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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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Tuamasaga, Va'a-o-Fonoti, Vaisigano

Independence: 1 January 1962 (from New Zealand-administered UN
trusteeship)

National holiday: National Day, 1 June (1962)

Constitution: 1 January 1962

Legal system: based on English common law and local customs; judicial
review of legislative acts with respect to fundamental rights of the
citizen; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Chief Susuga MALIETOA Tanumafili II (cochief of state
from 1 January 1962 until becoming sole chief of state 5 April 1963)
head of government: Prime Minister TOFILAU Eti Alesana (since 7 April
1988); Deputy Prime Minister TUILA'EPA Sailele Malielegaoi (since NA
1992)
cabinet: Cabinet consists of 12 members, appointed by the chief of
state with the prime minister's advice
elections: upon the death of Chief Susuga MALIETOA Tanumafili II, a
new chief of state will be elected by the Legislative Assembly to
serve a five-year term; prime minister appointed by the chief of state
with the approval of the Legislative Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Fono (49
seats-47 elected by Samoans, 2 elected by non-Samoans; only chiefs
(matai) may stand for election to the Fono; members serve five-year
terms)
elections: last held 26 April 1996 (next to be held 26 April 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party-HRPP 45.17%, SNDP 27.1%,
independents 23.7%; seats by party-HRPP 25, SNDP 13, independents 11

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP),
TOFILAU Eti Alesana, chairman; Samoan National Development Party
(SNDP), TAPUA Tamasese Efi, chairman (opposition); Samoan Progressive
Conservative Party, LEOTA Ituau Ale; Samoa All People's Party (SAPP),
Matatumua MAIMOAGA

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Tuiloma Neroni SLADE
chancery: 820 Second Avenue, Suite 800D, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 599-6196, 6197
FAX: [1] (212) 599-0797

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Josiah Horton BEEMAN (Ambassador to New
Zealand and Samoa, resides in Wellington, New Zealand)
embassy: 5th floor, Beach Road, Apia
mailing address: P.O. Box 3430, Apia
telephone: [685] 21631
FAX: [685] 22030

Flag description: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side
quadrant bearing five white five-pointed stars representing the
Southern Cross constellation

@Samoa:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy of Samoa has traditionally been
dependent on development aid, private family remittances from
overseas, and agricultural exports. The country is vulnerable to
devastating storms. Agriculture employs two-thirds of the labor force,
and furnishes 90% of exports, featuring coconut cream, coconut oil,
and copra. Outside of a large automotive wire harness factory, the
manufacturing sector mainly processes agricultural products. Tourism
is an expanding sector; more than 70,0000 tourists visited the islands
in 1996. The 1998 Samoan budget calls for deregulation of the
financial sector, development of more financial investments, and
forecasts 3% to 4% growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$450 million (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5.9% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,100 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 40%
industry: 25%
services: 35% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 7.5% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 82,500 (1991 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 65%, services 30%, industry 5% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $52 million
expenditures: $99 million, including capital expenditures of $37
million (FY96/97 est.)

Industries: timber, tourism, food processing, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 14% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 21,700 kW (1996 est.)

Electricity-production: 56.3 million kWh (1996 est.)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 310 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coconuts, bananas, taro, yams

Exports:
total value: $10 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: coconut oil and cream, copra, fish, beer (1996)
partners: New Zealand 48%, American Samoa 11%, Australia 10%, Germany
7%, US 3% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $100 million (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: intermediate goods 50%, food 26%, capital goods 12%
(1996)
partners: New Zealand 37%, Australia 22%, Fiji 15%, US 13%

Debt-external: $169.4 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA; $8.7 million bilateral aid from Australia (FY96/97
est.); $5 million bilateral aid from NZ (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 tala (WS$) = 100 sene

Exchange rates: tala (WS$) per US$1-2.7556 (January 1998), 2.5562
(1997), 2.4618 (1996), 2.4722 (1995), 2.5349 (1994), 2.5681 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 7,500 (1988 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 76,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 6,000 (1992 est.)

@Samoa:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 790 km
paved: 332 km
unpaved: 458 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Apia, Asau, Mulifanua, Salelologa

Merchant marine:
total: 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
3,838 GRT/5,536 DWT (1997 est.)

Airports: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 2
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

@Samoa:Military

Military branches: no regular armed services; Samoa Police Force

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Samoa:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

SAN MARINO

@San Marino:Geography

Location: Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy

Geographic coordinates: 43 46 N, 12 25 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 60 sq km
land: 60 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 39 km
border countries: Italy 39 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

Terrain: rugged mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Fiume Ausa 55 m
highest point: Monte Titano 749 m

Natural resources: building stone

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 83% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution

Geography-note: landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after
the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines

@San Marino:People

Population: 24,894 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 16% (male 1,994; female 2,013)
15-64 years: 67% (male 8,480; female 8,282)
65 years and over: 17% (male 1,732; female 2,393) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.7% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 10.52 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.11 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.44 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 81.42 years
male: 77.5 years
female: 85.34 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.51 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sammarinese

Ethnic groups: Sammarinese, Italian

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: Italian

Literacy:
definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: 97%
female: 95% (1976 est.)

@San Marino:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of San Marino
conventional short form: San Marino
local long form: Repubblica di San Marino
local short form: San Marino

Data code: SM

Government type: republic

National capital: San Marino

Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities (castelli,
singular-castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano,
Faetano, Fiorentino, Monte Giardino, San Marino, Serravalle

Independence: 301 AD (by tradition)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Foundation of the Republic, 3
September

Constitution: 8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the
functions of a constitution

Legal system: based on civil law system with Italian law influences;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: co-chiefs of state Captain Regent Loris FRANCINI and
Captain Regent Alberto CECCHETTI (for the period 1 April-30 September
1998)
head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political
Affairs Gabriele GATTI (since NA July 1986)
cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council
for a five-year term
elections: co-chiefs of state (captain regents) elected by the Great
and General Council for a six-month term; election last held NA March
1998 (next to be held NA September 1998); secretary of state for
foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council
for a five-year term; election last held NA 1993 (next to be held NA
June 1998)
election results: Loris FRANCINI and Alberto CECCHETTI elected captain
regents; percent of legislative vote-NA; Gabriele GATTI elected
secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of
legislative vote-NA
note: the popularly elected parliament (Great and General Council)
selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (Co-Chiefs
of State) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the
Great and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State) which
has ten other members, all selected by the Great and General Council;
assisting the Captains Regent are three Secretaries of State-Foreign
Affairs, Internal Affairs, and Finance-and several additional
secretaries; the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs has assumed
many of the prerogatives of a prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Great and General Council or Consiglio
Grande e Generale (60 seats; members are elected by direct popular
vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 30 May 1993 (next to be held by 31 May 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party-PDCS 41.4%, PSS 23.7%, PDP
18.6%, AP 7.7%, MD 5.3%, RC 3.3%; seats by party-PDCS 26, PSS 14, PDP
11, AP 4, MD 3, RC 2

Judicial branch: Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party or PDCS
[Cesare GASPERONI, secretary general]; Democratic Progressive Party or
PDP (formerly San Marino Communist Party or PSS) [Stefano MACINA,
secretary general]; San Marino Socialist Party or PSS [Maurizio
RATTINI, secretary general]; Democratic Movement or MD [Emilio DELLA
BALDA]; Popular Alliance or AP [Antonella MULARONI]; Communist
Refoundation or RC [Giuseppe AMICHI]

International organization participation: CE, ECE, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM (guest), OSCE, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: San Marino does not have an
embassy in the US
honorary consulate(s) general: Washington, DC, and New York
honorary consulate(s): Detroit

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in San Marino; the US Consul General in Florence (Italy) is accredited
to San Marino

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light
blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the
coat of arms has a shield (featuring three towers on three peaks)
flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word
LIBERTAS (Liberty)

@San Marino:Economy

Economy-overview: The tourist sector contributes over 50% of GDP. In
1995 more than 3.3 million tourists visited San Marino. The key
industries are banking, wearing apparel, electronics, and ceramics.
Main agricultural products are wine and cheeses. The per capita level
of output and standard of living are comparable to those of Italy,
which supplies much of its food.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$500 million (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4.8% (1994 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$20,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 5.3% (1995)

Labor force:
total: 15,600 (1995)
by occupation: services 55%, industry 43%, agriculture 2% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 3.6% (April 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $320 million
expenditures: $320 million, including capital expenditures of $26
million (1995 est.)

Industries: tourism, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: NA kW
note: electricity supplied by Italy

Electricity-production: NA kWh
note: electricity supplied by Italy

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture-products: wheat, grapes, maize, olives; cattle, pigs,
horses, meat, cheese, hides

Exports: trade data are included with the statistics for Italy;
commodities: building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked
goods, hides, and ceramics

Imports: trade data are included with the statistics for Italy;
commodities: wide variety of consumer manufactures, food

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Italian lire (Lit) = 100 centesimi; note-also mints its
own coins

Exchange rates: Italian lire (Lit) per US$1-1,787.7 (January 1998),
1,703.1 (1997), 1,542.9 (1996), 1,628.9 (1995), 1,612.4 (1994),
1,573.7 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 15,000 (1995 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: automatic telephone system completely integrated into
Italian system
international: microwave radio relay and cable connections to Italian
network; no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA (1 private radio
broadcast station)

Radios: 15,000 (1994 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1991 est.)
note: receives broadcasts from Italy

Televisions: 9,000 (1994 est.)

@San Marino:Transportation

Railways: 0 km; note-there is a 1.5 km cable railway connecting the
city of San Marino to Borgo Maggiore

Highways:
total: 220 km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: none

@San Marino:Military

Military branches: Voluntary Military Force, Police Force

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $3.7 million (1995)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1% (1995)

@San Marino:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE

@Sao Tome and Principe:Geography

Location: Western Africa, island in the Gulf of Guinea, straddling the
Equator, west of Gabon

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 N, 7 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 960 sq km
land: 960 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: more than five times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 209 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)

Terrain: volcanic, mountainous

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico de Sao Tome 2,024 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 36%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 61% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: deforestation; soil erosion and exhaustion

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification

@Sao Tome and Principe:People

Population: 150,123 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (male 36,127; female 35,253)
15-64 years: 48% (male 34,980; female 37,555)
65 years and over: 4% (male 2,813; female 3,395) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.1% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 43.48 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.31 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 54.55 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.34 years
male: 62.87 years
female: 65.86 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.19 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Sao Tomean(s)
adjective: Sao Tomean

Ethnic groups: mestico, angolares (descendants of Angolan slaves),
forros (descendants of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers
from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of
servicais born on the islands), Europeans (primarily Portuguese)

Religions: Roman Catholic, Evangelical Protestant, Seventh-Day
Adventist

Languages: Portuguese (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 73%
male: 85%
female: 62% (1991 est.)

@Sao Tome and Principe:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe
conventional short form: Sao Tome and Principe
local long form: Republica Democratica de Sao Tome e Principe
local short form: Sao Tome e Principe

Data code: TP

Government type: republic

National capital: Sao Tome

Administrative divisions: 2 districts (concelhos, singular-concelho);
Principe, Sao Tome

Independence: 12 July 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 July (1975)

Constitution: approved March 1990; effective 10 September 1990

Legal system: based on Portuguese legal system and customary law; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Miguel TROVOADA (since 4 April 1991)
head of government: Prime Minister Raul Wagner BRAGANCA NETO (since 20
November 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
proposal of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 30 June and 15 July 1996 (next to be held in 2001);
prime minister chosen by the National Assembly and approved by the
president
election results: Miguel TROVOADA reelected president in Sao Tome's
second multiparty presidential election; percent of vote-NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia
Nacional (55 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve five-year terms)
elections: parliament dissolved by President TROVOADA in July 1994;
early elections held 2 October 1994 (next to be held October 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party-MLSTP 49%, PCD-GR 25.5%,
ADI 25.5%; seats by party-MLSTP 27, PCD-GR 14, ADI 14

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the National
Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Party for Democratic
Convergence-Reflection Group or PCD-GR [Armindo AGUIAR, secretary
general]; Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe or
MLSTP [Francisco Fortunas PIRES]; Christian Democratic Front or FDC
[Alphonse Dos SANTOS]; Democratic Opposition Coalition or CODO;
Independent Democratic Action or ADI [Carlos NEVES]; other small
parties

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Sao Tome and Principe does not
have an embassy in the US, but does have a Permanent Mission to the
UN, headed by First Secretary Domingos AUGUSTO Ferreira, located at
122 East 42nd Street, Suite 1604, New York, NY 10168, telephone [1]
(212) 697-4211

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Sao Tome and Principe; the Ambassador to Gabon is accredited to Sao
Tome and Principe on a nonresident basis and makes periodic visits to
the islands

Flag description: three horizontal bands of green (top), yellow
(double width), and green with two black five-pointed stars placed
side by side in the center of the yellow band and a red isosceles
triangle based on the hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors
of Ethiopia

@Sao Tome and Principe:Economy

Economy-overview: This small poor island economy has become
increasingly dependent on cocoa since independence over 20 years ago.
However, cocoa production has substantially declined because of
drought and mismanagement. The resulting shortage of cocoa for export
has created a persistent balance-of-payments problem. Sao Tome has to
import all fuels, most manufactured goods, consumer goods, and a
significant amount of food. Over the years, it has been unable to
service its external debt and has had to depend on concessional aid
and debt rescheduling. Considerable potential exists for development
of a tourist industry, and the government has taken steps to expand
facilities in recent years. The government also has attempted to
reduce price controls and subsidies, but economic growth has remained
sluggish. Sao Tome is also optimistic that significant petroleum
discoveries are forthcoming in its territorial waters in the oil-rich
waters of the Gulf of Guinea.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$154 million (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 1.5% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,000 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 21%
industry: 26%
services: 53% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 60% (1996 est.)

Labor force: most of population mainly engaged in subsistence
agriculture and fishing; there are shortages of skilled workers

Unemployment rate: 28% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $58 million
expenditures: $114 million, including capital expenditures of $54
million (1993 est.)

Industries: light construction, textiles, soap, beer; fish processing;
timber

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 6,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 16 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 114 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, copra, cinnamon,
pepper, coffee, bananas, papaya, beans; poultry; fish

Exports:
total value: $4.9 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: cocoa 95%, copra, coffee, palm oil
partners: Netherlands 75.7%, Germany 1.2%, Portugal 1.1%

Imports:
total value: $19.6 million (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and electrical equipment, food products,
petroleum products
partners: Portugal 32.2%, France 16.8%, Belgium 6.6%, Japan, Angola

Debt-external: $266 million (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 dobra (Db) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: dobras (Db) per US$1-7,003.9 (December 1997), 4,552.5
(1997), 2,203.2 (1996), 1,420.3 (1995), 732.6 (1994), 429.9 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 2,200 (1986 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: minimal system
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 33,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1992 est.)

Televisions: NA

@Sao Tome and Principe:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 320 km
paved: 218 km
unpaved: 102 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Santo Antonio, Sao Tome

Merchant marine:
total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,096 GRT/1,105 DWT
(1997 est.)

Airports: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Sao Tome and Principe:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Security Police

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 30,573 (1988 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 16,172 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Sao Tome and Principe:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

SAUDI ARABIA

@Saudi Arabia:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea,
north of Yemen

Geographic coordinates: 25 00 N, 45 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 1,960,582 sq km
land: 1,960,582 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than one-fifth the size of the US

Land boundaries:
total: 4,415 km
border countries: Iraq 814 km, Jordan 728 km, Kuwait 222 km, Oman 676
km, Qatar 60 km, UAE 457 km, Yemen 1,458 km

Coastline: 2,640 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: not specified
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: harsh, dry desert with great extremes of temperature

Terrain: mostly uninhabited, sandy desert

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Jabal Sawda' 3,133 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 56%
forests and woodland: 1%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,350 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent sand and dust storms

Environment-current issues: desertification; depletion of underground
water resources; the lack of perennial rivers or permanent water
bodies has prompted the development of extensive seawater desalination
facilities; coastal pollution from oil spills

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea
provide great leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through
Persian Gulf and Suez Canal

@Saudi Arabia:People

Population: 20,785,955 (July 1998 est.)
note: includes 5,244,058 non-nationals (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 4,547,971; female 4,398,628)
15-64 years: 55% (male 6,738,820; female 4,591,477)
65 years and over: 2% (male 268,136; female 240,923) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.41% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 37.63 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.02 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.46 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.11 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 41.34 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.03 years
male: 68.19 years
female: 71.96 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.38 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Saudi(s)
adjective: Saudi or Saudi Arabian

Ethnic groups: Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%

Religions: Muslim 100%

Languages: Arabic

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 62.8%
male: 71.5%
female: 50.2% (1995 est.)

@Saudi Arabia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
conventional short form: Saudi Arabia
local long form: Al Mamlakah al Arabiyah as Suudiyah
local short form: Al Arabiyah as Suudiyah

Data code: SA

Government type: monarchy

National capital: Riyadh

Administrative divisions: 13 provinces (mintaqah, singular-mintaqat);
Al Bahah, Al Hudud Ash Shamaliyah, Al Jawf, Al Madinah, Al Qasim, Ar
Riyad, Ash Sharqiyah (Eastern Province), 'Asir, Hail, Jizan, Makkah,
Najran, Tabuk

Independence: 23 September 1932 (unification)

National holiday: Unification of the Kingdom, 23 September (1932)

Constitution: governed according to Shari'a (Islamic law); the Basic
Law that articulates the government's rights and responsibilities was
introduced in 1993

Legal system: based on Islamic law, several secular codes have been
introduced; commercial disputes handled by special committees; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state: King and Prime Minister FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud
(since 13 June 1982); Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister
ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (half-brother to the king, heir to
the throne since 13 June 1982, regent from 1 January to 22 February
1996); note-the king is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: King and Prime Minister FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al
Saud (since 13 June 1982); Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime
Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (half-brother to the king,
heir to the throne since 13 June 1982, regent from 1 January to 22
February 1996); note-the king is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Council of Ministers is appointed by the king and includes
many royal family members
elections: none; the king is an absolute monarch

Legislative branch: a consultative council (90 members and a chairman
appointed by the king for four-year terms)

Judicial branch: Supreme Council of Justice

Political parties and leaders: none allowed

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF,
BIS (pending member), CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC,
OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
(applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador BANDAR bin Sultan bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud
chancery: 601 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 342-3800
consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Wyche FOWLER, Jr.
embassy: Collector Road M, Diplomatic Quarter, Riyadh
mailing address: American Embassy-Riyadh, Unit 61307, APO AE
09803-1307; International Mail: P. O. Box 94309, Riyadh 11693
telephone: [966] (1) 488-3800
FAX: [966] (1) 488-7360
consulate(s) general: Dhahran, Jiddah (Jeddah)

Flag description: green with large white Arabic script (that may be
translated as There is no God but God; Muhammad is the Messenger of
God) above a white horizontal saber (the tip points to the hoist
side); green is the traditional color of Islam

@Saudi Arabia:Economy

Economy-overview: This is a well-to-do oil-based economy with strong
government controls over major economic activities. About 35% of GDP
comes from the private sector. Economic (as well as political) ties
with the US are especially strong. The petroleum sector accounts for
roughly 75% of budget revenues, 35% of GDP, and 90% of export
earnings. Saudi Arabia has the largest reserves of petroleum in the
world (26% of the proved total), ranks as the largest exporter of
petroleum, and plays a leading role in OPEC. For the 1990s the
government intends to bring its budget, which has been in deficit
since 1983, back into balance, and to encourage private economic
activity. Roughly 4 million foreign workers play an important role in
the Saudi economy, for example, in the oil and service sectors. Helped
by production above its OPEC quota, Saudi Arabia continued to bring
its finances closer into balance in 1997, recording a $1.6 billion
budget deficit and a $200 million current account surplus. For 1998,
the country looks to its policies of maintaining moderate fiscal
reforms, restraining public spending, and encouraging nonoil exports.
Shortages of water and rapid population growth will constrain
government efforts to increase self-sufficiency in agricultural
products.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$206.5 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$10,300 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 6%
industry: 46%
services: 48% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 0% (1997 est.)

Labor force: 7 million
by occupation: government 40%, industry, construction, and oil 25%,
services 30%, agriculture 5%
note: 35% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national
(July 1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $47.5 billion
expenditures: $52.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1998 est.)

Industries: crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic
petrochemicals, cement, two small steel-rolling mills, construction,
fertilizer, plastics

Industrial production growth rate: 16% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 20.9 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 65 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 3,470 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, barley, tomatoes, melons, dates, citrus;
mutton, chickens, eggs, milk

Exports:
total value: $56.7 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 90%
partners: Japan 17%, US 15%, South Korea 10%, Singapore 8%, France 5%
(1996 est.)

Imports:
total value: $25.4 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, motor
vehicles, textiles
partners: US 22%, UK 12%, Japan 9%, Germany 8%, Italy 5%, France 4%
(1996 est.)

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid:
donor: pledged $100 million in 1993 to fund reconstruction of Lebanon

Currency: 1 Saudi riyal (SR) = 100 halalah

Exchange rates: Saudi riyals (SR) per US$1-3.7450 (fixed rate since
June 1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 1.46 million (1993)

Telephone system: modern system
domestic: extensive microwave radio relay and coaxial and fiber-optic
cable systems
international: microwave radio relay to Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait,
Qatar, UAE, Yemen, and Sudan; coaxial cable to Kuwait and Jordan;
submarine cable to Djibouti, Egypt and Bahrain; satellite earth
stations-5 Intelsat (3 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat,
and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 43, FM 13, shortwave 0

Radios: 5 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 80

Televisions: 4.5 million (1993 est.)

@Saudi Arabia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,390 km
standard gauge: 1,390 km 1.435-m gauge (448 km double track) (1992)

Highways:
total: 162,000 km
paved: 69,174 km
unpaved: 92,826 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 6,400 km; petroleum products 150 km; natural gas
2,200 km (includes natural gas liquids 1,600 km)

Ports and harbors: Ad Dammam, Al Jubayl, Duba, Jiddah, Jizan, Rabigh,
Ra's al Khafji, Al Mishab, Ras Tanura, Yanbu' al Bahr, Yanbu' al
Sinaiyah

Merchant marine:
total: 76 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,009,059 GRT/1,329,377
DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 13, chemical tanker 6, container 3,
liquefied gas tanker 1, livestock carrier 5, oil tanker 22, passenger
1, refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo 12, short-sea
passenger 8 (1997 est.)

Airports: 202 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 70
over 3,047 m: 30
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 23
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 132
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 77
914 to 1,523 m: 36
under 914 m: 13 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 4 (1997 est.)

@Saudi Arabia:Military

Military branches: Land Force (Army), Navy, Air Force, Air Defense
Force, National Guard, Coast Guard, Frontier Forces, Public Security
Force, Ministry of Interior Forces

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 5,595,295 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 3,112,733 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 186,574 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $18.1 billion (1997 est.)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 12% (1997 est.)

@Saudi Arabia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: large section of boundary with Yemen not
defined; location and status of boundary with UAE is not final, de
facto boundary reflects 1974 agreement; Kuwaiti ownership of Qaruh and
Umm al Maradim islands is disputed by Saudi Arabia; in 1996, agreed
with Qatar to demarcate border per 1992 accord; that process is
ongoing

Illicit drugs: death penalty for traffickers; increasing consumption
of heroin and cocaine

______________________________________________________________________

SENEGAL

@Senegal:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania

Geographic coordinates: 14 00 N, 14 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 196,190 sq km
land: 192,000 sq km
water: 4,190 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than South Dakota

Land boundaries:
total: 2,640 km
border countries: The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km, Guinea-Bissau 338
km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813 km

Coastline: 531 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has
strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by
hot, dry, harmattan wind

Terrain: generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in
southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location in the Futa Jaldon foothills 581 m

Natural resources: fish, phosphates, iron ore

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 16%
forests and woodland: 54%
other: 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 710 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts

Environment-current issues: wildlife populations threatened by
poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification;
overfishing

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping

Geography-note: The Gambia is almost an enclave of Senegal

@Senegal:People

Population: 9,723,149 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (male 2,331,388; female 2,343,654)
15-64 years: 49% (male 2,273,200; female 2,504,063)
65 years and over: 3% (male 132,671; female 138,173) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.33% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 44.38 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 11.05 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 61.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 57.37 years
male: 54.55 years
female: 60.28 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.18 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Senegalese

Ethnic groups: Wolof 36%, Fulani 17%, Serer 17%, Toucouleur 9%, Diola
9%, Mandingo 9%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 2%

Religions: Muslim 92%, indigenous beliefs 6%, Christian 2% (mostly
Roman Catholic)

Languages: French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Diola, Mandingo

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 33.1%
male: 43%
female: 23.2% (1995 est.)

@Senegal:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
conventional short form: Senegal
local long form: Republique du Senegal
local short form: Senegal

Data code: SG

Government type: republic under multiparty democratic rule

National capital: Dakar

Administrative divisions: 10 regions (regions, singular-region);
Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaolack, Kolda, Louga, Saint-Louis,
Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor

Independence: 4 April 1960 from France; complete independence was
achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
(The Gambia and Senegal signed an agreement on 12 December 1981 that
called for the creation of a loose confederation to be known as
Senegambia, but the agreement was dissolved on 30 September 1989)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 April (1960)

Constitution: 3 March 1963, revised 1991

Legal system: based on French civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in Constitutional Court; the Council of State audits
the government's accounting office; Senegal has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Abdou DIOUF (since 1 January 1981)
head of government: Prime Minister Habib THIAM (since 7 April 1991)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in
consultation with the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
election last held 21 February 1993 (next to be held NA February
2000); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Abdou DIOUF reelected president; percent of
vote-Abdou DIOUF (PS) 58.4%, Abdoulaye WADE (PDS) 32.03%, other 9.57%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (140 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 24 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2003)
election results: percent of vote by party-PS 50.19%, PDS 19%, UDS-R
13%, And/Jef-PADS 5%, LD/MPT 4%, CDP/Garab-Gi 2%, FSD 1%, PDS-R 1%,
RND 1%, BCG 1%, and PIT 1% ; seats by party-PS 93, PDS 23, UDS-R 11,
And-Jef/PADS 4, LD-MPT 3, CDP/Garab-Gi 1, FSD 1, PDS-R 1, RND 1, BCG
1, and PIT 1

Judicial branch: under the terms of a reform of the judicial system
implemented in 1992, the principal organs of the judiciary are as
follows; Constitutional Court; Council of State; Court of Final
Appeals or Cour de Cassation; Court of Appeals

Political parties and leaders: African Party for Democracy and
Socialism or And-Jef/PADS (also PADS/AJ) [Landing SAVANE,
secretary-general]; Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT
[Dr. Abdoulaye BATHILY]; Democratic and Patriotic Convention or CDP
Garab-Gi [Dr. Iba Der THIAM]; Independent Labor Party or PIT [Amath
DANSOKHO]; National Democratic Rally or RND [Madier DIOUF]; Senegalese
Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]; Senegalese Democratic
Party-Renewal or PDS-R [Serigne Lamine DIOP, Secretary General];
Senegalese Democratic Union-Renewal or UDS-R [Mamadou Puritain FALL];
Socialist Party or PS [President Abdou DIOUF]; other small parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: students; teachers; labor;
Muslim Brotherhoods

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM, ITU, MIPONUH, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mamadou Mansour SECK
chancery: 2112 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dane Farnsworth SMITH, Jr.
embassy: Avenue Jean XXIII at the corner of Avenue Kleber, Dakar
mailing address: B. P. 49, Dakar
telephone: [221] 23 42 96, 23 34 24
FAX: [221] 22 29 91

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side),
yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the
yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Senegal:Economy

Economy-overview: In January 1994, Senegal undertook a bold and
ambitious economic reform program with the support of the
international donor community. This reform began with a 50%
devaluation of Senegal's currency, the CFA franc, which is linked at a
fixed rate to the French franc. Government price controls and
subsidies have been steadily dismantled. After seeing its economy
contract by 2.1% in 1993, Senegal made an important turnaround, thanks
to the reform program, with real growth in GDP of 5.6% in 1996 and
4.7% in 1997. Annual inflation has been pushed below 3% and the fiscal
deficit has been cut to less than 1.5% of GDP. Investment has been
steadily rising from 13.8% of GDP in 1993 to 16.5% in 1997. As a
member of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA),
Senegal is working toward greater regional integration with a unified
external tariff. Senegal also realized full Internet connectivity in
1996, creating a miniboom in information technology-based services.
Private activity now accounts for 82% of GDP. On the negative side,
Senegal faces deep-seated urban problems of chronic unemployment,
juvenile delinquency, and drug addiction.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$15.6 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4.7% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,850 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 19%
industry: 17%
services: 64% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.5% (1997 est.)

Labor force: NA
by occupation: agriculture 60%

Unemployment rate: NA%; urban youth 40%

Budget:
revenues: $885 million
expenditures: $885 million, including capital expenditures of $125
million (1996 est.)

Industries: agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining,
fertilizer production, petroleum refining, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate: 7.4% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 303,440 kW (1997)

Electricity-production: 1.027 billion kWh (1997 est.)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 109 kWh (1997 est.)

Agriculture-products: peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton,
tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish

Exports:
total value: $986 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: fish, ground nuts (peanuts), petroleum products,
phosphates, cotton
partners: France, other EU countries, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali

Imports:
total value: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: foods and beverages, consumer goods, capital goods,
petroleum products
partners: France 30%, other EU countries, Nigeria, Cameroon, Cote
d'Ivoire, Algeria, China, Japan

Debt-external: $3.7 billion (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $439 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1-608.36 (January 1998),
583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1966), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16
(1993)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 81,988 (1995 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: above-average urban system; microwave radio relay, coaxial
cable and fiber optic cable in trunk system
international: 4 submarine cables; satellite earth station-1 Intelsat
(Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 6, shortwave 1

Radios: 850,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 61,000 (1993 est.)

@Senegal:Transportation

Railways:
total: 904 km
narrow gauge: 904 km 1.000-meter gauge (70 km double track) (1995)

Highways:
total: 14,576 km
paved: 4,271 km
unpaved: 10,305 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 897 km total; 785 km on the Senegal river, and 112 km on
the Saloum river

Ports and harbors: Dakar, Kaolack, Matam, Podor, Richard-Toll,
Saint-Louis, Ziguinchor

Merchant marine:
total: 1 bulk ship, 1,995 GRT/3,775 DWT (1997 est.)

Airports: 20 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 10
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Senegal:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie,
National Police (Surete Nationale)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 2,016,128 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,052,825 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 98,869 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $81 million (1996 est.)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.1% (1996 est.)

@Senegal:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: short section of boundary with The Gambia is
indefinite

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian
heroin moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of
cannabis

______________________________________________________________________

SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO

Introduction

Current issues: Serbia and Montenegro have asserted the formation of a
joint independent state, but this entity has not been formally
recognized as a state by the US; the US view is that the Socialist
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY), has dissolved and that none of
the successor republics represents its continuation.

@Serbia and Montenegro:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between
Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina

Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 102,350 sq km (Serbia 88,412 sq km; Montenegro 13,938 sq km)
land: 102,136 sq km (Serbia 88,412 sq km; Montenegro 13,724 sq km)
water: 214 sq km (Serbia 0 sq km; Montenegro 214 sq km)

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Kentucky (Serbia is slightly
larger than Maine; Montenegro is slightly smaller than Connecticut)

Land boundaries:
total: 2,246 km
border countries: Albania 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with
Montenegro), Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km (312 km with Serbia, 215 km
with Montenegro), Bulgaria 318 km (with Serbia), Croatia (north) 241
km (with Serbia), Croatia (south) 25 km (with Montenegro), Hungary 151
km (with Serbia), The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 221 km
(with Serbia), Romania 476 km (with Serbia)
note: the internal boundary between Montenegro and Serbia is 211 km

Coastline: 199 km (Montenegro 199 km, Serbia 0 km)

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: in the north, continental climate (cold winter and hot, humid
summers with well distributed rainfall); central portion, continental
and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the
coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with
heavy snowfall inland

Terrain: extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the
east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains
and hills; to the southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands
off the coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Daravica 2,656 m

Natural resources: oil, gas, coal, antimony, copper, lead, zinc,
nickel, gold, pyrite, chrome

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes

Environment-current issues: pollution of coastal waters from sewage
outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air
pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution
from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the
Danube

Environment-international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: controls one of the major land routes from Western
Europe to Turkey and the Near East; strategic location along the
Adriatic coast

@Serbia and Montenegro:People

Population: 11,206,039 (July 1998 est.) (Montenegro-679,904;
Serbia-10,526,135)

Age structure:
0-14 years: Montenegro-22% (male 76,764; female 71,647); Serbia- 20%
(male 1,121,483; female 1,043,535)
15-64 years: Montenegro-67% (male 231,849; female 227,268); Serbia-
67% (male 3,539,198; female 3,487,318)
65 years and over: Montenegro-11% (male 29,837; female 42,539);
Serbia- 13% (male 575,697; female 758,904) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: Montenegro-0.07%; Serbia--0.02% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: Montenegro-13.55 births/1,000 population; Serbia-12.62
births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: Montenegro-7.40 deaths/1,000 population; Serbia-9.67
deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: Montenegro: -5.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population;
Serbia: -3.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: Montenegro-1.09 male(s)/female; Serbia-1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: Montenegro-1.07 male(s)/female; Serbia-1.07
male(s)/female
15-64 years: Montenegro-1.02 male(s)/female; Serbia-1.01
male(s)/female
65 years and over: Montenegro-0.70 male(s)/female; Serbia-0.75
male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: Montenegro-11.24 deaths/1,000 live births;
Serbia-17.11 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: Montenegro-76.14 years; Serbia-73.17 years
male: Montenegro-72.67 years; Serbia-70.77 years
female: Montenegro-79.92 years; Serbia-75.76 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: Montenegro-1.76 children born/woman; Serbia-1.75
children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Serb(s) and Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Serbian and Montenegrin

Ethnic groups: Serbs 63%, Albanians 14%, Montenegrins 6%, Hungarians
4%, other 13%

Religions: Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%,
other 11%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 95%, Albanian 5%

Literacy: NA

@Serbia and Montenegro:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Serbia and Montenegro
local long form: none
local short form: Srbija-Crna Gora
note: Serbia and Montenegro has self-proclaimed itself the "Federal
Republic of Yugoslavia," but the US view is that the Socialist Federal
Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and that none of the
successor republics represents its continuation

Data code: Serbia-SR; Montenegro-MW

Government type: republic

National capital: Belgrade (Serbia), Podgorica (Montenegro)

Administrative divisions: 2 republics (republike, singular-republika);
and 2 nominally autonomous provinces* (autonomn pokrajine,
singular-autonomna pokrajina); Kosovo*, Montenegro, Serbia, Vojvodina*

Independence: 11 April 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia formed as
self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia-SFRY)

National holiday: St. Vitus Day, 28 June

Constitution: 27 April 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Slobodan MILOSEVIC (since 23 July 1997);
note-Milan MILUTINOVIC is president of Serbia (since 21 December
1997); Milo DJUKANOVIC is president of Montenegro (since 21 December
1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Radoje KONTIC (since 29 December
1992); Deputy Prime Ministers Nikola SAINOVIC (since 15 September
1995), Vojin DJUKANOVIC (since 20 March 1997), Jovan ZEBIC (since 9
April 1998), and Vladan KUTLESIC (since 20 March 1997)
cabinet: Federal Executive Council
elections: president elected by the Federal Assembly for a four-year
term; election last held 23 July 1997 (next to be held NA 2001); prime
minister nominated by the president
election results: Slobodan MILOSEVIC elected president; percent of
legislative vote - Slobodan MILOSEVIC 90%

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or Savezna Skupstina
consists of the Chamber of Republics or Vece Republika (40 seats, 20
Serbian, 20 Montenegrin; members distributed on the basis of party
representation in the republican assemblies to serve four-year terms)
and the Chamber of Citizens or Vece Gradjana (138 seats, 108 Serbian
with half elected by constituency majorities and half by proportional
representation, 30 Montenegrin with six elected by constituency and 24
proportionally; members serve four-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Republics-last held 24 December 1996 (next to be
held NA 2000); Chamber of Citizens-last held 3 November 1996 (next to
be held NA 2000)
election results: Chamber of Republics-percent of vote by party-NA;
seats by party - NA; note-seats are filled on a proportional basis to
reflect the composition of the legislatures of the republics of
Montenegro and Serbia; Chamber of Citizens-percent of vote by
party-NA; seats by party-SPS/JUL/ND 64, Zajedno 22, DPSCG 20, SRS 16,
NS 8, SVM 3, other 5; note-Zajedno coalition includes SPO, DS, GSS

Judicial branch: Federal Court or Savezni Sud, judges are elected by
the Federal Assembly for a nine-year term; Constitutional Court,
judges are elected by the Federal Assembly for a nine-year term

Political parties and leaders: Serbian Socialist Party or SPS (former
Communist Party) [Slobodan MILOSEVIC]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS
[Vojislav SESELJ]; Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC,
president]; Democratic Party or DS [Zoran DJINDJIC]; Democratic Party
of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Democratic Party of Socialists
of Montenegro or DPSCG [Milica PEJANOVIC-DJURISIC, president];
People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Novak KILIBARDA]; Socialist
People's Party of Montenegro or SNP [Momir BULATOVIC]; Social
Democratic Party of Montenegro or SDP [Zarko RAKCEVIE]; Liberal
Alliance of Montenegro [Slavko PEROVIC]; Democratic Community of
Vojvodina Hungarians or DZVM [Sandor PALL]; League of Social Democrats
of Vojvodina or LSV [Nenad CANAK]; Reformist Democratic Party of
Vojvodina or RDSV [Aleksandar POPOV]; Democratic Alliance of Vojvodina
Croats or DSHV [Bela TONKOVIC]; League of Communists-Movement for
Yugoslavia or SK-PJ [Dragomir DRASKOVIC]; Democratic Alliance of
Kosovo or LDK [Dr. Ibrahim RUGOVA, president]; New Democratic League
of Kosovo or LDRK [Hydayet HYSENI]; Parliamentary Party of Kosovo or
PPK [Adern DERNACI]; Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Dr. Sulejman
UGLJANIN]; Civic Alliance of Serbia or GSS [Vesna PESIC, chairman];
Yugoslav United Left or JUL [Mirjana MARKOVIC (MILOSEVIC's wife)]; New
Democracy or ND [Dusan MIHAJLOVIC]; Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians
or SVM [Jozsef KASZA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US: the US and Serbia and Montenegro
do not maintain full diplomatic relations; the Embassy of the former
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia continues to function in the
US
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Counselor, Charge d'Affaires ad
interim Nebojsa VUJOVIC
chancery: 2410 California St. NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-6566

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US and Serbia and
Montenegro do not maintain full diplomatic relations
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chief of Mission Richard M.
MILES
embassy: Kneza Milosa 50, 11000 Belgrade
mailing address: American Embassy, Belgrade, United States Department
of State, Washington, DC 20521-5070 (pouch); Unit 1310, APO AE
09213-1310
telephone: [381] (11) 645655
FAX: [381] (11) 645332

@Serbia and Montenegro:Economy

Economy-overview: The swift collapse of the Yugoslav federation in
1991 has been followed by highly destructive warfare, the
destabilization of republic boundaries, and the breakup of important
interrepublic trade flows. Output in Serbia and Montenegro dropped by
half in 1992-93. Like the other former Yugoslav republics, it had
depended on its sister republics for large amounts of energy and
manufactures. Wide differences in climate, mineral resources, and
levels of technology among the republics accentuated this
interdependence, as did the communist practice of concentrating much
industrial output in a small number of giant plants. The breakup of
many of the trade links, the sharp drop in output as industrial plants
lost suppliers and markets, and the destruction of physical assets in
the fighting all have contributed to the economic difficulties of the
republics. One singular factor in the economic situation of Serbia is
the continuation in office of a communist government that is primarily
interested in political and military mastery, not economic reform.
Hyperinflation ended with the establishment of a new currency unit in
June 1993; prices have been relatively stable since 1995. Reliable
statistics continue to be hard to come by, and the GDP estimate is
extremely rough. The economic boom anticipated by the government after
the suspension of UN sanctions in December 1995 has failed to
materialize. Until the government cooperates on such matters as human
rights and war criminals, it will lack full support from international
financial institutions.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$24.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 7% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,280 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 25%
industry: 50%
services: 25% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 7% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 2.178 million
by occupation: industry 41%, services 35%, trade and tourism 12%,
transportation and communication 7%, agriculture 5% (1994)

Unemployment rate: more than 35% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; tanks
and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery); metallurgy
(steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth,
cadmium); mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone);
consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances);
electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals

Industrial production growth rate: 8% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 11.779 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 33.4 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 3,009 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cereals, fruits, vegetables, tobacco, olives;
cattle, sheep, goats

Exports:
total value: $2.8 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: manufactured goods, food and live animals, raw materials
partners: Russia, Italy, Germany

Imports:
total value: $6.2 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants,
manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials
partners: Germany, Italy, Russia

Debt-external: $11.2 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Yugoslav New Dinar (YD) = 100 paras

Exchange rates: Yugoslav New Dinars (YD) per US $1-official rate: 5.85
(December 1997), 5.02 (September 1996), 1.5 (early 1995); black market
rate: 8.9 (December 1997), 2 to 3 (early 1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 700,000

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: 27 (public or state-owned 1, private 26)

Radios: 2.015 million

Television broadcast stations: 8 (state owned 1, privately owned 7)
plus 1 Satellite TV down link and 48 cable distribution systems

Televisions: 1 million

@Serbia and Montenegro:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,987 km
standard gauge: 3,987 km 1.435-m gauge (1,341 km partially
electrified) (1997)

Highways:
total: 49,525 km
paved: 28,873 km
unpaved: 20,652 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: NA km

Pipelines: crude oil 415 km; petroleum products 130 km; natural gas
2,110 km

Ports and harbors: Bar, Belgrade, Kotor, Novi Sad, Pancevo, Tivat,
Zelenika

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