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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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Telephones: 137,000 (1989 est.)

Telephone system: fair system operating below capacity
domestic: open wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and
1 Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 720,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (1995 est.); note-all on Zanzibar

Televisions: 55,000 (1993 est.)

@Tanzania:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,569 km (1995)
narrow gauge: 2,600 km 1.000-m gauge; 969 km 1.067-m gauge
note: the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA), which operates
1,860 km of 1.067-m narrow gauge track between Dar es Salaam and New
Kapiri Mposhi in Zambia (of which 969 km are in Tanzania and 891 km
are in Zambia) is not a part of Tanzania Railways Corporation; because
of the difference in gauge, this system does not connect to Tanzania
Railways

Highways:
total: 88,200 km
paved: 3,704 km
unpaved: 84,496 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Lake Nyasa

Pipelines: crude oil 982 km

Ports and harbors: Bukoba, Dar es Salaam, Kigoma, Kilwa Masoko, Lindi,
Mtwara, Mwanza, Pangani, Tanga, Wete, Zanzibar

Merchant marine:
total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 30,371 GRT/41,269 DWT
ships by type: cargo 3, oil tanker 2, passenger-cargo 2,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 123 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 112
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 60
under 914 m: 35 (1997 est.)

@Tanzania:Military

Military branches: Tanzanian People's Defense Force or TPDF (includes
Army, Navy, and Air Force), paramilitary Police Field Force Unit,
Militia

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 6,935,184 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 4,014,130 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $69 million (FY94/95)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Tanzania:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: dispute with Malawi over the boundary in Lake
Nyasa (Lake Malawi); Democratic Republic of the Congo-Tanzania-Zambia
tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be indefinite since it has
been informally reported that the indefinite section of the Democratic
Republic of the Congo-Zambia boundary has been settled

Illicit drugs: growing role in transshipment of Southwest and
Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for
European and US markets and of South Asian methaqualone bound for
Southern Africa

______________________________________________________________________

THAILAND

@Thailand:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of
Thailand, southeast of Burma

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 100 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 514,000 sq km
land: 511,770 sq km
water: 2,230 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming

Land boundaries:
total: 4,863 km
border countries: Burma 1,800 km, Cambodia 803 km, Laos 1,754 km,
Malaysia 506 km

Coastline: 3,219 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to
September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March);
southern isthmus always hot and humid

Terrain: central plain; Khorat Plateau in the east; mountains
elsewhere

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point: Doi Inthanon 2,576 m

Natural resources: tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum,
timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite

Land use:
arable land: 34%
permanent crops: 6%
permanent pastures: 2%
forests and woodland: 26%
other: 32% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 44,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: land subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the
depletion of the water table; droughts

Environment-current issues: air pollution from vehicle emissions;
water pollution from organic and factory wastes; deforestation; soil
erosion; wildlife populations threatened by illegal hunting

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine
Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical
Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Law of the Sea

Geography-note: controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and
Singapore

@Thailand:People

Population: 60,037,366 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24% (male 7,440,863; female 7,169,837)
15-64 years: 70% (male 20,605,197; female 21,210,697)
65 years and over: 6% (male 1,596,267; female 2,014,505) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.97% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 16.76 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.11 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 30.82 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69 years
male: 65.35 years
female: 72.83 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.84 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Thai (singular and plural)
adjective: Thai

Ethnic groups: Thai 75%, Chinese 14%, other 11%

Religions: Buddhism 95%, Muslim 3.8%, Christianity 0.5%, Hinduism
0.1%, other 0.6% (1991)

Languages: Thai, English (secondary language of the elite), ethnic and
regional dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.8%
male: 96%
female: 91.6% (1995 est.)

@Thailand:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Thailand
conventional short form: Thailand

Data code: TH

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Bangkok

Administrative divisions: 76 provinces (changwat, singular and
plural); Amnat Charoen, Ang Thong, Buriram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat,
Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon,
Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep
Mahanakhon (Bangkok), Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri, Mae Hong Son,
Maha Sarakham, Mukdahan, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom,
Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat,
Nong Bua Lamphu, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani,
Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit,
Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri,
Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sa Kaeo,
Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Sara Buri,
Satun, Sing Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat
Thani, Surin, Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai
Thani, Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon

Independence: 1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)

National holiday: Birthday of His Majesty the King, 5 December (1927)

Constitution: new constitution signed by King PHUMIPHON on 11 October
1997

Legal system: based on civil law system, with influences of common
law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet (since 9 June 1946)
head of government: Prime Minister CHUAN Likphai (since 15 November
1997)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
note: there is also a Privy Council
elections: none; the king is a constitutional monarch; prime minister
designated from among the members of the House of Representatives;
following a national election for the House of Representatives, the
leader of the party that can organize a majority coalition usually
becomes prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly or Rathasapha consists
of the Senate or Wuthisapha (a 270-member appointed body; members
serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Sapha
Phuthaen Ratsadon (393 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve
four-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives-last held 17 November 1996 (next
must be held by 17 November 2000, but may be held earlier)
election results: House of Representatives-percent of vote by
party-NA; seats by party - NAP 125, DP 123, NDP 52, TNP 39, SAP 20,
TCP 18, SP 8, LDP 4, MP 2, other 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Sandika), judges appointed by the king

Political parties and leaders: Thai Nation Party (TNP or Chat Thai
Party), BANHAN Sinlapa-acha; Democratic Party (DP or Prachathipat
Party), CHUAN Likphai; New Aspiration Party (NAP or Khwamwang Mai),
Gen. CHAWALIT Yongchaiyut; National Development Party (NDP or Chat
Phattana), leader NA; Phalang Dharma Party (PDP or Phalang Tham),
SUDARAT Keyuraphan; Social Action Party (SAP or Kitsangkhom Party),
MONTRI Phongphanit; Thai Citizen's Party (TCP or Prachakon Thai),
SAMAK Sunthonwet; Liberal Democratic Party (LDP or Seri Tham), PHINIT
Charusombat; Solidarity Party (SP or Ekkaphap Party), UTHAI
Phimchaichon; Mass Party (MP or Muanchon), Pol. Cpt. CHALOEM Yubamrung

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP,
ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNU,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador NIT Phibunsongkhram
chancery: 1024 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 944-3600
FAX: [1] (202) 944-3611
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador William H. ITOH
embassy: 120-122 Wireless Road, Bangkok
mailing address: APO AP 96546
telephone: [66] (2) 205-4000
FAX: [66] (2) 254-2990
consulate(s) general: Chiang Mai

Flag description: five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue
(double width), white, and red

@Thailand:Economy

Economy-overview: In 1997/98, the Thai economy is in a deep recession
as a result of the severe financial problems facing many Thai firms,
particularly banks and finance companies. In the early 1990s, Thailand
liberalized financial inflows; banks and other firms borrowed in
dollars and did not hedge their positions because there was no
perceived exchange rate risk. These funds financed a property boom
that began to taper off in the mid-1990s. In addition, export growth -
previously a key driver of the Thai economy-collapsed in 1996,
resulting in growing doubts that the Bank of Thailand could maintain
the baht's peg to the dollar. The Bank mounted an expensive defense of
the exchange rate that nearly depleted foreign exchange reserves, then
decided to float the exchange rate, triggering a sharp increase in
foreign liabilities that cash-strapped Thai firms were already having
trouble repaying. In August 1997, the government headed by Prime
Minister CHAWALIT signed an agreement with the IMF for access to a $14
billion facility to supplement foreign exchange reserves and restore
financial market stability. CHAWALIT resigned in November 1997,
however, under pressure for lacking a coherent approach to managing
the IMF program and the financial crisis. Democratic Party leader
CHUAN Likphai formed a seven-party coalition government and closely
adhered to the IMF program, tentatively reestablishing financial
stability by February 1998. An economic turnaround requires
rescheduling the large short-term foreign liabilities of Thai firms,
restoring high rates of export growth to finance foreign liabilities,
and extensively recapitalizing the banking system.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$525 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: -0.4% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$8,800 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 10%
industry: 28.7%
services: 61.3% (1997)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 5.6% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 32.6 million (1997 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 54%, industry 15%, services (including
government) 31% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3.5%

Budget:
revenues: $24 billion
expenditures: $25 billion, including capital expenditures of $8
billion (FY96/97)

Industries: tourism; textiles and garments, agricultural processing,
beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing, such as jewelry;
electric appliances and components, computers and parts, integrated
circuits, furniture, plastics; world's second-largest tungsten
producer and third-largest tin producer

Industrial production growth rate: -15% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 15.838 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 77.5 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,295 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: rice, cassava (tapioca), rubber, corn,
sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans

Exports:
total value: $51.6 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: manufactures 82%, agricultural products and fisheries 14%
(1997)
partners: US 19.6%, Japan 14.9%, Singapore 11%, Hong Kong 5.7%,
Malaysia 4.3%, UK 3.7% (1997)

Imports:
total value: $73.5 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: capital goods 50%, consumer goods 10.2%, fuels 8.7%
(1997)
partners: Japan 25.6%, US 13.9%, Singapore 5%, Taiwan 4.6%, Germany
4.5%, Malaysia 4.1% (1997)

Debt-external: $90 billion (1997)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $624 million (1993)

Currency: 1 baht (B) = 100 satang

Exchange rates: baht (B) per US$1-53.812 (January 1998), 31.364
(1997), 25.343 (1996), 24.915 (1995), 25.150 (1994), 25.319 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Communications

Telephones: 1,553,200 (1994 est.)

Telephone system: service to general public adequate, but investments
in technological upgrades reduced by recession; bulk of service to
government activities provided by multichannel cable and microwave
radio relay network
domestic: microwave radio relay and multichannel cable; domestic
satellite system being developed
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and
1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 200 (in government-controlled network),
FM 100 (in government-controlled network), shortwave 0

Radios: 10.75 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 11 (in government-controlled network)

Televisions: 3.3 million (1993 est.)

@Thailand:Transportation

Railways:
total: 4,623 km
narrow gauge: 4,623 km 1.000-m gauge (99 km double track)

Highways:
total: 64,600 km
paved: 62,985 km
unpaved: 1,615 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 3,999 km principal waterways; 3,701 km with navigable
depths of 0.9 m or more throughout the year; numerous minor waterways
navigable by shallow-draft native craft

Pipelines: petroleum products 67 km; natural gas 350 km

Ports and harbors: Bangkok, Laem Chabang, Pattani, Phuket, Sattahip,
Si Racha, Songkhla

Merchant marine:
total: 304 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,997,060 GRT/3,270,988
DWT
ships by type: bulk 48, cargo 145, chemical tanker 7, container 9,
liquefied gas tanker 13, multi-function large load carrier 3, oil
tanker 62, passenger 1, refrigerated cargo 11, roll-on/roll-off cargo
2, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 2 (1997 est.)

Airports: 106 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 55
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 4 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 51
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 34 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1997 est.)

@Thailand:Military

Military branches: Royal Thai Army, Royal Thai Navy (includes Royal
Thai Marine Corps), Royal Thai Air Force, Paramilitary Forces

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 17,296,871 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 10,435,956 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 558,579 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $4 billion (FY95/96)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.5% (FY94/95)

@Thailand:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: parts of the border with Laos are indefinite;
maritime boundary with Vietnam resolved, August 1997; parts of border
with Cambodia are indefinite; maritime boundary with Cambodia not
clearly defined

Illicit drugs: a minor producer of opium, heroin, and marijuana; major
illicit transit point for heroin en route to the international drug
market from Burma and Laos; eradication efforts have reduced the area
of cannabis cultivation and shifted some production to neighboring
countries; opium poppy cultivation has been reduced by eradication
efforts; also a drug money-laundering center; role in amphetamine
production for regional consumption; increasing indigenous abuse of
methamphetamines and heroin

______________________________________________________________________

TOGO

@Togo:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin
and Ghana

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 1 10 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 56,790 sq km
land: 54,390 sq km
water: 2,400 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 1,647 km
border countries: Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km

Coastline: 56 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 30 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain: gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern
plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pic Agou 986 m

Natural resources: phosphates, limestone, marble

Land use:
arable land: 38%
permanent crops: 7%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 17%
other: 34% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 70 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in
north during winter; periodic droughts

Environment-current issues: deforestation attributable to
slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; recent
droughts affecting agriculture

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Togo:People

Population: 4,905,827 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (male 1,190,812; female 1,180,739)
15-64 years: 49% (male 1,175,570; female 1,252,274)
65 years and over: 3% (male 48,483; female 57,949) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.52% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 45.23 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 79.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 58.78 years
male: 56.52 years
female: 61.12 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese

Ethnic groups: native African (37 tribes; largest and most important
are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than
1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 70%, Christian 20%, Muslim 10%

Languages: French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe and
Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes
spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the
north)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 51.7%
male: 67%
female: 37% (1995 est.)

@Togo:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Togolese Republic
conventional short form: Togo
local long form: Republique Togolaise
local short form: none
former: French Togo

Data code: TO

Government type: republic under transition to multiparty democratic
rule

National capital: Lome

Administrative divisions: 21 circumscriptions (circonscriptions,
singular-circonscription); Amlame, Aneho, Atakpame, Badou, Bafilo,
Bassar, Dapaong, Kande, Kara, Kpalime, Lome, Niamtougou, Notse,
Pagouda, Sansanne-Mango, Sokode, Sotouboua, Tabligbo, Tchamba, Tsevie,
Vogan
note: the 21 units may have become second-order administrative
divisions with the imposition of a new first-order level of five
prefectures (singular - prefecture) named De La Kara, Des Plateaux,
Des Savanes, Du Centre, and Maritime

Independence: 27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 April (1960)

Constitution: multiparty draft constitution approved by High Council
of the Republic 1 July 1992; adopted by public referendum 27 September
1992

Legal system: French-based court system

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA (since 14 April
1967)
head of government: Prime Minister Kwassi KLUTSE (since August 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and the prime
minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 21 June 1998 (next to be held NA 2003); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: Gnassingbe EYADEMA elected president; percent of
vote-Gnassingbe EYADEMA 52.13%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (81 seats; members
are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 6 and 20 February 1994 (next to be held NA 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-CAR 36,
RPT 35, UTD 7, UJD 2, CFN 1
note: as a result of a byelection in August 1996, ordered by the
Supreme Court for three seats of the Action Committee for Renewal and
the Togolese Union for Democracy, representation in the National
Assembly changed to RPT 38, CAR 34, UTD 6, UJD 2, and CFN 1; as a
result of subsequent defections from the CAR to the RPT and the
merging of the UJD with the RPT, representation in the National
Assembly in August 1997 was RPT 42, CAR 32, UTD 5, CFN 1, independent
1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or
Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders: Rally of the Togolese People or RPT
[President Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA]; Coordination des Forces Nouvelles
or CFN [Joseph KOFFIGOH]; Togolese Union for Democracy or UTD [Edem
KODJO]; Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yao AGBOYIBOR]; Union for
Democracy and Solidarity or UDS [Antoine FOLLY]; Pan-African
Sociodemocrats Group or GSP, an alliance of three radical parties:
CDPA, PDR, and PSP; Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA
[Leopold GNININVI]; Party for Democracy and Renewal or PDR [Zarifou
AYEVA]; Pan-African Social Party or PSP [Francis AGBAGLI]; Union of
Forces for Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO (in exile); Jeane-Pierre
FABRE, general secretary in Togo]; Union of Justice and Democracy or
UJD [Lal TAXPANDJAN]
note: Rally of the Togolese People or RPT, led by President EYADEMA,
was the only party until the formation of multiple parties was
legalized 12 April 1991

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU,
MINURSO, MIPONUH, NAM, OAU, OIC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Pascal BODJONA
chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Brenda Brown SCHOONOVER
embassy: Rue Pelletier Caventou and Rue Vauban, Lome
mailing address: B. P. 852, Lome
telephone: [228] 21 77 17, 21 29 91 through 21 29 94
FAX: [228] 21 79 52

Flag description: five equal horizontal bands of green (top and
bottom) alternating with yellow; there is a white five-pointed star on
a red square in the upper hoist-side corner; uses the popular
pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Togo:Economy

Economy-overview: This small sub-Saharan economy is heavily dependent
on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides
employment for more than 60% of the labor force. Cocoa, coffee, and
cotton together generate about 30% of export earnings. Togo is
self-sufficient in basic foodstuffs when harvests are normal, with
occasional regional supply difficulties. In the industrial sector,
phosphate mining is by far the most important activity, although it
has suffered from the collapse of world phosphate prices and increased
foreign competition. Togo serves as a regional commercial and trade
center. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World
Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage
foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has
stalled. Political unrest, including private and public sector strikes
throughout 1992 and 1993, has jeopardized the reform program, shrunk
the tax base, and disrupted vital economic activity. The 12 January
1994 devaluation of the currency by 50% provided an important impetus
to renewed structural adjustment; these efforts were facilitated by
the end of strife in 1994 and a return to overt political calm. The
1998 presidential elections provide an important opportunity for
Togo's evolving political system to demonstrate that the country can
participate in a peaceful and effective manner with World Bank and IMF
programs. Progress depends on continuing privatization, increased
transparency in government accounting to accommodate increased social
service outlays, and possible downsizing of the military, on which the
regime has depended to stay in place.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$6.2 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4.8% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,300 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 32%
industry: 23%
services: 45% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 15.7% (1995)

Labor force:
total: 1.538 million (1993 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 65%, industry 5%, services 30% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $232 million
expenditures: $252 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement;
handicrafts, textiles, beverages

Industrial production growth rate: 13.6% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 34,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 90 million kWh (1995)
note: imports electricity from Ghana

Electricity-consumption per capita: 92 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (tapioca),
corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; meat; annual fish catch of
10,000-14,000 tons

Exports:
total value: $196 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa
partners: Canada 9.2%, US 8.1%, Taiwan 7.5%, Nigeria 6.7% (1995 est.)

Imports:
total value: $404 million (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery and equipment, consumer goods, petroleum
products
partners: Ghana 17.1%, China 13.3%, France 12.5%, Cameroon 6.0% (1995
est.)

Debt-external: $1.4 billion (1995)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1-608.36 (January 1998),
583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16
(1993)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 47,000, not including those in the 10,000 telephone
capacity cellular system (1998 est.)

Telephone system: fair system based on network of microwave radio
relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and cellular system
domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional
system; cellular system has capacity of 10,000 telephones
international: satellite earth stations-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
and 1 Symphonie

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 795,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (relays 2)

Televisions: 24,000 (1992 est.)

@Togo:Transportation

Railways:
total: 525 km (1995)
narrow gauge: 525 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 7,520 km
paved: 2,376 km
unpaved: 5,144 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 50 km Mono river

Ports and harbors: Kpeme, Lome

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 9 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

@Togo:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,058,480 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 555,263 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $48 million (1993)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.9% (1993)

@Togo:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers

______________________________________________________________________

TOKELAU

(territory of New Zealand)

@Tokelau:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of three islands in the South Pacific Ocean,
about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 9 00 S, 172 00 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 10 sq km
land: 10 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 17 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 101 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds (April to November)

Terrain: low-lying coral atolls enclosing large lagoons

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 5 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 0% (soil is thin and infertile)
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: lies in Pacific typhoon belt

Environment-current issues: very limited natural resources and
overcrowding are contributing to emigration to New Zealand

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

@Tokelau:People

Population: 1,443 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: -1.35% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
noun: Tokelauan(s)
adjective: Tokelauan

Ethnic groups: Polynesian

Religions: Congregational Christian Church 70%, Roman Catholic 28%,
other 2%
note: on Atafu, all Congregational Christian Church of Samoa; on
Nukunonu, all Roman Catholic; on Fakaofo, both denominations, with the
Congregational Christian Church predominant

Languages: Tokelauan (a Polynesian language), English

@Tokelau:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Tokelau

Data code: TL

Dependency status: territory of New Zealand; note-Tokelauans are
drafting a constitution, developing institutions and patterns of
self-government as Tokelau moves toward fee association with
Wellington

Government type: NA

National capital: none; each atoll has its own administrative center

Administrative divisions: none (territory of New Zealand)

Independence: none (territory of New Zealand)

National holiday: Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840) (Treaty of Waitangi
established British sovereignty over New Zealand)

Constitution: administered under the Tokelau Islands Act of 1948, as
amended in 1970

Legal system: British and local statutes

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952);
the queen and New Zealand are represented by Administrator Lindsay
WATT (since NA March 1993)
head of government: Aliki Faipule FALIMATEAO (since NA 1997)
cabinet: the Council of Faipule, consisting of three elected leaders,
one from each atoll; functions as a cabinet
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; administrator
appointed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade in New Zealand;
the head of government is chosen from the Council of Faipule and
serves a one-year term

Legislative branch: unicameral General Fono (45 seats-15 from each of
the three atolls; members chosen by each atoll's Council of Elders or
Taupulega to serve three-year terms); note-the Tokelau Amendment Act
of 1996 confers legislative power on the General Fono

Judicial branch: Supreme Court in New Zealand exercises civil and
criminal jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: SPC, WHO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of New Zealand)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of New Zealand)

Flag description: the flag of New Zealand is used

@Tokelau:Economy

Economy-overview: Tokelau's small size, isolation, and lack of
resources greatly restrain economic development and confine
agriculture to the subsistence level. The people must rely on aid from
New Zealand to maintain public services, annual aid being
substantially greater than GDP. The principal sources of revenue come
from sales of copra, postage stamps, souvenir coins, and handicrafts.
Money is also remitted to families from relatives in New Zealand.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1.5 million (1993 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,000 (1993 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $430,830
expenditures: $2.8 million, including capital expenditures of $37,300
(1987 est.)

Industries: small-scale enterprises for copra production, wood work,
plaited craft goods; stamps, coins; fishing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: NA kW

Electricity-production: NA kWh

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture-products: coconuts, copra, breadfruit, papaya, bananas;
pigs, poultry, goats

Exports:
total value: $98,000 (f.o.b., 1983)
commodities: stamps, copra, handicrafts
partners: NZ

Imports:
total value: $323,400 (c.i.f., 1983)
commodities: foodstuffs, building materials, fuel
partners: NZ

Debt-external: $0

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $3.7 million from NZ (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1-1.7283 (January
1998), 1.5083 (1997), 1.4543 (1996), 1.5235 (1995), 1.6844 (1994),
1.8495 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: radiotelephone service between islands
international: radiotelephone service to Western Samoa;
government-regulated telephone service (TeleTok), with three satellite
earth stations, established in 1997

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
note: each atoll has a radio broadcast station of NA type that
broadcasts shipping and weather reports

Radios: 1,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA

@Tokelau:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Merchant marine: none

Airports: none; lagoon landings by amphibious aircraft from Western
Samoa

@Tokelau:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

@Tokelau:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

TONGA

@Tonga:Geography

Location: Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about
two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 175 00 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 748 sq km
land: 718 sq km
water: 30 sq km

Area-comparative: four times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 419 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to
May), cool season (May to December)

Terrain: most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral
formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Kao Island 1,033 m

Natural resources: fish, fertile soil

Land use:
arable land: 24%
permanent crops: 43%
permanent pastures: 6%
forests and woodland: 11%
other: 16% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: cyclones (October to April); earthquakes and volcanic
activity on Fonuafo'ou

Environment-current issues: deforestation results as more and more
land is being cleared for agriculture and settlement; some damage to
coral reefs from starfish and indiscriminate coral and shell
collectors; overhunting threatens native sea turtle populations

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: archipelago of 170 islands (36 inhabited)

@Tonga:People

Population: 108,207 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 0.81% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 26.43 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 6.07 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 38.57 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.54 years
male: 67.51 years
female: 71.96 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.63 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Tongan(s)
adjective: Tongan

Ethnic groups: Polynesian, Europeans about 300

Religions: Christian (Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000
adherents)

Languages: Tongan, English

Literacy:
definition: can read and write Tongan and/or English
total population: 98.5%
male: 98.4%
female: 98.7% (1996 est.)

@Tonga:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Tonga
conventional short form: Tonga
former: Friendly Islands

Data code: TN

Government type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

National capital: Nuku'alofa

Administrative divisions: three island groups; Ha'apai, Tongatapu,
Vava'u

Independence: 4 June 1970 (emancipation from UK protectorate)

National holiday: Emancipation Day, 4 June (1970)

Constitution: 4 November 1875, revised 1 January 1967

Legal system: based on English law

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King Taufa'ahau TUPOU IV (since 16 December 1965)
head of government: Prime Minister Baron VAEA (since 22 August 1991)
and Deputy Prime Minister S. Langi KAVALIKU (since 22 August 1991)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the king
note: there is also a Privy Council that consists of the king and the
Cabinet
elections: none; the king is a constitutional monarch; prime minister
and deputy prime minister appointed for life by the king

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Fale Alea (30
seats-12 reserved for cabinet ministers sitting ex officio, nine for
nobles selected by the country's 33 nobles, and nine elected by
popular vote; members serve three-year terms)
elections: last held 24-25 January 1996 (next to be held NA February
1999)
election results: percent of vote-NA; seats-7 proreform, 2
traditionalist

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the king;
Privy Council with the addition of the chief justice of the Supreme
Court sits as the Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Tonga People's Party, Viliami FUKOFUKA

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, IMF,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, Sparteca, SPC, SPF,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Tonga does not have an embassy in
the US; Ambassador Akosita FINEANGANOFO, resides in London
consulate(s) general : San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Tonga; the ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tonga

Flag description: red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in
the upper hoist-side corner

@Tonga:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy's base is agriculture, which contributes
32% to GDP. Squash, coconuts, bananas, and vanilla beans are the main
crops, and agricultural exports make up two-thirds of total exports.
The country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New
Zealand. The industrial sector accounts for only 10% of GDP. Tourism
is the primary source of hard currency earnings; the country also
remains dependent on sizable external aid and remittances to offset
its trade deficit. The economy grew at a declining rate in 1993-96.
The government has been turning its attention to further development
of the private sector and the reduction of the budget deficit.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$239 million (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 1% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,250 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 32%
industry: 10%
services: 58% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 36,665 (1994)
by occupation: agriculture 65% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 11.8% (FY93/94)

Budget:
revenues: $49 million
expenditures: $120 million, including capital expenditures of $75
million (FY96/97 est.)

Industries: tourism, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 1.9% (FY95/96)

Electricity-capacity: 7,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 30 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 284 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coconuts, copra, bananas, vanilla beans, cocoa,
coffee, ginger, black pepper; fish

Exports:
total value: $15.3 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: squash, fish, vanilla, root crops, coconut oil
partners: Japan 43%, US 19%, Canada 14%, NZ 5%, Australia 5% (1996
est.)

Imports:
total value: $82.9 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: food products, live animals, machinery and transport
equipment, manufactures, fuels, chemicals
partners: NZ 34%, Australia 16%, US 10%, UK 8%, Japan 6% (1996 est.)

Debt-external: $70 million (1995)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $37 million (1994)

Currency: 1 pa'anga (T$) = 100 seniti

Exchange rates: pa'anga (T$) per US$1-1.3112 (November 1997), 1.2323
(1996), 1.2709 (1995), 1.3202 (1994), 1.3841 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 6,000 (1994 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 66,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1995)

Televisions: 2,000 (1994 est.)

@Tonga:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 680 km
paved: 184 km
unpaved: 496 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Neiafu, Nuku'alofa, Pangai

Merchant marine:
total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,278 GRT/16,441 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, liquefied gas tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo
1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 6 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

@Tonga:Military

Military branches: Tonga Defense Services (includes, Royal Tongan
Marines, Tongan Royal Guards, Maritime Force, Police); note-a new Air
Wing which will be subordinate to the Defense Ministry is being
developed

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Tonga:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

@Trinidad and Tobago:Geography

Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates: 11 00 N, 61 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 5,130 sq km
land: 5,130 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental
margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to December)

Terrain: mostly plains with some hills and low mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: El Cerro del Aripo 940 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, asphalt

Land use:
arable land: 15%
permanent crops: 9%
permanent pastures: 2%
forests and woodland: 46%
other: 28% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 220 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical
storms

Environment-current issues: water pollution from agricultural
chemicals, industrial wastes, and raw sewage; oil pollution of
beaches; deforestation; soil erosion

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Trinidad and Tobago:People

Population: 1,116,595 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 159,353; female 152,898)
15-64 years: 65% (male 375,889; female 347,115)
65 years and over: 7% (male 36,627; female 44,713) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -1.27% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 14.89 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -19.55 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.84 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.51 years
male: 68.06 years
female: 73.03 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.09 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s)
adjective: Trinidadian, Tobagonian

Ethnic groups: black 40%, East Indian (a local term-primarily
immigrants from northern India) 40.3%, mixed 14%, white 1%, Chinese
1%, other 3.7%

Religions: Roman Catholic 32.2%, Hindu 24.3%, Anglican 14.4%, other
Protestant 14%, Muslim 6%, none or unknown 9.1%

Languages: English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.9%
male: 98.8%
female: 97% (1995 est.)

@Trinidad and Tobago:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
conventional short form: Trinidad and Tobago

Data code: TD

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Port-of-Spain

Administrative divisions: 8 counties, 3 municipalities*, and 1 ward**;
Arima*, Caroni, Mayaro, Nariva, Port-of-Spain*, Saint Andrew, Saint
David, Saint George, Saint Patrick, San Fernando*, Tobago**, Victoria

Independence: 31 August 1962 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 31 August (1962)

Constitution: 1 August 1976

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Arthur Napoleon Raymond ROBINSON (since 19
March 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Basdeo PANDAY (since 9 November
1995)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed from among the members of Parliament
elections: president elected by an electoral college that consists of
the members of the Senate and House of Representatives for a five-year
term; election last held NA February 1997 (next to be held NA 2002);
prime minister appointed from among the members of Parliament;
following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in
the House of Representatives is usually appointed prime minister
election results: Arthur Napoleon Raymond ROBINSON elected president;
percent of electoral college vote-69%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate (31
seats; members appointed by the president for a maximum term of five
years) and a House of Representatives (36 seats; members are elected
by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives-last held 6 November 1995 (next to
be held by December 2000)
election results: House of Representatives-percent of vote-PNM 52%,
UNC 42.2%, NAR 5.2%; seats by party-PNM 15, UNC 19, NAR 1, independent
1; note-the UNC formed a coalition with the NAR
note: Tobago has a unicameral House of Assembly with 15 members
serving four-year terms

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, judges are appointed by the
president on the advice of the prime minister; Supreme Court, judges
are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

Political parties and leaders: People's National Movement (PNM),
Patrick MANNING; United National Congress (UNC), Basdeo PANDAY;
National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR), Nizam MOHAMMED; Movement
for Social Transformation (MOTION), David ABDULLAH; National Joint
Action Committee (NJAC), Makandal DAAGA; National Development Party
(NDP), Carson CHARLES; Movement for Unity and Progress (MUP), Hulsie
BHAGGAN

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB,
ECLAC, FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES,
NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Michael A. ARNEAUD
chancery: 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 467-6490
FAX: [1] (202) 785-3130
consulate(s) general: Miami and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Edward E. SHUMAKER, III
embassy: 15 Queen's Park West, Port-of-Spain
mailing address: P. O. Box 752, Port-of-Spain
telephone: [1] (809) 622-6372 through 6376, 6176
FAX: [1] (809) 628-5462

Flag description: red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the
upper hoist side

@Trinidad and Tobago:Economy

Economy-overview: Trinidad and Tobago has earned a reputation as an
excellent investment site for international businesses. Successful
economic reforms were implemented in 1995, and foreign investment and
trade are flourishing. Unemployment - a main cause of the country's
socio-economic problems-is high, but has decreased to its lowest point
in five years. The country enjoys a healthy trade surplus, yet its
heavy dependence on oil and petrochemical prices makes its trade
balance vulnerable to sudden shifts. Tourism is a major foreign
exchange earner, with 260,000 arrivals in 1995, 80% from Europe.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$13.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.1% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$10,400 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 2%
industry: 45%
services: 53% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3.4% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 404,500
by occupation: construction and utilities 13%, manufacturing, mining,
and quarrying 14%, agriculture 11%, services 62% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: 16.1% (December 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $1.7 billion
expenditures: $1.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $243
million (1997 est.)

Industries: petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement,
beverage, cotton textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 7.5% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 1.15 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 3.9 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 3,068 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cocoa, sugarcane, rice, citrus, coffee,
vegetables; poultry

Exports:
total value: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, steel
products, fertilizer, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus, flowers
partners: US 48%, Caricom countries 15%, Latin America 9%, EU 5%
(1994)

Imports:
total value: $2.1 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods,
food, live animals
partners: US 48%, Venezuela 10%, UK 8%, Germany, Canada (1995)

Debt-external: $1.9 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $10 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Trinidad and Tobago dollar (TT$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TT$) per US$1-6.2840
(January 1998), 6.2503 (1997), 6.0051 (1996), 5.9478 (1995), 5.9249
(1994), 5.3511 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 170,000 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: excellent international service; good local service
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean);
tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 0
note: there were a total of 10 radio stations in 1995

Radios: 700,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (1995 est.)

Televisions: 400,000 (1992 est.)

@Trinidad and Tobago:Transportation

Railways:
note: minimal agricultural railroad system near San Fernando; railway
service was discontinued in 1968

Highways:
total: 8,320 km
paved: 4,252 km
unpaved: 4,068 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,032 km; petroleum products 19 km; natural gas
904 km

Ports and harbors: Pointe-a-Pierre, Point Fortin, Point Lisas,
Port-of-Spain, Scarborough, Tembladora

Merchant marine:
total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,336 GRT/2,567 DWT
(1997 est.)

Airports: 6 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

@Trinidad and Tobago:Military

Military branches: Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (includes Ground
Forces, Coast Guard, and Air Wing), Trinidad and Tobago Police Service

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 313,018 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 223,511 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $83 million (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Trinidad and Tobago:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined
for the US and Europe and producer of cannabis

______________________________________________________________________

TROMELIN ISLAND

(possession of France)

@Tromelin Island:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of
Madagascar

Geographic coordinates: 15 52 S, 54 25 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1 sq km
land: 1 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3.7 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: sandy

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 7 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (scattered bushes)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: climatologically important location for forecasting
cyclones; wildlife sanctuary

@Tromelin Island:People

Population: uninhabited

@Tromelin Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Tromelin Island
local long form: none
local short form: Ile Tromelin

Data code: TE

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by a high
commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

Legal system: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (possession of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (possession of France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used

@Tromelin Island:Economy

Economy-overview: no economic activity

Communications

Communications-note: important meteorological station

@Tromelin Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Tromelin Island:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of France

@Tromelin Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: claimed by Madagascar and Mauritius

______________________________________________________________________

TUNISIA

@Tunisia:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Algeria and Libya

Geographic coordinates: 34 00 N, 9 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 163,610 sq km
land: 155,360 sq km
water: 8,250 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Georgia

Land boundaries:
total: 1,424 km
border countries: Algeria 965 km, Libya 459 km

Coastline: 1,148 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry
summers; desert in south

Terrain: mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south
merges into the Sahara

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Shatt al Gharsah -17 m
highest point: Jabal ash Shanabi 1,544 m

Natural resources: petroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt

Land use:
arable land: 19%
permanent crops: 13%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland: 4%
other: 44% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,850 sq km (1993 est.)

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