Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Books, poems, drama…

The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Part 41 out of 51

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 5.2 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

914 to 1,523 m: 27
under 914 m: 24 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 110
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 105 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Sweden:Military

Military branches: Swedish Army, Royal Swedish Navy, Swedish Air Force

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 2,088,061 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,827,336 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 52,208 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $5.8 billion (FY94/95)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.5% (FY94/95)

@Sweden:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: minor transshipment point for and consumer of narcotics
shipped via the CIS and Baltic states; increasing consumer of European
amphetamines

______________________________________________________________________

SWITZERLAND

@Switzerland:Geography

Location: Central Europe, east of France, north of Italy

Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 8 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 41,290 sq km
land: 39,770 sq km
water: 1,520 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey

Land boundaries:
total: 1,852 km
border countries: Austria 164 km, France 573 km, Italy 740 km,
Liechtenstein 41 km, Germany 334 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy,
rainy/snowy winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers with
occasional showers

Terrain: mostly mountains (Alps in south, Jura in northwest) with a
central plateau of rolling hills, plains, and large lakes

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Lake Maggiore 195 m
highest point: Dufourspitze 4,634 m

Natural resources: hydropower potential, timber, salt

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 28%
forests and woodland: 32%
other: 28% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 250 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: avalanches, landslides, flash floods

Environment-current issues: air pollution from vehicle emissions and
open-air burning; acid rain; water pollution from increased use of
agricultural fertilizers; loss of biodiversity

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate
Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography-note: landlocked; crossroads of northern and southern
Europe; along with southeastern France and northern Italy, contains
the highest elevations in Europe

@Switzerland:People

Population: 7,260,357 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 642,365; female 613,931)
15-64 years: 68% (male 2,506,653; female 2,415,647)
65 years and over: 15% (male 436,804; female 644,957) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.22% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 10.81 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 9.03 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.92 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.88 years
male: 75.71 years
female: 82.22 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.46 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Swiss (singular and plural)
adjective: Swiss

Ethnic groups: total population-German 65%, French 18%, Italian 10%,
Romansch 1%, other 6%
note: Swiss nationals-German 74%, French 20%, Italian 4%, Romansch 1%,
other 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 46.1%, Protestant 40%, other 5%, no religion
8.9% (1990)

Languages: German 63.7%, French 19.2%, Italian 7.6%, Romansch 0.6%,
other 8.9%
note: figures for Swiss nationals only: German 74%, French 20%,
Italian 4%, Romansch 1%, other 1%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1980 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Switzerland:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Swiss Confederation
conventional short form: Switzerland
local long form: Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft (German),
Confederation Suisse (French), Confederazione Svizzera (Italian)
local short form: Schweiz (German), Suisse (French), Svizzera
(Italian)

Data code: SZ

Government type: federal republic

National capital: Bern

Administrative divisions: 26 cantons (cantons, singular-canton in
French; cantoni, singular - cantone in Italian; kantone,
singular-kanton in German); Aargau, Ausser-Rhoden, Basel-Landschaft,
Basel-Stadt, Bern, Fribourg, Geneve, Glarus, Graubunden, Inner-Rhoden,
Jura, Luzern, Neuchatel, Nidwalden, Obwalden, Sankt Gallen,
Schaffhausen, Schwyz, Solothurn, Thurgau, Ticino, Uri, Valais, Vaud,
Zug, Zurich

Independence: 1 August 1291

National holiday: Anniversary of the Founding of the Swiss
Confederation, 1 August (1291)

Constitution: 29 May 1874

Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; judicial
review of legislative acts, except with respect to federal decrees of
general obligatory character; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Flavio COTTI (since 1 January 1998); Vice
President Ruth DREIFUSS (since 1 January 1998); note-the president is
both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Flavio COTTI (since 1 January 1998);
Vice President Ruth DREIFUSS (since 1 January 1998); note-the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Federal Council or German-Bundesrat, French-Conseil Federal,
Italian - Consiglio Federale elected by the Federal Assembly from
among its own members for a four-year term
elections: president and vice president elected by the Federal
Assembly from among the members of the Federal Council for one-year
terms that run concurrently; election last held 10 December 1997 (next
to be held NA December 1998)
election results: Flavio COTTI elected president; percent of Federal
Assembly vote-Flavio COTTI 90%; Ruth DREIFUSS elected vice president;
percent of legislative vote - Ruth DREIFUSS 69%

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or
German-Bundesversammlung, French-Assemblee Federale, Italian-Assemblea
Federale consists of the Council of States or German-Standerat,
French-Conseil des Etats, Italian-Consiglio degli Stati (46 seats;
members are elected two from each canton and one from each half canton
to serve four-year terms) and the National Council or German -
Nationalrat, French-Conseil National, Italian-Consiglio Nazionale (200
seats; members are elected by popular vote on a basis of proportional
representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: Council of States-last held throughout 1997 (each canton
determines when the next election will be held); National Council-last
held 20 October 1995 (next to be held probably 24 October 1999)
election results: Council of States-percent of vote by party-NA; seats
by party - FDP 17, CVP 16, SVP 5, SPS 5, LPS 2, LdU 1; National
Council-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-FDP 45, SPS 54,
CVP 34, SVP 29, Greens 9, LPS 7, FPS 7, LdU 3, EVP 2, SD 3, PdAdS 3,
Ticino League 1, EDU 1, FRAP 1, CSP 1

Judicial branch: Federal Supreme Court, judges elected for six-year
terms by the Federal Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Radical Free Democratic Party
(Freisinnig-Demokratische Partei der Schweiz or FDP, Parti
Radical-Democratique Suisse or PRD, Partitio Liberal-Radicale Svizzero
or PLR) [Franz STEINEGGER, president]; Social Democratic Party
(Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz or SPS, Parti Socialist Suisse
or PSS, Partito Socialista Svizzero or PSS, Partida Socialdemocratica
de la Svizra or PSS) [Ursula KOCH, president]; Christian Democratic
People's Party (Christichdemokratische Volkspartei der Schweiz or CVP,
Parti Democrate-Chretien Suisse or PDC, Partito Democratico-Cristiano
Popolare Svizzero or PDC, Partida Cristiandemocratica dalla Svizra or
PCD) [Adalbert DURRER, president]; Swiss People's Party
(Schweizerische Volkspartei or SVP, Union Democratique du Centre or
UDC, Unione Democratica de Centro or UDC, Uniun Democratica da Center
or UDC) [Ueli MAURER, president]; Green Party (Grune Partei der
Schweiz or Grune, Parti Ecologiste Suisse or Les Verts, Partito
Ecologista Svizzero or I Verdi, Partida Ecologica Svizra or La Verda)
[Ruedi BAUMANN, president]; Freedom Party or FPS [Roland BORER];
Liberal Party (Liberale Partei der Schweiz or LPS, Parti Liberal
Suisse or PLS, Partito Liberale Svizzero or PLS) [Francois Jeanneset,
president]; Alliance of Independents' Party (Landesring der
Unabhaengigen or LdU, Alliance des Independants or AdI) [Daniel
ANDRES, president]; Ticino League (Lega dei Ticinesi) [Giuliano
BIGNASCA, president]; and other minor parties including Swiss
Democratic Party (Schweizer Demokraten or SD, Democrates Suisses or
DS, Democratici Svizzeri or DS), Workers' Party (Parti Suisse du
Travail or PST, Partei der Arbeit der Schweiz or PdAdS, Partito
Svizzero del Lavoro or PSdL), Evangelical People's Party (Evangelische
Volkspartei der Schweiz or EVP, Parti Evangelique Suisse or PEV,
Partito Evangelico Svizzero or PEV), and the Union of Federal
Democrats (Eidgenossisch-Demokratische Union or EDU, Union
Democratique Federale or UDF, Unione Democratica Federale or UDF);
note-see elections

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer),
AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO,
G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MTCR, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS
(observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNTSO,
UNU, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alfred DEFAGO (since April 1997)
chancery: 2900 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 745-7900
FAX: [1] (202) 387-2564
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New
York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Madeleine May KUNIN (since 8 August 1996)
embassy: Jubilaeumstrasse 93, 3005 Bern
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [41] (31) 357 70 11
FAX: [41] (31) 357 73 44

Flag description: red square with a bold, equilateral white cross in
the center that does not extend to the edges of the flag

@Switzerland:Economy

Economy-overview: Switzerland, a fundamentally prosperous and stable
modern economy with a per capita GDP roughly 10% above that of the big
West European economies, is experiencing continued economic
difficulties. GDP growth was a minus 0.2% in 1996 and a weak plus 0.4%
in 1997. Weak domestic consumer demand is partly at fault; stagnating
real disposable income combines with a reluctance to reduce saving
rates in the face of an uncertain employment outlook. Switzerland's
leading sectors, including financial services, biotechnology,
pharmaceuticals, and special-purpose machines, therefore are more
reliant on export markets. Exports should lead an upturn in Swiss
economic performance in 1998-99, provided the franc does not
appreciate substantially as a result of Swiss monetary policy or
instability in the run up to EMU.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$172.4 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 0.4% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$23,800 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 2.8%
industry: 31.1%
services: 66.1% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: -0.1% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 3.8 million (850,000 foreign workers, mostly Italian)
by occupation: services 67%, manufacturing and construction 29%,
agriculture and forestry 4% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 5% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $25.8 billion
expenditures: $30.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.3
billion (1997)

Industries: machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision
instruments

Industrial production growth rate: 0% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 14.27 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 55 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 6,850 kWh (1996 est.)

Agriculture-products: grains, fruits, vegetables; meat, eggs

Exports:
total value: $99.2 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: machinery 29%, chemicals 26%, metals 8%, agricultural
products 4% (1996)
partners: EU countries 61%, US 9%, Japan 4% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $86.6 billion (c.i.f., 1997)
commodities: machinery 22%, chemicals 20%, metals 8%, agricultural
products 9% (1996)
partners: EU 79%, US 7%, Japan 3% (1996)

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $1.034 billion (1995)

Currency: 1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SFR) = 100 centimes,
rappen, or centesimi

Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SFR) per
US$1-1.4757 (January 1998), 1.4513 (1997), 1.2360 (1996), 1.1825
(1995), 1.3677 (1994), 1.4776 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 5.24 million (including 663 million car-mobile phones)
(1996 est.)

Telephone system: excellent domestic and international services
domestic: extensive cable and microwave radio relay networks
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and
Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 50 (state-owned 10, private 40,
shortwave 1 (1997)

Radios: 2.8 million (1996)

Television broadcast stations: 15 of which state-owned 5, private 10
(repeaters 1,322) (1997)

Televisions: 2.647 million licenses (1996)

@Switzerland:Transportation

Railways:
total: 5,249 km (1,564 km double track)
standard gauge: 3,741 km 1.435-m gauge (3,119 km electrified; 808 km
nongovernment owned)
narrow gauge: 1,438 km 1.000-m gauge (1,088 km electrified; 1,364 km
nongovernment owned)
other gauge: 70 km 0.750-m or 0.800-m gauge (1996)

Highways:
total: 71,117 km (including 1,594 km of expressways)
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 65 km; Rhine (Basel to Rheinfelden, Schaffhausen to
Bodensee); 12 navigable lakes

Pipelines: crude oil 314 km; natural gas 1,506 km

Ports and harbors: Basel

Merchant marine:
total: 22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 424,261 GRT/733,551 DWT
ships by type: bulk 13, cargo 1, chemical tanker 5, oil tanker 2,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 67 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 42
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 15 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 25
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 24 (1997 est.)

@Switzerland:Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Frontier Guards, Fortification
Guards

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,878,453 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,605,409 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 40,887 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $3.2 billion (1997)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.2% (1997)

@Switzerland:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: because of more stringent government regulations,
significantly less used as a money-laundering center; transit country
for and consumer of South American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin

______________________________________________________________________

SYRIA

@Syria:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Lebanon and Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 38 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 185,180 sq km
land: 184,050 sq km
water: 1,130 sq km
note: includes 1,295 sq km of Israeli-occupied territory

Area-comparative: slightly larger than North Dakota

Land boundaries:
total: 2,253 km
border countries: Iraq 605 km, Israel 76 km, Jordan 375 km, Lebanon
375 km, Turkey 822 km

Coastline: 193 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 41 nm
territorial sea: 35 nm

Climate: mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and
mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast; cold weather
with snow or sleet periodically hitting Damascus

Terrain: primarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal plain;
mountains in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: unnamed location near Lake Tiberias -200 m
highest point: Mount Hermon 2,814 m

Natural resources: petroleum, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores,
asphalt, iron ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum

Land use:
arable land: 28%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 43%
forests and woodland: 3%
other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 9,060 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dust storms, sandstorms

Environment-current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion;
desertification; water pollution from dumping of raw sewage and wastes
from petroleum refining; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous
Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography-note: there are 42 Israeli settlements and civilian land use
sites in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights (August 1997 est.)

@Syria:People

Population: 16,673,282 (July 1998 est.)
note: in addition, there are 35,150 people living in the
Israeli-occupied Golan Heights-18,150 Arabs (16,500 Druze and 1,650
Alawites) and 17,000 Israeli settlers (August 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (male 3,937,575; female 3,748,881)
15-64 years: 51% (male 4,342,022; female 4,157,268)
65 years and over: 3% (male 240,603; female 246,933) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.23% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 37.83 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.55 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 37.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 67.76 years
male: 66.48 years
female: 69.11 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.55 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Syrian(s)
adjective: Syrian

Ethnic groups: Arab 90.3%, Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7%

Religions: Sunni Muslim 74%, Alawite, Druze, and other Muslim sects
16%, Christian (various sects) 10%, Jewish (tiny communities in
Damascus, Al Qamishli, and Aleppo)

Languages: Arabic (official); Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian
widely understood; French, English somewhat understood

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 70.8%
male: 85.7%
female: 55.8% (1997 est.)

@Syria:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Syrian Arab Republic
conventional short form: Syria
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Arabiyah as Suriyah
local short form: Suriyah
former: United Arab Republic (with Egypt)

Data code: SY

Government type: republic under military regime since March 1963

National capital: Damascus

Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (muhafazat,
singular-muhafazah); Al Hasakah, Al Ladhiqiyah, Al Qunaytirah, Ar
Raqqah, As Suwayda', Dar'a, Dayr az Zawr, Dimashq, Halab, Hamah, Hims,
Idlib, Rif Dimashq, Tartus

Independence: 17 April 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under
French administration)

National holiday: National Day, 17 April (1946)

Constitution: 13 March 1973

Legal system: based on Islamic law and civil law system; special
religious courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Hafiz al-ASAD (since 22 February 1971);
note-President ASAD seized power in the November 1970 coup, assumed
presidential powers 22 February 1971, and was confirmed as president
in the 12 March 1971 national elections; Vice Presidents 'Abd al-Halim
ibn Said KHADDAM (since 11 March 1984) and Muhammad Zuhayr MASHARIQA
(since 11 March 1984)
head of government: Prime Minister Mahmud ZUBI (since 1 November
1987), Deputy Prime Ministers Lt. Gen. Mustafa TALAS (since 11 March
1984), Dr. Salim YASIN (since NA December 1981), and Rashid AKHTARINI
(since 4 July 1992)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
election last held 2 December 1991 (next to be held NA December 1998);
vice presidents appointed by the president; prime minister and deputy
prime ministers appointed by the president
election results: Hafiz al-ASAD reelected president; percent of
vote-Hafiz al-ASAD 99.98%

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Council or Majlis al-shaab
(250 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 24-25 August 1994 (next to be held NA 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-National
Progressive Front 167, independents 83

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court, justices are appointed
for four-year terms by the president; High Judicial Council; Court of
Cassation; State Security Courts

Political parties and leaders:
National Progressive Front includes: the ruling Arab Socialist
Renaissance (Ba'th) Party, Hafiz al-ASAD, president of the republic,
secretary general of the party, and chairman of the National
Progressive Front; Syrian Arab Socialist Party (ASP), Ghassan
'Abd-al-Aziz UTHMAN; Arab Socialist Union (ASU), Fayiz ISMAIL; Syrian
Communist Party (SCP), Yusuf FAYSAL; Arab Socialist Unionist Party,
Safwan QUDSI; Socialist Union Democratic Party, Ahmad al-ASAD

Political pressure groups and leaders: non-Ba'th parties have little
effective political influence; Communist party ineffective;
conservative religious leaders; Muslim Brotherhood

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU,
CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO,
ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Walid MUALEM
chancery: 2215 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 232-6313
FAX: [1] (202) 234-9548

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Ryan CROCKER
embassy: Abou Roumaneh, Al-Mansur Street, No. 2, Damascus
mailing address: P. O. Box 29, Damascus
telephone: [963] (11) 333-2814, 333-0788, 332-0783
FAX: [963] (11) 224-7938

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and black with two small green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line
centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a
plain white band and of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an
Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band;
also similar to the flag of Egypt, which has a symbolic eagle centered
in the white band

@Syria:Economy

Economy-overview: Syria's predominantly statist economy is on a shaky
footing because of Damascus's failure to implement extensive economic
reform. The dominant agricultural sector remains underdeveloped, with
roughly 80% of agricultural land still dependent on rain-fed sources.
Although Syria has sufficient water supplies in the aggregate at
normal levels of precipitation, the great distance between major water
supplies and population centers poses serious distribution problems.
The water problem is exacerbated by rapid population growth,
industrial expansion, and increased water pollution. Private
investment is critical to the modernization of the agricultural,
energy, and export sectors. Oil production is leveling off, and the
efforts of the nonoil sector to penetrate international markets have
fallen short. Syria's inadequate infrastructure, outmoded
technological base, and weak educational system make it vulnerable to
future shocks and hamper competition with neighbors such as Jordan and
Israel.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$106.1 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4.6% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$6,600 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 28%
industry: 14%
services: 58% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 15%-20% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 4.7 million (1995 est.)
by occupation: services 40%, agriculture 40%, industry 20% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $3.9 billion
expenditures: $4.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.9
billion (1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum, textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco,
phosphate rock mining

Industrial production growth rate: 0.2% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 4.157 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 14.9 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 970 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, barley, cotton, lentils, chickpeas; beef,
lamb, eggs, poultry, milk

Exports:
total value: $4.2 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: petroleum 70%, textiles 12%, food and live animals 10%,
manufactures 5% (1997 est.)
partners: EU 57% (Germany 17%, Italy 16%, France 11%), Lebanon 14%,
Saudi Arabia 7% (1995 est.)

Imports:
total value: $5.7 billion (c.i.f., 1997)
commodities: machinery and equipment 40%, foodstuffs/animals 15%,
metal and metal products 15%, textiles 10%, chemicals 10%, consumer
goods 5% (1997 est.)
partners: EU 33% (Italy 9%, Germany 8%, France 4%), South Korea 5%, US
4%, Japan 4% (1995 est.)

Debt-external: $20 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: $4.2 billion (1990-92)

Currency: 1 Syrian pound (S) = 100 piastres

Exchange rates: Syrian pounds (S) per US$1-41.9 (January 1997);
official fixed rate 11.225

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 541,465 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: fair system currently undergoing significant
improvement and digital upgrades, including fiber-optic technology
domestic: coaxial cable and microwave radio relay network
international: satellite earth stations-1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and
1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 1 submarine cable; coaxial
cable and microwave radio relay to Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey;
participant in Medarabtel

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 3.392 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 17

Televisions: 700,000 (1993 est.)

@Syria:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,998 km
broad gauge: 1,766 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 232 km 1.050-m gauge

Highways:
total: 40,480 km
paved: 9,310 km (including 866 km of expressways)
unpaved: 31,170 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 870 km; minimal economic importance

Pipelines: crude oil 1,304 km; petroleum products 515 km

Ports and harbors: Baniyas, Jablah, Latakia, Tartus

Merchant marine:
total: 125 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 376,903 GRT/555,679 DWT
ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 110, livestock carrier 3,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 104 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 24
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 80
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 63 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1997 est.)

@Syria:Military

Military branches: Syrian Arab Army, Syrian Arab Navy, Syrian Arab Air
Force, Syrian Arab Air Defense Forces, Police and Security Force

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 3,899,714 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 2,182,608 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 177,946 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $800 million-$1 billion (1997
est.); note-based on official budget data that understate actual
spending

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 8% (1995 est.)

@Syria:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Golan Heights is Israeli occupied; Hatay
question with Turkey; dispute with upstream riparian Turkey over
Turkish water development plans for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers;
Syrian troops in northern, central, and eastern Lebanon since October
1976

Illicit drugs: a transit point for opiates and hashish bound for
regional and Western markets

______________________________________________________________________

TAIWAN

@Taiwan:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, islands bordering the East China Sea,
Philippine Sea, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait, north of the
Philippines, off the southeastern coast of China

Geographic coordinates: 23 30 N, 121 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 35,980 sq km
land: 32,260 sq km
water: 3,720 sq km
note: includes the Pescadores, Matsu, and Quemoy

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland and Delaware combined

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,448 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June
to August); cloudiness is persistent and extensive all year

Terrain: eastern two-thirds mostly rugged mountains; flat to gently
rolling plains in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Yu Shan 3,997 m

Natural resources: small deposits of coal, natural gas, limestone,
marble, and asbestos

Land use:
arable land: 24%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: 55%
other: 15%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: earthquakes and typhoons

Environment-current issues: air pollution; water pollution from
industrial emissions, raw sewage; contamination of drinking water
supplies; trade in endangered species; low-level radioactive waste
disposal

Environment-international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Taiwan:People

Population: 21,908,135 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (male 2,543,524; female 2,367,077)
15-64 years: 69% (male 7,730,185; female 7,472,525)
65 years and over: 9% (male 963,797; female 831,027) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.94% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 14.79 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.42 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.16 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.34 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.82 years
male: 73.82 years
female: 80.05 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.77 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups: Taiwanese (including Hakka) 84%, mainland Chinese 14%,
aborigine 2%

Religions: mixture of Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist 93%, Christian
4.5%, other 2.5%

Languages: Mandarin Chinese (official), Taiwanese (Min), Hakka
dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 86%
male: 93%
female: 79% (1980 est.)
note: literacy for the total population increased to 92.65% in 1997

@Taiwan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Taiwan
local long form: none
local short form: T'ai-wan

Data code: TW

Government type: multiparty democratic regime headed by popularly
elected president

National capital: Taipei

Administrative divisions: since in the past the authorities claimed to
be the government of all China, the central administrative divisions
include the provinces of Fu-chien (some 20 offshore islands of Fujian
Province including Quemoy and Matsu) and Taiwan (the island of Taiwan
and the Pescadores islands); note-the more commonly referenced
administrative divisions are those of Taiwan Province - 16 counties
(hsien, singular and plural), 5 municipalities* (shih, singular and
plural), and 2 special municipalities** (chuan-shih, singular and
plural); Chang-hua, Chia-i, Chia-i*, Chi-lung*, Hsin-chu, Hsin-chu*,
Hua-lien, I-lan, Kao-hsiung, Kao-hsiung**, Miao-li, Nan-t'ou,
P'eng-hu, P'ing-tung, T'ai-chung, T'ai-chung*, T'ai-nan, T'ai-nan*,
T'ai-pei, T'ai-pei**, T'ai-tung, T'ao-yuan, and Yun-lin; the
provincial capital is at Chung-hsing-hsin-ts'un
note: Taiwan uses the Wade-Giles system for romanization

National holiday: National Day, 10 October (1911) (Anniversary of the
Chinese Revolution)

Constitution: 1 January 1947, amended in 1992, 1994, and 1997

Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President LEE Teng-hui (succeeded to the presidency
following the death of President CHIANG Ching-kuo 13 January 1988,
elected by the National Assembly 21 March 1990, elected by popular
vote in the first-ever direct elections for president 23 March 1996);
Vice President LIEN Chan (since 20 May 1996)
head of government: Premier (President of the Executive Yuan) Vincent
SIEW (since 1 September 1997) and Vice Premier (Vice President of the
Executive Yuan) LIU Chao-shiuan (since 10 December 1997)
cabinet: Executive Yuan appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 23 March 1996
(next to be held NA 2000); premier appointed by the president; vice
premiers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the
premier
election results: LEE Teng-hui elected president; percent of vote-LEE
Teng-hui 54%, PENG Ming-min 21%, LIN Yang-kang 15%, and CHEN Li-an 10%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Yuan (164 seats-128 elected
by popular vote, 36 indirectly elected on the basis of proportional
representation; members serve three-year terms; note-in 1997, the
National Assembly passed an amendment to increase the membership of
the Legislative Yuan to 225 seats, of which 168 are to be elected by
popular vote, 41 by proportional representation, and 16 from
aboriginal and Chinese groups) and unicameral National Assembly (334
seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Legislative Yuan-last held 2 December 1995 (next to be held
NA December 1998); National Assembly-last held 23 March 1996 (next to
be held NA 2000)
election results: Legislative Yuan-percent of vote by party-KMT 46%,
DPP 33%, CNP 13%, independents 8%; seats by party-KMT 85, DPP 54, CNP
21, independents 4; note-since the election, there has been a change
in the distribution of seats, the new distribution is as follows-KMT
81, DPP 46, CNP 19, independents 8, other 5, vacant 5; National
Assembly-percent of vote by party-KMT 55%, DPP 30%, CNP 14%, other 1%;
seats by party-KMT 183, DPP 99, CNP 46, other 6

Judicial branch: Judicial Yuan, justices appointed by the president
with the consent of the National Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Kuomintang (KMT, Nationalist Party),
LEE Teng-hui, chairman; Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), HSU
Hsin-Liang, chairman; Chinese New Party (CNP), leader NA; Taiwan
Independence Party (TAIP), HSU Shih-Kai; other various parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Taiwan independence movement,
various environmental groups
note: debate on Taiwan independence has become acceptable within the
mainstream of domestic politics on Taiwan; political liberalization
and the increased representation of the opposition Democratic
Progressive Party in Taiwan's legislature have opened public debate on
the island's national identity; advocates of Taiwan independence,
including within the DPP, oppose the ruling party's traditional stand
that the island will eventually reunify with mainland China; goals of
the Taiwan independence movement include establishing a sovereign
nation on Taiwan and entering the UN; other organizations supporting
Taiwan independence include the World United Formosans for
Independence and the Organization for Taiwan Nation Building

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, BCIE, ICC, IOC,
WCL, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; unofficial commercial and
cultural relations with the people of the US are maintained through a
private instrumentality, the Taipei Economic and Cultural
Representative Office (TECRO) with headquarters in Taipei and field
offices in Washington and 12 other US cities

Diplomatic representation from the US: none; unofficial commercial and
cultural relations with the people on Taiwan are maintained through a
private institution, the American Institute in Taiwan (AIT), which has
its headquarters in Rosslyn, Virginia (telephone: [1] (703) 525-8474
and FAX: [1] (703) 841-1385) and offices in Taipei at #7 Lane 134,
Hsin Yi Road, Section 3, telephone [886] (22) 709-2000, FAX [886] (22)
702-7675, and in Kao-hsiung at #2 Chung Cheng 3d Road, telephone [886]
(7) 224-0154 through 0157, FAX [886] (7) 223-8237, and the American
Trade Center at Room 3207 International Trade Building, Taipei World
Trade Center, 333 Keelung Road Section 1, Taipei 10548, telephone
[886] (22) 720-1550, FAX [886] 757-7162

Flag description: red with a dark blue rectangle in the upper
hoist-side corner bearing a white sun with 12 triangular rays

@Taiwan:Economy

Economy-overview: Taiwan has a dynamic capitalist economy with
gradually decreasing guidance of investment and foreign trade by
government authorities and partial government ownership of some large
banks and industrial firms. Spillover from the Asian financial crisis
hit Taiwan in the fourth quarter of 1997, wreaking havoc on the stock
and currency markets. While the economy remains sound (the government
forecasts 6% GDP growth for 1998), the New Taiwan Dollar depreciated
20% in 1997. Real growth in GDP has averaged about 8.5% a year during
the past three decades. Export growth has been even faster and has
provided the impetus for industrialization. Inflation and unemployment
are low. Agriculture contributes only 3% to GDP, down from 35% in
1952. Traditional labor-intensive industries are steadily being moved
off-shore and replaced with more capital- and technology-intensive
industries. Taiwan has become a major investor in China, Thailand,
Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, and Vietnam. The tightening of
labor markets has led to an influx of foreign workers, both legal and
illegal.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$308 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6.8% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$14,200 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 3.3%
industry: 35.7%
services: 61% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 0.9% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 9.4 million (1997)
by occupation: services 52%, industry 38%, agriculture 10% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2.7% (1997)

Budget:
revenues: $40 billion
expenditures: $55 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998
est.)

Industries: electronics, textiles, chemicals, clothing, food
processing, plywood, sugar milling, cement, shipbuilding, petroleum
refining

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1997)

Electricity-capacity: 23.763 million kW (1996)

Electricity-production: 124.973 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 5,500 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: rice, wheat, corn, soybeans, vegetables, fruit,
tea; pigs, poultry, beef, milk; fish

Exports:
total value: $122.1 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: machinery and electrical equipment 21.7%, electronic
products 14.8%, information/communications 11.8%, textile products
11.6% (1997)
partners: US 24.2%, Hong Kong 23.5%, Europe 15.1%, Japan 9.6% (1997)

Imports:
total value: $114.4 billion (c.i.f., 1997)
commodities: machinery and electrical equipment 16.5%, electronic
products 16.3%, chemicals 10.0%, precision instrument 5.6% (1997)
partners: Japan 25.4%, US 20.3%, Europe 18.9%, Hong Kong 1.7% (1997)

Debt-external: $80 million (1997 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 New Taiwan dollar (NT$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Taiwan dollars per US$1-32.45 (yearend 1997), 27.5
(1996), 27.4 (1995), 26.2 (1994), 26.6 (1993), 25.4 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 10,010,614 (1996)

Telephone system:
domestic: extensive microwave radio relay trunk system on east and
west coasts
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (1 Pacific Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean); submarine cables to Japan (Okinawa), Philippines,
Guam, Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Australia, Middle East, and
Western Europe

Radio broadcast stations: AM 91, FM 23, shortwave 0

Radios: 8.62 million

Television broadcast stations: 15 (repeaters 13)

Televisions: 10.8 million (1996 est.)

@Taiwan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 4,600 km (498 km electrified); note-1,108 km belongs to the
Taiwan Railway Administration and the remaining 3,492 km is dedicated
to industrial use
narrow gauge: 4,600 km 1.067-m

Highways:
total: 19,701 km
paved: 17,238 km (including 447 km of expressways)
unpaved: 2,463 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: petroleum products 615 km; natural gas 97 km

Ports and harbors: Chi-lung (Keelung), Hua-lien, Kao-hsiung, Su-ao,
T'ai-chung

Merchant marine:
total: 193 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,621,906 GRT/8,583,808
DWT
ships by type: bulk 49, cargo 30, combination bulk 2, container 81,
oil tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 11, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 (1997
est.)

Airports: 40 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 36
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 5 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Taiwan:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force, Coastal
Patrol and Defense Command, Armed Forces Reserve Command, Combined
Service Forces

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 6,476,878 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 4,978,865 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 206,975 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $11.5 billion (FY96/97)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 3.6% (FY96/97)

@Taiwan:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: involved in complex dispute over the Spratly
Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, and possibly
Brunei; Paracel Islands occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and
Taiwan; claims Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku
Islands/Diaoyu Tai), as does China

Illicit drugs: considered an important heroin transit point; major
problem with domestic consumption of methamphetamines and heroin

______________________________________________________________________

TAJIKISTAN

Introduction

Current issues: Tajikistan has experienced three changes of government
and a civil war since it gained independence in September 1991. The
current president, Emomali RAHMONOV, was elected in November 1994, yet
has been in power since 1992. A peace agreement was signed in June
1997, but implementation is progressing slowly. Russian-led
peacekeeping troops are deployed throughout the country, and
Russian-commanded border guards are stationed along the
Tajikistani-Afghan border.

@Tajikistan:Geography

Location: Central Asia, west of China

Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 71 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 143,100 sq km
land: 142,700 sq km
water: 400 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries:
total: 3,651 km
border countries: Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870
km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid
to polar in Pamir Mountains

Terrain: Pamirs and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana
Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Syrdariya 300 m
highest point: Qullai Kommunizm 7,495 m

Natural resources: significant hydropower potential, some petroleum,
uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: 4%
other: 65% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 6,390 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: inadequate sanitation facilities;
increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive
pesticides; part of the basin of the shrinking Aral Sea suffers from
severe overutilization of available water for irrigation and
associated pollution

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Ozone Layer
Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: landlocked

@Tajikistan:People

Population: 6,020,095 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 41% (male 1,258,424; female 1,230,891)
15-64 years: 54% (male 1,616,257; female 1,636,732)
65 years and over: 5% (male 118,485; female 159,306) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.3% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 27.67 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.77 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 112.14 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.48 years
male: 61.35 years
female: 67.77 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.53 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani

Ethnic groups: Tajik 64.9%, Uzbek 25%, Russian 3.5% (declining because
of emigration), other 6.6%

Religions: Sunni Muslim 80%, Shi'a Muslim 5%

Languages: Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and
business

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 97% (1989 est.)

@Tajikistan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikistan
local short form: none
former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: TI

Government type: republic

National capital: Dushanbe

Administrative divisions: 2 oblasts (viloyatho, singular-viloyat) and
one autonomous oblast* (viloyati avtonomii); Viloyati Avtonomii
Badakhshoni Kuni* (Khorugh-formerly Khorog), Viloyati Khatlon
(Qurghonteppa-formerly Kurgan-Tyube), Viloyati Leninobod
(Khujand-formerly Leninabad)
note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses

Independence: 9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: National Day, 9 September (1991)

Constitution: 6 November 1994

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of
legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Emomali RAHMONOV (since 6 November 1994;
head of state and Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Yahyo AZIMOV (since 8 February
1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president who proposes
them to the Supreme Assembly for approval
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 6 November 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: Emomali RAHMONOV elected president; percent of
vote-Emomali RAHMONOV 58%, Abdumalik ABDULLOJANOV 40%

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli (181
seats; members are popularly elected to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 26 February and 12 March 1995 (next to be held NA
2000)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; estimated seats by
party-Communist Party and affiliates 100, People's Party 10, Party of
People's Unity 6, Party of Economic and Political Renewal 1, other 64

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan
or PPT [Emomali RAHMONOV]; National Revival Bloc (Party of Popular
Unity and Accord or PPUA) [Abdumalik ABDULLOJONOV]; Tajik Communist
Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]; Democratic Party or TDP [Jumaboy
NIYAZOV, chairman]; Islamic Renaissance Party or IRP [Mohammed Sharif
HIMATZODA, chairman]; Rebirth (Rastokhez) [Takhir ABDUZHABOROV]; Lali
Badakhshan Society [Atobek AMIRBEKOV]; Tajikistan Party of Economic
and Political Renewal or TPEPR; Citizenship, Patriotism, Unity Party
[Bobokhon MAHMADOV]; Adolatho "Justice" Party [Abdurahmon KARIMOV,
chairman]; Congress of Popular Unity [Saifuddin TURAYEV]; Party of
Justice and Development [Rahmutullo ZAINAV]

International organization participation: CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO,
ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, IOC,
IOM, ITU, OIC, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Tajikistan does not have an
embassy in the US, but has a mission at the UN: address-136 East 67th
Street, New York, NY 10021, telephone-[1] (212) 472-7645, FAX-[1]
(212) 628-0252; permanent representative to the UN is Rashid ALIMOV

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador R. Grant SMITH
embassy: interim chancery, Oktyabrskaya Hotel, 105A Prospect Rudaki,
Dushanbe 734001
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [7] (3772) 21-03-56
FAX: Telex [7] (3772) 20-03-62

Flag description: three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider
stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven
five-pointed gold stars is located in the center of the white stripe

@Tajikistan:Economy

Economy-overview: Tajikistan has the lowest per capita GDP among the
former Soviet republics. Agriculture dominates the economy, with
cotton the most important crop. Mineral resources, varied but limited
in amount, include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry is
limited to a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small
obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The
Tajik economy has been gravely weakened by four years of civil
conflict and by the loss of subsidies from Moscow and of markets for
its products. Tajikistan thus depends on aid from Russia and
Uzbekistan and on international humanitarian assistance for much of
its basic subsistence needs. Even if the peace agreement of June 1997
is honored, the country faces major problems in integrating refugees
and former combatants into the economy. Moreover, constant political
turmoil and the continued dominance by former communist officials have
impeded the introduction of meaningful economic reforms.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$4.1 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: -10% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$700 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 25%
industry: 35%
services: 40% (1997)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 40% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.9 million (1996)
by occupation: agriculture and forestry 52%, manufacturing, mining,
and construction 17%, services 31% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 2.4% includes only officially registered
unemployed; also large numbers of underemployed workers and
unregistered unemployed people (December 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: aluminum, zinc, lead, chemicals and fertilizers, cement,
vegetable oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers

Industrial production growth rate: -20% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 4.443 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 14.66 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 2,302 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables;
cattle, sheep, goats

Exports:
total value: $768 million (1996 est.)
commodities: cotton, aluminum, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
partners: FSU 78%, Netherlands (1994)

Imports:
total value: $657 million (1996 est.)
commodities: fuel, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment,
textiles, foodstuffs
partners: FSU 55%, Switzerland, UK (1994)

Debt-external: $635 million (of which $250 million to Russia) (1995
est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $22 million (1993)
note: commitments, $885 million (disbursements $115 million) (1992-95)

Currency: the Tajikistani ruble (TJR) = 100 tanga; Tajikistan
introduced its own currency in May 1995

Exchange rates: Tajikistani rubles (TJR) per US$1-350 (January 1997),
284 (January 1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 303,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns
are not reached by the national network
domestic: cable and microwave radio relay
international: linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS
republics, and by leased connections to the Moscow international
gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway
switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations-1 Orbita and 2
Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: 1 state-owned radio broadcast station

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1
note: 1 Intelsat earth station provides TV receive-only service from
Turkey

Televisions: NA

@Tajikistan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 480 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines (1990)

Highways:
total: 32,752 km
paved: 21,119 km (note-these roads are said to be hard-surfaced,
meaning that some are paved and some are all-weather gravel surfaced)
unpaved: 11,633 km (1992 est.)

Pipelines: natural gas 400 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 59 (1994 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 14
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1994 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 45
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 36 (1994 est.)

@Tajikistan:Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Presidential National Guard,
Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,432,800 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,174,683 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 62,558 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: 180 billion rubles (1995);
note-conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 3.4% (1995)

@Tajikistan:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: most of the boundary with China in dispute;
territorial dispute with Kyrgyzstan on northern boundary in Isfara
Valley area

Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium
poppy, mostly for domestic consumption; increasingly used as
transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia to Russia
and Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________

TANZANIA

@Tanzania:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya
and Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 35 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 945,090 sq km
land: 886,040 sq km
water: 59,050 sq km
note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar

Area-comparative: slightly larger than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:
total: 3,402 km
border countries: Burundi 451 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km,
Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km

Coastline: 1,424 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands

Terrain: plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north,
south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m

Natural resources: hydropower potential, tin, phosphates, iron ore,
coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 40%
forests and woodland: 38%
other: 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,500 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: the tsetse fly; flooding on the central plateau
during the rainy season

Environment-current issues: soil degradation; deforestation;
desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats;
recent droughts affected marginal agriculture

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa

@Tanzania:People

Population: 30,608,769 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 6,804,194; female 6,844,815)
15-64 years: 53% (male 7,835,705; female 8,236,949)
65 years and over: 2% (male 408,827; female 478,279) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.14% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 40.75 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 16.71 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 96.94 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 46.37 years
male: 44.22 years
female: 48.59 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.49 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Tanzanian(s)
adjective: Tanzanian

Ethnic groups: mainland-native African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu
consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian,
European, and Arab)
note: Zanzibar- Arab, native African, mixed Arab and native African

Religions: mainland-Christian 45%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 20%
note: Zanzibar-more than 99% Muslim

Languages: Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguju (name for Swahili
in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce,
administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in
Zanzibar), many local languages
note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of Bantu people living
in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu
in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources,
including Arabic and English, and it has become the lingua franca of
central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one
of the local languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili),
English, or Arabic
total population: 67.8%
male: 79.4%
female: 56.8% (1995 est.)

@Tanzania:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form: Tanzania
former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar

Data code: TZ

Government type: republic

National capital: Dar es Salaam
note: some government offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which
is planned as the new national capital by the end of the 1990s; the
National Assembly now meets there on regular basis

Administrative divisions: 25 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma,
Iringa, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara,
Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga,
Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North,
Zanzibar Urban/West, Ziwa Magharibi
note: although some recent maps have referred to Ziwa Magharibi as
Kagera, the US Board on Geographic Names has not approved the change

Independence: 26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent 9 December
1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship); Zanzibar became
independent 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with
Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and
Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964

National holiday: Union Day, 26 April (1964)

Constitution: 25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of
legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23 November
1995); Vice President Omar Ali JUMA (since 23 November 1995); note the
president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23
November 1995); Vice President Omar Ali JUMA (since 23 November 1995);
note-the president is both chief of state and head of government
note: Zanzibar elects a president who is head of government for
matters internal to Zanzibar; Dr. Salmin AMOUR was elected to that
office on 22 October 1995 in a popular election
cabinet: Cabinet ministers, including the prime minister, are
appointed by the president from among the members of the National
Assembly
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by
popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 29 October-19
November 1995 (next to be held NA October 2000); prime minister
appointed by the president
election results: percent of vote-Benjamin William MKAPA 62%, MREMA
28%, LIPUMBA 6%, CHEYO 4%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (274
seats-232 directly elected by universal adult suffrage, 37 allocated
to women nominated by the president, five to members of the Zanzibar
House of Representatives; members serve five-year terms); note-in
addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of
Tanzania, the Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland;
Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives to make laws especially
for Zanzibar (the Zanzibar House of Representatives has 50 seats,
directly elected by universal suffrage to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 29 October-19 November 1995 (next to be held NA
October 2000)
election results: National Assembly: percent of vote by party-NA;
seats by party-CCM 186, CUF 24, NCCR-Mageuzi 16, CHADEMA 3, UDP 3;
Zanzibar House of Representatives: percent of vote by party-NA; seats
by party-CCM 26, CUF 24

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal; High Court, judges appointed by the
president

Political parties and leaders: Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM
(Revolutionary Party) [Benjamin William MKAPA]; Civic United Front or
CUF [Seif Sharif HAMAD]; National Convention for Construction and
Reform or NCCR [Lyatonga (Augustine) MREMA]; Union for Multiparty
Democracy or UMD [Abdullah FUNDIKIRA]; Chama Cha Demokrasia na
Maendeleo or CHADEMA [Edwin I. M. MTEI, chairman]; Democratic Party
(unregistered) [Reverend MTIKLA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [John
CHEYO]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB,
ECA, FAO, G- 6, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MONUA, NAM,
OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mustafa Salim NYANG'ANYI
chancery: 2139 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125
FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Charge d'Affaires John LANGE
embassy: 36 Laibon Road (off Bagamoyo Road), Dar es Salaam
mailing address: P. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam
telephone: [255] (51) 666010 through 666015
FAX: [255] (51) 666701

Flag description: divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from
the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green
and the lower triangle is blue

@Tanzania:Economy

Economy-overview: Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the
world. The economy is heavily dependent on agriculture, which accounts
for 57% of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 90% of the work
force. Topography and climatic conditions, however, limit cultivated
crops to only 4% of the land area. Industry accounts for 17% of GDP
and is mainly limited to processing agricultural products and light
consumer goods. The economic recovery program announced in mid-1986
has generated notable increases in agricultural production and
financial support for the program by bilateral donors. The World Bank,
the International Monetary Fund, and bilateral donors have provided
funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's deteriorated economic infrastructure.
Growth in 1991-97 has featured a pickup in industrial production and a
substantial increase in output of minerals, led by gold. Natural gas
exploration in the Rufiji Delta looks promising and production could
start by 2002. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private
sector growth and investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$21.1 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4.3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$700 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 57%
industry: 17%
services: 26% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 15% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 13.495 million
by occupation: agriculture 90%, industry and commerce 10% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $959 million
expenditures: $1.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $214
million (FY96/97 est.)

Industries: primarily agricultural processing (sugar, beer,
cigarettes, sisal twine), diamond and gold mining, oil refining,
shoes, cement, textiles, wood products, fertilizer, salt

Industrial production growth rate: 0.4% (1995 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 439,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 895 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 31 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum
(insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashews, tobacco, cloves
(Zanzibar), corn, wheat, cassava (tapioca), bananas, fruits,
vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats

Exports:
total value: $760 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: coffee, manufactured goods, cotton, cashew nuts,
minerals, tobacco, sisal (1995)
partners: EU, Japan, India, US (1995)

Imports:
total value: $1.4 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: consumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment,
crude oil
partners: EU, Kenya, Japan, China, India (1995)

Debt-external: $7.9 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Tanzanian shilling (TSh) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Tanzanian shillings (TSh) per US$1-631.61 (January
1998), 612.12 (1997), 579.98 (1996), 574.76 (1995), 509.63 (1994),
405.27 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Book of the day: