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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: toxic and hazardous waste disposal is
ineffective and presents human health risks; water pollution from raw
sewage; limited natural fresh water resources; deforestation;
overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography-note: strategic location in central Mediterranean

@Tunisia:People

Population: 9,380,404 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (male 1,526,743; female 1,433,503)
15-64 years: 63% (male 2,933,487; female 2,947,189)
65 years and over: 5% (male 275,411; female 264,071) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.43% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 20.07 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.06 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 32.64 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.1 years
male: 71.72 years
female: 74.58 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.44 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Tunisian(s)
adjective: Tunisian

Ethnic groups: Arab 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1%

Religions: Muslim 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish and other 1%

Languages: Arabic (official and one of the languages of commerce),
French (commerce)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 66.7%
male: 78.6%
female: 54.6% (1995 est.)

@Tunisia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Tunisia
conventional short form: Tunisia
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah at Tunisiyah
local short form: Tunis

Data code: TS

Government type: republic

National capital: Tunis

Administrative divisions: 23 governorates; Beja, Ben Arous, Bizerte,
Gabes, Gafsa, Jendouba, Kairouan, Kasserine, Kebili, L'Ariana, Le Kef,
Mahdia, Medenine, Monastir, Nabeul, Sfax, Sidi Bou Zid, Siliana,
Sousse, Tataouine, Tozeur, Tunis, Zaghouan

Independence: 20 March 1956 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 20 March (1956)

Constitution: 1 June 1959; amended 12 July 1988

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Islamic law; some
judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint
session

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Zine El Abidine BEN ALI (since 7 November
1987)
head of government: Prime Minister Hamed KAROUI (since 26 September
1989)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 20 March 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: President Zine El Abidine BEN ALI reelected without
opposition; percent of vote-Zine El Abidine BEN ALI 99%

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Majlis al-Nuwaab
(163 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 20 March 1994 (next to be held NA 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party-RCD 97.7%, MDS 1.0%, others
1.3%; seats by party-RCD 144, MDS 10, others 9; note-the government
changed the electoral code to guarantee that the opposition won seats

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation (Cour de Cassation)

Political parties and leaders: Constitutional Democratic Rally Party
(RCD), President BEN ALI (official ruling party); Movement of
Democratic Socialists (MDS); five other political parties are legal,
including the Communist Party

Political pressure groups and leaders: the Islamic fundamentalist
party, Al Nahda (Renaissance), is outlawed

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD,
AL, AMF, AMU, BSEC (observer), CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member),
ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MINURSO,
MIPONUH, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Noureddine MEJDOUB
chancery: 1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 862-1850

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Robin L. RAPHEL
embassy: 144 Avenue de la Liberte, 1002 Tunis-Belvedere
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [216] (1) 782-566
FAX: [216] (1) 789-719

Flag description: red with a white disk in the center bearing a red
crescent nearly encircling a red five-pointed star; the crescent and
star are traditional symbols of Islam

@Tunisia:Economy

Economy-overview: Tunisia has a diverse economy, with important
agricultural, mining, energy, tourism, and manufacturing sectors.
Governmental control of economic affairs has gradually lessened over
the past decade with increasing privatization of trade and commerce,
simplification of the tax structure, and a prudent approach to debt.
Real growth averaged 4.6% in 1992-96 and reached 5.6% in 1997, down
from 6.9% in 1996, which benefited from a record cereal crop.
Inflation has been moderate. Growth in tourism and increased trade
have been key elements in this solid record. Tunisia's association
agreement with the European Union entered into force on 1 March 1998,
the first such accord between the EU and Mediterranean countries to be
activated. Under the agreement Tunisia will gradually remove barriers
to trade with the EU over the next decade. Further privatization, the
attraction of increased foreign investment, and improvements in
government efficiency are among the challenges for the future.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$56.5 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5.6% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$6,100 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 14%
industry: 28%
services: 58% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 4.6% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2.917 million (1993 est.)
by occupation: services 55%, industry 23%, agriculture 22% (1995 est.)
note: shortage of skilled labor

Unemployment rate: 15% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $6.3 billion
expenditures: $6.8 billion, including capital expenditures to $1.5
billion (1997 est.)

Industries: petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate and iron ore),
tourism, textiles, footwear, food, beverages

Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 1.414 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 6.165 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 696 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: olives, dates, oranges, almonds, grain, sugar
beets, grapes; poultry, beef, dairy products

Exports:
total value: $5.6 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: hydrocarbons, textiles, agricultural products, phosphates
and chemicals
partners: EU 80%, North African countries 6%, Asia 4%, US 1% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $7.4 billion (c.i.f., 1997 est.)
commodities: industrial goods and equipment 57%, hydrocarbons 13%,
food 12%, consumer goods
partners: EU countries 80%, North African countries 5.5%, Asia 5.5%,
US 5% (1996)

Debt-external: $10.6 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $221 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Tunisian dinar (TD) = 1,000 millimes

Exchange rates: Tunisian dinars (TD) per US$1-1.1612 (January 1998),
1.1059 (1997), 0.9734 (1996), 0.9458 (1995), 1.0116 (1994), 1.0037
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 560,000 (1996 est.)

Telephone system: the system is above the African average; key centers
are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis
domestic: trunk facilities consist of open-wire lines, coaxial cable,
and microwave radio relay
international: 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations-1 Intelsat
(Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat with back-up control station; coaxial
cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria and Libya; participant in
Medarabtel

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 8, shortwave 0

Radios: 1,693,527 (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 19

Televisions: 1.4 million

Communications-note: Internet access is available through two private
service providers licensed by the government

@Tunisia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,260 km
standard gauge: 492 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 1,758 km 1.000-m gauge
dual gauge: 10 km 1.000-m and 1.435-m gauges (1993 est.)

Highways:
total: 23,100 km
paved: 18,226 km
unpaved: 4,874 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 797 km; petroleum products 86 km; natural gas 742
km

Ports and harbors: Bizerte, Gabes, La Goulette, Sfax, Sousse, Tunis,
Zarzis

Merchant marine:
total: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 157,475 GRT/165,922 DWT
ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 5, chemical tanker 2, liquefied gas
tanker 1, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger
3, specialized tanker 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 32 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 15
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 17
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 7 (1997 est.)

@Tunisia:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary forces

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 2,534,929 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,450,442 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 96,966 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $535 million (1995)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.8% (1995)

@Tunisia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: maritime boundary dispute with Libya; Malta
and Tunisia are discussing the commercial exploitation of the
continental shelf between their countries, particularly for oil
exploration

______________________________________________________________________

TURKEY

@Turkey:Geography

Location: southwestern Asia (that part west of the Bosporus is
sometimes included with Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between
Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the
Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria

Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 35 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 780,580 sq km
land: 770,760 sq km
water: 9,820 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 2,627 km
border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km,
Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 331 km, Syria 822 km

Coastline: 7,200 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only-to the maritime boundary
agreed upon with the former USSR
territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea,; 12 nm in the Black Sea and
in the Mediterranean Sea

Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher
in interior

Terrain: mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau
(Anatolia)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m

Natural resources: antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate,
sulfur, iron ore

Land use:
arable land: 32%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 16%
forests and woodland: 26%
other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 36,740 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: very severe earthquakes, especially in northern
Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van

Environment-current issues: water pollution from dumping of chemicals
and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas;
deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship
traffic

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Environmental Modification

Geography-note: strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits
(Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean
Seas

@Turkey:People

Population: 64,566,511 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 31% (male 10,165,804; female 9,802,232)
15-64 years: 63% (male 20,790,422; female 20,106,320)
65 years and over: 6% (male 1,706,939; female 1,994,794) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.6% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 21.38 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.35 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 38.27 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.82 years
male: 70.38 years
female: 75.39 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.47 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Turk(s)
adjective: Turkish

Ethnic groups: Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20%

Religions: Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (Christian and
Jews)

Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 82.3%
male: 91.7%
female: 72.4% (1995 est.)

@Turkey:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
conventional short form: Turkey
local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
local short form: Turkiye

Data code: TU

Government type: republican parliamentary democracy

National capital: Ankara

Administrative divisions: 80 provinces (iller, singular-il); Adana,
Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan,
Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol,
Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli,
Diyarbakir, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gazi Antep,
Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul,
Izmir, Kahraman Maras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri,
Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya,
Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye,
Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanli Urfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas,
Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat,
Zonguldak
note: Karabuk, Kilis, Osmaniye and Yalova are the four newest
provinces; the US Board on Geographic Names is awaiting an official
Turkish administrative map for verification of the boundaries

Independence: 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Declaration of the Republic, 29
October (1923)

Constitution: 7 November 1982

Legal system: derived from various European continental legal systems;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Suleyman DEMIREL (since 16 May 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Mesut YILMAZ (since 12 July 1997)
and Deputy Prime Ministers Bulent ECEVIT (since 12 July 1997) and
Ismet SEZGIN (since 12 July 1997)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
nomination of the prime minister
note: there is also a National Security Council that serves as an
advisory body to the president and the cabinet
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a seven-year
term; election last held 16 May 1993 (next scheduled to be held NA
2000); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the
president
election results: Suleyman DEMIREL elected president; percent of
National Assembly vote - 54%

Legislative branch: unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or
Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members are elected to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 24 December 1995 (next to be held by December
2000)
election results: percent of vote by party-RP 21.38%, DYP 19.18%, ANAP
19.65%, DSP 14.64%, CHP 10.71%, independent 0.48%; seats by party-RP
158, DYP 135, ANAP 133, DSP 75, CHP 49; note-seats held by various
parties are subject to change due to defections, creation of new
parties, and ouster or death of sitting deputies; seating by party as
of 4 May 1998: FP 142, ANAP 139, DYP 92, DSP 62, CHP 56, DTP 22, BBP
8, MHP 2, DP 1, DEPAR 1, independents 16, vacant 9

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, judges appointed by the
president; Court of Appeals, judges are elected by the Supreme Council
of Judges and Prosecutors

Political parties and leaders: Motherland Party or ANAP [Mesut
YILMAZ]; Democratic Left Party or DSP [Bulent ECEVIT]; True Path Party
or DYP [Tansu CILLER]; Welfare Party or RP [Necmettin ERBAKAN]
(officially outlawed on 22 February 1998); Nationalist Action Party or
MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]; Republican People's Party or CHP [Deniz BAYKAL];
Workers' Party or IP [Dogu PERINCEK]; Nation Party or MP [Aykut
EDIBALI]; Democratic Party or DP [Korkut OZAL]; Grand Unity Party or
BBP [Muhsin YAZICIOGLU]; Rebirth Party or YDP [Hasan Celal GUZEL];
People's Democracy Party or HADEP [Murat BOZLAK]; Main Path Party or
ANAYOL [Gurcan BASER]; Democratic Target Party or DHP [Abdulkadir
Yasar TURK]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Besim TIBUK]; New
Democracy Movement or YDH [Huseyin ERGUN]; Labor Party or EP [Ihsan
CARALAN]; Democracy and Peace Party or DBP [Refik KARAKOC]; Freedom
and Solidarity Party or ODP [Ufuk URAS]; Peace Party or BP [Mehmet
ETI]; Democratic Mass Party or DKP [Serafettin ELCI]; Democratic
Turkey Party or DTP [Husamettin CINDORUK]; Virtue Party or FP [Ismail
ALPTEKIN]; Changing Turkey Party or DEPAR [Gokhan CAPOGLU]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Turkish Confederation of Labor
or Turk-Is [Bayram MERAL]; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers
Unions or DISK [Ridvan BUDAK]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is
[Salim USLU]; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or
TUSIAD [Muharrem KAYHAN]; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and
Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [Fuat MIRAS]; Turkish Confederation of
Employers' Unions or TISK [Refik BAYDUR]; Independent Industrialists
and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Erol YARAR]

International organization participation: AsDB, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE,
CERN (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NATO, NEA, OECD,
OIC, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH,
UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNRWA, UPU, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Baki ILKIN
chancery: 1714 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 659-8200
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mark PARRIS
embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Ankara
mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5000, APO AE 09823
telephone: [90] (312) 468-6110
FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019
consulate(s) general: Istanbul
consulate(s): Adana

Flag description: red with a vertical white crescent (the closed
portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered
just outside the crescent opening

@Turkey:Economy

Economy-overview: Turkey's dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern
industry and commerce along with traditional village agriculture and
crafts. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the
state still plays a major role in basic industry, banking, transport,
and communication. Its most important industry-and the largest source
of exports-is textiles and clothing, which is almost entirely in
private hands. The current economic situation is marked by strong
growth coupled with serious imbalances. Real GDP expanded by about 7%
in 1997 but inflation rose to 99% at yearend, and the public sector
fiscal deficit probably remained near 10% of GDP. To some extent,
Ankara is caught in a vicious fiscal circle because about half of all
central government revenue is going to pay interest on the national
debt. The government that took office in July 1997-headed by Prime
Minister YILMAZ's Motherland Party-enacted a 1998 budget that includes
substantial tax increases and cuts in non-interest spending but these
gains will be offset by a jump in interest payments. The government
also is planning to overhaul the social welfare and tax systems and to
speed up privatization, although these reforms will face tough
political opposition. Ankara is trying to increase trade with other
countries in the region but most of Turkey's trade is still with OECD
countries. Despite the implementation in January 1996 of customs union
with the EU, foreign direct investment in the country remains
low-about $0.5 billion annually-perhaps because potential investors
are concerned about high inflation and the unsettled political
situation. Economic growth will slow in 1998 to perhaps 4%, and
inflation should decline, although the government's 50% target appears
overoptimistic. The current account deficit probably will remain
small-1% to 1.5% of GDP - when Turkey's unrecorded "suitcase" exports
are included.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$388.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 7.2% (1997)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$6,100 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 15%
industry: 28.4%
services: 56.6% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 99% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 21.6 million
by occupation: agriculture 43.1%, services 30.1%, industry 14.4%,
construction 6.0% (1996)
note: about 1.5 million Turks work abroad (1994)

Unemployment rate: 5.9% another 5.1% officially considered
underemployed (April 1997)

Budget:
revenues: $38.5 billion
expenditures: $52.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $4.2
billion (1997)

Industries: textiles, food processing, mining (coal, chromite, copper,
boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

Industrial production growth rate: 10.8% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 21.83 million kW (1997)

Electricity-production: 103 billion kWh (1997)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,636 kWh (1997)

Agriculture-products: tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets,
pulses, citrus; livestock

Exports:
total value: $26 billion (f.o.b., 1997); note-substantial unrecorded
exports estimated at $5.8 billion
commodities: textiles and apparel 37%, iron and steel products 10%,
foodstuffs 17% (1997)
partners: Germany 20%, US 8%, Russia 8%, UK 6%, Italy 5% (1997)

Imports:
total value: $46.7 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: machinery 26%, fuels 13%, raw materials 10%, foodstuffs
4% (1997)
partners: Germany 16%, Italy 9%, US 9%, France 6%, UK 6% (1997)

Debt-external: $84.5 billion (September 1997)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $195 million (1993)

Currency: Turkish lira (TL)

Exchange rates: Turkish liras (TL) per US$1-212,500 (January 1998),
151,600 (1997), 81,405 (1996), 45,845.1 (1995), 29,608.7 (1994),
10,984.6 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 14.3 million (1995 est.)

Telephone system: fair domestic and international systems
domestic: trunk microwave radio relay network; limited open-wire
network
international: 12 satellite earth stations-Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean),
Eutelsat, and Inmarsat (Indian and Atlantic Ocean regions); 3
submarine fiberoptic cables (1996)

Radio broadcast stations: national broadcast stations 36, regional
broadcast stations 108, local broadcast stations 1,058 (1996)

Radios: 9.4 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 15 national, 15 regional, 229 local

Televisions: 10.53 million (1993 est.)

@Turkey:Transportation

Railways:
total: 10,386 km
standard gauge: 10,386 km 1.435-m gauge (1,093 km electrified)

Highways:
total: 381,631 km
paved: 95,408 km (including 1,405 km of expressways)
unpaved: 286,223 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: about 1,200 km

Pipelines: crude oil 1,738 km; petroleum products 2,321 km; natural
gas 708 km

Ports and harbors: Gemlik, Hopa, Iskenderun, Istanbul, Izmir, Kocaeli
(Izmit), Icel (Mersin), Samsun, Trabzon

Merchant marine:
total: 528 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,205,399 GRT/10,400,716
DWT
ships by type: bulk 169, cargo 232, chemical tanker 26, combination
bulk 5, combination ore/oil 10, container 5, liquefied gas tanker 5,
oil tanker 40, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 3,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 21, short-sea passenger 9, specialized tanker 2
note: Turkey owns an additional 41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
313,523 DWT operating under the registries of The Bahamas, Malta, and
Panama (1997 est.)

Airports: 114 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 80
over 3,047 m: 17
2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 19
under 914 m: 5 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 34
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 25 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1997 est.)

@Turkey:Military

Military branches: Land Forces, Navy (includes Naval Air and Naval
Infantry), Air Force, Coast Guard, Gendarmerie

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 17,761,347 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 10,789,134 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 658,946 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $4.3 billion (1996); note-figures
do not include about $7 billion for the government's counterinsurgency
effort

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 3.5% (1996)

@Turkey:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: complex maritime, air and territorial disputes
with Greece in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question with Greece; Hatay question
with Syria; dispute with downstream riparian states (Syria and Iraq)
over water development plans for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers;
traditional demands on former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided

Illicit drugs: major transit route for Southwest Asian heroin and
hashish to Western Europe and the US via air, land, and sea routes;
major Turkish, Iranian, and other international trafficking
organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert
imported morphine base into heroin are in remote regions of Turkey as
well as near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas
of legal opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

______________________________________________________________________

TURKMENISTAN

@Turkmenistan:Geography

Location: Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and
Kazakhstan

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 60 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 488,100 sq km
land: 488,100 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total: 3,736 km
border countries: Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazakhstan 379 km,
Uzbekistan 1,621 km

Coastline: 0 km
note: Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: subtropical desert

Terrain: flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains
in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian
Sea in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sarygamysh Koli -110 m
highest point: Ayrybaba 3,139 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, sulfur, salt

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 63%
forests and woodland: 8%
other: 26% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 13,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: contamination of soil and groundwater with
agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salinization, water-logging of
soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion
of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation
contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea;
desertification

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous
Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: landlocked

@Turkmenistan:People

Population: 4,297,629 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 39% (male 843,839; female 813,837)
15-64 years: 57% (male 1,211,477; female 1,249,085)
65 years and over: 4% (male 67,842; female 111,549) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.6% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 26.24 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.7 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 72.89 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 61.3 years
male: 57.68 years
female: 65.11 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.26 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Turkmen(s)
adjective: Turkmen

Ethnic groups: Turkmen 77%, Uzbek 9.2%, Russian 6.7%, Kazakh 2%, other
5.1% (1995)

Religions: Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%

Languages: Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 97% (1989 est.)

@Turkmenistan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Turkmenistan
local long form: none
local short form: Turkmenistan
former: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: TX

Government type: republic

National capital: Ashgabat

Administrative divisions: 5 welayatlar (singular-welayat): Ahal
Welayaty (Ashgabat), Balkan Welayaty (Nebitdag), Dashhowuz Welayaty
(formerly Tashauz), Lebap Welayaty (Charjew), Mary Welayaty
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name
following in parentheses)

Independence: 27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 October (1991)

Constitution: adopted 18 May 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers
Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 October 1990, when the first direct
presidential election occurred); note-the president is both the chief
of state and head of government
head of government: President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers
Saparmurat NIYAZOV; note-the president is both the chief of state and
head of government; Deputy Chairmen of the Cabinet of Ministers
Mukhamed ABALAKOV (since NA), Orazgeldy AYDOGDIYEV (since NA 1992),
Hudaayguly HALYKOV (since NA 1996), Rejep SAPAROV (since NA 1992),
Boris SHIKHMURADOV (since NA 1993), Batyr SARJAYEV (since NA 1993),
Ilaman SHIKHIYEV (since NA 1995), Yolly GURBANMURADOV (since NA 1997),
Saparmurat NURIYEV (since NA 1997)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
note: NIYAZOV has been asked by various local groups, most recently on
26 October 1995 at the annual elders meeting, to be "president for
life," but he has declined, saying the status would require an
amendment to the constitution
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 21 June 1992 (next to be held NA 2002;
note-extension of President NIYAZOV's term for an additional five
years overwhelmingly approved-99.9% of total vote in favor-by national
referendum held 15 January 1994); deputy chairmen of the cabinet of
ministers are appointed by the president
election results: Saparmurat NIYAZOV elected president without
opposition; percent of vote-Saparmurad NIYAZOV 99.5%

Legislative branch: under the 1992 constitution, there are two
parliamentary bodies, a unicameral People's Council or Halk Maslahaty
(more than 100 seats, some of which are popularly elected and some are
appointed; meets infrequently) and a unicameral Assembly or Majlis (50
seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: People's Council-no elections; Assembly-last held 11
December 1994 (next to be held NA 1999)
election results: Assembly-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-Democratic Party 45, other 5; note-all 50 preapproved by
President NIYAZOV

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of Turkmenistan or DPT
[Saparmurat NIYAZOV]
note: formal opposition parties are outlawed; unofficial, small
opposition movements exist underground or in foreign countries

International organization participation: CCC, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OSCE,
PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
(observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Halil UGUR
chancery: 2207 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-1500
FAX: [1] (202) 588-0697

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael W. COTTER
embassy: 9 Pushkin Street, Ashgabat
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [9] (9312) 35-00-45, 35-00-46, 35-00-42, 51-13-06, Tie Line
[8] 962-0000
FAX: [9] (9312) 51-13-05

Flag description: green field, including a vertical stripe on the
hoist side, with a claret vertical stripe in between containing five
white, black, and orange carpet guls (an asymmetrical design used in
producing rugs associated with five different tribes); a white
crescent and five white stars in the upper left corner to the right of
the carpet guls
note: a new flag has been reported

@Turkmenistan:Economy

Economy-overview: Turkmenistan is largely desert country with nomadic
cattle raising, intensive agriculture in irrigated oases, and huge gas
and oil resources. One-half of its irrigated land is planted in
cotton, making it the world's tenth largest producer. It also
possesses the world's fifth largest reserves of natural gas and
substantial oil resources. Until the end of 1993, Turkmenistan had
experienced less economic disruption than other former Soviet states
because its economy received a boost from higher prices for oil and
gas and a sharp increase in hard currency earnings. In 1994, Russia's
refusal to export Turkmen gas to hard currency markets and mounting
debts of its major customers in the former USSR for gas deliveries
contributed to a sharp fall in industrial production and caused the
budget to shift from a surplus to a slight deficit. The economy
bottomed out in 1996, but high inflation continued. Furthermore, with
an authoritarian ex-communist regime in power and a tribally based
social structure, Turkmenistan has taken a cautious approach to
economic reform, hoping to use gas and cotton sales to sustain its
inefficient economy. In 1996, the government set in place a
stabilization program aimed at a unified and market-based exchange
rate, allocation of government credits by auction, and strict limits
on budget deficits. Privatization goals remain limited. Turkmenistan
is working hard to open new gas export channels through Iran and
Turkey to Europe, but these will take many years to realize.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$12.5 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: -0.3% (1996)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$3,000 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 18%
industry: 50%
services: 32% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 992% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2.34 million (1996)
by occupation: agriculture and forestry 44%, industry and construction
19%, other 37% (1996)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $521 million
expenditures: $548 million, including capital expenditures of $83
million (1996 est.)

Industries: natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food
processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 3.95 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 9.204 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 2,013 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cotton, grain; livestock

Exports:
total value: $1.7 billion to states outside the FSU (1996)
commodities: natural gas, cotton, petroleum products, textiles,
electricity, carpets
partners: FSU, Hong Kong, Switzerland, US, Germany, Turkey (1996)

Imports:
total value: $1.5 billion from states outside the FSU (1996)
commodities: machinery and parts, grain and food, plastics and rubber,
consumer durables, textiles
partners: FSU, US, Turkey, Germany, Cyprus (1996)

Debt-external: $400 million (of which $275 million to Russia) (1995
est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $10 million (1993)
note: commitments, $1,830 million ($375 million drawn), 1992-95

Currency: 1 Tukmen manat (TMM) = 100 tenesi; Turkmenistan introduced
its national currency on 1 November 1993

Exchange rates: manats per US$1-4,070 (January 1997), 2,400 (January
1996)
note: government established a unified rate in mid-January 1996

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: poorly developed
domestic: NA
international: linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS
republics and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow
international gateway switch; a new telephone link from Ashgabat to
Iran has been established; a new exchange in Ashgabat switches
international traffic through Turkey via Intelsat; satellite earth
stations-1 Orbita and 1 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: 1 state-owned radio broadcast station of NA
type

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 state-run

Televisions: NA

@Turkmenistan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,187 km
broad gauge: 2,187 km 1.520-m gauge (1996 est.)

Highways:
total: 24,000 km
paved: 19,488 km (note-these roads are said to be hard-surfaced,
meaning that some are paved and some are all-weather gravel surfaced
unpaved: 4,512 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: the Amu Darya is an important inland waterway

Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; natural gas 4,400 km

Ports and harbors: Turkmenbashi (formerly Krasnowodsk)

Merchant marine:
total: 1 oil tanker ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,896 GRT/3,389
DWT (1997 est.)

Airports: 64 (1994 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 22
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1994 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 42
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 35 (1994 est.)

@Turkmenistan:Military

Military branches: Ministry of Defense (Army, Air and Air Defense,
Navy, Border Troops, and Internal Troops), National Guard

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,080,486 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 878,274 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 43,901 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: 4.5 billion manats (1995);
note-conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 3% (1995)

@Turkmenistan:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined
among Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan

Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivator of opium poppy, mostly for
domestic consumption; limited government eradication program;
increasingly used as transshipment point for illicit drugs from
Southwest Asia to Russia and Western Europe; also a transshipment
point for acetic anhydride destined for Afghanistan

______________________________________________________________________

TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Turks and Caicos Islands:Geography

Location: Caribbean, two island groups in the North Atlantic Ocean,
southeast of The Bahamas

Geographic coordinates: 21 45 N, 71 35 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 430 sq km
land: 430 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 389 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and
relatively dry

Terrain: low, flat limestone; extensive marshes and mangrove swamps

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Blue Hills 49 m

Natural resources: spiny lobster, conch

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 98% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: frequent hurricanes

Environment-current issues: limited natural fresh water resources,
private cisterns collect rainwater

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: 30 islands (eight inhabited)

@Turks and Caicos Islands:People

Population: 16,249 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: (male 2,666; female 2,588)
15-64 years: (male 5,418; female 4,907)
65 years and over: (male 293; female 377) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.77% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 27.14 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 4.98 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 15.57 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 21.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.15 years
male: 70.21 years
female: 74.2 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.32 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: none
adjective: none

Ethnic groups: black

Religions: Baptist 41.2%, Methodist 18.9%, Anglican 18.3%, Seventh-Day
Adventist 1.7%, other 19.9% (1980)

Languages: English (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 98% (1970 est.)

@Turks and Caicos Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Turks and Caicos Islands

Data code: TK

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: Grand Turk

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 30 August (1976)

Constitution: introduced 30 August 1976, suspended in 1986, restored
and revised 5 March 1988

Legal system: based on laws of England and Wales with a small number
adopted from Jamaica and The Bahamas

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1953),
represented by Governor John KELLY (since NA September 1996)
head of government: Chief Minister Derek H. TAYLOR (since 31 January
1995)
cabinet: Executive Council consists of three ex officio members and
five appointed by the governor from among the members of the
Legislative Council
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor appointed
by the queen; chief minister appointed by the governor

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (19 seats, of which
13 are popularly elected; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 31 January 1995 (next to be held by NA December
1999)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-PDM 8,
PNP 4, independent (Norman SAUNDERS) 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Progressive National Party (PNP),
Washington MISICK; People's Democratic Movement (PDM), Derek H.
TAYLOR; United Democratic Party (UDP), Wendal SWANN

International organization participation: Caricom (associate), CDB,
Interpol (subbureau)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
the UK)

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the colonial shield centered on the outer half of the
flag; the shield is yellow and contains a conch shell, lobster, and
cactus

@Turks and Caicos Islands:Economy

Economy-overview: The Turks and Caicos economy is based on tourism,
fishing, and offshore financial services. Most capital goods and food
for domestic consumption are imported. The US was the leading source
of tourists in 1996, accounting for more than half of the 87,000
visitors. Major sources of government revenue include fees from
offshore financial activities and customs receipts.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$110 million (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.5% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$7,700 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 8% (1994 est.)

Labor force:
total: 4,848 (1990 est.)
by occupation: about 33% in government and 20% in agriculture and
fishing; large numbers in tourism and financial and other services
(1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $31.9 million
expenditures: $30.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995)

Industries: tourism, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 4,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 5 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 359 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: corn, beans, cassava, citrus fruits; fish

Exports:
total value: $6.8 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: lobster, dried and fresh conch, conch shells
partners: US, UK

Imports:
total value: $42.8 million (1993)
commodities: food and beverages, tobacco, clothing, manufactures,
construction materials
partners: US, UK

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 1,359 (1988 est.)

Telephone system: fair cable and radiotelephone services
domestic: NA
international: 2 submarine cables; satellite earth station-1 Intelsat
(Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 7,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: television programs are available from
a cable network, and broadcasts from the Bahamas can be received in
the islands

Televisions: NA

@Turks and Caicos Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 121 km
paved: 24 km
unpaved: 97 km

Ports and harbors: Grand Turk, Providenciales

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 7 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Turks and Caicos Islands:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Turks and Caicos Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American narcotics
destined for the US

______________________________________________________________________

TUVALU

@Tuvalu:Geography

Location: Oceania, island group consisting of nine coral atolls in the
South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to
Australia

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 S, 178 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 26 sq km
land: 26 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 24 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to
November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)

Terrain: very low-lying and narrow coral atolls

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 5 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (1993 est.)
note: Tuvalu's nine coral atolls have enough soil to grow coconuts and
support subsistence agriculture

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: severe tropical storms are usually rare, but, in
1997, there were three cyclones

Environment-current issues: since there are no streams or rivers and
groundwater is not potable, all water needs must be met by catchment
systems with storage facilities; beachhead erosion because of the use
of sand for building materials; excessive clearance of forest
undergrowth for use as fuel; damage to coral reefs from the spread of
the Crown of Thorns starfish; Tuvalu is very concerned about global
increases in greenhouse gas emissions and their effect on rising sea
levels, which threaten the country's underground water table

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Climate Change, Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Law of the Sea

@Tuvalu:People

Population: 10,444 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35% (male 1,875; female 1,804)
15-64 years: 60% (male 2,980; female 3,290)
65 years and over: 5% (male 226; female 269) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.4% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 22.6 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.62 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 26.23 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.88 years
male: 62.72 years
female: 65.09 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.11 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Tuvaluan(s)
adjective: Tuvaluan

Ethnic groups: Polynesian 96%

Religions: Church of Tuvalu (Congregationalist) 97%, Seventh-Day
Adventist 1.4%, Baha'i 1%, other 0.6%

Languages: Tuvaluan, English

Literacy: NA; note-education is free and compulsory from ages 6
through 13

@Tuvalu:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Tuvalu
former: Ellice Islands

Data code: TV

Government type: constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary
democracy; began debating republic status in 1992

National capital: Funafuti

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 1 October 1978 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1978)

Constitution: 1 October 1978

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Manuella TULAGA (since NA June 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Bikenibeu PAENIU (since 23 December
1996) and Deputy Prime Minister Kokeiya MALUA (since 8 April 1998);
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the
recommendation of the prime minister
elections: the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
appointed by the queen on the recommendation of the prime minister;
prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by and from the
members of Parliament; election last held 8 April 1998 (next to be
held NA 2002)
election results: Bikenibeu PAENIU reelected prime minister by a vote
in Parliament of 10 to 2; Kokeiya MALUA elected deputy prime minister;
percent of Parliament vote-NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Fale I Fono, also called
House of Assembly (12 seats-two from each island with more than 1,000
inhabitants, one from all the other inhabited islands; members elected
by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 26-27 March 1998 (next to be held by NA 2002)
election results: percent of vote-NA; seats-independents 12

Judicial branch: eight Island Courts; High Court; note-a chief justice
visits twice a year to preside over sessions of the High Court

Political parties and leaders: there are no political parties but
members of Parliament usually align themselves in informal groupings

International organization participation: AsDB, C (special), ESCAP,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), ITU, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, UPU,
WHO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Tuvalu does not have an embassy
in the US

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Tuvalu; the US ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tuvalu

Flag description: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant; the outer half of the flag represents a map of
the country with nine yellow five-pointed stars symbolizing the nine
islands

@Tuvalu:Economy

Economy-overview: Tuvalu consists of a densely populated, scattered
group of nine coral atolls with poor soil. The country has no known
mineral resources and few exports. Subsistence farming and fishing are
the primary economic activities. The islands are too small and too
remote for development of a large-scale tourist industry. Government
revenues largely come from the sale of stamps and coins and worker
remittances. About 1,000 Tuvaluans work in Nauru in the phosphate
mining industry. Nauru has begun repatriating Tuvaluans, however, as
phosphate resources decline, which will present additional problems
for Tuvalu's already stretched economy. Substantial income is received
annually from an international trust fund established in 1987 by
Australia, NZ, and the UK and supported also by Japan and South Korea.
In an effort to reduce its dependence on foreign aid, the government
is pursuing public sector reforms, including privatization of some
government functions and personnel cuts of up to 7%. Low-lying Tuvalu
is particularly vulnerable to any future global warming.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$7.8 million (1995 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 8.7% (1995)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$800 (1995 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3.9% (average 1985-93)

Labor force: NA
by occupation: NA
note: people make a living mainly through exploitation of the sea,
reefs, and atolls and from wages sent home by those working abroad
(mostly workers in the phosphate industry and sailors)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $4.3 million
expenditures: $4.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1989 est.)

Industries: fishing, tourism, copra

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 2,600 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 3 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture-products: coconuts; fish

Exports:
total value: $165,000 (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities: copra
partners: Fiji, Australia, NZ

Imports:
total value: $4.4 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities: food, animals, mineral fuels, machinery, manufactured
goods
partners: Fiji, Australia, NZ

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $1.725 million from Australia (FY96/97 est.); $1.7
million from NZ (FY95/96); note: substantial annual support from an
international trust fund

Currency: 1 Tuvaluan dollar ($T) or 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100
cents

Exchange rates: Tuvaluan dollars ($T) or Australian dollars ($A) per
US$1-1.5281 (January 1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486
(1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 130 (1983 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: radiotelephone communications between islands
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 4,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: NA

@Tuvalu:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 8 km (1996 est.)
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Funafuti, Nukufetau

Merchant marine:
total: 14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 53,220 GRT/83,118 DWT
ships by type: cargo 8, chemical tanker 4, oil tanker 1,
passenger-cargo 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Tuvalu:Military

Military branches: no regular military forces; Police Force (consists
of 56 full- and part-time personnel)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Tuvalu:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

UGANDA

@Uganda:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, west of Kenya

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 N, 32 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 236,040 sq km
land: 199,710 sq km
water: 36,330 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries:
total: 2,698 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 765 km, Kenya 933
km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan 435 km, Tanzania 396 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to
February, June to August); semiarid in northeast

Terrain: mostly plateau with rim of mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Lake Albert 621 m
highest point: Margherita (Mount Stanley) 5,110 m

Natural resources: copper, cobalt, limestone, salt

Land use:
arable land: 25%
permanent crops: 9%
permanent pastures: 9%
forests and woodland: 28%
other: 29% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 90 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: draining of wetlands for agricultural use;
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching is widespread

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography-note: landlocked

@Uganda:People

Population: 22,167,195 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 51% (male 5,682,510; female 5,643,962)
15-64 years: 47% (male 5,157,818; female 5,199,080)
65 years and over: 2% (male 236,374; female 247,451) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.85% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 49.21 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 18.95 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)
note: Uganda is host to refugees from a number of neighboring
countries, including: Sudan 175,000, Rwanda possibly 10,000, and
Democratic Republic of the Congo about 5,000

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 92.86 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 42.6 years
male: 41.81 years
female: 43.41 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.09 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ugandan(s)
adjective: Ugandan

Ethnic groups: Baganda 17%, Karamojong 12%, Basogo 8%, Iteso 8%, Langi
6%, Rwanda 6%, Bagisu 5%, Acholi 4%, Lugbara 4%, Bunyoro 3%, Batobo
3%, non-African (European, Asian, Arab) 1%, other 23%

Religions: Roman Catholic 33%, Protestant 33%, Muslim 16%, indigenous
beliefs 18%

Languages: English (official national language, taught in grade
schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio
broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo
languages, preferred for native language publications and may be
taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan
languages, Swahili, Arabic

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 61.8%
male: 73.7%
female: 50.2% (1995 est.)

@Uganda:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
conventional short form: Uganda

Data code: UG

Government type: republic

National capital: Kampala

Administrative divisions: 39 districts; Apac, Arua, Bundibugyo,
Bushenyi, Gulu, Hoima, Iganga, Jinja, Kabale, Kabarole, Kalangala,
Kampala, Kamuli, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Kibale, Kiboga, Kisoro, Kitgum,
Kotido, Kumi, Lira, Luwero, Masaka, Masindi, Mbale, Mbarara, Moroto,
Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nebbi, Ntungamo, Pallisa, Rakai,
Rukungiri, Soroti, Tororo

Independence: 9 October 1962 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 October (1962)

Constitution: 8 October 1995; adopted by the interim, 284-member
Constituent Assembly, charged with debating the draft constitution
that had been proposed in May 1993; the Constituent Assembly was
dissolved on promulgation of the constitution in October 1995

Legal system: in 1995, the government restored the legal system to one
based on English common law and customary law and reinstituted a
normal judicial system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since
seizing power 29 January 1986); note-the president is both chief of
state and head of government
head of government: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since
seizing power 29 January 1986); Prime Minister Kintu MUSOKE (since 18
November 1994) note-the president is both chief of state and head of
government; the prime minister assists the president in the
supervision of the cabinet
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected
legislators
elections: president elected by popular vote; election last held 9 May
1996 (next to be held by 31 May 2001); note-first popular election for
president since independence in 1962; prime minister appointed by the
president
election results: Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI elected president;
percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI 74%, Paul Kawanga
SSEMOGERERE 24%, Muhammad MAYANJA 2%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (276 members serve
five-year terms; 214 directly elected by universal suffrage, but 62
are nominated by legally established special interest groups and
approved by the president-women 39, army 10, disabled 5, youth 5,
labor 3)
elections: elections to the National Assembly (formerly the National
Resistance Council) took place on 27 June 1996 (next election to be
held in 2001);
election results: NA; note-election campaigning by party was not
permitted

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, judges are appointed by the
president; High Court, judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: only one political organization, the
National Resistance Movement or NRM [Dr. Samson KISEKKA, chairman] is
recognized; note-this is the party of President MUSEVENI; the
president maintains that the NRM is not a political party, but a
movement which claims the loyalty of all Ugandans
note: of the political parties that exist but are prohibited from
sponsoring candidates, the most important are the Ugandan People's

Book of the day: