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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Part 38 out of 51

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Merchant marine:
total: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 322,391 GRT/533,935 DWT
(owned by Montenegro)
ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 11, container 3
note: Montenegrin ships operate under the flag of Malta (1997 est.)

Airports: 48 (Serbia 43, Montenegro 5) (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 18
over 3,047 m: 2 (Serbia 2, Montenegro 0)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 (Serbia 3, Montenegro 2)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (Serbia 4, Montenegro 1)
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (Serbia 2, Montenegro 0)
under 914 m: 4 (Serbia 4, Montenegro 0) (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 30
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (Serbia 2, Montenegro 0)
914 to 1,523 m: 14 (Serbia 13, Montenegro 1)
under 914 m: 14 (Serbia 13, Montenego 1) (1997 est.)

@Serbia and Montenegro:Military

Military branches: People's Army (includes Ground Forces with internal
and border troops, Naval Forces, and Air and Air Defense Forces),
Civil Defense

Military manpower-military age: Montenegro-19; Serbia-NA

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: Montenegro-187,131; Serbia- 2,731,102 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: Montenegro-150,666 (1998 est.); Serbia-2,187,111 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: Montenegro-5,591; Serbia-NA (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: 6.55 billion dinars (1998 est.);
note-conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 6% (1998 est.)

@Serbia and Montenegro:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: disputes with Bosnia and Herzegovina over
Serbian populated areas; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks
independence from Serbian republic; Serbia and Montenegro is disputing
Croatia's claim to the Prevlaka Peninsula in southern Croatia because
it controls the entrance to Boka Kotorska in Montenegro; Prevlaka is
currently under observation by the UN military observer mission in
Prevlaka (UNMOP); the border commission formed by The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia and Serbia and Montenegro in April 1996 to
resolve differences in delineation of their mutual border has made no
progress so far

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin
moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route

______________________________________________________________________

SEYCHELLES

@Seychelles:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, group of islands in the Indian Ocean,
northeast of Madagascar

Geographic coordinates: 4 35 S, 55 40 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 455 sq km
land: 455 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 491 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast
monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest
monsoon (March to May)

Terrain: Mahe Group is granitic, narrow coastal strip, rocky, hilly;
others are coral, flat, elevated reefs

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Morne Seychellois 905 m

Natural resources: fish, copra, cinnamon trees

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 13%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: 11%
other: 74% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are
rare; short droughts possible

Environment-current issues: water supply depends on catchments to
collect rain water

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography-note: 40 granitic and about 50 coralline islands

@Seychelles:People

Population: 78,641 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 30% (male 11,787; female 11,694)
15-64 years: 64% (male 24,555; female 25,681)
65 years and over: 6% (male 1,700; female 3,224) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.67% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 19.71 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 6.61 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.52 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.76 years
male: 66.13 years
female: 75.53 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.98 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Seychellois (singular and plural)
adjective: Seychelles

Ethnic groups: Seychellois (mixture of Asians, Africans, Europeans)

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Anglican 8%, other 2%

Languages: English (official), French (official), Creole

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 58%
male: 56%
female: 60% (1971 est.)

@Seychelles:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Seychelles
conventional short form: Seychelles

Data code: SE

Government type: republic

National capital: Victoria

Administrative divisions: 23 administrative districts; Anse aux Pins,
Anse Boileau, Anse Etoile, Anse Louis, Anse Royale, Baie Lazare, Baie
Sainte Anne, Beau Vallon, Bel Air, Bel Ombre, Cascade, Glacis, Grand'
Anse (on Mahe Island), Grand' Anse (on Praslin Island), La Digue, La
Riviere Anglaise, Mont Buxton, Mont Fleuri, Plaisance, Pointe La Rue,
Port Glaud, Saint Louis, Takamaka

Independence: 29 June 1976 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 18 June (1993) (adoption of new
constitution)

Constitution: 18 June 1993

Legal system: based on English common law, French civil law, and
customary law

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President France Albert RENE (since 5 June 1977);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President France Albert RENE (since 5 June 1977);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 20-22 March 1998 (next to be held by NA 2003)
election results: President France Albert RENE reelected; percent of
vote-France Albert RENE (SPPF) 61%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN 27%, Sir James
MANCHAM (DP) 12%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (35 seats, 25 popularly elected by direct vote, 10 allocated
on a proportional basis to parties winning at least 9 percent of the
vote; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 20-22 March 1998 (next to be held by NA 2003)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party
(elected)-SPPF 24, DP 1; seats by party (awarded)-SPPF 6, DP 1, UO 3
note: the 10 awarded seats are apportioned according to the share of
each party in the total vote

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, judges are appointed by the
president; Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: ruling party-Seychelles People's
Progressive Front or SPPF [France Albert RENE]; Democratic Party or
DP; United Opposition or UO [Wavel RAMKALAWAN] - a coalition of the
following parties: Seychelles Party or PS [Wavel RAMKALAWAN],
Seychelles Democratic Movement or MSPD [Jacques HONDOUL], and
Seychelles Liberal Party or SLP [Ogilvie BERLOUIS]; New Democratic
Party [Christopher GILL (former member of DP)]

Political pressure groups and leaders: trade unions; Roman Catholic
Church

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, ECA,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
InOC, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, NAM, OAU, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Claude MOREL
chancery: (temporary) care of the Permanent Mission of Seychelles to
the United Nations, 820 Second Avenue, Suite 900F, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 972-1785
FAX: [1] (212) 972-1786

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Seychelles; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to the
Seychelles

Flag description: five oblique bands of blue (hoist side), yellow,
red, white, and green (bottom) radiating from the bottom of the hoist
side

@Seychelles:Economy

Economy-overview: Since independence in 1976, per capita output in
this Indian Ocean archipelago has expanded to roughly seven times the
old near-subsistence level. Growth has been led by the tourist sector,
which employs about 30% of the labor force and provides more than 70%
of hard currency earnings, and by tuna fishing, which accounted for
70% of GDP in 1996-97. In recent years the government has encouraged
foreign investment in order to upgrade hotels and other services. At
the same time, the government has moved to reduce the dependence on
tourism by promoting the development of farming, fishing, and
small-scale manufacturing. The vulnerability of the tourist sector was
illustrated by the sharp drop in 1991-92 due largely to the Gulf war.
Although the industry has rebounded, the government recognizes the
continuing need for upgrading the sector in the face of stiff
international competition.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$550 million (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$7,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 15%
services: 81% (1994)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: -0.3% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total: 26,000 (1996)
by occupation: industry 19%, services 57%, government 14%, fishing,
agriculture, and forestry 10% (1989)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $220 million
expenditures: $241 million, including capital expenditures of $36
million (1994 est.)

Industries: fishing; tourism; processing of coconuts and vanilla, coir
(coconut fiber) rope, boat building, printing, furniture; beverages

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1992)

Electricity-capacity: 28,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 125 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,719 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coconuts, cinnamon, vanilla, sweet potatoes,
cassava (tapioca), bananas; broiler chickens; tuna fishing (expansion
under way)

Exports:
total value: $56.1 million ( f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: fish, cinnamon bark, copra, petroleum products
(re-exports)
partners: France, UK, China, Germany, Japan (1993)

Imports:
total value: $238 million (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: manufactured goods, food, petroleum products, tobacco,
beverages, machinery and transportation equipment
partners: China, Singapore, South Africa, UK (1993)

Debt-external: $170 million (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Seychelles rupee (SRe) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Seychelles rupees (SRe) per US$1-5.1901 (January
1998), 5.0263 (1997), 4.9700 (1996), 4.7620 (1995), 5.0559 (1994),
5.1815 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 13,000 (1995 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: radiotelephone communications between islands in the
archipelago
international: direct radiotelephone communications with adjacent
island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth
station-1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 35,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (in a government network)

Televisions: 6,000 (1993 est.)

@Seychelles:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 280 km
paved: 176 km
unpaved: 104 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Victoria

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 14 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (1997 est.)

@Seychelles:Military

Military branches: Army, Coast Guard, Marines, National Guard,
Presidential Protection Unit, Police Force

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 22,107 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 11,111 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $13.7 million (1995)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Seychelles:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: claims Chagos Archipelago in British Indian
Ocean Territory

______________________________________________________________________

SIERRA LEONE

Introduction

Current issues: On 25 May 1997, the democratically-elected government
of President Ahmad Tejan KABBAH was overthrown by disgruntled army
personnel under the command of Major Johnny Paul KOROMA; President
KABBAH fled to exile in Guinea. The Economic Community of West African
States Cease-Fire Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) forces, led by a strong
Nigerian contingent, undertook the suppression of the rebellion. They
were initially unsuccessful, but, by October 1997, they forced the
rebels to agree to a cease-fire and to a plan to return the government
to democratic control by 22 April 1998. However, the agreed
demobilization of the combatants was not carried out by the rebel
junta. On 5 February 1998, hostilities broke out in the outskirts of
Freetown and ECOMOG mounted a major offensive, completely routing the
rebels. President KABBAH returned to office on 10 March to face the
task of restoring order to a demoralized population and a disorganized
and severely damaged economy.

@Sierra Leone:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Guinea and Liberia

Geographic coordinates: 8 30 N, 11 30 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 71,740 sq km
land: 71,620 sq km
water: 120 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:
total: 958 km
border countries: Guinea 652 km, Liberia 306 km

Coastline: 402 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December);
winter dry season (December to April)

Terrain: coastal belt of mangrove swamps, wooded hill country, upland
plateau, mountains in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Loma Mansa (Bintimani) 1,948 m

Natural resources: diamonds, titanium ore, bauxite, iron ore, gold,
chromite

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 31%
forests and woodland: 28%
other: 33% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 290 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dry, sand-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara
(November to May); sandstorms, dust storms

Environment-current issues: rapid population growth pressuring the
environment; overharvesting of timber, expansion of cattle grazing,
and slash-and-burn agriculture have resulted in deforestation and soil
exhaustion; civil war depleting natural resources; overfishing

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

@Sierra Leone:People

Population: 5,080,004 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 1,130,728; female 1,167,084)
15-64 years: 52% (male 1,257,901; female 1,367,902)
65 years and over: 3% (male 79,113; female 77,276) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 4.01% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 46.16 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 17.25 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 11.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.02 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 129.38 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 48.57 years
male: 45.56 years
female: 51.66 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.23 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Sierra Leonean(s)
adjective: Sierra Leonean

Ethnic groups: 20 native African tribes 90% (Temne 30%, Mende 30%,
other 30%), Creole 10% (descendents of freed Jamaican slaves who were
settled in the Freetown area in the late-eighteenth century), refugees
from Liberia's recent civil war, small numbers of Europeans, Lebanese,
Pakistanis and Indians

Religions: Muslim 60%, indigenous beliefs 30%, Christian 10%

Languages: English (official, regular use limited to literate
minority), Mende (principal vernacular in the south), Temne (principal
vernacular in the north), Krio (English-based Creole, spoken by the
descendents of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown
area, a lingua franca and a first language for 10% of the population
but understood by 95%)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write in English, Mende,
Temne, or Arabic
total population: 31.4%
male: 45.4%
female: 18.2% (1995 est.)

@Sierra Leone:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Sierra Leone
conventional short form: Sierra Leone

Data code: SL

Government type: constitutional democracy

National capital: Freetown

Administrative divisions: 3 provinces and 1 area*; Eastern, Northern,
Southern, Western*

Independence: 27 April 1961 (from UK)

National holiday: Republic Day, 27 April (1961)

Constitution: 1 October 1991; subsequently amended several times

Legal system: based on English law and customary laws indigenous to
local tribes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ahmad Tejan KABBAH (inaugurated 29 March
1996); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
head of government: President Ahmad Tejan KABBAH (inaugurated 29 March
1996); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president with the
approval of the House of Representatives; the cabinet is responsible
to the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election held 26-27 February 1996 (next to be held NA 2001);
note-president's tenure of office is limited to 2 five-year terms
election results: Ahmad Tejan KABBAH elected president; percent of
popular vote-first round KABBAH 36.0%, second round KABBAH 59.5%

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (80 seats, 68
elected, 12 filled by paramount chiefs elected in separate elections;
members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 26-27 February 1996 (next to be held 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-SLPP 27,
UNPP 17, PDP 12, APC 5, NUP 4, DCP 3; note-first elections since the
former House of Representatives was shut down by the military coup of
29 April 1992

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: 15 parties registered for the February
1996 elections; National Peoples Party or NPP [Andrew TURAY];
Democratic Center Party or DCP [Abu KOROMA]; Peoples Progressive Party
or PPP [Edward KAMARA, chairman]; Coalition for Progress Party or CPP
[Geredine WILLIAMS-SARHO]; National Unity Movement or NUM [John
Desmond Fashole LUKE]; United National Peoples Party or UNPP [John
KARIFA-SMART]; Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Thaimu BANGURA,
chairman]; All Peoples Congress or APC [Edward Mohammed TURAY,
chairman]; National Republican Party or NRP [Sahr Stephen MAMBU];
Social Democratic Party or SDP [Andrew Victor LUNGAY]; Peoples
National Convention or PNC [Edward John KARGBO, chairman]; National
Unity Party or NUP [Dr. John KARIMU, chairman]; Sierra Leone Peoples
Party or SLPP [President Tejan KABBAH, chairman]; National Democratic
Alliance or NDA [Amadu M. B. JALLOH]; National Alliance for Democracy
Party or NADP [Mohamed Yahya SILLAH]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC,
ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John Ernest LEIGH
chancery: 1701 19th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 939-9261 through 9263
FAX: [1] (202) 483-1793

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John L. HIRSCH
embassy: Corner of Walpole and Siaka Stevens Streets, Freetown
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [232] (22) 226481 through 226485
FAX: [232] (22) 225471

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of light green (top),
white, and light blue

@Sierra Leone:Economy

Economy-overview: Sierra Leone has substantial mineral, agricultural,
and fishery resources. However, the economic and social infrastructure
is not well developed, and serious social disorders continue to hamper
economic development. The seizure of power by the new Armed Forces
Revolutionary Council (AFRC) in May 1997 led to UN sanctions and a
sharp drop in GDP. About two-thirds of the working-age population
engages in subsistence agriculture. Manufacturing consists mainly of
the processing of raw materials and of light manufacturing for the
domestic market. Bauxite and rutile mines have been shut down by civil
strife. The major source of hard currency is found in the mining of
diamonds, the large majority of which are smuggled out of the country.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$2.65 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: -27% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$540 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 39%
industry: 27%
services: 34% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 40% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.369 million (1981 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 65%, industry 19%, services 16% (1981 est.)
note: only about 65,000 wage earners (1985)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $96 million
expenditures: $150 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: mining (diamonds); small-scale manufacturing (beverages,
textiles, cigarettes, footwear); petroleum refining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 126,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 230 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 48 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: rice, coffee, cocoa, palm kernels, palm oil,
peanuts; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish

Exports:
total value: $47 million (f.o.b., 1996); note-much reduced in 1997 by
civil warfare
commodities: diamonds, rutile, cocoa, coffee, fish
partners: US 20%, Belgium 20%, Spain 13%, UK 6%, other Western Europe

Imports:
total value: $211 million (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fuels and lubricants
partners: Cote d'Ivoire, EU countries, India

Debt-external: $1.1 billion (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 leone (Le) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: leones (Le) per US$1-1,312.37 (December 1997), 967.72
(1997), 920.73 (1996), 755.22 (1995), 586.74 (1994), 567.46 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 17,526 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: marginal telephone and telegraph service
domestic: national microwave radio relay system made unserviceable by
military activities
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1

Radios: 980,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 45,000 (1992 est.)

@Sierra Leone:Transportation

Railways:
total: 84 km used on a limited basis because the mine at Marampa is
closed
narrow gauge: 84 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total: 11,700 km
paved: 1,287 km
unpaved: 10,413 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 800 km; 600 km navigable year round

Ports and harbors: Bonthe, Freetown, Pepel

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 10 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Sierra Leone:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Police, Security Forces

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,074,728 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 521,580 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $14 million (FY92/93)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.6% (FY92/93)

@Sierra Leone:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

SINGAPORE

@Singapore:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 1 22 N, 103 48 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 647.5 sq km
land: 637.5 sq km
water: 10 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 193 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: within and beyond territorial sea, as defined
in treaties and practice
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy; no pronounced rainy or dry
seasons; thunderstorms occur on 40% of all days (67% of days in April)

Terrain: lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water
catchment area and nature preserve

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Singapore Strait 0 m
highest point: Bukit Timah 166 m

Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 6%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: 5%
other: 87% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: industrial pollution; limited natural
fresh water resources; limited land availability presents waste
disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in
Indonesia

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes

@Singapore:People

Population: 3,490,356 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 21% (male 383,960; female 361,244)
15-64 years: 72% (male 1,252,427; female 1,255,795)
65 years and over: 7% (male 105,417; female 131,513) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.2% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 13.79 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 4.68 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 3.87 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.49 years
male: 75.46 years
female: 81.77 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.46 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Singaporean(s)
adjective: Singapore

Ethnic groups: Chinese 76.4%, Malay 14.9%, Indian 6.4%, other 2.3%

Religions: Buddhist (Chinese), Muslim (Malays), Christian, Hindu,
Sikh, Taoist, Confucianist

Languages: Chinese (official), Malay (official and national), Tamil
(official), English (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.1%
male: 95.9%
female: 86.3% (1995 est.)

@Singapore:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Singapore
conventional short form: Singapore

Data code: SN

Government type: republic within Commonwealth

National capital: Singapore

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 9 August 1965 (from Malaysia)

National holiday: National Day, 9 August (1965)

Constitution: 3 June 1959, amended 1965 (based on preindependence
State of Singapore Constitution)

Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President ONG Teng Cheong (since 1 September 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 28 November
1990) and Deputy Prime Ministers LEE Hsien Loong (since 28 November
1990) and Tony TAN Keng Yam (since 1 August 1995)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 28 August 1993 (next to be held NA August 1999);
following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or
the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister
by the president; deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
election results: ONG Teng Cheong elected president in the country's
first popular election for president; percent of vote-ONG Teng Cheong
59%, CHUA Kim Yeow 41%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (83 seats; members elected
by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 2 January 1997 (next to be held by 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party-PAP 65% (in contested
constituencies), other 35%; seats by party-PAP 81, WP 1, SPP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice is appointed by the
president with the advice of the prime minister, other judges are
appointed by the president with the advice of the chief justice; Court
of Appeals

Political parties and leaders:
government: People's Action Party (PAP), GOH Chok Tong, secretary
general
opposition: Singapore Democratic Party (SDP), CHEE Soon Juan; Workers'
Party (WP), J. B. JEYARETNAM; National Solidarity Party (NSP), C. K.
TAN; Singapore People's Party (SPP), CHIAM See Tong

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, BIS
(pending member), C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MINUGUA, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNIKOM, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador CHAN Heng Chee
chancery: 3501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 537-3100
FAX: [1] (202) 537-0876

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Steven J. GREEN
embassy: 27 Napier Street, Singapore 258508
mailing address: FPO AP 96534-0001
telephone: [65] 476-9100
FAX: [65] 476-9340

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white;
near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white
crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing
five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle

@Singapore:Economy

Economy-overview: Singapore has an open economy with strong service
and manufacturing sectors and excellent international trading links
derived from its entrepot history. Extraordinarily strong fundamentals
allowed Singapore to weather the effects of the Asian financial crisis
better than its neighbors, but the crisis did pull GDP growth down to
approximately 6% in 1997. Projections for 1998 GDP growth are in the
4.5% to 6.5% range. Rising labor costs and appreciation of the
Singapore dollar against its neighbors' currencies continue to be a
threat to Singapore's competitiveness. The government's strategy to
address this problem includes increasing productivity, improving
infrastructure, and encouraging higher value-added industries. In
applied technology, per capita output, investment, and labor
discipline, Singapore has key attributes of a developed country.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$84.6 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$24,600 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NEGL%
industry: 28%
services: 72%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1.8% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.856 million (1997 est.)
by occupation: financial, business, and other services 33.5%,
manufacturing 25.6%, commerce 22.9%, construction 6.6%, other 11.4%
(1994)

Unemployment rate: 3% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $16.3 billion
expenditures: $13.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY97/98 est.)

Industries: electronics, financial services, oil drilling equipment,
petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed
food and beverages, ship repair, entrepot trade, biotechnology

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 4.513 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 21 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 7,234 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: rubber, copra, fruit, vegetables; poultry

Exports:
total value: $125.6 billion (1997 est.)
commodities: computer equipment, rubber and rubber products, petroleum
products, telecommunications equipment
partners: Malaysia 19%, US 18%, Hong Kong 9%, Japan 8%, Thailand 6%
(1995)

Imports:
total value: $133.9 billion (1997 est.)
commodities: aircraft, petroleum, chemicals, foodstuffs
partners: Japan 21%, Malaysia 15%, US 15%, Thailand 5%, Taiwan 4%,
South Korea 4% (1995)

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Singapore dollar (S$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Singapore dollars (S$) per US$1-1.7533 (January 1998),
1.4848 (1997), 1.4100 (1996), 1.4174 (1995), 1.5274 (1994), 1.6158
(1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 1.4 million (1997 est.)

Telephone system: good domestic facilities; good international service
domestic: NA
international: submarine cables to Malaysia (Sabah and Peninsular
Malaysia), Indonesia, and the Philippines; satellite earth stations-2
Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific
Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 13, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1996)

Televisions: 1.05 million (1992 est.)

@Singapore:Transportation

Railways:
total: 38.6 km
narrow gauge: 38.6 km 1.000-m gauge
note: there is a 67 km mass transit system with 42 stations

Highways:
total: 3,010 km
paved: 2,932 km (including 150 km of expressways)
unpaved: 78 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Singapore

Merchant marine:
total: 856 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,463,338
GRT/29,322,743 DWT
ships by type: bulk 135, cargo 146, chemical tanker 42, combination
bulk 5, combination ore/oil 6, container 143, liquefied gas tanker 30,
livestock carrier 1, multifunction large-load carrier 7, oil tanker
284, refrigerated cargo 9, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11, short-sea
passenger 1, specialized tanker 7, vehicle carrier 29
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 22 countries
among which are Japan 42, Denmark 32, Hong Kong 31, Sweden 24,
Thailand 24, Germany 18, Taiwan 12, Belgium 12, China 11, and
Indonesia 11; Singapore also owns an additional 196 ships (1,000 GRT
or over) totaling 10,052,598 DWT that operate under the registries of
The Bahamas, Belize, Cyprus, Hong Kong, Honduras, Liberia, Malta,
Panama, Philippines, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1997 est.)

Airports: 9 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 9
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Singapore:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, People's Defense Force,
Police Force

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,040,147 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 758,435 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $4.03 billion (FY96/97)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 4.3% (FY96/97)

@Singapore:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: two islands in dispute with Malaysia

Illicit drugs: transit point for Golden Triangle heroin going to the
US, Western Europe, and the Third World; also a money-laundering
center

______________________________________________________________________

SLOVAKIA

@Slovakia:Geography

Location: Central Europe, south of Poland

Geographic coordinates: 48 40 N, 19 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 48,845 sq km
land: 48,800 sq km
water: 45 sq km

Area-comparative: about twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries:
total: 1,355 km
border countries: Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 215 km, Hungary 515
km, Poland 444 km, Ukraine 90 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain: rugged mountains in the central and northern part and
lowlands in the south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m
highest point: Gerlachovka 2,655 m

Natural resources: brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore,
copper and manganese ore; salt

Land use:
arable land: 31%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 17%
forests and woodland: 41%
other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants
presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

Geography-note: landlocked

@Slovakia:People

Population: 5,392,982 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 21% (male 570,515; female 546,088)
15-64 years: 68% (male 1,819,831; female 1,845,800)
65 years and over: 11% (male 235,926; female 374,822) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.08% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 9.96 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 9.48 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.73 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.19 years
male: 69.41 years
female: 77.15 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.27 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Slovak(s)
adjective: Slovak

Ethnic groups: Slovak 85.7%, Hungarian 10.7%, Gypsy 1.5% (the 1992
census figures underreport the Gypsy/Romany community, which could
reach 500,000 or more), Czech 1%, Ruthenian 0.3%, Ukrainian 0.3%,
German 0.1%, Polish 0.1%, other 0.3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 60.3%, atheist 9.7%, Protestant 8.4%,
Orthodox 4.1%, other 17.5%

Languages: Slovak (official), Hungarian

Literacy: NA

@Slovakia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Slovak Republic
conventional short form: Slovakia
local long form: Slovenska Republika
local short form: Slovensko

Data code: LO

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Bratislava

Administrative divisions: 8 departments (kraje, singular-kraj);
Banskobystricky, Bratislavsky, Kosicky, Nitriansky, Presovsky,
Trenciansky, Trnavsky, Zilinsky

Independence: 1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)

National holiday: Slovak Constitution Day, 1 September (1992);
Anniversary of Slovak National Uprising, 29 August (1944)

Constitution: ratified 1 September 1992, fully effective 1 January
1993

Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to
comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and
Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal
theory

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Michal KOVAC (since 2 March 1993);
note-leaves office 2 March 1998; first round of voting for his
replacement occurred 29 January 1998
head of government: Prime Minister Vladimir MECIAR (since 12 December
1994)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of
the prime minister
elections: president elected by National Council for a five-year term;
election last held 8 February 1993 (next to be held March 1998);
following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party
or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime
minister by the president
election results: Michal KOVAC elected president; percent of
parliamentary vote-NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic
or Narodna Rada Slovensky Repubiky (150 seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 30 September-1 October 1994 (next to be held
26-27 September 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party-HZDS 35%, SDL 10.4%,
Hungarian coalition (Hungarian Christian Democrats, Hungarian Civic
Party, Coexistence) 10.2%, KDH 10.1%, DU 8.6%, ZRS 7.3%, SNS 5.4%;
seats by party-governing coalition 83 (HZDS 61, ZRS 13, SNS 9),
opposition 67 (SDL 18, Hungarian coalition 17, KDH 17, DU 15)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are elected by the National
Parliament; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Movement for a Democratic Slovakia or
HZDS [Vladimir MECIAR, chairman]; Party of the Democratic Left or SDL
[Jozef MIGAS, chairman]; Hungarian Christian Democratic Movement or
MKDH [Bela BUGAR]; Hungarian Civic Party or MOS [Laszlo A. NAGY,
president]; Coexistence [Miklos DURAY, chairman]; Christian Democratic
Movement or KDH [Jan CARNOGURSKY, chairman]; Democratic Union or DU
[Jozef MORAVCIK, chairman]; Association of Slovak Workers or ZRS [Jan
LUPTAK, chairman]; Slovak National Party or SNS [Jan SLOTA, chairman];
Slovak Green Alternative or SZA [Zora LAZAROVA, chairwoman]; Farmers'
Party of Slovakia or RSS [Pavel DELINGA, chairman], note-Pavel DELINGA
was elected chairman of New Agrarian Party or NAS in November 1997
which emerged from a merger of the Slovak Farmer's Party or RSS and
the Farmers Movement of the Slovak Republic or HPS; Social Democratic
Party of Slovakia or SSDS [Jaroslav VOLF, chairman]; Party of Greens
in Slovakia or SZS [Zdeuka TOTHORA, chairman]; Democratic Party or DS
[Jan LANGOS, chairman]; Slovak Democratic Coalition or SDK (includes
KDH, DS, DU, SSDS, SZS) [Mikulas DZURINDA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Party of Entrepreneurs and
Businessmen of Slovakia; Christian Social Union; Confederation of
Trade Unions or KOZ; Metal Workers Unions or KOVO and METALURG;
Association of Employers of Slovakia; Association of Towns and
Villages or ZMOS

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC
(observer), CCC, CE (guest), CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU
(applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, NSG, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WEU
(associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Branislav LICHARDUS
chancery: (temporary) Suite 250, 2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington,
DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 965-5161
FAX: [1] (202) 965-5166

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ralph R. JOHNSON
embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [42] (7) 533-0861, 533-3338
FAX: [42] (7) 533-5439

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue,
and red superimposed with the Slovak cross in a shield centered on the
hoist side; the cross is white centered on a background of red and
blue

@Slovakia:Economy

Economy-overview: Since the establishment of the Slovak Republic on 1
January 1993, Slovakia has continued the difficult transformation from
a centrally controlled economy to a modern market-oriented economy.
Macroeconomic performance improved steadily in 1994-96, but
privatization progressed only in fits and starts. Strong export
performance boosted GDP growth to 4.9% in 1994 after a four-year
decline. GDP then rose by 6.8% in 1995, 7% in 1996, and 5.9% in 1997,
rates among the highest in Central and Eastern Europe. Inflation
dropped from 26% in 1993 to 6% annually in 1996-97, the lowest rate in
the region. Private activity now makes up more than two-thirds of GDP.
Although Slovak economic performance continues to be impressive, many
warning signs of possible danger ahead have been raised. Aggregate
demand has surged in the form of increased personal and government
consumption. At the same time that the budget deficit is growing, the
money supply has been rapidly increasing, which could apply upward
pressure on inflation. The trade and current account deficits both are
mounting as imports soar and exports sag. Perhaps most troubling,
Slovakia continues to have difficulty attracting foreign investment
because of perceived political problems and halting progress on
restructuring and privatization. Continuing economic recovery in
western Europe should boost exports and production, but Slovakia's
position with foreign creditors and investors could suffer setbacks in
1998 if progress on privatization and restructuring stalls and if
domestic political problems continue to tarnish its international
image.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$46.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5.9% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$8,600 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 5.2%
industry: 39.4%
services: 55.4% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 6% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 2.352 million
by occupation: industry 29.3%, agriculture 8.9%, construction 8.0%,
transport and communication 8.2%, services 45.6% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 12.8% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $5.7 billion
expenditures: $6.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996)

Industries: metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity,
gas, coke, oil, and nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers;
machinery; paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport
vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 7.115 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 23.223 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 4,698 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit;
hogs, cattle, poultry; forest products

Exports:
total value: $8.8 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 22.8%; chemicals 12.2%;
miscellaneous manufactured goods 11.9%; raw materials 4.4% (1996)
partners: EU 41.3% (Germany 20.9%, Austria 6.0%), Czech Republic
30.6%, FSU 7.1% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $11.1 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 35.4%; fuels 17.0%;
intermediate manufactured goods 15.5%; miscellaneous manufactured
goods 9.0% (1996)
partners: EU 36.9% (Germany 14.7%, Italy 6.0%), Czech Republic 24.8%,
FSU 17.7% (1996)

Debt-external: $9.5 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 koruna (Sk) = 100 halierov

Exchange rates: koruny (Sk) per US$1-35.50 (January 1998), 33.616
(1997), 30.654 (1996), 29.713 (1995), 32.045 (1994), 30.770 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 1,362,178 (1992 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA; note-there are
22 private broadcast stations and 1 public (state) broadcast station

Radios: 915,000 (1995 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 56 private broadcast stations, 2 public
(state) broadcast stations (1995 est.)

Televisions: 1.2 million (1995 est.)

@Slovakia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,665 km
broad gauge: 107 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 3,507 km 1.435-m gauge (1424 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 51 km (46 km 1,000-m gauge; 5 km 0.750-m gauge) (1996)

Highways:
total: 36,608 km
paved: 36,059 km (including 215 km of expressways)
unpaved: 549 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 172 km on the Danube

Pipelines: petroleum products NA km; natural gas 2,700 km

Ports and harbors: Bratislava, Komarno

Merchant marine:
total: 3 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 15,041 GRT/19,517
DWT (1997 est.)

Airports: 13 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 8
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 3 (1997 est.)

@Slovakia:Military

Military branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Reserve Force
(Home Guards)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,471,103 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,125,200 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 46,964 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $423 million (1996)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.7% (1996)

@Slovakia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Gabcikovo Dam dispute with Hungary (to be
resolved March 1998); unresolved property issues with Czech Republic
over redistribution of former Czechoslovak federal property

Illicit drugs: minor, but increasing, transshipment point for
Southwest Asian heroin and hashish bound for Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________

SLOVENIA

@Slovenia:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, eastern Alps bordering the Adriatic
Sea, between Austria and Croatia

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 15 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 20,256 sq km
land: 20,256 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries:
total: 1,334 km
border countries: Austria 330 km, Croatia 670 km, Italy 232 km,
Hungary 102 km

Coastline: 46.6 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with
mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to
the east

Terrain: a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain
region adjacent to Italy, mixed mountain and valleys with numerous
rivers to the east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Triglav 2,864 m

Natural resources: lignite coal, lead, zinc, mercury, uranium, silver

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 28%
forests and woodland: 51%
other: 6% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding and earthquakes

Environment-current issues: Sava River polluted with domestic and
industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and
toxic chemicals; forest damage near Koper from air pollution
(originating at metallurgical and chemical plants) and resulting acid
rain

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94

@Slovenia:People

Population: 1,971,739 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 168,633; female 160,202)
15-64 years: 70% (male 692,043; female 686,707)
65 years and over: 13% (male 96,023; female 168,131) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.08% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 8.58 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 9.56 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.57 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.34 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.15 years
male: 71.48 years
female: 79.02 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.17 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Slovene(s)
adjective: Slovenian

Ethnic groups: Slovene 91%, Croat 3%, Serb 2%, Muslim 1%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 70.8% (including 2% Uniate), Lutheran 1%,
Muslim 1%, atheist 4.3%, other 22.9%

Languages: Slovenian 91%, Serbo-Croatian 6%, other 3%

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: 99%
male: NA%
female: NA%
note: of the total population 17.1% did not complete basic education,
29.9% completed basic education, 42.8% completed vocational/middle
school, 8.8% completed higher education, and 1.4% education unknown

@Slovenia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia
conventional short form: Slovenia
local long form: Republika Slovenije
local short form: Slovenija

Data code: SI

Government type: parliamentary democratic republic

National capital: Ljubljana

Administrative divisions: 136 municipalities (obcine, singular-obcina)
and 11 urban municipalities* (obcine mestne, singular-obcina mestna)
Ajdovscina, Beltinci, Bled, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Brda, Brezice,
Brezovica, Cankova-Tisina, Celje*, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica,
Cerkno, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik-Trnovska Vas,
Divaca, Dobrepolje, Dobrova-Horjul-Polhov Gradec, Dol pri Ljubljani,
Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica,
Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grosuplje, Hodos
Salovci, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica,
Ivancna Gorica, Izola, Jesenice, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal, Kidricevo,
Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Koper*, Kozje, Kranj*, Kranjska
Gora, Krsko, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava, Litija,
Ljubljana*, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok,
Luce, Lukovica, Majsperk, Maribor*, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica,
Miren-Kostanjevica, Mislinja, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje,
Murska Sobota*, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Nova Gorica*, Novo Mesto*,
Odranci, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran, Pivka, Podcetrtek,
Podvelka-Ribnica, Postojna, Preddvor, Ptuj*, Puconci, Race-Fram,
Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne-Prevalje, Ribnica,
Rogasevci, Rogaska Slatina, Rogatec, Ruse, Semic, Sencur, Sentilj,
Sentjernej, Sentjur pri Celju, Sevnica, Sezana, Skocjan, Skofja Loka,
Skofljica, Slovenj Gradec*, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice,
Smarje pri Jelsah, Smartno ob Paki, Sostanj, Starse Store, Sveti
Jurij, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trzic, Turnisce, Velenje*, Velike
Lasce, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice Vojnik, Vrhnika, Vuzenica,
Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki, Ziri, Zrece

Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: National Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)

Constitution: adopted 23 December 1991, effective 23 December 1991

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Milan KUCAN (since 22 April 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Janez DRNOVSEK (since 14 May 1992)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and
elected by the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 24 November 1997 (next to be held NA 2002);
following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority
party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually nominated to
become prime minister by the president and elected by the National
Assembly; election last held 10 November 1996 (next to be held NA
November 2000)
election results: Milan KUCAN elected president; percent of vote-Milan
KUCAN 56.3%, Janez PODOBNIK 18%; Janez DRNOVSEK elected prime
minister; percent of National Assembly vote-51%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90
seats, 40 are directly elected and 50 are selected on a proportional
basis; note-the numbers of directly elected and proportionally elected
seats varies with each election; members are elected by popular vote
to serve four-year terms)
elections: National Assembly-last held 10 November 1996 (next to be
held Fall 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party-LDS 27.01%, SLS 19.38%, SDS
16.13%, SKD 9.62%, ZLDS 9.03%, DeSUS 4.32%, SNS 3.22%; seats by
party-LDS 25, SLS 19, SDS 16, SKD 10, ZLSD 9, DeSUS 5, SNS 4,
Hungarian minority 1, Italian minority 1; note-seating as of January
1997 is as follows: LDS 25, SLS 19, SDS 16, SKD 9, ZLSD 9, DeSUS 5,
SNS 4, Hungarian minority 1, Italian minority 1, independents 1
note: the National Council or Drzavni Svet is an advisory body with
limited legislative powers; it may propose laws and ask to review any
National Assembly decisions; in the election of NA November 1997, 40
members were elected to represent local, professional, and
socioeconomic interests (next election to be held in the fall of 2002)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are elected by the National
Assembly on recommendation of the Judicial Council; Constitutional
Court, judges elected for nine-year terms by the National Assembly and
nominated by the president

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Democratic or LDS [Janez
DRNOVSEK, chairman]; Slovene Christian Democrats or SKD [Lozje
PETERLE, chairman]; Social Democratic Party of Slovenia or SDS [Janez
JANSA, chairman]; Slovene People's Party or SLS [Marjan PODOBNIK,
chairman]; United List (former Communists and allies) or ZLSD [Borut
PAHOR, chairman]; Slovene National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC,
chairman]; Democratic Party of Retired (Persons) of Slovenia or DeSUS
[Joze GLOBACNIK]

Political pressure groups and leaders: none

International organization participation: CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD,
ECE, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
ITU, NAM (guest), OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security Council (temporary),
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dimitrij RUPEL
chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 667-5363
FAX: [1] (202) 667-4563
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Victor JACKOVICH
embassy: address NA, Ljubljana
mailing address: P.O. Box 254, Prazakova 4, 1000 Ljubljana; American
Embassy Ljubljana, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7140
telephone: [386] (61) 301-427, 472, 485
FAX: [386] (61) 301-401

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue,
and red with the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav,
Slovenia's highest peak, in white against a blue background at the
center, beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers,
and above it, there are three six-sided stars arranged in an inverted
triangle which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje,
the great Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th
centuries); the seal is located in the upper hoist side of the flag
centered in the white and blue bands

@Slovenia:Economy

Economy-overview: Today, Slovenia exhibits the highest per capita GDP
of all the transition economies of the region, fairly moderate
inflation, and a comfortable level of international reserves. However,
GDP has posted slower growth since reaching a zenith of 5.5% in 1994.
Growth declined to 3.5% in 1995 and 3.2% in 1996 and in 1997. Exports
in 1997 benefited from economic recovery abroad-especially of
Slovenia's main trading partners of the EU, which take 70% of Slovene
exports. This export-led trend is predicted to continue, with an
expected GDP growth rate of 3.8% for 1998. Slovenia received an
invitation in 1997 to begin accession negotiations with the EU-a
further reflection of Slovenia's sound economic footing. Slovenia must
press on with privatization, enterprise restructuring, institution
reform, and liberalization of financial markets, thereby creating
conditions conducive to foreign investment, and maintaining a stable
tolar.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$19.5 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.25% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$10,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 33%
services: 62% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 9.7% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 857,400
by occupation: services 62%, industry 36%, agriculture 2% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 7.1% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $8.48 billion
expenditures: $8.53 billion, including capital expenditures of $455
million (1996 est.)

Industries: ferrous metallurgy and rolling mill products, aluminum
reduction and rolled products, lead and zinc smelting, electronics
(including military electronics), trucks, electric power equipment,
wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools

Industrial production growth rate: 0.8% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 2.524 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 11.615 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 5,759 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: potatoes, hops, wheat, sugar beets, corn,
grapes; cattle, sheep, poultry

Exports:
total value: $8.3 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: manufactured goods 50.7%, machinery and transport
equipment 31.4%, chemicals 10.5%, food 3.8% (1995)
partners: Germany 31%, former Yugoslavia 16.5%, Italy 13%, Croatia
10%, France 7%, Austria 7%, US 5% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $9.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 33.8%, manufactured
goods 30.4%, chemicals 12.1%, fuels and lubricants 6.6%, food 8.4%
(1995)
partners: Germany 22%, Italy 17%, France 10%, Austria 10%, Croatia 6%,
US 3% (1996)

Debt-external: $4.5 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $5 million (1993)

Currency: 1 tolar (SlT) = 100 stotins

Exchange rates: tolars (SlT) per US$1-171.30 (January 1998), 159.69
(1997), 135.36 (1996), 118.52 (1995), 128.81 (1994), 113.24 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 691,240 (1997 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: 70% digital; full digitalization scheduled by 2000
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 5, shortwave 0
note: there are more than 20 regional and local radio broadcast
stations

Radios: 596,100 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 7
note: there are more than 20 local cable television broadcast stations

Televisions: 454,400 (1993 est.)

@Slovenia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,201 km
standard gauge: 1,201 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified 499 km) (1996)

Highways:
total: 14,910 km
paved: 12,226 km (including 231 km of expressways)
unpaved: 2,684 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: NA

Pipelines: crude oil 290 km; natural gas 305 km

Ports and harbors: Izola, Koper, Piran

Merchant marine:
total: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 223,976 GRT/373,462 DWT
(controlled by Slovenian owners)
ships by type: bulk 8, cargo 5
note: ships operate under the flags of Antigua and Barbuda, Liberia,
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Singapore; no ships remain under
the Slovenian flag (1997 est.)

Airports: 14 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (1997 est.)

@Slovenia:Military

Military branches: Slovenian Army (includes Air and Naval Forces)

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 531,429 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 423,198 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 15,546 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.1% (1997)

@Slovenia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: significant progress has been made with
Croatia toward resolving a maritime border dispute over direct access
to the sea in the Adriatic; Italy is negotiating with Slovenia over
property and minority rights issues dating from World War II

Illicit drugs: transit point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for
Western Europe and for precursor chemicals

______________________________________________________________________

SOLOMON ISLANDS

@Solomon Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east
of Papua New Guinea

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 S, 159 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 28,450 sq km
land: 27,540 sq km
water: 910 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 5,313 km

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