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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Part 39 out of 51

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Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon; few extremes of temperature and weather

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains with some low coral atolls

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Makarakomburu 2,447 m

Natural resources: fish, forests, gold, bauxite, phosphates, lead,
zinc, nickel

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 88%
other: 9% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons, but they are rarely destructive;
geologically active region with frequent earth tremors; volcanic
activity

Environment-current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; much of the
surrounding coral reefs are dead or dying

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification,
Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer
Protection, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Solomon Islands:People

Population: 441,039 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 101,338; female 97,584)
15-64 years: 52% (male 116,045; female 112,840)
65 years and over: 3% (male 6,571; female 6,661) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.24% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 36.62 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 4.21 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.99 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 23.93 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.77 years
male: 69.26 years
female: 74.41 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.12 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Solomon Islander(s)
adjective: Solomon Islander

Ethnic groups: Melanesian 93%, Polynesian 4%, Micronesian 1.5%,
European 0.8%, Chinese 0.3%, other 0.4%

Religions: Anglican 34%, Roman Catholic 19%, Baptist 17%, United
(Methodist/Presbyterian) 11%, Seventh-Day Adventist 10%, other
Protestant 5%, traditional beliefs 4%

Languages: Melanesian pidgin in much of the country is lingua franca,
English spoken by 1%-2% of population
note: 120 indigenous languages

Literacy: NA

@Solomon Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Solomon Islands
former: British Solomon Islands

Data code: BP

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Honiara

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 town*; Central,
Guadalcanal, Honiara*, Isabel, Makira, Malaita, Temotu, Western
note: there may be two new provinces of Choiseul (Lauru) and
Rennell/Bellona and the administrative unit of Honiara may have been
abolished

Independence: 7 July 1978 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 July (1978)

Constitution: 7 July 1978

Legal system: English common law

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Moses PITAKAKA (since 10 June 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Bartholomew ULUFA'ALU (since 27
August 1997); Deputy Prime Minister Sir Baddeley DEVESI (since 27
August 1997)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
the prime minister from among the members of Parliament
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
appointed by the queen on the advice of Parliament for up to five
years; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority
party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually elected prime
minister by Parliament; deputy prime minister appointed by the
governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among the
members of Parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament (50 seats; members
elected from single member constituencies by popular vote to serve
four-year terms)
elections: last held 6 August 1997 (next to be held by August 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-GNUR 21,
PAP 7, NAPSI 5, SILP 4, UP 4, independents 6, other 3

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: characterized by fluid coalitions;
Liberal Party, Bartholomew ULUFA'ALU; Solomon Islands National Unity,
Reconciliation, and Progressive Party (SINURP), Danny PHILIP (leader
of opposition); People's Alliance Party (PAP), leader NA; Group for
National Unity and Reconciliation (GNUR), leader NA; National Action
Party of Solomon Islands (NAPSI), leader NA; Solomon Islands Labor
Party (SILP), leader NA; United Party (UP), leader NA; Nationalist
Front for Progress (NFP), Andrew NORI; Labor Party (LP), Joses
TUHANUKU; Christian Fellowship, leader NA; National Party, leader NA

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen Rex HOROI (represents the country
as both the Permanent Representative to the UN and the ambassador to
the US)
chancery: Permanent Mission of the Solomon Islands to the UN, 820
Second Avenue, Suite 800, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 599-6193

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Solomon Islands (embassy closed July 1993); the ambassador to Papua
New Guinea is accredited to the Solomon Islands

Flag description: divided diagonally by a thin yellow stripe from the
lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is blue with
five white five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern; the lower
triangle is green

@Solomon Islands:Economy

Economy-overview: The bulk of the population depend on subsistence
agriculture, fishing, and forestry for at least part of their
livelihood. Most manufactured goods and petroleum products must be
imported. The islands are rich in undeveloped mineral resources such
as lead, zinc, nickel, and gold. In recent years the government has
poorly managed the country's finances. The new prime minister has
vowed to cut expenditures and to promote the private sector to boost
economic growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1.27 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$3,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 11.8% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 26,842
by occupation: services 41.5%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing
23.7%, commerce, transport, and finance 21.7%, construction,
manufacturing, and mining 13.1% (1992 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $147 million
expenditures: $168 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: copra, fish (tuna)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 12,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 30 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 75 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cocoa, beans, coconuts, palm kernels, rice,
potatoes, vegetables, fruit; cattle, pigs; timber; fish

Exports:
total value: $168 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: timber, fish, palm oil, cocoa, copra
partners: Japan 39%, UK 23%, Thailand 9%, Australia 5%, US 2% (1991)

Imports:
total value: $152 million (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
commodities: plant and machinery, manufactured goods, food and live
animals, fuel
partners: Australia 34%, Japan 16%, Singapore 14%, NZ 9%

Debt-external: $100 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $8.625 million from Australia (FY96/97 est.); $3.3
million from NZ (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 Solomon Islands dollar (SI$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Solomon Islands dollars (SI$) per US$1-3.7580
(November 1997), 3.5664 (1997), 3.4059 (1995), 3.2914 (1994), 3.1877
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 5,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 38,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 2,000 (1992 est.)

@Solomon Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 1,360 km
paved: 34 km
unpaved: 1,326 km (includes about 800 km of private plantation roads)
(1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Aola Bay, Honiara, Lofung, Noro, Viru Harbor,
Yandina

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 32 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 30
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 20 (1997 est.)

@Solomon Islands:Military

Military branches: no regular military forces; Solomon Islands
National Reconnaissance and Surveillance Force; Royal Solomon Islands
Police (RSIP)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Solomon Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

SOMALIA

@Somalia:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian
Ocean, east of Ethiopia

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 49 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 637,660 sq km
land: 627,340 sq km
water: 10,320 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 2,366 km
border countries: Djibouti 58 km, Ethiopia 1,626 km, Kenya 682 km

Coastline: 3,025 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: principally desert; December to February-northeast monsoon,
moderate temperatures in north and very hot in south; May to
October-southwest monsoon, torrid in the north and hot in the south,
irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between
monsoons

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Shimbiris 2,450 m

Natural resources: uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron
ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 69%
forests and woodland: 26%
other: 3% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern
plains in summer

Environment-current issues: famine; use of contaminated water
contributes to human health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil
erosion; desertification

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea
signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography-note: strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern
approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal

@Somalia:People

Population: 6,841,695 (July 1998 est.)
note: this estimate was derived from an official census taken in 1987
by the Somali Government with the cooperation of the UN and the US
Bureau of the Census; population estimates are updated year by year
between census years by factoring growth rates into them and by taking
account of refugee movements and of losses due to famine; lower
estimates of Somalia's population in mid-1996 (on the order of 6.0
million to 6.5 million) have been made by aid and relief agencies,
based on the number of persons being fed; population counting in
Somalia is complicated by the large numbers of nomads and by refugee
movements in response to famine and clan warfare

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (male 1,512,014; female 1,511,858)
15-64 years: 53% (male 1,833,922; female 1,786,261)
65 years and over: 3% (male 90,475; female 107,165) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 4.43% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 46.75 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 18.5 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 16.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 125.77 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 46.23 years
male: 44.66 years
female: 47.85 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.01 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Somali(s)
adjective: Somali

Ethnic groups: Somali 85%, Bantu, Arabs 30,000

Religions: Sunni Muslim

Languages: Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 24%
male: 36%
female: 14% (1990 est.)

@Somalia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Somalia
former: Somali Republic, Somali Democratic Republic

Data code: SO

Government type: none

National capital: Mogadishu

Administrative divisions: 18 regions (plural-NA, singular-gobolka);
Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada
Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe,
Shabeellaha Hoose, Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed

Independence: 1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which
became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian
Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN
trusteeship on 1 July 1960, to form the Somali Republic)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: 25 August 1979, presidential approval 23 September 1979

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: Somalia has no functioning government; the United
Somali Congress (USC) ousted the regime of Major General Mohamed SIAD
Barre on 27 January 1991; the present political situation is one of
anarchy, marked by interclan fighting and random banditry

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Golaha Shacbiga
note: the Golaha Shacbiga is not functioning

Judicial branch: (not functioning); note-following the breakdown of
national government, most regions have reverted to Islamic law with a
provision for appeal of all sentences

Political parties and leaders: the United Somali Congress or USC
ousted the former regime on 27 January 1991; formerly the only party
was the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party or SRSP, headed by former
President and Commander in Chief of the Army Major General Mohamed
SIAD Barre

Political pressure groups and leaders: numerous clan and subclan
factions are currently vying for power

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF,
CAEU, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU,
NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Somalia does not have an embassy
in the US (ceased operations on 8 May 1991)

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Somalia; US interests are represented by the US Embassy in Nairobi
at Moi Avenue and Haile Selassie Avenue; mail address: P. O. Box
30137, Unit 64100, Nairobi; APO AE 09831; telephone: [254] (2) 334141;
FAX [254] (2) 340838

Flag description: light blue with a large white five-pointed star in
the center; design based on the flag of the UN (Italian Somaliland was
a UN trust territory)

Government-note: While chaos and clan fighting continue in most of
Somalia, some orderly government has been established in the northern
part. In May 1991, the elders of clans in former British Somaliland
established the independent Republic of Somaliland, which, although
not recognized by any government, maintains a stable existence, aided
by the overwhelming dominance of the ruling clan and the economic
infrastructure left behind by British, Russian and American military
assistance programs. The economy has been growing and in February 1996
the EU agreed to finance the reconstruction of the port of Berbera;
since then, other aid projects have been assumed by the EU and by a
non-governmental Italian organization.

@Somalia:Economy

Economy-overview: One of the world's poorest and least developed
countries, Somalia has few resources. Moreover, much of the economy
has been devastated by the civil war. Agriculture is the most
important sector, with livestock accounting for about 40% of GDP and
about 65% of export earnings. Nomads and semi-nomads, who are
dependent upon livestock for their livelihood, make up a large portion
of the population. Crop production generates only 10% of GDP and
employs about 20% of the work force. After livestock, bananas are the
principal export; sugar, sorghum, corn, and fish are products for the
domestic market. The small industrial sector, based on the processing
of agricultural products, accounts for less than 10% of GDP; most
facilities have been shut down because of the civil strife. Moreover,
ongoing civil disturbances in Mogadishu and outlying areas are
interfering with any substantial economic advance.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$8 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$600 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 59%
industry: 10%
services: 31% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 3.7 million (very few are skilled laborers)(1993 est.)
by occupation: agriculture (mostly pastoral nomadism) 71%, industry
and services 29%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: a few small industries, including sugar refining,
textiles, petroleum refining (mostly shut down)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 144,000 kW prior to the civil war, but now
largely shut down due to war damage; some localities operate their own
generating plants, providing limited municipal power; note-UN and
relief organizations use their own portable power systems

Electricity-production: 245 million kWh (1995 est.)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 33 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture-products: bananas, sorghum, corn, sugarcane, mangoes,
sesame seeds, beans; cattle, sheep, goats; fishing potential largely
unexploited

Exports:
total value: $130 million (1994 est.)
commodities: bananas, live animals, fish, hides (1997)
partners: Saudi Arabia 57%, Yemen 14%, Italy 13%, UAE 10%, US
(bananas) (1995 est.)

Imports:
total value: $269 million (1994 est.)
commodities: manufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs,
construction materials (1995)
partners: Kenya 24%, Djibouti 18%, Pakistan 6% (1995 est.)

Debt-external: $2.6 billion (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Somali shilling (So. Sh.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Somali shillings (So. Sh.) per US$1-7,500 (November
1997 est.), 7,000 (January 1996 est.), 5,000 (1 January 1995), 2,616
(1 July 1993), 4,200 (December 1992)
note: the Republic of Somaliland, a self-declared independent country
not recognized by any government, issues its own currency, the
Somaliland shilling (Sol. Sh.); estimated exchange rate, Sol. Sh. per
US$1-4,000 (November 1997)

Fiscal year: NA

Communications

Telephones: 9,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: the public telecommunications system was completely
destroyed or dismantled by the civil war factions; all relief
organizations depend on their own private systems
domestic: recently, local cellular telephone systems have been
established in Mogadishu and in several other population centers
international: international connections are available from Mogadishu
by satellite

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA (there are at
least five radio broadcast stations of NA type)

Radios: 370,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (Somalia's only TV station was
demolished during the civil strife, sometime in 1991)

Televisions: 118,000 (1993 est.)

@Somalia:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 22,100 km
paved: 2,608 km
unpaved: 19,492 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 15 km

Ports and harbors: Bender Cassim (Boosaaso), Berbera, Chisimayu
(Kismaayo), Merca, Mogadishu

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 61 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 7
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 54
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 27
under 914 m: 10 (1997 est.)

@Somalia:Military

Military branches: NA; note-no functioning central government military
forces; clan militias continue to battle for control of key economic
or political prizes

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,669,645 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 930,405 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Somalia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: most of the southern half of the boundary with
Ethiopia is a Provisional Administrative Line; territorial dispute
with Ethiopia over the Ogaden

______________________________________________________________________

SOUTH AFRICA

@South Africa:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, at the southern tip of the continent of
Africa

Geographic coordinates: 29 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1,219,912 sq km
land: 1,219,912 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Prince Edward Islands (Marion Island and Prince Edward
Island)

Area-comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 4,750 km
border countries: Botswana 1,840 km, Lesotho 909 km, Mozambique 491
km, Namibia 855 km, Swaziland 430 km, Zimbabwe 225 km

Coastline: 2,798 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days,
cool nights

Terrain: vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow
coastal plain

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Njesuthi 3,408 m

Natural resources: gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore,
manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum,
copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 67%
forests and woodland: 7%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,700 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: prolonged droughts

Environment-current issues: lack of important arterial rivers or lakes
requires extensive water conservation and control measures; growth in
water usage threatens to outpace supply; pollution of rivers from
agricultural runoff and urban discharge; air pollution resulting in
acid rain; soil erosion; desertification

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: South Africa completely surrounds Lesotho and almost
completely surrounds Swaziland

@South Africa:People

Population: 42,834,520 (July 1998 est.)
note: South Africa took a census 10 October 1996 which showed a total
of 37,859,000 (after a 6.8% adjustment for underenumeration based on a
post-enumeration survey); this figure is still about 10% below
projections from earlier censuses; since the full results of the
census have not been released for analysis, the numbers shown for
South Africa do not take into consideration the results of this 1996
census

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35% (male 7,502,396; female 7,366,144)
15-64 years: 61% (male 12,947,521; female 13,079,892)
65 years and over: 4% (male 778,767; female 1,159,800) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.42% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 26.43 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 12.28 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 52.04 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 55.65 years
male: 53.56 years
female: 57.8 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.16 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: South African(s)
adjective: South African

Ethnic groups: black 75.2%, white 13.6%, Colored 8.6%, Indian 2.6%

Religions: Christian 68% (includes most whites and Coloreds, about 60%
of blacks and about 40% of Indians), Muslim 2%, Hindu 1.5% (60% of
Indians), traditional and animistic 28.5%

Languages: 11 official languages, including Afrikaans, English,
Ndebele, Pedi, Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa, Zulu

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.8%
male: 81.9%
female: 81.7% (1995 est.)

@South Africa:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of South Africa
conventional short form: South Africa
abbreviation: RSA

Data code: SF

Government type: republic

National capital: Pretoria (administrative); Cape Town (legislative);
Bloemfontein (judicial)

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Eastern Cape, Free State,
Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, North-West, Northern Cape,
Northern Province, Western Cape

Independence: 31 May 1910 (from UK)

National holiday: Freedom Day, 27 April (1994)

Constitution: 10 December 1996; this new constitution was certified by
the Constitutional Court on 4 December 1996, was signed by President
MANDELA on 10 December 1996, and entered into effect on 3 February
1997; it is being implemented in phases

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and English common law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Nelson MANDELA (since 10 May 1994);
Executive Deputy President Thabo MBEKI (since 10 May 1994); note-the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Nelson MANDELA (since 10 May 1994);
Executive Deputy President Thabo MBEKI (since 10 May 1994); note-the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and executive deputy presidents elected by the
National Assembly; election last held 9 May 1994 (next scheduled for
sometime between May and July 1999)
election results: Nelson MANDELA elected president; percent of
National Assembly vote - 100% (by acclamation); Thabo MBEKI and
Frederik W. DE KLERK elected executive deputy presidents; percent of
National Assembly vote-100% (by acclamation)
note: the initial governing coalition, made up of the ANC, the IFP,
and the NP, which constituted a Government of National Unity or GNU,
no longer includes the NP which was withdrawn by DE KLERK on 30 June
1996 when he voluntarily gave up his position as executive deputy
president and distanced himself from the programs of the ANC

Legislative branch: bicameral parliament consisting of the National
Assembly (400 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a
system of proportional representation to serve five-year terms) and
the National Council of Provinces (90 seats, ten members elected by
each of the nine provincial legislatures for five-year terms; has
special powers to protect regional interests, including the
safeguarding of cultural and linguistic traditions among ethnic
minorities); note-following the implementation of the new constitution
on 3 February 1997 the former Senate was disbanded and replaced by the
National Council of Provinces with essentially no change in membership
and party affiliations, although the new institution's
responsibilities have been changed somewhat by the new constitution
elections: National Assembly and Senate-last held 26-29 April 1994
(next to be held between May and July 1999); note-the Senate was
disbanded and replaced by the National Council of Provinces on 6
February 1997
election results: National Assembly-percent of vote by party-ANC
62.6%, NP 20.4%, IFP 10.5%, FF 2.2%, DP 1.7%, PAC 1.2%, ACDP 0.5%,
other 0.9%; seats by party - ANC 252, NP 82, IFP 43, FF 9, DP 7, PAC
5, ACDP 2; Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-ANC 61,
NP 17, FF 4, IFP 5, DP 3

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court; Supreme Court of Appeals; High
Courts; Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders: African Christian Democratic Party or
ACDP [Kenneth MESHOE, president]; African National Congress or ANC
[Thabo MBEKI, president]; Democratic Party or DP [Tony LEON,
president]; Freedom Front or FF [Constand VILJOEN, president]; Inkatha
Freedom Party or IFP [Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI, president]; National Party
or NP [Marthinus VAN SCHALKWYK, executive director]; Pan-Africanist
Congress or PAC [Stanley MOGOBA, president]; United Democratic
Movement or UDM [Roelf MEYER and Bantu HOLOMISA, leaders]
note: 11 other parties won votes in the April 1994 elections but not
enough to gain seats in the National Assembly; moreover, in September
1997, a substantial new party, the United Democratic Movement or UDM,
was formed, with Roelf MEYER and Bantu HOLOMISA as leaders

Political pressure groups and leaders: Congress of South African Trade
Unions or COSATU [Sam SHILOWA, general secretary]; South African
Communist Party or SACP [Charles NQAKULA, general secretary]; South
African National Civics Organization or SANCO [Mlungisi HLONGWANE,
national president]; note-COSATU and SACP are in a formal alliance
with the ANC

International organization participation: AfDB, BIS, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
ITU, MTCR, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Franklin SONN
chancery: 3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 232-4400
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1607
consulate(s) general: Beverly Hills (California), Chicago, and New
York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James A. JOSEPH
embassy: 877 Pretorius St., Arcadia 0083
mailing address: P.O. Box 9536, Pretoria 0001
telephone: [27] (12) 342-1048
FAX: [27] (12) 342-2244
consulate(s) general: Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg

Flag description: two equal width horizontal bands of red (top) and
blue separated by a central green band which splits into a horizontal
Y, the arms of which end at the corners of the hoist side, embracing a
black isosceles triangle from which the arms are separated by narrow
yellow bands; the red and blue bands are separated from the green band
and its arms by narrow white stripes
note: prior to 26 April 1994, the flag was actually four flags in
one-three miniature flags reproduced in the center of the white band
of the former flag of the Netherlands, which has three equal
horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and blue; the miniature flags
are a vertically hanging flag of the old Orange Free State with a
horizontal flag of the UK adjoining on the hoist side and a horizontal
flag of the old Transvaal Republic adjoining on the other side

@South Africa:Economy

Economy-overview: South Africa is a middle-income, developing country
with an abundant supply of resources, well developed financial, legal,
communications, energy, and transport sectors, a stock exchange that
ranks among the 10 largest in the world, and a modern infrastructure
supporting an efficient distribution of goods to major urban centers
throughout the region. Growth has been positive since the historic
election of President Nelson MANDELA in the country's first
multi-racial elections in 1994, but not strong enough to cut into the
substantial unemployment. Daunting economic problems remain from the
apartheid era, especially the problems of poverty and economic
empowerment among the blacks. Other problems are crime and corruption.
The new South African Government demonstrated its commitment to open
markets, privatization, and a favorable investment climate with the
release of its macroeconomic strategy in June 1996. Called "Growth,
Employment and Redistribution," this policy framework includes the
introduction of tax incentives to stimulate new investment in
labor-intensive projects, expansion of basic infrastructure services,
the restructuring and partial privatization of state assets, continued
reduction of tariffs and subsidies to promote economic efficiency,
improved services to the disadvantaged, and integration into the
global economy.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$270 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$6,200 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 37%
services: 58% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 9.7% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 14.2 million economically active (1996)
by occupation: services 35%, agriculture 30%, industry 20%, mining 9%,
other 6%

Unemployment rate: 30% (1997 est.); note-an additional 11% of the
workforce is underemployed

Budget:
revenues: $30.5 billion
expenditures: $38 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.6
billion (FY94/95 est.)

Industries: mining (world's largest producer of platinum, gold,
chromium), automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textile, iron
and steel, chemical, fertilizer, foodstuffs

Industrial production growth rate: 1.2% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 34.566 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 163.56 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 3,559 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables;
beef, poultry, mutton, wool, dairy products

Exports:
total value: $31.3 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: gold 20%, other minerals and metals 20%-25%, food 5%,
chemicals 3% (1997)
partners: Italy, Japan, US, Germany, UK, other EU countries, Hong Kong

Imports:
total value: $28 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: machinery 32%, transport equipment 15%, chemicals 11%,
petroleum products, textiles, scientific instruments (1994)
partners: Germany, US, Japan, UK, Italy

Debt-external: $23.5 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: current aid pledges include US $600 million over three years,
1994-96; UK $150 million over three years; Australia $21 million over
three years; Japan $1.3 billion over two years ending in 1996; EU $833
million over five years

Currency: 1 rand (R) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: rand (R) per US$1-4.94193 (January 1998), 4.60796
(1997), 4.29935 (1996), 3.62709 (1995), 3.55080 (1994), 3.26774 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 5,206,235 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: the system is the best developed, most modern, and
has the highest capacity in Africa
domestic: consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial
cables, microwave radio relay links, fiber-optic cable, and
radiotelephone communication stations; key centers are Bloemfontein,
Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria
international: 1 submarine cable; satellite earth stations-3 Intelsat
(1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 14, FM 286, shortwave 0

Radios: 12.1 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 67 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 3.45 million (1990 est.)

@South Africa:Transportation

Railways:
total: 21,431 km
narrow gauge: 20,995 km 1.067-m gauge (9,087 km electrified); 436 km
0.610-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 331,265 km
paved: 137,475 km (including 1,142 km of expressways)
unpaved: 193,790 km (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 931 km; petroleum products 1,748 km; natural gas
322 km

Ports and harbors: Cape Town, Durban, East London, Mosselbaai, Port
Elizabeth, Richards Bay, Saldanha

Merchant marine:
total: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 274,797 GRT/270,837 DWT
ships by type: container 6, oil tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1
(1997 est.)

Airports: 750 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 143
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 46
914 to 1,523 m: 74
under 914 m: 9 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 607
1,524 to 2,437 m: 35
914 to 1,523 m: 308
under 914 m: 264 (1997 est.)

@South Africa:Military

Military branches: South African National Defense Force or SANDF
(includes Army, Navy, Air Force, and Medical Services), South African
Police Service or SAPS

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 11,144,895 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 6,777,677 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 445,110 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $2.9 billion (FY95/96)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.2% (FY95/96)

@South Africa:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Swaziland has asked South Africa to open
negotiations on reincorporating some nearby South African territories
that are populated by ethnic Swazis or that were long ago part of the
Swazi Kingdom

Illicit drugs: transshipment center for heroin and cocaine; cocaine
consumption on the rise; world's largest market for illicit
methaqualone, usually imported illegally from India through various
east African countries; illicit cultivation of marijuana

______________________________________________________________________

SOUTH GEORGIA AND THE SOUTH SANDWICH ISLANDS

(dependent territory of the UK, also claimed by Argentina)

@South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands:Geography

Location: Southern South America, islands in the South Atlantic Ocean,
east of the tip of South America

Geographic coordinates: 54 30 S, 37 00 W

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
total: 4,066 sq km
land: 4,066 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Shag Rocks, Clerke Rocks, Bird Island

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: NA km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the year,
interspersed with periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls as
snow

Terrain: most of the islands, rising steeply from the sea, are rugged
and mountainous; South Georgia is largely barren and has steep,
glacier-covered mountains; the South Sandwich Islands are of volcanic
origin with some active volcanoes

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Paget 2,915 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (largely covered by permanent ice and snow with some
sparse vegetation consisting of grass, moss, and lichen)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: the South Sandwich Islands have prevailing weather
conditions that generally make them difficult to approach by ship;
they are also subject to active volcanism

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: the north coast of South Georgia has several large
bays, which provide good anchorage; reindeer, introduced early in this
century, live on South Georgia

@South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands:People

Population: no indigenous population
note: there is a small military garrison on South Georgia, and the
British Antarctic Survey has a biological station on Bird Island; the
South Sandwich Islands are uninhabited

@South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
conventional short form: none

Data code: SX

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK, also claimed by
Argentina; administered from London by a civil commissioner who is
also the governor of the Falkland Islands; Grytviken on South Georgia
is the garrison town

National capital: none; Grytviken on South Georgia is the garrison
town

Legal system: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK, also claimed by Argentina)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
the UK, also claimed by Argentina)

Flag description: the flag of the UK is used

@South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands:Economy

Economy-overview: Some fishing takes place in adjacent waters. There
is a potential source of income from harvesting fin fish and krill.
The islands receive income from postage stamps produced in the UK.

Budget:
revenues: $291,777
expenditures: $451,000, including capital expenditures of $NA (1988
est.)

Communications

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: coastal radiotelephone station at Grytviken

@South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands:Transportation

Ports and harbors: Grytviken

Airports: none

@South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: claimed by Argentina

______________________________________________________________________

SPAIN

@Spain:Geography

Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay,
Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, and Pyrenees Mountains,
southwest of France

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 4 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 504,750 sq km
land: 499,400 sq km
water: 5,350 sq km
note: includes Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, and five places of
sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of
Morocco-Ceuta, Mellila, Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and
Penon de Velez de la Gomera

Area-comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Oregon

Land boundaries:
total: 1,919.1 km
border countries: Andorra 65 km, France 623 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km,
Portugal 1,214 km, Morocco (Ceuta) 6.3 km, Morocco (Melilla) 9.6 km

Coastline: 4,964 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (applies only to the Atlantic Ocean)
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and
cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy
and cool along coast

Terrain: large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills;
Pyrenees in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico de Teide on Canary Islands 3,718 m

Natural resources: coal, lignite, iron ore, uranium, mercury, pyrites,
fluorspar, gypsum, zinc, lead, tungsten, copper, kaolin, potash,
hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 30%
permanent crops: 9%
permanent pastures: 21%
forests and woodland: 32%
other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 34,530 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts

Environment-current issues: pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from
raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas;
water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation;
desertification

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

Geography-note: strategic location along approaches to Strait of
Gibraltar

@Spain:People

Population: 39,133,996 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 15% (male 3,057,919; female 2,879,109)
15-64 years: 69% (male 13,407,270; female 13,408,685)
65 years and over: 16% (male 2,651,149; female 3,729,864) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.08% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 9.73 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 9.62 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.51 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.56 years
male: 73.78 years
female: 81.59 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.21 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Spaniard(s)
adjective: Spanish

Ethnic groups: composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types

Religions: Roman Catholic 99%, other 1%

Languages: Castilian Spanish 74%, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: 98%
female: 94% (1986 est.)

@Spain:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain
conventional short form: Spain
local short form: Espana

Data code: SP

Government type: parliamentary monarchy

National capital: Madrid

Administrative divisions: 17 autonomous communities (comunidades
autonomas, singular-comunidad autonoma); Andalucia, Aragon, Asturias,
Canarias, Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y Leon, Cataluna,
Communidad Valencian, Extremadura, Galicia, Islas Baleares, La Rioja,
Madrid, Murcia, Navarra, Pais Vasco (Basque Country)
note: there are five places of sovereignty on and off the coast of
Morocco (Ceuta, Mellila, Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and
Penon de Velez de la Gomera) with administrative status unknown

Independence: 1492 (expulsion of the Moors and unification)

National holiday: National Day, 12 October

Constitution: 6 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978

Legal system: civil law system, with regional applications; does not
accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 November 1975); Heir
Apparent Prince FELIPE, son of the king
head of government: President of the Government Jose Maria AZNAR Lopez
(since 5 May 1996); First Vice President Francisco ALVAREZ CASCOS
Fernandez (since 5 May 1996) and Second Vice President (and Minister
of Economy and Finance) Rodrigo RATO Figaredo (since 5 May 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president
note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme
consultative organ of the government
elections: the king is a hereditary monarch; president proposed by the
king and elected by the National Assembly following legislative
elections; election last held 3 March 1996 (next to be held by NA
March 2000)
election results: Jose Maria AZNAR elected president; percent of
National Assembly vote - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral The General Courts or National Assembly
or Las Cortes Generales consists of the Senate or Senado (256 seats;
208 members are directly elected by popular vote and the other 48 were
appointed by the regional legislatures to serve four-year terms) and
the Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats;
members are elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional
representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate-last held 3 March 1996 (next to be held by March
2000); Congress of Deputies-last held 3 March 1996 (next to be held by
March 2000)
election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-PP 132, PSOE 96, CiU 11, PNV 6, IU 2, others 9; Congress of
Deputies-percent of vote by party-PP 38.9%, PSOE 37.5%, IU 10.7%, CiU
4.6%; seats by party-PP 156, PSOE 141, IU 21, CiU 16, other 16

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo

Political parties and leaders:
principal national parties, from right to left: Popular Party or PP
[Jose Maria AZNAR Lopez]; Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE
[Joaquin ALMUNIA Amann, secretary general]; Spanish Communist Party or
PCE [Julio ANGUITA Gonzalez]; United Left or IU (a coalition of
parties including the PCE and other small parties) [Julio ANGUITA
Gonzalez]
chief regional parties: Convergence and Union or CiU [Jordi PUJOL i
Soley, secretary general] (a coalition of the Democratic Convergence
of Catalonia or CDC [Jordi PUJOL i Soley] and the Democratic Union of
Catalonia or UDC [Josep Antoni DURAN y LLEIDA]); Basque Nationalist
Party or PNV [Xabier ARZALLUS Antia]; Canarian Coalition or CC (a
coalition of five parties) [Lorenzo OLLARTE Cullen]

Political pressure groups and leaders: on the extreme left, the Basque
Fatherland and Liberty or ETA [Herri BATASUNA] and the First of
October Antifascist Resistance Group or GRAPO use terrorism to oppose
the government; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977); Workers
Confederation or CC.OO; the Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT
and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO; business
and landowning interests; the Catholic Church; Opus Dei; university
students

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA,
EU, FAO, G- 8, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINUGUA, MTCR, NAM
(guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Antonio OYARZABAL MARCHESI
chancery: 2375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 452-0100, 728-2340
FAX: [1] (202) 833-5670
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Lawrence G.
ROSSIN
embassy: Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid
mailing address: APO AE 09642
telephone: [34] (1) 587-2200
FAX: [34] (1) 587-2303
consulate(s) general: Barcelona

Flag description: three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double
width), and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of
the yellow band; the coat of arms includes the royal seal framed by
the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and
Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar

@Spain:Economy

Economy-overview: Spain's mixed capitalist economy supports a GDP that
on a per capita basis is three-fourths that of the four leading West
European economies. Its center-right government has staked much on
gaining admission to the first group of countries to implement the
European single currency and, based on economic indicators, Madrid
appears poised to be in EMU from the outset. The deficit-to-GDP ratio
is 2.3%, the debt-to-GDP ratio is expected to be around 68%, and
inflation is approximately 2%. Moreover, the AZNAR administration has
continued to advocate liberalization, privatization, and deregulation
of the economy, and has introduced some tax reforms to that end.
Unemployment, nonetheless, remains the highest in the EU at 21%. The
government, for political reasons, has made only limited progress in
changing labor laws or reforming pension schemes, which are key to the
sustainability of both Spain's internal economic advances and its
competitiveness in a single currency area.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$642.4 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$16,400 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 3.6%
industry: 33.6%
services: 62.8% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.1% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 16.2 million
by occupation: services 64%, manufacturing, mining, and construction
28%, agriculture 8% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 21% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $113 billion
expenditures: $139 billion, including capital expenditures of $15
billion (1995)

Industries: textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and
beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding,
automobiles, machine tools, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: -0.8% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 39.583 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 154.144 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 4,026 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar
beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish catch of
867,000 metric tons in 1993

Exports:
total value: $94.5 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: cars and trucks, semifinished manufactured goods,
foodstuffs, machinery (1994)
partners: EU 72.1%, US 4.2%, other developed countries 7.9% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $118.3 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: machinery, transport equipment, fuels, semifinished
goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, chemicals (1994)
partners: EU 65.6%, US 6.6%, other developed countries 11.5%, Middle
East 6.2% (1996)

Debt-external: $90 billion (1993 est.)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $1.213 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 peseta (Pta) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: pesetas (Ptas) per US$1-153.94 (January 1998), 146.41
(1997), 126.66 (1996), 124.69 (1995), 133.96 (1994), 127.26 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 12.6 million (1990 est.)

Telephone system: generally adequate, modern facilities
domestic: NA
international: 22 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations-2
Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat, NA
Inmarsat, and NA Marecs; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 190, FM 406 (repeaters 134), shortwave 0

Radios: 12 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 100 (repeaters 1,297)

Televisions: 15.7 million (1992 est.)

@Spain:Transportation

Railways:
total: 15,172 km
broad gauge: 12,781 km 1.668-m gauge (6,355 km electrified; 2,295 km
double track)
standard gauge: 664 km 1.435-m gauge (480 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,727 km (privately owned: 1,708 km 1.000-m gauge, 517
km electrified; government owned: 19 km 1.000-m gauge, all
electrified) (1996)

Highways:
total: 344,847 km
paved: 341,399 km (including 7,747 km of expressways)
unpaved: 3,448 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,045 km, but of minor economic importance

Pipelines: crude oil 265 km; petroleum products 1,794 km; natural gas
1,666 km

Ports and harbors: Aviles, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cadiz, Cartagena,
Castellon de la Plana, Ceuta, Huelva, La Coruna, Las Palmas (Canary
Islands), Malaga, Melilla, Pasajes, Gijon, Santa Cruz de Tenerife
(Canary Islands), Santander, Tarragona, Valencia, Vigo

Merchant marine:
total: 135 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,043,747 GRT/1,651,634
DWT
ships by type: bulk 10, cargo 30, chemical tanker 7, combination
ore/oil 1, container 8, liquefied gas tanker 3, oil tanker 29,
passenger 2, refrigerated cargo 8, roll-on/roll-off cargo 30,
short-sea passenger 6, specialized tanker 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 98 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 64
over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 9 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 34
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 21 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1997 est.)

@Spain:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, Civil Guard,
National Police, Coastal Civil Guard

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 10,387,539 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 8,369,756 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 323,552 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $6.3 billion (1995)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.4% (1995)

@Spain:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Gibraltar question with UK; Spain controls
five places of sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off the coast
of Morocco-the coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, which Morocco
contests, as well as the islands of Penon de Alhucemas, Penon de Velez
de la Gomera, and Islas Chafarinas

Illicit drugs: key European gateway country for Latin American cocaine
and North African hashish entering the European market; transshipment
point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin

______________________________________________________________________

SPRATLY ISLANDS

@Spratly Islands:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, group of reefs and islands in the South
China Sea, about two-thirds of the way from southern Vietnam to the
southern Philippines

Geographic coordinates: 8 38 N, 111 55 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: less than 5 sq km
land: less than 5 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes 100 or so islets, coral reefs, and sea mounts scattered
over a large area of the central South China Sea

Area-comparative: NA

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 926 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: tropical

Terrain: flat

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Southwest Cay 4 m

Natural resources: fish, guano, undetermined oil and natural gas
potential

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: typhoons; serious maritime hazard because of numerous
reefs and shoals

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: strategically located near several primary shipping
lanes in the central South China Sea; includes numerous small islands,
atolls, shoals, and coral reefs

@Spratly Islands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there are scattered garrisons occupied by personnel of several
claimant states

@Spratly Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Spratly Islands

Data code: PG

@Spratly Islands:Economy

Economy-overview: Economic activity is limited to commercial fishing.
The proximity to nearby oil- and gas-producing sedimentary basins
suggests the potential for oil and gas deposits, but the region is
largely unexplored, and there are no reliable estimates of potential
reserves; commercial exploitation has yet to be developed.

@Spratly Islands:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 4 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

@Spratly Islands:Military

Military-note: about 50 small islands or reefs are occupied by China,
Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam

@Spratly Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: all of the Spratly Islands are claimed by
China, Taiwan, and Vietnam; parts of them are claimed by Malaysia and
the Philippines; in 1984, Brunei established an exclusive fishing
zone, which encompasses Louisa Reef in the southern Spratly Islands,
but has not publicly claimed the island

______________________________________________________________________

SRI LANKA

@Sri Lanka:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of India

Geographic coordinates: 7 00 N, 81 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 65,610 sq km
land: 64,740 sq km
water: 870 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,340 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March);
southwest monsoon (June to October)

Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in south-central
interior

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pidurutalagala 2,524 m

Natural resources: limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems,
phosphates, clay

Land use:
arable land: 14%
permanent crops: 15%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland: 32%
other: 32% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,500 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional cyclones and tornadoes

Environment-current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife
populations threatened by poaching; coastal degradation from mining
activities and increased pollution; freshwater resources being
polluted by industrial wastes and sewage runoff

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography-note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean sea lanes

@Sri Lanka:People

Population: 18,933,558 (July 1998 est.)
note: since the outbreak of hostilities between the government and
armed Tamil separatists in the mid-1980s, several hundred thousand
Tamil civilians have fled the island; as of late 1996, 63,068 were
housed in refugee camps in south India, another 30,000-40,000 lived
outside the Indian camps, and more than 200,000 Tamils have sought
political asylum in the West

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 2,673,194; female 2,556,926)
15-64 years: 66% (male 6,126,759; female 6,385,450)
65 years and over: 6% (male 579,329; female 611,900) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.12% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 18.4 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.96 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 16.33 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.55 years
male: 69.82 years
female: 75.41 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.12 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Sri Lankan(s)
adjective: Sri Lankan

Ethnic groups: Sinhalese 74%, Tamil 18%, Moor 7%, Burgher, Malay, and
Vedda 1%

Religions: Buddhist 69%, Hindu 15%, Christian 8%, Muslim 8%

Languages: Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil
(national language) 18%
note: English is commonly used in government and is spoken by about
10% of the population

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.2%
male: 93.4%
female: 87.2% (1995 est.)

@Sri Lanka:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
conventional short form: Sri Lanka
former: Ceylon

Data code: CE

Government type: republic

National capital: Colombo

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces; Central, North Central, North
Eastern, North Western, Sabaragamuwa, Southern, Uva, Western

Independence: 4 February 1948 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence and National Day, 4 February (1948)

Constitution: adopted 16 August 1978

Legal system: a highly complex mixture of English common law,
Roman-Dutch, Muslim, Sinhalese, and customary law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA (since 12
November 1994); note-Sirimavo BANDARANAIKE is the prime minister; in
Sri Lanka the president is considered to be both the chief of state
and the head of the government, this is in contrast to the more common
practice of dividing the roles between the president and the prime
minister when both offices exist
head of government: President Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA
(since 12 November 1994); note-Sirimavo BANDARANAIKE is the prime
minister; in Sri Lanka the president is considered to be both the
chief of state and the head of the government, this is in contrast to
the more common practice of dividing the roles between the president
and the prime minister when both offices exist
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president in consultation with the
prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 9 November 1994 (next to be held NA November 2000)
election results: Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA elected
president; percent of vote - Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA
(People's Alliance) 62%, Srima DISSANAYAKE (United National Party)
37%, other 1%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (225 seats; members elected
by popular vote on the basis of a modified proportional representation
system to serve six-year terms)
elections: last held 16 August 1994 (next to be held by August 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party-PA 49.0%, UNP 44.0%, SLMC
1.8%, TULF 1.7%, SLPF 1.1%, EPDP 0.3%, UPF 0.3%, PLOTE 0.1%, other
1.7%; seats by party-PA 105, UNP 94, EPDP 9, SLMC 7, TULF 5, PLOTE 3,
SLPF 1, UPF 1

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