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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the Judicial
Service Commission; Court of Appeals

Political parties and leaders: All Ceylon Tamil Congress (ACTC), C. G.
Kumar PONNAMBALAM; Ceylon Workers Congress (CLDC), S. THONDAMAN;
Communist Party, K. P. SILVA; Communist Party/Beijing (CP/B), N.
SHANMUGATHASAN; Democratic People's Liberation Front (DPLF), leader
NA; Democratic United National (Lalith) Front (DUNLF), Srimani
ATHULATHMUDALI; Eelam People's Democratic Party (EPDP), Douglas
DEVANANDA; Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front (EPRL),
Suresh PREMACHANDRAN; Eelam Revolutionary Organization of Students
(EROS), Shankar RAJI; Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP), Somawansa
AMERASINGHE; Lanka Socialist Party/Trotskyite (LSSP, or Lanka Sama
Samaja Party), Batty WEERAKOON; Liberal Party (LP), Rajira WIJESINGHE;
New Socialist Party (NSSP, or Nava Sama Samaja Party), Vasudeva
NANAYAKKARA; People's Alliance (PA), Chandrika Bandaranaike
KUMARATUNGA; People's Liberation Organization of Tamil Eelam (PLOTE),
Uma MAHESWARAN; People's United Front (MEP, or Mahajana Eksath
Peramuna), Dinesh GUNAWARDENE; Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP),
Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA; Sri Lanka Muslim Congress (SLMC),
M. H. M. ASHRAFF; Sri Lanka People's Party (SLMP, or Sri Lanka
Mahajana Party), Y. P. DE SILVA; Sri Lanka Progressive Front (SLPF),
Ariya BULEGODA; Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization (TELO), M. K.
SIVAJILINGHAM; Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF), M.
SIVASITHAMBARAM; United National Party (UNP), Ranil WICHREMESINGHE;
Upcountry People's Front (UPF), Periyasamy CHANDRASEKARAN; Desha
Vimukthi Janatha Party (DVJP), P.M. Podi APPUHAMY; several ethnic
Tamil and Muslim parties, represented in either parliament or
provincial councils
note: the United Socialist Alliance (USA), which was formed in 1987
and included the NSSP, LSSP, SLMP, CP/M, and CP/B, was defunct as of
1993, following the formation of the People's Alliance Party (PA)

Political pressure groups and leaders: Liberation Tigers of Tamil
Eelam (LTTE); other radical chauvinist Sinhalese groups; Buddhist
clergy; Sinhalese Buddhist lay groups; labor unions

International organization participation: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP,
FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, NAM, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Warnasena RASAPUTRAM
chancery: 2148 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4025 through 4028
FAX: [1] (202) 232-7181
consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Shaun E. DONNELLY
embassy: 210 Galle Road, Colombo 3
mailing address: P. O. Box 106, Colombo
telephone: [94] (1) 448007
FAX: [94] (1) 437345, 446013

Flag description: yellow with two panels; the smaller hoist-side panel
has two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and orange; the
other panel is a large dark red rectangle with a yellow lion holding a
sword, and there is a yellow bo leaf in each corner; the yellow field
appears as a border that goes around the entire flag and extends
between the two panels

@Sri Lanka:Economy

Economy-overview: At independence in 1948, plantations growing tea,
rubber, or coconuts and paddies growing rice for subsistence dominated
Sri Lanka's economy, and, as late as 1970, plantation crops accounted
for 93% of exports. In 1977, Colombo abandoned statist economic
policies and its import substitution trade policy for market-oriented
policies and export-oriented trade. Sri Lanka's most dynamic
industries now are food processing, textiles and apparel, food and
beverages, telecommunications, and insurance and banking. By 1996
plantation crops made up only 20% of exports, while textiles and
garments accounted for 63%. GDP grew at an annual average rate of 5.5%
throughout the 1990s until a drought and a deteriorating security
situation lowered growth to 3.8% in 1996. The economy rebounded in
second half 1996, however, and continued to perform well in 1997 with
growth of 6%. Sustained economic growth, coupled with population
growth of only 1.1%, has pushed Sri Lanka from the ranks of the
poorest countries in the world up to the threshold of the middle
income countries. For the next round of reforms, the central bank of
Sri Lanka recommends that Colombo expand market mechanisms in
nonplantation agriculture, dismantle the government's monopoly on
wheat imports, and promote more competition in the financial sector. A
continuing cloud over the economy is the fighting between the
Sinhalese and the minority Tamils, which has cost 50,000 lives in the
past 14 years.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$72.1 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$3,800 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 18.4%
industry: 18%
services: 63.6% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 9.6% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 6.2 million (1997)
by occupation: services 46%, agriculture 37%, industry 17% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 11% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $3 billion
expenditures: $4.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $1
billion (1997 est.)

Industries: processing of rubber, tea, coconuts, and other
agricultural commodities; clothing, cement, petroleum refining,
textiles, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 6.5% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 1.557 million kW (1997 est.)

Electricity-production: 4.86 billion kWh (1997 est.)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 220 kWh (1997 est.)

Agriculture-products: rice, sugarcane, grains, pulses, oilseed, roots,
spices, tea, rubber, coconuts; milk, eggs, hides, meat

Exports:
total value: $4.1 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: textiles and apparel, tea, diamonds and other gems,
rubber products, petroleum products (1995)
partners: US 34%, UK 9.5%, Japan 6.2%, Germany 5.8%,
Belgium-Luxembourg 5.3% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $5.4 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery and equipment, textiles, transport equipment,
petroleum, building materials, sugar, wheat (1996)
partners: India 10.4%, Japan 9.1%, South Korea 6.5%, Hong Kong 6.5%,
Taiwan 5.3% (1996)

Debt-external: $9.4 billion (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $620 million (1996 est.)

Currency: 1 Sri Lankan rupee (SLRe) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Sri Lankan rupees (SLRes) per US$1-61.479 (January
1998), 58.995 (1997), 55.271 (1996), 51.252 (1995), 49.415 (1994),
48.322 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 352,681 (1997 est.); note-in addition, there are 114,888
mobile telephones (1997 est.)

Telephone system: very inadequate domestic service, but expanding with
the entry of two wireless loop operators and privatization of national
telephone company; good international service
domestic: NA
international: submarine cables to Indonesia and Djibouti; satellite
earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 5, shortwave 0

Radios: 3.6 million (1996 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 5

Televisions: 1.6 million (1996 est.)

@Sri Lanka:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,501 km
broad gauge: 1,442 km 1.676-m gauge
narrow gauge: 59 km 0.762-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 99,200 km
paved: 39,680 km
unpaved: 59,520 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 430 km; navigable by shallow-draft craft

Pipelines: crude oil and petroleum products 62 km (1987)

Ports and harbors: Colombo, Galle, Jaffna, Trincomalee

Merchant marine:
total: 24 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 204,542 GRT/317,253 DWT
ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 13, container 1, oil tanker 2,
refrigerated cargo 6 (1997 est.)

Airports: 13 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 12
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Sri Lanka:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 5,147,100 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 4,006,314 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 193,851 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $736 million (1997)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 5.7% (1997)

@Sri Lanka:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

SUDAN

@Sudan:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and
Eritrea

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 2,505,810 sq km
land: 2.376 million sq km
water: 129,810 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than one-quarter the size of the US

Land boundaries:
total: 7,687 km
border countries: Central African Republic 1,165 km, Chad 1,360 km,
Democratic Republic of the Congo 628 km, Egypt 1,273 km, Eritrea 605
km, Ethiopia 1,606 km, Kenya 232 km, Libya 383 km, Uganda 435 km

Coastline: 853 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season (April
to October)

Terrain: generally flat, featureless plain; mountains in east and west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Red Sea 0 m
highest point: Kinyeti 3,187 m

Natural resources: petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper,
chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 19%
other: 30% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 19,460 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dust storms

Environment-current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water;
wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion;
desertification

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: largest country in Africa; dominated by the Nile and
its tributaries

@Sudan:People

Population: 33,550,552 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 7,769,266; female 7,449,510)
15-64 years: 52% (male 8,818,018; female 8,778,485)
65 years and over: 3% (male 410,170; female 325,103) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.73% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 39.94 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 10.88 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.26 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 72.64 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 55.97 years
male: 55 years
female: 56.98 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.68 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sudanese

Ethnic groups: black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), indigenous beliefs 25%,
Christian 5% (mostly in south and Khartoum)

Languages: Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of
Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English
note: program of Arabization in process

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 46.1%
male: 57.7%
female: 34.6% (1995 est.)

@Sudan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan
conventional short form: Sudan
local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
local short form: As-Sudan
former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

Data code: SU

Government type: transitional-previously ruling military junta;
presidential and National Assembly elections held in March 1996; new
constitution drafted by Presidential Committee, will go before public
in national referendum in May-June 1998

National capital: Khartoum

Administrative divisions: 26 states (wilayat, singular-wilayat or
wilayah*); A'ali an Nil, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrat, Al Jazirah, Al
Khartum, Al Qadarif, Al Wahdah, An Nil al Abyad, An Nil al Azraq, Ash
Shamaliyah*, Bahr al Jabal, Gharb al Istiwa'iyah, Gharb Bahr al
Ghazal, Gharb Darfur, Gharb Kurdufan, Janub Darfur, Janub Kurdufan,
Junqali, Kassala, Nahr an Nil, Shamal Bahr al Ghazal, Shamal Darfur,
Shamal Kurdufan, Sharq al Istiwa'iyah, Sinnar, Warab

Independence: 1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1956)

Constitution: 12 April 1973, suspended following coup of 6 April 1985;
interim constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of 30
June 1989; new constitution being drafted by Presidential Committee

Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law; as of 20
January 1991, the now defunct Revolutionary Command Council imposed
Islamic law in the northern states; Islamic law applies to all
residents of the northern states regardless of their religion; some
separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal, but noncompulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lt. General Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR
(since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Ali Uthman Muhammad TAHA
(since 17 February 1998), Second Vice President (Police) Maj. General
George KONGOR AROP (since NA February 1994); note-the president is
both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Lt. General Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR
(since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Ali Uthman Muhammad TAHA
(since 17 February 1998), Second Vice President (Police) Maj. General
George KONGOR AROP (since NA February 1994); note-the president is
both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note-President
al-BASHIR's government is dominated by members of Sudan's National
Islamic Front, a fundamentalist political organization formed from the
Muslim Brotherhood in 1986; front leader Hasan al-TURABI dominates
much of Khartoum's overall domestic and foreign policies; President
al-BASHIR named a new cabinet on 20 April 1996 which includes members
of the National Islamic Front, serving and retired military officers,
and civilian technocrats; on 8 March 1998, he reshuffled the cabinet
and brought in several former rebel and opposition members as
ministers
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 6-17 March 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results: Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR elected president;
percent of vote-Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR 75.7%; note-about forty
other candidates ran for president
note: al-BASHIR, as chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council for
National Salvation (RCC), assumed power on 30 June 1989 and served
concurrently as chief of state, chairman of the RCC, prime minister,
and minister of defense until 16 October 1993 when he was appointed
president by the RCC; upon its dissolution on 16 October 1993, the
RCC's executive and legislative powers were devolved to the president
and the Transitional National Assembly (TNA), Sudan's appointed
legislative body, which has since been replaced by the National
Assembly which was elected in March 1996

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (400 seats; 275
elected by popular vote, 125 elected by a supraassembly of interest
groups known as the National Congress)
elections: last held 6-17 March 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results: NA; the March 1996 elections were held on a nonparty
basis; parties are banned in the new National Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Special Revolutionary Courts

Political parties and leaders: none; banned following 30 June 1989
coup

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Islamic Front, Hasan
al-TURABI

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL,
AMF, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM
(observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador MAHDI IBRAHIM Mohamed
chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: US officials at the US Embassy
in Khartoum were moved for security reasons in February 1996 and have
been relocated to the US Embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Cairo, Egypt;
they visit Khartoum monthly; the US Embassy in Khartoum (located on
Sharia Abdul Latif Avenue; mailing address-P.O. Box 699, Khartoum; APO
AE 09829; telephone-[249] (11) 774611 or 774700; FAX-[249] (11)
774137) is kept open by local employees; the US Embassy in Nairobi,
Kenya is located at the corner of Moi Avenue and Haile Selassie
Avenue, Nairobi; mailing address - P.O. Box 30137, Unit 64100,
Nairobi; telephone-[254] (2) 334141; FAX - [254] (2) 340838; the US
Embassy in Cairo, Egypt is located at (North Gate) 8, Kamel El-Din
Salah Street, Garden City, Cairo; mailing address-Unit 64900, APO AE
09839-4900; telephone-[20] (2) 3557371; FAX-[20] (2) 3573200

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

@Sudan:Economy

Economy-overview: Sudan is buffeted by civil war, chronic political
instability, adverse weather, high inflation, a drop in remittances
from abroad, and counterproductive economic policies. The private
sector's main areas of activity are agriculture and trading, with most
private industrial investment predating 1980. Agriculture employs 80%
of the work force. Industry mainly processes agricultural items.
Sluggish economic performance over the past decade, attributable
largely to declining annual rainfall, has kept per capita income at
low levels. A large foreign debt and huge arrearages continue to cause
difficulties. In 1990 the International Monetary Fund took the unusual
step of declaring Sudan noncooperative because of its nonpayment of
arrearages to the Fund. After Sudan backtracked on promised reforms in
1992-93, the IMF threatened to expel Sudan from the Fund. To avoid
expulsion, Khartoum agreed to make payments on its arrears to the
Fund, liberalize exchange rates, and reduce subsidies, measures it has
partially implemented. The government's continued prosecution of the
civil war and its growing international isolation continued to inhibit
growth in the nonagricultural sectors of the economy during 1997.
Hyperinflation has raised consumer prices above the reach of most. In
1997, a top priority was to develop potentially lucrative oilfields in
south-central Sudan; the government was seeking foreign partners to
exploit the oil sector.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$26.6 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$875 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 33%
industry: 17%
services: 50% (1992 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 27% (mid-1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 11 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry and commerce 10%, government
6%
note: labor shortages for almost all categories of skilled employment
(1983 est.)

Unemployment rate: 30% (FY92/93 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $482 million
expenditures: $1.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $30
million (1996)

Industries: cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap
distilling, shoes, petroleum refining

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 500,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 1.305 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 43 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cotton, groundnuts, sorghum, millet, wheat, gum
arabic, sesame; sheep

Exports:
total value: $620 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: cotton 23%, sesame 22%, livestock/meat 13%, gum arabic 5%
(1996)
partners: Saudi Arabia 20%, UK 14%, China 11%, Italy 8% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $1.5 billion (1996)
commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum products, manufactured goods,
machinery and equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles (1996)
partners: Saudi Arabia 10%, South Korea 7%, Germany 6%, Egypt 6%
(1996)

Debt-external: $20.3 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $387 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Sudanese pound (Sd) = 100 piastres

Exchange rates: Sudanese pounds (Sd) per US$1-official rate: 1,602.70
(July 1997), 1,250.79 (1996), 580.87 (1995), 289.61 (1994), 159.31
(1993); market rate: 1,612.90 (July 1997), 1,250.79 (1996), 571.02
(August 1995), 289.61 (1994), 159.31 (1993), 97.43 (1992)
note: the market rate is a unified exchange rate determined by a
committee of local bankers, without official intervention, and is
quoted uniformly by all commercial banks

Fiscal year: calendar year
note: prior to July 1995, Sudan had a fiscal year that began on 1 July
and ended on 30 June; as a transition to their new fiscal year, a
six-month budget was implemented for 1 July-31 December 1995; the new
calendar year (1 January-31 December) fiscal year became effective 1
January 1996

Communications

Telephones: 77,215 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: large, well-equipped system by African standards,
but barely adequate and poorly maintained by modern standards
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, radiotelephone
communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system
with 14 earth stations
international: satellite earth stations-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 6.67 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3

Televisions: 2.06 million (1992 est.)

@Sudan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 5,516 km
narrow gauge: 4,800 km 1.067-m gauge; 716 km 1.6096-m gauge plantation
line

Highways:
total: 11,900 km
paved: 4,320 km
unpaved: 7,580 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 5,310 km navigable

Pipelines: refined products 815 km

Ports and harbors: Juba, Khartoum, Kusti, Malakal, Nimule, Port Sudan,
Sawakin

Merchant marine:
total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 38,093 GRT/49,727 DWT
ships by type: cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 (1997 est.)

Airports: 65 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 12
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 53
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 29
under 914 m: 11 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Sudan:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Popular Defense Force
Militia

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 7,690,798 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 4,733,457 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 363,752 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Sudan:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: administrative boundary with Kenya does not
coincide with international boundary; administrative boundary with
Egypt does not coincide with international boundary creating the
"Hala'ib Triangle," a barren area of 20,580 sq km

______________________________________________________________________

SURINAME

@Suriname:Geography

Location: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
between French Guiana and Guyana

Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 56 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 163,270 sq km
land: 161,470 sq km
water: 1,800 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Georgia

Land boundaries:
total: 1,707 km
border countries: Brazil 597 km, French Guiana 510 km, Guyana 600 km

Coastline: 386 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds

Terrain: mostly rolling hills; narrow coastal plain with swamps

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: unnamed location in the coastal plain -2 m
highest point: Wilhelmina Gebergte 1,286 m

Natural resources: timber, hydropower potential, fish, kaolin, shrimp,
bauxite, gold, and small amounts of nickel, copper, platinum, iron ore

Land use:
arable land: NA
permanent crops: NA
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 96%
other: 4% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 600 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: deforestation as timber is cut for export;
pollution of inland waterways by small-scale mining activities

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography-note: mostly tropical rain forest; great diversity of flora
and fauna which for the most part is increasingly threatened by new
development; relatively small population most of which lives along the
coast

@Suriname:People

Population: 427,980 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33% (male 72,945; female 69,468)
15-64 years: 62% (male 133,840; female 129,452)
65 years and over: 5% (male 10,309; female 11,966) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.77% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 22.48 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.79 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -8.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 27.44 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.61 years
male: 68.05 years
female: 73.29 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.59 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Surinamer(s)
adjective: Surinamese

Ethnic groups: Hindustani (also known locally as "East Indians"; their
ancestors emigrated from northern India in the latter part of the 19th
century) 37%, Creole (mixed white and black) 31%, Javanese 15.3%,
"Maroons" (their African ancestors were brought to the country in the
17th and 18th centuries as slaves and escaped to the interior) 10.3%,
Amerindian 2.6%, Chinese 1.7%, white 1%, other 1.1%

Religions: Hindu 27.4%, Muslim 19.6%, Roman Catholic 22.8%, Protestant
25.2% (predominantly Moravian), indigenous beliefs 5%

Languages: Dutch (official), English (widely spoken), Sranang Tongo
(Surinamese, sometimes called Taki-Taki, is native language of Creoles
and much of the younger population and is lingua franca among others),
Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Javanese

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93%
male: 95%
female: 91% (1995 est.)

@Suriname:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Suriname
conventional short form: Suriname
local long form: Republiek Suriname
local short form: Suriname
former: Netherlands Guiana, Dutch Guiana

Data code: NS

Government type: republic

National capital: Paramaribo

Administrative divisions: 10 districts (distrikten,
singular-distrikt); Brokopondo, Commewijne, Coronie, Marowijne,
Nickerie, Para, Paramaribo, Saramacca, Sipaliwini, Wanica

Independence: 25 November 1975 (from Netherlands)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 November (1975)

Constitution: ratified 30 September 1987

Legal system: based on Dutch legal system incorporating French penal
theory

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jules WIJDENBOSCH (since 14 September 1996);
Vice President Pretaapnarian RADHAKISHUN (since 14 September 1996);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jules WIJDENBOSCH (since 14 September
1996); Vice President Pretaapnarian RADHAKISHUN (since 14 September
1996); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president from among
the members of the National Assembly
note: First Advisor of State maintains significant power
elections: president and vice president elected by the National
Assembly or, if no presidential or vice presidential candidate
receives a constitutional majority vote in the National Assembly after
two votes, by the larger Peoples Assembly (the National Assembly
members and 289 local and regional councillors), for five-year terms;
election last held 23 May 1996; runoff election held 5 September 1996
(next to be held NA May 2001)
election results: Jules WIJDENBOSCH elected president; percent of
legislative vote NA; National Assembly failed to elect president;
results reflect the People's Assembly votes-Jules WIJDENBOSCH (NDP)
438, Ronald VENETIAAN (NF) 407

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or National Assemblee
(51 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year
terms)
elections: last held 23 May 1996 (next to be held NA May 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-NDP 16,
NF 14, BVD 5, KTPI 5, Pendawa Lima 4, Alliance 3, DA '91 2, OPDA 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, justices nominated for life

Political parties and leaders: The New Front (NF), a coalition of
three parties (NPS, VHP, SPA), leader Ronald R. VENETIAAN; Progressive
Reform Party (VHP), Jaggernath LACHMON; National Party of Suriname
(NPS), Ronald VENETIAAN; Party of National Unity and Solidarity
(KTPI), Willy SOEMITA; Suriname Labor Party (SPA), Fred DERBY;
Democratic Alternative '91 (DA '91), a coalition of parties (AF, and
BEP) formed in January 1991, Winston JESSURUN; Alternative Forum (AF),
Rick VAN RAVENSWAY; Party for Brotherhood and Unity in Politics (BEP),
Caprino ALLENDY; Pendawa Lima, Paul SOMOHARDJO; National Democratic
Party (NDP), Desire BOUTERSE; Progressive Workers' and Farm Laborers'
Union (PALU), Ir Iwan KROLIS; The Progressive Development Alliance, a
combination of two parties (HPP, PVF), Harry KISOENSINGH; Democratic
Party (DP), Frank PLAYFAIR; Reformed Progressive Party (HPP), Harry
KISOENSINGH; Party of the Federation of Land Workers PVF), Jwan SITAL;
Party for Renewal and Democracy (BVD), Atta MUNGRA; Independent
Progressive Democratic Alternative (OPDA), Joginder RAMKHILAWAN

Political pressure groups and leaders: Union for Liberation and
Democracy, Kofi AFONGPONG; Mandela Bushnegro Liberation Movement,
Leendert ADAMS; Tucayana Amazonica, Alex JUBITANA, Thomas SABAJO;
General Liberation and Development Party (ABOP), Ronnie BRUNSWIJK

International organization participation: ACP, Caricom, ECLAC, FAO,
G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OIC,
OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Arnold Theodoor HALFHIDE
chancery: Suite 460, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 244-7488
FAX: [1] (202) 244-5878
consulate(s) general: Miami

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dennis K. HAYS
embassy: Dr. Sophie Redmondstraat 129, Paramaribo
mailing address: P. O. Box 1821, Paramaribo; pouch address: American
Embassy Paramaribo, Department of State, Washington, DC, 20521-3390
telephone: [597] 472900, 477881, 476459
FAX: [597] 420800

Flag description: five horizontal bands of green (top, double width),
white, red (quadruple width), white, and green (double width); there
is a large yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band

@Suriname:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy is dominated by the bauxite industry,
which accounts for more than 15% of GDP and 70% of export earnings.
Following a dismal year in 1994-which saw the value of the Surinamese
guilder plummet by about 70%, inflation rise to more than 600%, and
national output fall for the fifth consecutive year-nearly all
economic indicators improved in 1995-97. The VENETIAAN government
unified the exchange rate as part of its structural adjustment program
(SAP). After assuming power in the fall of 1996, the WIJDENBOSCH
government ended the SAP claiming it was unfair to the poorer elements
of society. Tax revenues fell as old taxes lapsed and the government
failed to implement new tax alternatives. By the end of 1997, the
allocation of new Dutch development funds was frozen as Surinamese
government relations with Holland deteriorated. Suriname's economic
prospects for the medium term will depend on renewed commitment to
financially responsible monetary and fiscal policies.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1.44 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$3,400 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 14%
industry: 33%
services: 53% (1994)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 8% (1997 est.)

Labor force: NA
by occupation: agriculture, industry, services

Unemployment rate: 20% (1997)

Budget:
revenues: $317 million
expenditures: $333 million, including capital expenditures of $52
million (1997 est.)

Industries: bauxite and gold mining, alumina and aluminum production,
lumbering, food processing, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 6.5% (1994 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 425,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 1.601 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 3,727 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: paddy rice, bananas, palm kernels, coconuts,
plantains, peanuts; beef, chicken; forest products and shrimp of
increasing importance

Exports:
total value: $434.3 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: alumina, aluminum, shrimp and fish, rice, bananas
partners: Norway 33%, Netherlands 26%, US 13%, Japan 6%, Brazil 6%, UK
3% (1994)

Imports:
total value: $490 million (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs, cotton,
consumer goods
partners: US 40%, Netherlands 24%, Trinidad and Tobago 11%, Japan 3%
(1994)

Debt-external: $216 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: the Netherlands provided a 1996 aid package of $224 million
to Suriname, Aruba, and the Netherlands Antilles

Currency: 1 Surinamese guilder, gulden, or florin (Sf.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Surinamese guilders, gulden, or florins (Sf.) per
US$1-central bank midpoint rate: 401.00 (January 1998), 401.00 (1997),
401.26 (1996), 442.23 (1995), 134.12 (1994); parallel rate: 412
(December 1995), 510 (December 1994), 109 (January 1994)
note: beginning July 1994, the central bank midpoint exchange rate was
unified and became market determined

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 43,522 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: international facilities good
domestic: microwave radio relay network
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 32, shortwave 1

Radios: 290,256 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 10 (1998 est.)

Televisions: 59,598 (1993 est.)

@Suriname:Transportation

Railways:
total: 166 km (single track)
standard gauge: 80 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 86 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 4,530 km
paved: 1,178 km
unpaved: 3,352 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,200 km; most important means of transport; oceangoing
vessels with drafts ranging up to 7 m can navigate many of the
principal waterways

Ports and harbors: Albina, Moengo, New Nickerie, Paramaribo, Paranam,
Wageningen

Merchant marine:
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,421 GRT/2,990 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, container 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 45 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 4 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 40
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 33 (1997 est.)

@Suriname:Military

Military branches: National Army (includes small Navy and Air Force
elements), Civil Police

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 117,031 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 68,985 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $8.5 million (1997 est.)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.6% (1997 est.)

@Suriname:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: claims area in French Guiana between Litani
Rivier and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa Rivier);
claims area in Guyana between New (Upper Courantyne) and
Courantyne/Koetari [Kutari] Rivers (all headwaters of the Courantyne)

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined
mostly for Europe

______________________________________________________________________

SVALBARD

(territory of Norway)

@Svalbard:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, islands between the Arctic Ocean, Barents
Sea, Greenland Sea, and Norwegian Sea, north of Norway

Geographic coordinates: 78 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Arctic Region

Area:
total: 62,049 sq km
land: 62,049 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Spitsbergen and Bjornoya (Bear Island)

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,587 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm unilaterally claimed by Norway but not
recognized by Russia
territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate: arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool
summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and
north coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of
the year

Terrain: wild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered; west
coast clear of ice about one-half of the year; fjords along west and
north coasts

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Arctic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Newtontoppen 1,717 m

Natural resources: coal, copper, iron ore, phosphate, zinc, wildlife,
fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (no trees and the only bushes are crowberry and
cloudberry)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: ice floes often block up the entrance to Bellsund (a
transit point for coal export) on the west coast and occasionally make
parts of the northeastern coast inaccessible to maritime traffic

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: northernmost part of the Kingdom of Norway; consists
of nine main islands; glaciers and snowfields cover 60% of the total
area

@Svalbard:People

Population: 2,594 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: -3.55% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Ethnic groups: Russian and Ukrainian 62%, Norwegian 38%, other NEGL%
(1994)

Languages: Russian, Norwegian

@Svalbard:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Svalbard (sometimes referred to as
Spitzbergen)

Data code: SV

Dependency status: territory of Norway; administered by the Ministry
of Industry, Oslo, through a governor (sysselmann) residing in
Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen; by treaty (9 February 1920) sovereignty was
given to Norway

Government type: NA

National capital: Longyearbyen

Independence: none (territory of Norway)

National holiday: NA

Legal system: NA

Executive branch:
chief of state: King HARALD V of Norway (since 17 January 1991)
head of government: Governor Ann-Krisitin OLSEN (since NA) and
Assistant Governor Jan-Atle HANSEN (since NA September 1993)
elections: none; the king is a hereditary monarch; governor and
assistant governor responsible to the Polar Department of the Ministry
of Justice

International organization participation: none

Flag description: the flag of Norway is used

@Svalbard:Economy

Economy-overview: Coal mining is the major economic activity on
Svalbard. The treaty of 9 February 1920 gives the 41 signatories equal
rights to exploit mineral deposits, subject to Norwegian regulation.
Although US, UK, Dutch, and Swedish coal companies have mined in the
past, the only companies still mining are Norwegian and Russian. The
settlements on Svalbard are essentially company towns. The Norwegian
state-owned coal company employs nearly 60% of the Norwegian
population on the island, runs many of the local services, and
provides most of the local infrastructure. There is also some trapping
of seal, polar bear, fox, and walrus.

Labor force: NA

Budget:
revenues: $11.7 million
expenditures: $11.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: NA kW

Electricity-production: NA kWh

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Economic aid:
recipient: Norway, $8.7 million (1997)

Currency: 1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1-7.4875 (January 1998),
7.0734 (1997), 6.4498 (1996), 6.3352 (1995), 7.0576 (1994), 7.0941
(1993)

Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: local telephone service
international: satellite earth station-1 of NA type (for communication
with Norwegian mainland only)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1 (repeaters 2), shortwave 0
note: there are five meteorological/radio stations

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: NA

@Svalbard:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Barentsburg, Longyearbyen, Ny-Alesund, Pyramiden

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 4 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 3
under 914 m: 3 (1997 est.)

@Svalbard:Military

Military-note: demilitarized by treaty (9 February 1920)

@Svalbard:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Svalbard is the focus of a maritime boundary
dispute in the Barents Sea between Norway and Russia

______________________________________________________________________

SWAZILAND

@Swaziland:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa

Geographic coordinates: 26 30 S, 31 30 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 17,360 sq km
land: 17,200 sq km
water: 160 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries:
total: 535 km
border countries: Mozambique 105 km, South Africa 430 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies from tropical to near temperate

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Great Usutu River 21 m
highest point: Emlembe 1,862 m

Natural resources: asbestos, coal, clay, cassiterite, hydropower,
forests, small gold and diamond deposits, quarry stone, and talc

Land use:
arable land: 11%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 62%
forests and woodland: 7%
other: 20% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 670 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: limited supplies of potable water;
wildlife populations being depleted because of excessive hunting;
overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geography-note: landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South
Africa

@Swaziland:People

Population: 966,462 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (male 223,649; female 224,782)
15-64 years: 51% (male 238,547; female 255,137)
65 years and over: 3% (male 9,625; female 14,722) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.96% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 41 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 21.4 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 103.37 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 38.53 years
male: 37.31 years
female: 39.79 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.96 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Swazi(s)
adjective: Swazi

Ethnic groups: African 97%, European 3%

Religions: Christian 60%, indigenous beliefs 40%

Languages: English (official, government business conducted in
English), siSwati (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 76.7%
male: 78%
female: 75.6% (1995 est.)

@Swaziland:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Swaziland
conventional short form: Swaziland

Data code: WZ

Government type: monarchy; independent member of Commonwealth

National capital: Mbabane (administrative); Lobamba (legislative)

Administrative divisions: 4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini,
Shiselweni

Independence: 6 September 1968 (from UK)

National holiday: Somhlolo (Independence) Day, 6 September (1968)

Constitution: none; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended 12
April 1973; a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978, but
has not been formally presented to the people

Legal system: based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory
courts and Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: NA; note-no suffrage before September 1993; 55 of the 65
seats in the House of Assembly were filled by popular vote in the
elections of September and October 1993; of a population of less than
1 million, the electorate numbered 283,693

Executive branch:
chief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)
head of government: Prime Minister Sibusiso Barnabas DLAMINI (since 9
August 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister and confirmed by
the king
elections: none; the king is a hereditary monarch; prime minister
appointed by the king

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Libandla, an advisory
body, consists of the Senate (20 seats, 10 appointed by the House of
Assembly and 10 appointed by the king; members serve five-year terms)
and the House of Assembly (65 seats, 10 appointed by the king and 55
elected by secret, popular vote; members serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Assembly-last held 26 September and 11 October
1993 (next to be held NA 1998)
election results: House of Assembly-balloting is done on a nonparty
basis; candidates for election are nominated by the local council of
each constituency and for each constituency the three candidates with
the most votes in the first round of voting are narrowed to a single
winner by a second round

Judicial branch: High Court, judges are appointed by the king; Court
of Appeal, judges are appointed by the king

Political parties and leaders:
note: political parties are banned by the constitution promulgated on
13 October 1978; illegal parties are prohibited from holding large
public gatherings
illegal parties: Peoples' United Democratic Movement or PUDEMO [Mario
MASUKU]; Swaziland Youth Congress or SWAYOCO (included in PUDEMO);
Swaziland Communist Party or SWACOPA [Mphandlana SHONGWE]; Swaziland
Liberation Front or FROLISA; Convention for Full Democracy in
Swaziland or COFUDESWA [Sabelo DLAMINI]; Swaziland National Front or
SWANAFRO; Ngwane Socialist Revolutionary Party or NGWASOREP; Swaziland
Democratic Alliance (represents key opposition parties) [Jerry
NXUMALO]; Swaziland Federation of Trade Unions or SFTU [Jan SITHOLE]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Madzandza KANYA
chancery: Suite 3M, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6683
FAX: [1] (202) 244-8059

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alan R. McKEE
embassy: Central Bank Building, Warner Street, Mbabane
mailing address: P. O. Box 199, Mbabane
telephone: [268] 46441 through 46445
FAX: [268] 45959

Flag description: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple
width), and blue; the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red
band is a large black and white shield covering two spears and a staff
decorated with feather tassels, all placed horizontally

@Swaziland:Economy

Economy-overview: In this small landlocked economy, subsistence
agriculture occupies more than 60% of the population. Manufacturing
features a number of agroprocessing factories. Mining has declined in
importance in recent years; high-grade iron ore deposits were depleted
by 1978, and health concerns have cut world demand for asbestos.
Exports of soft drink concentrate, sugar and wood pulp are the main
earners of hard currency. Surrounded by South Africa, except for a
short border with Mozambique, Swaziland is heavily dependent on South
Africa from which it receives nearly 90% of its imports and to which
it sends more than half of its exports. Remittances from Swazi workers
in South African mines supplement domestically earned income by as
much as 20%. The government is trying to improve the atmosphere for
foreign investment. Overgrazing, soil depletion, and drought persist
as problems for the future.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$3.9 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3% (19976 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$3,800 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 10%
industry: 42%
services: 48% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 9.5% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 135,000 (1996)
by occupation: private sector about 70%, public sector about 30%

Unemployment rate: 22% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $400 million
expenditures: $450 million, including capital expenditures of $115
million (FY96/97)

Industries: mining (coal and asbestos), wood pulp, sugar, soft drink
concentrates

Industrial production growth rate: 3.7% (FY95/96)

Electricity-capacity: 130,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 407 million kWh (1995)
note: imports 60% of its electricity from South Africa

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,062 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: sugarcane, cotton, maize, tobacco, rice, citrus,
pineapples, corn, sorghum, peanuts; cattle, goats, sheep

Exports:
total value: $893 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: soft drink concentrates, sugar, wood pulp, cotton yarn
(1995)
partners: South Africa 58%, EU 20%, Mozambique 6% (1994)

Imports:
total value: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment,
foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals (1995)
partners: South Africa 88%, Japan, UK, US (FY94/95)

Debt-external: $194 million (1995)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 lilangeni (E) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: emalangeni (E) per US$1-4.9417 (January 1998), 4.5998
(1997), 4.2706 (1996), 3.6266 (1995), 3.5490 (1994), 3.2636 (1993);
note-the Swazi emalangeni are at par with the South African rand

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 30,364 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: system consists of carrier-equipped, open-wire lines and
low-capacity, microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: 129,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 10

Televisions: 12,500 (1992 est.)

@Swaziland:Transportation

Railways:
total: 297 km; note-includes 71 km which are not in use
narrow gauge: 297 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total: 2,885 km
paved: 814 km
unpaved: 2,071 km (1994 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 18 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 10 (1997 est.)

@Swaziland:Military

Military branches: Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force (Army), Royal
Swaziland Police Force

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 215,708 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 125,580 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $22 million (FY93/94)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Swaziland:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Swaziland has asked South Africa to open
negotiations on reincorporating some nearby South African territories
that are populated by ethnic Swazis or that were long ago part of the
Swazi Kingdom

______________________________________________________________________

SWEDEN

@Sweden:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia,
Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway

Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 15 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 449,964 sq km
land: 410,928 sq km
water: 39,036 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total: 2,205 km
border countries: Finland 586 km, Norway 1,619 km

Coastline: 3,218 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of
straits to high seas)

Climate: temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly
cloudy summers; subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m

Natural resources: zinc, iron ore, lead, copper, silver, timber,
uranium, hydropower potential

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 68%
other: 24% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,150 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in
the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic

Environment-current issues: acid rain damaging soils and lakes;
pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic
and North Seas

@Sweden:People

Population: 8,886,738 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 852,520; female 808,600)
15-64 years: 64% (male 2,885,783; female 2,792,964)
65 years and over: 17% (male 653,631; female 893,240) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.26% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 11.7 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 10.78 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 3.93 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.19 years
male: 76.52 years
female: 82 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.76 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Swede(s)
adjective: Swedish

Ethnic groups: white, Lapp (Sami), foreign-born or first-generation
immigrants 12% (Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks)

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 94%, Roman Catholic 1.5%, Pentecostal
1%, other 3.5% (1987)

Languages: Swedish
note: small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1979 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Sweden:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form: Sweden
local long form: Konungariket Sverige
local short form: Sverige

Data code: SW

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Stockholm

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (lan, singular and plural);
Alvsborgs Lan, Blekinge Lan, Gavleborgs Lan, Goteborgs och Bohus Lan,
Gotlands Lan, Hallands Lan, Jamtlands Lan, Jonkopings Lan, Kalmar Lan,
Kopparbergs Lan, Kristianstads Lan, Kronobergs Lan, Malmohus Lan,
Norrbottens Lan, Orebro Lan, Ostergotlands Lan, Skaraborgs Lan,
Sodermanlands Lan, Stockholms Lan, Uppsala Lan, Varmlands Lan,
Vasterbottens Lan, Vasternorrlands Lan, Vastmanlands Lan

Independence: 6 June 1523, Gustav VASA was elected king; 6 June 1809,
a constitutional monarchy was established

National holiday: Day of the Swedish Flag, 6 June

Constitution: 1 January 1975

Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir
Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the king
(born 14 July 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister Goran PERSSON (since 21 March 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections: the king is a constitutional monarch; prime minister
elected by the Parliament; election last held NA March 1996 (next to
be held NA 1998)
election results: Goran PERSSON elected prime minister; percent of
parliamentary vote - 183 votes out of 349

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats;
members are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation
basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 18 September 1994 (next to be held 20 September
1998)
election results: percent of vote by party-Social Democrats 45.4%,
Moderate Party (Conservatives) 22.3%, Center Party 7.7%, Liberals
7.2%, Left Party 6.2%, Greens 5.8%, Christian Democrats 4.1%, New
Democracy Party 1.2%; seats by party-Social Democrats 162, Moderate
Party (Conservatives) 80, Center Party 27, Liberals 26, Left Party 22,
Greens 18, Christian Democrats 14; note-the New Democracy Party did
not receive a seat because parties require a minimum of 4.0% of votes
for a seat in parliament

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Hogsta Domstolen, judges are
appointed by the government (prime minister and cabinet)

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party [Goran
PERSSON]; Moderate Party (conservative) [Carl BILDT]; Liberal People's
Party [Maria LEISSNER]; Center Party; Christian Democratic Party [Alf
SVENSSON]; New Democracy Party [Vivianne FRANZEN]; Left Party or VP
(Communist) [Gudrun SCHYMAN]; Communist Workers' Party [Rolf HAGEL];
Green Party [no formal leader but party spokesperson is Briger
SCHLAUG]

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA,
EU, FAO, G- 6, G- 8, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINUGUA, MONUA, MTCR, NAM
(guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security
Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH,
UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Rolf EKEUS
chancery: 1501 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20005-1702
telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600
FAX: [1] (202) 467-2699
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lyndon Lowell OLSON, Jr.
embassy: Strandvagen 101, S-115 89 Stockholm
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [46] (8) 783 53 00
FAX: [46] (8) 661 19 64

Flag description: blue with a yellow cross that extends to the edges
of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist
side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

@Sweden:Economy

Economy-overview: Aided by peace and neutrality for the whole
twentieth century, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living
under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare
benefits. It has a modern distribution system, excellent internal and
external communications, and a skilled labor force. Timber,
hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy
heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account
for about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering sector
accounts for 50% of output and exports. Agriculture accounts for only
2% of GDP and 2% of the jobs. In recent years, however, this
extraordinarily favorable picture has been clouded by budgetary
difficulties, inflation, high unemployment, and a gradual loss of
competitiveness in international markets. To curb the budget deficit
and bolster confidence in the economy, the government adopted an
adjustment program in November 1994 that aims to eliminate the
government budget deficit and to stabilize the debt to GDP ratio.
Sweden has harmonized its economic policies with those of the EU,
which it joined at the start of 1995. Sweden has decided not to join
the EMU (European Monetary Union). Annual GDP growth should edge up to
2.5% in 1998-99.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$176.2 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.1% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$19,700 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 2%
industry: 27%
services: 71% (1993)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 4.552 million (84% unionized, 1992)
by occupation: community, social and personal services 38.3%, mining
and manufacturing 21.2%, commerce, hotels, and restaurants 14.1%,
banking, insurance 9.0%, communications 7.2%, construction 7.0%,
agriculture, fishing, and forestry 3.2% (1991)

Unemployment rate: 6.6% plus about 5% in training programs (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $109.4 billion
expenditures: $146.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY95/96)

Industries: iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and
telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed
foods, motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate: 2.6% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 35.462 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 142.913 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 15,996 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: grains, sugar beets, potatoes; meat, milk

Exports:
total value: $84.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood,
iron and steel products, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products
partners: EU 59.1% (Germany 13.2%, UK 10.2%, Denmark 6.9%, France
5.1%), Norway 8.1%, Finland 4.8%, US 8.0% (1994)

Imports:
total value: $66.6 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals,
motor vehicles, foodstuffs, iron and steel, clothing
partners: EU 62.6% (Germany 18.4%, UK 9.5%, Denmark 6.6%, France
5.5%), Finland 6.3%, Norway 6.1%, US 8.5% (1994)

Debt-external: $66.5 billion (1994)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $1.769 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 Swedish krona (SKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Swedish kronor (SKr) per US$1-8.0085 (January 1998),
7.6349 (1997), 6.7060 (1996), 7.1333 (1995), 7.7160 (1994), 7.7834
(1993)

Fiscal year: 1 January-31 December (Sweden changed its fiscal year
from 1 July - 30 June in 1995)

Communications

Telephones: 13 million (1996 est.)

Telephone system: excellent domestic and international facilities;
automatic system
domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cable carry most voice traffic;
parallel microwave radio relay network carries some additional
telephone channels
international: 5 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations-1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and
Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station
with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and
Norway)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 360 (mostly repeaters), shortwave 0

Radios: 7.272 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 880 (mostly repeaters)

Televisions: 3.5 million

@Sweden:Transportation

Railways:
total: 11,837 km (includes 1,955 km of privately-owned railways)
standard gauge: 11,837 km 1.435-m gauge (7,317 km electrified and
1,152 km double track) (1996)

Highways:
total: 138,000 km
paved: 105,018 km (including 1,330 km of expressways)
unpaved: 32,982 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 2,052 km navigable for small steamers and barges

Pipelines: natural gas 84 km

Ports and harbors: Gavle, Goteborg, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Hudiksvall,
Kalmar, Karlshamn, Malmo, Solvesborg, Stockholm, Sundsvall

Merchant marine:
total: 164 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,036,831 GRT/1,919,367
DWT
ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 33, chemical tanker 27, combination
ore/oil 1, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 29, railcar carrier 1,
refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 41, short-sea passenger
7, specialized tanker 4, vehicle carrier 12 (1997 est.)

Airports: 255 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 145
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 83

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