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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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considerable energy resources brighten its long-term prospects. Baku
has only recently begun making progress on economic reform, and old
economic ties and structures are slowly being replaced. A major
short-term obstacle to economic progress, including stepped up foreign
investment, is the continuing conflict with Armenia over the ethnic
Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh. Trade with Russia and
the other former Soviet republics is declining in importance while
trade is building up with the nations of Europe, Turkey, Iran, and the
UAE. A serious long-term challenge is the maintenance of the
competitiveness of non-oil exports in world markets.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$11.9 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5.8% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,460 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 30%
industry: 23%
services: 47% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3.7% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2.789 million
by occupation: agriculture and forestry 32%, industry and construction
26%, other 42% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $565 million
expenditures: $682 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield
equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals;
textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 0.3% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 5.239 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 16.051 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 2,200 kWh (1996 est.)

Agriculture-products: cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables,
tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats

Exports:
total value: $789 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: oil and gas, chemicals, oilfield equipment, textiles,
cotton
partners: CIS, European countries, Turkey

Imports:
total value: $1.3 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and parts, consumer durables, foodstuffs,
textiles
partners: CIS, European countries, Turkey

Debt-external: $100 million (of which $75 million to Russia)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $14 million (1993)
note: commitments, 1992-95, $1,000 million ($185 million in
disbursements); wheat from Turkey

Currency: 1 manat = 100 gopik

Exchange rates: manats per US$1-3,936.00 (September 1997), 4,301.26
(1996), 4,413.54 (1995), 1,570.23 (1994), 99.98 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 710,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: 202,000 persons waiting for telephone installations
(January 1991 est.)
domestic: telephone service is of poor quality and inadequate; a joint
venture to establish a cellular telephone system in the Baku area is
operational
international: cable and microwave radio relay connections to former
Soviet republics; connection through Moscow international gateway
switch to other countries; satellite earth stations-1 Intelsat and 1
Intersputnik (Intelsat provides service to Turkey and through Turkey
to 200 more countries; Intersputnik provides direct service to New
York)

Radio broadcast stations: 1 state-owned radio broadcast station

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2
note: domestic and Russian TV programs are received locally and
Turkish and Iranian TV is received from an Intelsat satellite through
a receive-only earth station

Televisions: NA

@Azerbaijan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,125 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines
broad gauge: 2,125 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (1993)

Highways:
total: 57,770 km
paved: 54,188 km
unpaved: 3,582 km (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,130 km; petroleum products 630 km; natural gas
1,240 km

Ports and harbors: Baku (Baki)

Airports: 69 (1996 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 29
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 40
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 33 (1996 est.)

@Azerbaijan:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border
Guards

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 2,011,076 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,616,412 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 71,922 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: 105.7 billion manats (1998 est.);
note-conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Azerbaijan:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the
Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan in the longstanding, separatist
conflict against the Azerbaijani Government; Caspian Sea boundaries
are not yet determined among Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and
Turkmenistan

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly
for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program;
transshipment point for opiates to Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________

BAHAMAS, THE

The Bahamas

The Bahamas
@Bahamas, The:Geography

Location: Caribbean, chain of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean,
southeast of Florida

Geographic coordinates: 24 15 N, 76 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 13,940 sq km
land: 10,070 sq km
water: 3,870 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,542 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
(measured from the archipelagic straight baselines)
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream

Terrain: long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Alvernia, on Cat Island 63 m

Natural resources: salt, aragonite, timber

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 32%
other: 67% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and other tropical storms that cause
extensive flood and wind damage

Environment-current issues: coral reef decay; solid waste disposal

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive
island chain

@Bahamas, The:People

Population: 279,833 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 39,239; female 38,708)
15-64 years: 67% (male 91,208; female 95,198)
65 years and over: 5% (male 6,444; female 9,036) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.39% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 21.03 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.44 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.97 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74 years
male: 70.65 years
female: 77.42 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.33 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bahamian(s)
adjective: Bahamian

Ethnic groups: black 85%, white 15%

Religions: Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%, Methodist
6%, Church of God 6%, other Protestant 12%, none or unknown 3%, other
2%

Languages: English, Creole (among Haitian immigrants)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write but definition of
literacy not available
total population: 98.2%
male: 98.5%
female: 98% (1995 est.)

@Bahamas, The:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Commonwealth of The Bahamas
conventional short form: The Bahamas

Data code: BF

Government type: commonwealth

National capital: Nassau

Administrative divisions: 21 districts; Acklins and Crooked Islands,
Bimini, Cat Island, Exuma, Freeport, Fresh Creek, Governor's Harbour,
Green Turtle Cay, Harbour Island, High Rock, Inagua, Kemps Bay, Long
Island, Marsh Harbour, Mayaguana, New Providence, Nicholls Town and
Berry Islands, Ragged Island, Rock Sound, Sandy Point, San Salvador
and Rum Cay

Independence: 10 July 1973 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 10 July (1973)

Constitution: 10 July 1973

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Orville TURNQUEST (since 2 January
1995)
head of government: Prime Minister Hubert Alexander INGRAHAM (since 19
August 1992) and Deputy Prime Minister Frank WATSON (since December
1994)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the prime
minister's recommendation
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
appointed by the queen; prime minister and deputy prime minister
appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate
(16-member body appointed by the governor general upon the advice of
the prime minister and the opposition leader for a five-year term) and
the House of Assembly (40 seats; members elected by direct popular
vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 14 March 1997 (next to be held by March 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-FNM 35,
PLP 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Progressive Liberal Party or PLP [Perry
CHRISTIE]; Free National Movement or FNM [Hubert Alexander INGRAHAM]

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB,
ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Arlington Griffith BUTLER
chancery: 2220 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
mailing address: American Embassy, NAS/STATE 10-1006, P.O. Box 599009,
Miami, FL 33159-9009
telephone: [1] (242) 322-1181, 328-2206
FAX: [1] (242) 356-0222
consulate(s) general: Miami and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sidney WILLIAMS
embassy: Queen Street, Nassau
mailing address: Local or Express Mail address: P. O. Box N-8197,
Nassau; American Embassy, Nassau; Stateside address: American Embassy,
P.O. Box 9009, Miami, FL 33159; Pouch address: Nassau, Department of
State, Washington, DC 20521-3370 (pouch)
telephone: [1] (809) 322-1181, 328-2206
FAX: [1] (809) 356-0222

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top),
gold, and aquamarine with a black equilateral triangle based on the
hoist side

@Bahamas, The:Economy

Economy-overview: The Bahamas is a stable, developing nation with an
economy heavily dependent on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism
alone accounts for more than 50% of GDP and directly or indirectly
employs 40% of the archipelago's labor force. Moderate growth in
tourism receipts and a boom in construction of new hotels, resorts,
and residences led to an increase of the country's GDP by an estimated
3.5% in 1997. Manufacturing and agriculture together contribute less
than 10% of GDP and show little growth despite government incentives
aimed at those sectors. Overall growth prospects in the short run will
depend heavily on the fortunes of the tourism sector and continued
income growth in the US, which accounts for the majority of tourist
visitors.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$5.36 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$19,400 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 3%
industry: 5%
services: 92% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 0.4% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 146,600 (1996)
by occupation: government 30%, tourism 40%, business services 10%,
agriculture 5% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: 10% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $687.5 million
expenditures: $827 million, including capital expenditures of $112
million (FY96/97 est.)

Industries: tourism, banking, cement, oil refining and transshipment,
salt production, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral-welded steel
pipe

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 401,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 1.29 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 4,100 kWh (1996)

Agriculture-products: citrus, vegetables; poultry

Exports:
total value: $201.7 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: pharmaceuticals, cement, rum, crawfish, refined petroleum
products
partners: US 24%, Spain 14%, UK 7%, Norway 7%, France 6%, Italy 5%
(1995 est.)

Imports:
total value: $1.26 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods, crude oil, vehicles,
electronics
partners: US 29%, Finland 10%, Iran 10%, Denmark 8%

Debt-external: $381.7 million (1997)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Bahamian dollar (B$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bahamian dollar (B$) per US$1-1.000 (fixed rate pegged
to the dollar)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 200,000 (1997 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: 91,183 telephone lines; totally automatic system; highly
developed
international: tropospheric scatter and submarine cable to Florida; 3
coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic
Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 5, shortwave 0

Radios: 200,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1986 est.)

Televisions: 60,000 (1993 est.)

@Bahamas, The:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,693 km
paved: 1,546 km
unpaved: 1,147 km (1997 est.)

Ports and harbors: Freeport, Matthew Town, Nassau

Merchant marine:
total: 1,024 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,674,594
GRT/38,334,892 DWT
ships by type: bulk 205, cargo 223, chemical tanker 34, combination
bulk 8, combination ore/oil 21, container 55, liquefied gas tanker 25,
oil tanker 176, passenger 53, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo
145, roll-on/roll-off cargo 49, short-sea passenger 11, specialized
tanker 1, vehicle carrier 17
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 48 countries
among which are Norway 172, Greece 145, UK 122, US 70, Denmark 42,
Sweden 29, Finland 27, Monaco 27, Japan 26, and Italy 25 (1997 est.)

Airports: 62 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 32
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 30
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 21 (1997 est.)

@Bahamas, The:Military

Military branches: Royal Bahamas Defense Force (Coast Guard only),
Royal Bahamas Police Force

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $22.9 million (FY96/97)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 3.8% (FY95/96)

@Bahamas, The:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for
US and Europe; banking industry vulnerable to money-laundering

______________________________________________________________________

BAHRAIN

@Bahrain:Geography

Location: Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi
Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 26 00 N, 50 33 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 620 sq km
land: 620 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Terrain: mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central
escarpment

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m

Natural resources: oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 6%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 92% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; dust storms

Environment-current issues: desertification resulting from the
degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust
storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and
sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from
large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; no natural
fresh water resources so that groundwater and sea water are the only
sources for all water needs

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources;
strategic location in Persian Gulf which much of Western world's
petroleum must transit to reach open ocean

@Bahrain:People

Population: 616,342 (July 1998 est.)
note: includes 224,640 non-nationals (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 31% (male 95,871; female 93,232)
15-64 years: 67% (male 245,099; female 164,946)
65 years and over: 2% (male 8,799; female 8,395) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.09% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 22.43 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 3.25 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.49 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.05 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 15.54 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.96 years
male: 72.42 years
female: 77.57 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.01 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bahraini(s)
adjective: Bahraini

Ethnic groups: Bahraini 63%, Asian 13%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%,
other 6%

Religions: Shi'a Muslim 75%, Sunni Muslim 25%

Languages: Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 85.2%
male: 89.1%
female: 79.4% (1995 est.)

@Bahrain:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: State of Bahrain
conventional short form: Bahrain
local long form: Dawlat al Bahrayn
local short form: Al Bahrayn

Data code: BA

Government type: traditional monarchy

National capital: Manama

Administrative divisions: 12 municipalities (manatiq,
singular-mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al
Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa wa
al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat Isa, Juzur
Hawar, Sitrah
note: all municipalities administered from Manama

Independence: 15 August 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 December (1971)

Constitution: 26 May 1973, effective 6 December 1973

Legal system: based on Islamic law and English common law

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state: Amir ISA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 2 November
1961); Heir Apparent HAMAD bin Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa (son of the
Amir, born 28 January 1949)
head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa
(since 19 January 1970)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the amir
elections: none; the amir is a traditional Arab monarch; prime
minister appointed by the amir

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly was dissolved 26
August 1975 and legislative powers were assumed by the Cabinet;
appointed Advisory Council established 16 December 1992

Judicial branch: High Civil Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: political parties prohibited

Political pressure groups and leaders: several small, clandestine
leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups are active; following the
arrest of a popular Shi'a cleric, Shi'a activists have fomented unrest
sporadically since late 1994, demanding the return of an elected
National Assembly and an end to unemployment

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF,
ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU,
NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Muhammad ABD AL-GHAFFAR Abdallah
chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 342-0741, 342-0742
FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Johnny YOUNG
embassy: Building No. 979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club),
Zinj District, Manama
mailing address: FPO AE 09834-5100; International Mail Box 26431,
Manama (International Mail)
telephone: [973] 273-300
FAX: [973] 275-418

Flag description: red with a white serrated band (eight white points)
on the hoist side

@Bahrain:Economy

Economy-overview: In Bahrain, petroleum production and processing
account for about 60% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues,
and 30% of GDP. Economic conditions have fluctuated with the changing
fortunes of oil since 1985, for example, during and following the Gulf
crisis of 1990-91. With its highly developed communication and
transport facilities, Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms
with business in the Gulf. A large share of exports consists of
petroleum products made from imported crude. Construction proceeds on
several major industrial projects. Unemployment, especially among the
young, and the depletion of both oil and underground water resources
are major long-term economic problems.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$8.2 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.7% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$13,700 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 1%
industry: 38%
services: 61% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: -0.2% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 140,000
by occupation: industry, commerce, and service 78%, government 21%,
agriculture 1% (1994)
note: 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national
(July 1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.7 billion
expenditures: $1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $400
million (1998 est.)

Industries: petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting,
offshore banking, ship repairing; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 3.4% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 1.05 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 4.4 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 7,640 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products;
shrimp, fish

Exports:
total value: $4.6 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 61%, aluminum 7%
partners: India 22%, Japan 12%, Saudi Arabia 6%, US 6%, UAE 5% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: nonoil 63%, crude oil 37%
partners: Saudi Arabia 40%, US 13%, UK 7%, Japan 5%, Switzerland 5%
(1995)

Debt-external: $3.2 billion (1995)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Bahraini dinar (BD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Bahraini dinars (BD) per US$1-0.3760 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 73,552 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: modern system; good domestic services and excellent
international connections
domestic: NA
international: tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio
relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi
Arabia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1
Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 320,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 270,000 (1993 est.)

@Bahrain:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 3,013 km
paved: 2,284 km
unpaved: 729 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas 32
km

Ports and harbors: Manama, Mina' Salman, Sitrah

Merchant marine:
total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 131,919 GRT/212,510 DWT
ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 3, oil tanker 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Bahrain:Military

Military branches: Ground Force, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard,
Internal Security Forces

Military manpower-military age: 15 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 218,831 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 120,753 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: NA

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $256 million (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 5.4% (1995)

@Bahrain:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: territorial dispute with Qatar over the Hawar
Islands and maritime boundary dispute with Qatar currently before the
International Court of Justice (ICJ)

______________________________________________________________________

BAKER ISLAND

(territory of the US)

@Baker Island:Geography

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of
the way from Hawaii to Australia

Geographic coordinates: 0 13 N, 176 31 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 1.4 sq km
land: 1.4 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 2.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4.8 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow
fringing reef

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 8 m

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until 1891)

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can
be a maritime hazard

Environment-current issues: no natural fresh water resources

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation consisting
of grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a
nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and
marine wildlife

@Baker Island:People

Population: uninhabited
note: American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and
naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during
World War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by
special-use permit only and generally restricted to scientists and
educators; a cemetery and cemetery ruins are located near the middle
of the west coast

@Baker Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Baker Island

Data code: FQ

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered
from Washington, DC by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US
Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge
system

Legal system: NA

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

@Baker Island:Economy

Economy-overview: no economic activity

@Baker Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only; note-there is one
boat landing area along the middle of the west coast

Airports: 1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m

Transportation-note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the west
coast

@Baker Island:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited
annually by the US Coast Guard

@Baker Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

BANGLADESH

@Bangladesh:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma
and India

Geographic coordinates: 24 00 N, 90 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 144,000 sq km
land: 133,910 sq km
water: 10,090 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries:
total: 4,246 km
border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km

Coastline: 580 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March); hot, humid
summer (March to June); cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Reng Tlang 957 m

Natural resources: natural gas, arable land, timber

Land use:
arable land: 73%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: 15%
other: 5% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 31,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely
flooded during the summer monsoon season

Environment-current issues: many people are landless and forced to
live on and cultivate flood-prone land; limited access to potable
water; water-borne diseases prevalent; water pollution especially of
fishing areas results from the use of commercial pesticides;
intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the
northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation;
deforestation; severe overpopulation

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

@Bangladesh:People

Population: 127,567,002 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 38% (male 24,339,519; female 23,377,955)
15-64 years: 59% (male 38,897,130; female 36,818,818)
65 years and over: 3% (male 2,239,638; female 1,893,942) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.76% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 28.89 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 10.6 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.18 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 97.67 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 56.66 years
male: 56.69 years
female: 56.63 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.32 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bangladeshi(s)
adjective: Bangladesh

Ethnic groups: Bengali 98%, Biharis 250,000, tribals less than 1
million

Religions: Muslim 88.3%, Hindu 10.5%, other 1.2%

Languages: Bangla (official), English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 38.1%
male: 49.4%
female: 26.1% (1995 est.)

@Bangladesh:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
conventional short form: Bangladesh
former: East Pakistan

Data code: BG

Government type: republic

National capital: Dhaka

Administrative divisions: 4 divisions; Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna,
Rajshahi
note: there may be two new divisions named Barisal and Sylhet

Independence: 16 December 1971 (from Pakistan)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 March (1971)

Constitution: 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended
following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended
many times

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Shahabuddin AHMED (since 9 October 1996);
note-the president's duties are normally ceremonial, but with the 13th
amendment to the constitution ("Caretaker Government Amendment"), the
president's role becomes significant at times when Parliament is
dissolved and a caretaker government is installed - at presidential
direction-to supervise the elections
head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA Wajed (since 23 June
1996)
cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by the
president
elections: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year
term; election last held 24 July 1996 (next to be held by NA October
2001); following legislative elections, the leader of the party that
wins the most seats is usually appointed prime minister by the
president
election results: Shahabuddin AHMED elected president without
opposition; percent of National Parliament vote-NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad
(330 seats; 300 elected by popular vote from single territorial
constituencies, 30 seats reserved for women; members serve five-year
terms)
elections: last held 12 June 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party-AL 33.87%, BNP 30.87%;
seats by party-AL 178, BNP 113, JP 33, JI 3, other 2, election still
to be held 1; note-the elections of 12 June 1996 brought to power an
Awami League government for the first time in twenty-one years; held
under a neutral, caretaker administration, the elections were
characterized by a peaceful, orderly process and massive voter
turnout, ending a bitter two-year impasse between the former BNP and
opposition parties that had paralyzed National Parliament and led to
widespread street violence

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, the Chief Justices and other judges
are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP),
Khaleda ZIAur Rahman; Awami League (AL), Sheikh HASINA Wajed; Jatiyo
Party (JP), Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD; Jamaat-E-Islami (JI), Motiur
Rahman NIZAMI; Bangladesh Communist Party (BCP), Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK

International organization participation: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP,
FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, MINURSO, MONUA, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP, UNU,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Khwaja Mohammad SHEHABUDDIN
chancery: 2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 342-8372 through 8376
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John C. HOLZMAN
embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212
mailing address: G.P.O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000
telephone: [880] (2) 884700 through 884722
FAX: [880] (2) 883-744

Flag description: green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist
side of center; the red sun of freedom represents the blood shed to
achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush countryside,
and secondarily, the traditional color of Islam

@Bangladesh:Economy

Economy-overview: Despite sustained domestic and international efforts
to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains one
of the world's poorest, most densely populated, and least developed
nations. Annual GDP growth has averaged over 4% in recent years from a
low base. Its economy is largely agricultural, with the cultivation of
rice the single most important activity in the economy. Major
impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and floods, the
inefficiency of state-owned enterprises, a rapidly growing labor force
that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting energy
resources (natural gas), inadequate power supplies, and slow
implementation of economic reforms. Frequent strikes that crippled the
economy in 1995 and early 1996 subsided after Prime Minister Sheikh
HASINA Wajed's Awami League government assumed power in mid-1996,
allowing a return to normal economic activity. The current government
has made some headway improving the climate for foreign investors and
liberalizing the capital markets; for example, it has negotiated with
foreign firms for oil and gas exploration, better countrywide
distribution of cooking gas, and the construction of natural gas
pipelines and power plants. Progress on other economic reforms has
been halting because of opposition from the bureaucracy, public sector
unions, and other vested interest groups.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$167 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,330 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 30%
industry: 18%
services: 52% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.5% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 56 million
by occupation: agriculture 63%, services 25%, industry and mining 10%
(1996)
note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, and Oman
(1996)

Unemployment rate: 35.2% (1996)

Budget:
revenues: $3.6 billion
expenditures: $5.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $3
billion (FY96/97)

Industries: jute manufacturing, cotton textiles, food processing,
steel, fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: 5.3% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 2.978 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 11.5 billion kWh (1997)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 71 kWh (1997 est.)

Agriculture-products: rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes;
beef, milk, poultry

Exports:
total value: $3.9 billion (1996)
commodities: garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen fish and
seafood
partners: Western Europe 42%, US 30%, Hong Kong 4%, Japan 3% (FY95/96
est.)

Imports:
total value: $6.9 billion (1996)
commodities: capital goods, textiles, food, petroleum products
partners: India 21%, China 10%, Western Europe 8%, Hong Kong 7%,
Singapore 6% (FY95/96 est.)

Debt-external: $17.1 billion (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: $1.475 billion (FY96/97)

Currency: 1 taka (Tk) = 100 poisha

Exchange rates: taka (Tk) per US$1-45.450 (January 1998), 43.892
(1997), 41.794 (1996), 40.278 (1995), 40.212 (1994), 39.567 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 249,800 (1994 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: poor domestic telephone service
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean);
international radiotelephone communications and landline service to
neighboring countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 11

Televisions: 350,000 (1993 est.)

@Bangladesh:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,892 km
broad gauge: 978 km 1.676-m gauge
narrow gauge: 1,914 km 1.000-m gauge (1992)

Highways:
total: 223,391 km
paved: 16,084 km
unpaved: 207,307 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 5,150-8,046 km navigable waterways (includes 2,575-3,058 km
main cargo routes)

Pipelines: natural gas 1,220 km

Ports and harbors: Chittagong, Dhaka, Chalna Port (Mongla)

Merchant marine:
total: 39 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 310,728 GRT/444,245 DWT
ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 31, oil tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 2,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 (1997 est.)

Airports: 16 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 15
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 7 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Bangladesh:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary forces
(includes Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Armed Police Reserve,
Village Defense Parties, National Cadet Corps)

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 33,780,741 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 19,984,761 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $481 million (FY95/96)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.7% (FY95/96)

@Bangladesh:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: a portion of the boundary with India is
indefinite

Illicit drugs: transit country for illegal drugs produced in
neighboring countries

______________________________________________________________________

BARBADOS

@Barbados:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates: 13 10 N, 59 32 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 430 sq km
land: 430 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 97 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to October)

Terrain: relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Hillaby 336 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 37%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: 12%
other: 46% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: infrequent hurricanes; periodic landslides

Environment-current issues: pollution of coastal waters from waste
disposal by ships; soil erosion; illegal solid waste disposal
threatens contamination of aquifers

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity

Geography-note: easternmost Caribbean island

@Barbados:People

Population: 259,025 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (male 30,592; female 29,747)
15-64 years: 67% (male 84,725; female 87,730)
65 years and over: 10% (male 9,926; female 16,305) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.09% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 14.92 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.21 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.25 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.79 years
male: 72.03 years
female: 77.62 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.85 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Barbadian(s)
adjective: Barbadian

Ethnic groups: black 80%, white 4%, other 16%

Religions: Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%,
other 12%), Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, unknown 3%, other 9% (1980)

Languages: English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 97.4%
male: 98%
female: 96.8% (1995 est.)

@Barbados:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Barbados

Data code: BB

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Bridgetown

Administrative divisions: 11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew,
Saint George, Saint James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint
Michael, Saint Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas
note: the city of Bridgetown may be given parish status

Independence: 30 November 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 November (1966)

Constitution: 30 November 1966

Legal system: English common law; no judicial review of legislative
acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Clifford Straughn HUSBANDS (since
1 June 1996)
head of government: Prime Minister Owen Seymour ARTHUR (since 6
September 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Billie MILLER (since 6
September 1994)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
the prime minister
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
appointed by the queen; prime minister appointed by the governor
general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate
(21-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of
Assembly (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Assembly-last held 6 September 1994 (next to be
held by January 1999)
election results: House of Assembly-percent of vote by party-NA; seats
by party - BLP 19, DLP 8, NDP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Judicature, judges are appointed by
the Service Commissions for the Judicial and Legal Service

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Labor Party or DLP [David
THOMPSON]; Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Owen ARTHUR]; National
Democratic Party or NDP [Richard HAYNES]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Barbados Workers Union [Leroy
TROTMAN]; People's Progressive Movement [Eric SEALY]; Workers' Party
of Barbados [Dr. George BELLE]; Clement Payne Labor Union [David
COMMISSIONG]

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, NAM,
OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Courtney N. BLACKMAN
chancery: 2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-9200
consulate(s) general: Coral Gables and New York
consulate(s): Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Deputy Chief of Mission Donald
K. HOLM
embassy: Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street,
Bridgetown
mailing address: P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown; FPO AA 34055
telephone: [1] (246) 436-4950
FAX: [1] (246) 429-5246

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
gold, and blue with the head of a black trident centered on the gold
band; the trident head represents independence and a break with the
past (the colonial coat of arms contained a complete trident)

@Barbados:Economy

Economy-overview: Historically, the Barbadian economy had been
dependent on sugarcane cultivation and related activities, but
production in recent years has diversified into manufacturing and
tourism. The start of the Port Charles Marina project in Speightstown
helped the tourism industry continue to expand in 1996-97. The
government continues its efforts to reduce the unacceptably high
unemployment rate, encourage direct foreign investment, and privatize
remaining state-owned enterprises.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$2.8 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$10,900 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 7%
industry: 17%
services: 76% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.4% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 68,900 (1996)
by occupation: services 75%, industry 15%, agriculture 10% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: 16.2% (1996)

Budget:
revenues: $600 million
expenditures: $645 million, including capital expenditures of $80
million (FY96/97 est.)

Industries: tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly
for export

Industrial production growth rate: 0.8% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 140,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 591.5 million kWh (1996)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 2,145 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: sugarcane, vegetables, cotton

Exports:
total value: $235 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and beverages,
chemicals, electrical components, clothing
partners: US 15%, UK 15%, Trinidad and Tobago 9%, Windward Islands 8%

Imports:
total value: $763 million (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: consumer goods, machinery, foodstuffs, construction
materials, chemicals, fuel, electrical components
partners: US 37%, Trinidad and Tobago 11%, UK 10%, Japan 7%

Debt-external: $359 million (December 1996)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Barbadian dollar (Bds$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Barbadian dollars (Bds$) per US$1-2.0000 (fixed rate
pegged to the dollar)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 87,343 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: island wide automatic telephone system
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean);
tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and Saint Lucia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1 pay)

Televisions: 69,350 (1993 est.)

@Barbados:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 1,640 km
paved: 1,573 km
unpaved: 67 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Bridgetown

Merchant marine:
total: 57 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 869,363 GRT/1,365,640 DWT
ships by type: bulk 15, cargo 30, container 1, combination bulk 4,
multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 4, refrigerated cargo
1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships of 2 countries:
Canada owns 2 ships, Hong Kong 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Barbados:Military

Military branches: Royal Barbados Defense Force (includes Ground
Forces and Coast Guard), Royal Barbados Police Force

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 71,891 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 49,562 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Barbados:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: one of many Caribbean transshipment points for
narcotics bound for the US and Europe

______________________________________________________________________

BASSAS DA INDIA

(possession of France)

@Bassas da India:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, islands in the southern Mozambique Channel,
about one-half of the way from Madagascar to Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 S, 39 50 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 0.2 sq km
land: 0.2 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about one-third the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 35.2 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: a volcanic rock 2.4 meters high

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 2.4 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (all rock)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: maritime hazard since it is usually under water
during high tide and surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

@Bassas da India:People

Population: uninhabited

@Bassas da India:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bassas da India

Data code: BS

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by a high
commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

Legal system: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (possession of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (possession of France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used

@Bassas da India:Economy

Economy-overview: no economic activity

@Bassas da India:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

@Bassas da India:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of France

@Bassas da India:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: claimed by Madagascar

______________________________________________________________________

BELARUS

@Belarus:Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, east of Poland

Geographic coordinates: 53 00 N, 28 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 207,600 sq km
land: 207,600 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries:
total: 3,098 km
border countries: Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km, Poland 605 km,
Russia 959 km, Ukraine 891 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between
continental and maritime

Terrain: generally flat and contains much marshland

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Nyoman River 90 m
highest point: Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m

Natural resources: forests, peat deposits, small quantities of oil and
natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 29%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 15%
forests and woodland: 34%
other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: soil pollution from pesticide use;
southern part of the country contaminated with fallout from 1986
nuclear reactor accident at Chornobyl' in northern Ukraine

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Biodiversity, Environmental Modification, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change, Law of the Sea

Geography-note: landlocked

@Belarus:People

Population: 10,409,050 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20% (male 1,062,012; female 1,018,154)
15-64 years: 67% (male 3,365,065; female 3,564,078)
65 years and over: 13% (male 460,633; female 939,108) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.05% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 9.71 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 13.47 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.49 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.16 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.26 years
male: 62.26 years
female: 74.56 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.34 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Belarusian(s)
adjective: Belarusian

Ethnic groups: Byelorussian 77.9%, Russian 13.2%, Polish 4.1%,
Ukrainian 2.9%, other 1.9%

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 80%, other (including Roman Catholic,
Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 20% (1997 est.)

Languages: Byelorussian, Russian, other

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 97% (1989 est.)

@Belarus:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Belarus
conventional short form: Belarus
local long form: Respublika Byelarus'
local short form: none
former: Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: BO

Government type: republic

National capital: Minsk

Administrative divisions: 6 voblastsi (singular-voblasts') and one
municipality* (harady, singular - horad); Brestskaya (Brest),
Homyel'skaya (Homyel'), Horad Minsk*, Hrodzyenskaya (Hrodna),
Mahilyowskaya (Mahilyow), Minskaya, Vitsyebskaya (Vitsyebsk)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name
following in parentheses)

Independence: 25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 July (1990); note-date set by
referendum of November 1996

Constitution: referendum of 24 November 1996; became effective on 17
November 1996

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Sergey LING (acting since 18
November 1996, confirmed 19 February 1997); First Deputy Prime
Minister Petr PRAKAPOVICH (since 23 December 1996); Deputy Prime
Ministers Vladimir GARKUN (since 21 July 1994), Valeriy KOKAREV (since
23 August 1994), Vasiliy DOLGOLEV (since 30 October 1995), Vladimir
ZAMETALIN (since 15 July 1997)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 24 June and 10 July 1994 (next to be held NA 2001
because of the additional two years provided by the November 1996
referendum); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO elected president; percent of
vote-Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 85%, Vyacheslav KEBICH 15%
note: first presidential elections took place in June-July 1994

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Natsionalnoye Sobranie
established by the 27 November Constitution consists of the Council of
the Republic or Soviet Republiki (64 seats; 8 appointed by the
president and 56 indirectly elected by deputies of local councils for
four-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives or Palata
Pretsaviteley (110 seats; note-present members came from the defunct
Supreme Soviet)
elections: last held May and November-December 1995 (two rounds, each
with a run-off; next to be held NA 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-KPB 42,
Agrarian 33, CAB 9, Party of People's Concord 8, UPNAZ 2, SDPB 2, BPR
1, Green Party 1, Republican Party of Labor and Justice 1, BSP 1, BNF
1, Social and Sports Party 1, Ecological Party 1, independents 95,
vacant 62; note-the last election took place to fill seats in the
former Supreme Soviet (260 seats); after the November 1996 referendum,
seats for the Chamber of Representatives were filled by former Supreme
Soviet members as follows: PKB 24, Agrarian 14, Party of Peoples
Concord 5, LDPB 1, UPNAZ 1, Green World Party 1, Belarusian Social
Sports Party 1, Ecological Party 1, Republican Party of Labor and
Justice 1, independents 61; 58 of the 64 seats in the Council of the
Republic have been appointed/elected

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president;
Constitutional Court, half of the judges appointed by the president
and half appointed by the Chamber of Representatives

Political parties and leaders: Belarusian Communist Party or KPB
[Viktor CHIKIN]; Agrarian Party [Aleksandr PAVLOV, chairman]; Civic
Accord Bloc (United Civic Party) or CAB [Stanislav BOGDANKEVICH,
chairman]; Party of People's Concord [Leonid SECHKO, chairman]; Party

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