: 16% (male 3,807,710; female 5,462,858) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.25% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 12.01 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 10.72 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.87 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.19 years
male: 74.57 years
female: 79.96 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Briton(s), British (collective plural)
adjective: British

Ethnic groups: English 81.5%, Scottish 9.6%, Irish 2.4%, Welsh 1.9%,
Ulster 1.8%, West Indian, Indian, Pakistani, and other 2.8%

Religions: Anglican 27 million, Roman Catholic 9 million, Muslim 1
million, Presbyterian 800,000, Methodist 760,000, Sikh 400,000, Hindu
350,000, Jewish 300,000 (1991 est.)
note: the UK does not include a question on religion in its census

Languages: English, Welsh (about 26% of the population of Wales),
Scottish form of Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of
schooling
total population: 99% (1978 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@United Kingdom:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland
conventional short form: United Kingdom
abbreviation: UK

Data code: UK

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: London

Administrative divisions: 47 counties, 7 metropolitan counties, 26
districts, 9 regions, and 3 islands areas; England-39 counties, 7
metropolitan counties*; Avon, Bedford, Berkshire, Buckingham,
Cambridge, Cheshire, Cleveland, Cornwall, Cumbria, Derby, Devon,
Dorset, Durham, East Sussex, Essex, Gloucester, Greater London*,
Greater Manchester*, Hampshire, Hereford and Worcester, Hertford,
Humberside, Isle of Wight, Kent, Lancashire, Leicester, Lincoln,
Merseyside*, Norfolk, Northampton, Northumberland, North Yorkshire,
Nottingham, Oxford, Shropshire, Somerset, South Yorkshire*, Stafford,
Suffolk, Surrey, Tyne and Wear*, Warwick, West Midlands*, West Sussex,
West Yorkshire*, Wiltshire; Northern Ireland - 26 districts; Antrim,
Ards, Armagh, Ballymena, Ballymoney, Banbridge, Belfast,
Carrickfergus, Castlereagh, Coleraine, Cookstown, Craigavon, Down,
Dungannon, Fermanagh, Larne, Limavady, Lisburn, Londonderry,
Magherafelt, Moyle, Newry and Mourne, Newtownabbey, North Down, Omagh,
Strabane; Scotland-9 regions, 3 islands areas*; Borders, Central,
Dumfries and Galloway, Fife, Grampian, Highland, Lothian, Orkney*,
Shetland*, Strathclyde, Tayside, Western Isles*; Wales-8 counties;
Clwyd, Dyfed, Gwent, Gwynedd, Mid Glamorgan, Powys, South Glamorgan,
West Glamorgan
note: The Statesman's Yearbook claims that England has 35 counties and
Wales 9 counties

Dependent areas: Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory,
British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar,
Guernsey, Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint
Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos
Islands

Independence: England has existed as a unified entity since the 10th
century; the union between England and Wales was enacted under the
Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284; in the Act of Union of 1707, England and
Scotland agreed to permanent union as Great Britain; the legislative
union of Great Britain and Ireland was implemented in 1801 adopting
the name the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; the
Anglo-Irish treaty of 1921 formalized a partition of Ireland; six
northern Irish counties remained part of the United Kingdom as
Northern Ireland and the current name of the country, the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, was adopted in 1927

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday in June)

Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and
practice

Legal system: common law tradition with early Roman and modern
continental influences; no judicial review of Acts of Parliament;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Heir
Apparent Prince CHARLES (son of the queen, born 14 November 1948)
head of government: Prime Minister Tony BLAIR (since 2 May 1997)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; prime minister is
the leader of the majority party in the House of Commons and must have
the consent of the monarch

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of House of Lords
(1,200 seats; four-fifths of the members are hereditary peers, two
archbishops, 24 other senior bishops, serving and retired Lords of
Appeal in Ordinary, other life peers, Scottish peers) and House of
Commons (659 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: House of Lords-no elections; House of Commons-last held 1
May 1997 (next to be held by NA May 2002)
election results: House of Commons-percent of vote by party-Labor
44.5%, Conservative 31%, Liberal Democratic 17%, other 7.5%; seats by
party-Labor 418, Conservative 165, Liberal Democratic 46, other 30

Judicial branch: House of Lords, several Lords of Appeal in Ordinary
are appointed by the monarch for life

Political parties and leaders: Conservative and Unionist Party
[William HAGUE]; Labor Party [Anthony (Tony) Blair]; Liberal Democrats
or LD [Jeremy (Paddy) ASHDOWN]; Scottish National Party [Alex
SALMOND]; Welsh National Party (Plaid Cymru) [Dafydd Iwan WIGLEY];
Ulster Unionist Party (Northern Ireland) [David TRIMBLE]; Democratic
Unionist Party (Northern Ireland) [Rev. Ian PAISLEY]; Social
Democratic and Labor Party or SDLP (Northern Ireland) [John HUME];
Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland) [Gerry ADAMS]; Alliance Party (Northern
Ireland) [Lord ALDERDICE]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Trades Union Congress;
Confederation of British Industry; National Farmers' Union; Campaign
for Nuclear Disarmament

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, CP, EAPC,
EBRD, ECA (associate), ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, EU, FAO, G- 5, G-
7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO, ITU, MTCR, NATO, NEA, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UN
Security Council, UNCTAD, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH,
UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher MEYER
chancery: 3100 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-6500
FAX: [1] (202) 588-7870
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Houston,
Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
consulate(s): Dallas, Miami, and Seattle

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Philip LADER
embassy: 24/31 Grosvenor Square, London, W. 1A1AE
mailing address: PSC 801, Box 40, London; FPO AE 09498-4040
telephone: [44] (171) 499-9000
FAX: [44] (171) 409-1637
consulate(s) general: Belfast, Edinburgh

Flag description: blue with the red cross of Saint George (patron
saint of England) edged in white superimposed on the diagonal red
cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint of Ireland) which is superimposed
on the diagonal white cross of Saint Andrew (patron saint of
Scotland); known as the Union Flag or Union Jack; the design and
colors (especially the Blue Ensign) have been the basis for a number
of other flags including dependencies, Commonwealth countries, and
others

@United Kingdom:Economy

Economy-overview: The UK is one of the world's great trading powers
and financial centers, and its essentially capitalistic economy ranks
among the four largest in Western Europe. Over the past two decades
the government has greatly reduced public ownership and contained the
growth of social welfare programs. Agriculture is intensive, highly
mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60%
of food needs with only about 1% of the labor force. The UK has large
coal, natural gas, and oil reserves; primary energy production
accounts for 12% of GDP, one of the highest shares of any industrial
nation. Services, particularly banking, insurance, and business
services, account by far for the largest proportion of GDP while
industry continues to decline in importance, now employing only 18% of
the work force. Exports and manufacturing output have been the primary
engines of growth. Unemployment is gradually falling. Inflation is a
moderate 3.1%. A major economic policy question for the UK in the late
1990s is the terms on which it participates in the financial and
economic integration of Europe.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1.242 trillion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$21,200 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 1.8%
industry: 31.4%
services: 66.8% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3.1% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 28.2 million (1997)
by occupation: services 68.9%, manufacturing and construction 17.5%,
government 11.3%, energy 1.2%, agriculture 1.1% (1996)

Unemployment rate: 5.5% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $416.1 billion
expenditures: $470 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: production machinery including machine tools, electric
power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment,
shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and
communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper
and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, and other
consumer goods

Industrial production growth rate: 2% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 66.149 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 306.62 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 5,546 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables; cattle,
sheep, poultry; fish

Exports:
total value: $268 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, chemicals,
semifinished goods, transport equipment
partners: EU countries 53.2% (Germany 12.4%, France 9.9%, Netherlands
7.8%), US 11.4% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $283.5 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: manufactured goods, machinery, semifinished goods,
foodstuffs, consumer goods
partners: EU countries 50.2% (Germany 14.2%, France 9.0%, Netherlands
6.5%), US 13.9% (1996)

Debt-external: $16.2 billion (June 1992)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $2.908 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 British pound () = 100 pence

Exchange rates: British pounds () per US$1-0.6115 (January 1998),
0.6106 (1997), 0.6403 (1996), 0.6335 (1995), 0.6529 (1994), 0.6658
(1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 29.5 million (1987 est.)

Telephone system: technologically advanced domestic and international
system
domestic: equal mix of buried cables, microwave radio relay, and
fiber-optic systems
international: 40 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth
stations-10 Intelsat (7 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat
(Atlantic Ocean region), and 1 Eutelsat; at least 8 large
international switching centers

Radio broadcast stations: AM 225, FM 525 (mostly repeaters), shortwave
0

Radios: 70 million

Television broadcast stations: 207 (repeaters 3,210)

Televisions: 20 million

@United Kingdom:Transportation

Railways:
total: 16,878 km
broad gauge: 342 km 1.600-m gauge (190 km double track); note-all
1.600-m gauge track, of which 342 km is in common carrier use, is in
Northern Ireland
standard gauge: 16,536 km 1.435-m gauge (4,928 km electrified; 12,591
km double or multiple track) (1996)

Highways:
total: 372,000 km
paved: 372,000 km (including 3,270 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 3,200 km under British Waterways Board

Pipelines: crude oil (almost all insignificant) 933 km; petroleum
products 2,993 km; natural gas 12,800 km

Ports and harbors: Aberdeen, Belfast, Bristol, Cardiff, Dover,
Falmouth, Felixstowe, Grangemouth, Hull, Leith, Liverpool, London,
Manchester, Peterhead, Plymouth, Scapa Flow, Sullom Voe, Tees, Tyne

Merchant marine:
total: 142 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,192,956 GRT/2,224,715
DWT
ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 26, chemical tanker 5, combination
ore/oil 1, container 21, liquefied gas tanker 2, oil tanker 47,
passenger 8, passenger-cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 13, short-sea
passenger 12, specialized tanker 1
note: UK owns 337 additional ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
13,511,240 DWT that operate under the registries of Bermuda, The
Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Cyprus, Hong Kong, Isle of Man, Liberia,
Malta, Panama, Singapore, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1997
est.)

Airports: 497 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 356
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 32
1,524 to 2,437 m: 170
914 to 1,523 m: 90
under 914 m: 54 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 141
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 24
under 914 m: 116 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 12 (1997 est.)

@United Kingdom:Military

Military branches: Army, Royal Navy (includes Royal Marines), Royal
Air Force

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 14,468,079 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 12,069,296 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $35.1 billion (FY95/96)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 3.1% (FY95/96)

@United Kingdom:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Northern Ireland question with Ireland
(historic peace agreement approved 10 April 1998); Gibraltar question
with Spain; Argentina claims Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas);
Argentina claims South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands;
Mauritius claims island of Diego Garcia in British Indian Ocean
Territory; Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark,
Iceland, and Ireland (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary
agreement in the Rockall area); territorial claim in Antarctica
(British Antarctic Territory); Seychelles claims Chagos Archipelago in
British Indian Ocean Territory

Illicit drugs: gateway country for Latin American cocaine entering the
European market; producer of synthetic drugs, precursor chemicals;
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin; money-laundering
center

______________________________________________________________________

UNITED STATES

@United States:Geography

Location: North America, bordering both the North Atlantic Ocean and
the North Pacific Ocean, between Canada and Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 38 00 N, 97 00 W

Map references: North America

Area:
total: 9,629,091 sq km
land: 9,158,960 sq km
water: 470,131 sq km
note: includes only the 50 states and District of Columbia

Area-comparative: about one-half the size of Russia; about
three-tenths the size of Africa; about one-half the size of South
America (or slightly larger than Brazil); slightly larger than China;
about two and one-half times the size of Western Europe

Land boundaries:
total: 12,248 km
border countries: Canada 8,893 km (including 2,477 km with Alaska),
Cuba 29 km (US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay), Mexico 3,326 km
note: Guantanamo Naval Base is leased by the US and thus remains part
of Cuba

Coastline: 19,924 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 12 nm
continental shelf: not specified
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida and
arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi
River and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter
temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January
and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the
Rocky Mountains

Terrain: vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low
mountains in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska;
rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Death Valley -86 m
highest point: Mount McKinley 6,194 m

Natural resources: coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates,
uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver,
tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use:
arable land: 19%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: 30%
other: 26% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 207,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: tsunamis, volcanoes, and earthquake activity around
Pacific Basin; hurricanes along the Atlantic coast; tornadoes in the
midwest; mud slides in California; forest fires in the west; flooding;
permafrost in northern Alaska is a major impediment to development

Environment-current issues: air pollution resulting in acid rain in
both the US and Canada; the US is the largest single emitter of carbon
dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff
of pesticides and fertilizers; very limited natural fresh water
resources in much of the western part of the country require careful
management; desertification

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Biodiversity, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes

Geography-note: world's third-largest country (after Russia and
Canada)

@United States:People

Population: 270,311,756 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (male 29,952,220; female 28,560,357)
15-64 years: 66% (male 88,113,895; female 89,399,501)
65 years and over: 12% (male 14,088,571; female 20,197,212) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.87% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 14.4 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.8 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.44 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.13 years
male: 72.85 years
female: 79.58 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.07 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: American(s)
adjective: American

Ethnic groups: white 83.4%, black 12.4%, Asian 3.3%, Amerindian 0.8%
(1992)

Religions: Protestant 56%, Roman Catholic 28%, Jewish 2%, other 4%,
none 10% (1989)

Languages: English, Spanish (spoken by a sizable minority)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 97%
female: 97% (1979 est.)

@United States:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: United States of America
conventional short form: United States
abbreviation: US or USA

Data code: US

Government type: federal republic; strong democratic tradition

National capital: Washington, DC

Administrative divisions: 50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska,
Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware,
District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois,
Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland,
Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana,
Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York,
North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania,
Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah,
Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

Dependent areas: American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island,
Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa
Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin
Islands, Wake Island
note: from 18 July 1947 until 1 October 1994, the US administered the
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, but recently entered into a
new political relationship with all four political units: the Northern
Mariana Islands is a Commonwealth in political union with the US
(effective 3 November 1986); Palau concluded a Compact of Free
Association with the US (effective 1 October 1994); the Federated
States of Micronesia signed a Compact of Free Association with the US
(effective 3 November 1986); the Republic of the Marshall Islands
signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 21 October
1986)

Independence: 4 July 1776 (from England)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 July (1776)

Constitution: 17 September 1787, effective 4 March 1789

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of
legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January
1993) and Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20
January 1993) and Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January
1993); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with Senate approval
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
a college of representatives who are elected directly from each state;
president and vice president serve four-year terms; election last held
5 November 1996 (next to be held 7 November 2000)
election results: William Jefferson CLINTON elected president; percent
of popular vote - William Jefferson CLINTON (Democratic Party) 49.2%,
Bob DOLE (Republican Party) 40.7%, Ross PEROT (Reform Party) 8.4%,
other 1.7%

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress consists of Senate (100 seats,
one-third are renewed every two years; two members are elected from
each state by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and House of
Representatives (435 seats; members are directly elected by popular
vote to serve two-year terms)
elections: Senate-last held 5 November 1996 (next to be held 2
November 1998); House of Representatives-last held 5 November 1996
(next to be held 2 November 1998)
election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-Republican Party 55, Democratic Party 45; House of
Representatives-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-Republican
Party 227, Democratic Party 205, independent 1, vacant 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, justices are appointed for life by the
president with confirmation by the Senate

Political parties and leaders: Republican Party, Jim NICHOLSON,
national committee chairman; Democratic Party, Steve GROSSMAN,
national committee chairman; several other groups or parties of minor
political significance

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), ANZUS,
APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE (observer), CP, EAPC, EBRD,
ECE, ECLAC, ESCAP, FAO, G- 2, G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINUGUA,
MINURSO, MIPONUH, MTCR, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OSCE, PCA, SPC, UN,
UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNOMIG,
UNPREDEP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Flag description: thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and
bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper
hoist-side corner bearing 50 small white five-pointed stars arranged
in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom)
alternating with rows of five stars; the 50 stars represent the 50
states, the 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies; known as
Old Glory; the design and colors have been the basis for a number of
other flags including Chile, Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico

@United States:Economy

Economy-overview: The US has the most powerful, diverse, and
technologically advanced economy in the world, with a per capita GDP
of $30,200, the largest among major industrial nations. In this
market-oriented economy, private individuals and business firms make
most of the decisions, and government buys needed goods and services
predominantly in the private marketplace. US business firms enjoy
considerably greater flexibility than their counterparts in Western
Europe and Japan in decisions to expand capital plant, lay off surplus
workers, and develop new products. At the same time, they face higher
barriers to entry in their rivals' home markets than the barriers to
entry of foreign firms in US markets. In all economic sectors, US
firms are at or near the forefront in technological advances,
especially in computers and in medical, aerospace, and military
equipment, although their advantage has narrowed since the end of
World War II. The onrush of technology largely explains the gradual
development of a "two-tier labor market" in which those at the bottom
lack the education and the professional/technical skills of those at
the top and, more and more, fail to get pay raises, health insurance
coverage, and other benefits. The years 1994-97 witnessed moderate
gains in real output, low inflation rates, and a drop in unemployment
below 6%. Long-term problems include inadequate investment in economic
infrastructure, rapidly rising medical costs of an aging population,
sizable trade deficits, and stagnation of family income in the lower
economic groups. The outlook for 1998 is for continued moderate
growth, low inflation, and about the same level of unemployment. Two
shadows for 1998 are the severe financial crises in East Asia and the
exuberant level of stock prices in relation to corporate earnings.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$8.083 trillion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.8% (1997)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$30,200 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 2%
industry: 23%
services: 75% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 136.3 million (includes unemployed) (1997)
by occupation: managerial and professional 29.1%, technical, sales and
administrative support 29.6%, services 13.5%, manufacturing, mining,
transportation, and crafts 25.1%, farming, forestry, and fishing 2.7%

Unemployment rate: 4.9% (1997)

Budget:
revenues: $1.579 trillion
expenditures: $1.601 trillion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997)

Industries: leading industrial power in the world, highly diversified
and technologically advanced; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles,
aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food
processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining

Industrial production growth rate: 3.9% (1997)

Electricity-capacity: 741.589 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 3.585 trillion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 13,732 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, other grains, corn, fruits, vegetables,
cotton; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; forest products; fish

Exports:
total value: $625.1 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: capital goods, automobiles, industrial supplies and raw
materials, consumer goods, agricultural products
partners: Canada 22%, Western Europe 21%, Japan 11%, Mexico 8% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $822 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: crude oil and refined petroleum products, machinery,
automobiles, consumer goods, industrial raw materials, food and
beverages
partners: Canada, 20%, Western Europe 18%, Japan 16.5%, Mexico 8%
(1995)

Debt-external: $862 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $9.721 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: British pounds () per US$-0.6115 (January 1998),
0.6106 (1997), 0.6403 (1996), 0.6335 (1995), 0.6529 (1994), 0.6658
(1993); Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$-1.4408 (January 1998), 1.3846
(1997), 1.3635 (1996), 1.3724 (1995), 1.3656 (1994), 1.2901 (1993);
French francs (F) per US$-6.0836 (January 1998), 5.8367 (1997), 5.1155
(1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993); Italian lire
(Lit) per US$-1,787.7 (January 1997), 1,703.1 (1997), 1,542.9 (1996),
1,628.9 (1995), 1,612.4 (1994), 1,573.7 (1993); Japanese yen () per
US$-129.45 (January 1998), 120.99 (1997), 108.78 (1996), 94.06 (1995),
102.21 (1994), 111.20 (1993); German deutsche marks (DM) per US$ -
1.8167 (January 1998), 1.7341 (1997), 1.5048 (1996), 1.4331 (1995),
1.6228 (1994), 1.6533 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Communications

Telephones: 182.558 million (1987 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: a large system of fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay,
coaxial cable, and domestic satellites carries conventional telephone
traffic; a rapidly growing cellular system carries mobile telephone
traffic throughout country
international: 24 ocean cable systems in use; satellite earth
stations-61 Intelsat (45 Atlantic Ocean and 16 Pacific Ocean) (1990
est.), 5 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 4 Inmarsat (Pacific
and Atlantic Ocean regions)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4,987, FM 4,932, shortwave 0

Radios: 540.5 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1,092 (in addition, there are about
9,000 cable TV systems)

Televisions: 215 million (1993 est.)

@United States:Transportation

Railways:
total: 240,000 km mainline routes (nongovernment owned)
standard gauge: 240,000 km 1.435-m gauge (1989)

Highways:
total: 6.42 million km
paved: 3,903,360 km (including 88,400 km of expressways)
unpaved: 2,516,640 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 41,009 km of navigable inland channels, exclusive of the
Great Lakes

Pipelines: petroleum products 276,000 km; natural gas 331,000 km
(1991)

Ports and harbors: Anchorage, Baltimore, Boston, Charleston, Chicago,
Duluth, Hampton Roads, Honolulu, Houston, Jacksonville, Los Angeles,
New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, Port Canaveral, Portland
(Oregon), Prudhoe Bay, San Francisco, Savannah, Seattle, Tampa, Toledo

Merchant marine:
total: 286 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,627,000 GRT/13,257,000
DWT
ships by type: bulk 15, container 79, chemical tanker 15,
roll-on/roll-off 28, liquefied gas tanker 13, cruise/passenger 3,
tanker 94, tanker tug-barge 12, other 27
note: in addition, there are 192 government-owned vessels (1997 est.)

Airports: 14,574 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 5,167
over 3,047 m: 181
2,438 to 3,047 m: 218
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1,280
914 to 1,523 m: 2,450
under 914 m: 1,038 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 9,407
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 164
914 to 1,523 m: 1,686
under 914 m: 7,550 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 109 (1997 est.)

@United States:Military

Military branches: Department of the Army, Department of the Navy
(includes Marine Corps), Department of the Air Force
note: the Coast Guard falls under the Department of Transportation,
but in wartime reports to the Department of the Navy

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 69,672,519 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: NA

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 1,990,912 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $267.2 billion (1997 est.)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 3.4% (1997 est.)

@United States:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: maritime boundary disputes with Canada (Dixon
Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Machias Seal Island);
US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased from Cuba and only mutual
agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti
claims Navassa Island; US has made no territorial claim in Antarctica
(but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the
claims of any other nation; Marshall Islands claims Wake Island

Illicit drugs: consumer of cocaine shipped from Colombia through

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