Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Books, poems, drama…

The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Part 35 out of 51

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 5.2 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

@Puerto Rico:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
conventional short form: Puerto Rico

Data code: RQ

Dependency status: commonwealth associated with the US

Government type: commonwealth

National capital: San Juan

Administrative divisions: none (commonwealth associated with the US);
there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 78 municipalities

Independence: none (commonwealth associated with the US)

National holiday: US Independence Day, 4 July (1776)

Constitution: ratified 3 March 1952; approved by US Congress 3 July
1952; effective 25 July 1952

Legal system: based on Spanish civil code

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; indigenous inhabitants are US
citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of the US William Jefferson CLINTON (since
20 January 1993); Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January
1993)
head of government: Governor Pedro ROSSELLO (since 2 January 1993)
cabinet: NA
elections: governor of Puerto Rico elected by popular vote for a
four-year term; election last held 5 November 1996 (next to be held 7
November 2000)
election results: Pedro ROSSELLO reelected governor of Puerto Rico;
percent of vote - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly consists of the
Senate (28 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives (54 seats;
members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate-last held 5 November 1996 (next to be held 7
November 2000); House of Representatives-last held 5 November 1996
(next to be held 7 November 2000)
election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-PNP 19, PPD 8, PIP 1; House of Representatives-percent of vote
by party-NA; seats by party-PNP 37, PPD 16, PIP 1
note: Puerto Rico elects one representative to the US House of
Representatives; elections last held 5 November 1996 (next to be held
7 November 2000); results - percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-PNP 1 (Carlos Romero BARCELO)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, justices appointed by the governor
with the consent of the Senate; Superior Courts, justices appointed by
the governor with the consent of the Senate; Municipal Courts,
justices appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate

Political parties and leaders: National Republican Party of Puerto
Rico, Luis FERRE; Popular Democratic Party (PPD), Hector ACEVEDO; New
Progressive Party (PNP), Pedro ROSSELLO; Puerto Rican Independence
Party (PIP), Ruben BERRIOS Martinez; Puerto Rican Communist Party
(PCP), leader(s) unknown

Political pressure groups and leaders: Armed Forces for National
Liberation (FALN); Volunteers of the Puerto Rican Revolution; Boricua
Popular Army (also known as the Macheteros); Armed Forces of Popular
Resistance

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), ECLAC
(associate), FAO (associate), ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, WCL,
WFTU, WHO (associate), WToO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (commonwealth associated
with the US)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (commonwealth associated
with the US)

Flag description: five equal horizontal bands of red (top and bottom)
alternating with white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist
side bears a large white five-pointed star in the center; design based
on the US flag

@Puerto Rico:Economy

Economy-overview: Puerto Rico has one of the most dynamic economies in
the Caribbean region. A diverse industrial sector has surpassed
agriculture as the primary locus of economic activity and income.
Encouraged by duty-free access to the US and by tax incentives, US
firms have invested heavily in Puerto Rico since the 1950s. US minimum
wage laws apply. Sugar production has lost out to dairy production and
other livestock products as the main source of income in the
agricultural sector. Tourism has traditionally been an important
source of income for the island, with estimated arrivals of nearly 4
million tourists in 1993. The construction sector has been a key
factor in recent economic growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$32.9 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$8,600 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 5.5% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.3 million (1996)
by occupation: government 19%, manufacturing 13%, trade 17%,
construction 5%, other 32%, unemployed 14% (1996)

Unemployment rate: 13% (FY96/97 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $5.1 billion
expenditures: $5.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY94/95)

Industries: pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, food products;
tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1994 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 4.465 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 17.34 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 4,548 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: livestock products, chickens; sugarcane, coffee,
pineapples, plantains, bananas

Exports:
total value: $22.9 billion (f.o.b. 1996)
commodities: pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, canned tuna, rum,
beverage concentrates, medical equipment
partners: US 88% (1995 est.)

Imports:
total value: $19.1 billion (c.i.f. 1996)
commodities: chemicals, clothing, food, fish, petroleum products
partners: US 62% (1995 est.)

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 US dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 1.315 million (1994 est.)

Telephone system: modern system, integrated with that of the US by
high-capacity submarine cable and Intelsat with high-speed data
capability
domestic: digital telephone system with about 1 million lines (1990
est.); cellular telephone service
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat; submarine cable to
US

Radio broadcast stations: AM 50, FM 63, shortwave 0
note: there were 118 radio stations in 1995

Radios: 2.6 million (1994 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 15 (1995)
note: cable television available with US programs (1990 est.)

Televisions: 973,000 (1994 est.)

@Puerto Rico:Transportation

Railways:
total: 96 km
narrow gauge: 96 km 1.000-m gauge, rural, narrow-gauge system for
hauling sugarcane; no passenger service

Highways:
total: 14,400 km
paved: 14,400 km
unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Guanica, Guayanilla, Guayama, Playa de Ponce, San
Juan

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 30 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 21
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 6 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 7 (1997 est.)

@Puerto Rico:Military

Military branches: paramilitary National Guard, Police Force

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@Puerto Rico:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

QATAR

@Qatar:Geography

Location: Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi
Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 25 30 N, 51 15 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 11,437 sq km
land: 11,437 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries:
total: 60 km
border countries: Saudi Arabia 60 km

Coastline: 563 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; hot, dry; humid and sultry in summer

Terrain: mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and
gravel

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Qurayn Aba al Bawl 103 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, fish

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 94% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 80 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: haze, dust storms, sandstorms common

Environment-current issues: limited natural fresh water resources are
increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer
Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography-note: strategic location in central Persian Gulf near major
petroleum deposits

@Qatar:People

Population: 697,126 (July 1998 est.)
note: includes 516,508 non-nationals (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 27% (male 97,317; female 93,532)
15-64 years: 71% (male 353,700; female 138,564)
65 years and over: 2% (male 9,731; female 4,282) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.82% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 16.97 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 3.53 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 24.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 2.55 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 2.27 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.09 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.89 years
male: 71.38 years
female: 76.54 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.5 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Qatari(s)
adjective: Qatari

Ethnic groups: Arab 40%, Pakistani 18%, Indian 18%, Iranian 10%, other
14%

Religions: Muslim 95%

Languages: Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second
language

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 79.4%
male: 79.2%
female: 79.9% (1995 est.)

@Qatar:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: State of Qatar
conventional short form: Qatar
local long form: Dawlat Qatar
local short form: Qatar
note: closest approximation of the native pronunciation falls between
cutter and gutter, but not like guitar

Data code: QA

Government type: traditional monarchy

National capital: Doha

Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities (baladiyat,
singular-baladiyah); Ad Dawhah, Al Ghuwayriyah, Al Jumayliyah, Al
Khawr, Al Wakrah, Ar Rayyan, Jarayan al Batnah, Ash Shamal, Umm Salal

Independence: 3 September 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 September (1971)

Constitution: provisional constitution enacted 19 April 1972

Legal system: discretionary system of law controlled by the amir,
although civil codes are being implemented; Islamic law is significant
in personal matters

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state: Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani (since 27 June 1995
when, as crown prince, he ousted his father, Amir KHALIFA bin Hamad Al
Thani, in a bloodless coup); Crown Prince JASSIM bin Hamad bin Khalifa
Al Thani, third son of the amir (selected crown prince by the amir 22
October 1996); note-Amir HAMAD also holds the positions of minister of
defense and commander-in-chief of the armed forces
head of government: Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Khalifa Al Thani,
brother of the amir (since 30 October 1996); Deputy Prime Minister
MUHAMMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani, brother of the amir (since 20 January
1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the amir
elections: none; the amir is an absolute monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura (35
seats; members appointed by the amir)
note: the constitution calls for elections for part of this
consultative body, but no elections have been held since 1970, when
there were partial elections to the body; Council members have had
their terms extended every four years since

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC,
ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO
(pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Saad Muhammad al-KUBAYSI
chancery: Suite 200, 4200 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 274-1600

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Patrick N. THEROS
embassy: 149 Ahmed Bin Ali St., Fariq Bin Omran (opposite the
television station), Doha
mailing address: P. O. Box 2399, Doha; pouch address-AMEMB Doha,
Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-6130
telephone: [974] 864701 through 864703
FAX: [974] 861669
note: work week is Saturday-Wednesday

Flag description: maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white
points) on the hoist side

@Qatar:Economy

Economy-overview: Oil is the backbone of the economy and accounts for
more than 30% of GDP, roughly 70% of export earnings, and 66% of
government revenues. Proved oil reserves of 3.7 billion barrels should
ensure continued output at current levels for 23 years. Oil has given
Qatar a per capita GDP comparable to the leading West European
industrial countries. Qatar's proved reserves of natural gas exceed 7
trillion cubic meters, more than 5% of the world total, third largest
in the world. Production and export of natural gas are becoming
increasingly important. Long-term goals feature the development of
off-shore petroleum and the diversification of the economy.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$11.2 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 10% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$16,700 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 1%
industry: 49%
services: 50% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.5% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 233,000 (1993 est.)
note: 83% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national
(July 1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $3.7 billion
expenditures: $4.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $700
million (FY97/98 est.)

Industries: crude oil production and refining, fertilizers,
petrochemicals, steel reinforcing bars, cement

Industrial production growth rate: -4% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 1.303 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 5.8 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 10,863 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: fruits, vegetables; poultry, dairy products,
beef; fish (all on small scale)

Exports:
total value: $5.8 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: petroleum products 80%, fertilizers, steel
partners: Japan 55%, Singapore 11%, South Korea 6%, Australia 3%, UAE
3% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $5 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, consumer goods, food, chemicals
partners: Italy 14%, UK 12%, France 11%, Japan 10%, Germany 9% (1996)

Debt-external: $11 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Qatari riyal (QR) = 100 dirhams

Exchange rates: Qatari riyals (QR) per US$1-3.6400 riyals (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 160,717 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: modern system centered in Doha
domestic: NA
international: tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay
to Saudi Arabia and UAE; submarine cable to Bahrain and UAE; satellite
earth stations-2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1
Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 201,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 205,000 (1992 est.)

@Qatar:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 1,230 km
paved: 1,107 km
unpaved: 123 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 235 km; natural gas 400 km

Ports and harbors: Doha, Halul Island, Umm Sa'id

Merchant marine:
total: 21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 618,447 GRT/1,031,135 DWT
ships by type: combination ore/oil 2, container 3, cargo 11, oil
tanker 5 (1997 est.)

Airports: 4 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Qatar:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Public Security

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 294,205 (1998 est.)
note: includes non-nationals

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 154,436 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 5,777 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $400 million (1996 est.)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 3.5% (1996 est.)

@Qatar:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: territorial dispute with Bahrain over the
Hawar Islands and maritime boundary dispute with Bahrain currently
before the International Court of Justice (ICJ); in 1996, agreed with
Saudi Arabia to demarcate border per 1992 accord; that process is
ongoing

______________________________________________________________________

REUNION

(overseas department of France)

@Reunion:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of
Madagascar

Geographic coordinates: 21 06 S, 55 36 E

Map references: World

Area:
total: 2,510 sq km
land: 2,500 sq km
water: 10 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 201 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation; cool and
dry from May to November, hot and rainy from November to April

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Piton des Neiges 3,069 m

Natural resources: fish, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: 35%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 60 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic, devastating cyclones (December to April);
Piton de la Fournaise on the southeastern coast is an active volcano

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

@Reunion:People

Population: 705,053 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (male 116,705; female 111,262)
15-64 years: 62% (male 214,914; female 221,502)
65 years and over: 6% (male 16,846; female 23,824) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.81% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 22.78 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 4.67 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.09 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.4 years
male: 72.36 years
female: 78.6 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.67 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Reunionese (singular and plural)
adjective: Reunionese

Ethnic groups: French, African, Malagasy, Chinese, Pakistani, Indian

Religions: Roman Catholic 94%, Hindu, Islam, Buddhist

Languages: French (official), Creole widely used

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 79%
male: 76%
female: 80% (1982 est.)

@Reunion:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Department of Reunion
conventional short form: Reunion
local long form: none
local short form: Ile de la Reunion

Data code: RE

Dependency status: overseas department of France

Government type: NA

National capital: Saint-Denis

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France); there
are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
government, but there are four arrondissements, 24 communes, and 47
cantons

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of France Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May
1995), represented by Prefect Robert POMMIES (since NA 1996)
head of government: President of the General Council Christophe PAYET
(since 4 April 1994) and President of the Regional Council Margarite
SUDRE (since 25 June 1993)
cabinet: NA
elections: prefect appointed by the president of France on the advice
of the French Ministry of the Interior; the presidents of the General
and Regional Councils are elected by the members of those councils,
who vote on party lines

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council (47 seats; members are
elected by direct popular vote to serve six-year terms) and unicameral
Regional Council (45 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote
to serve six-year terms)
elections: General Council-last held NA March 1994 (next to be held NA
2000); Regional Council-last held 25 June 1993 (next to be held NA
1999)
election results: General Council-percent of vote by party-NA; seats
by party-PCR 12, PS 12, UDF 11, RPR 5, others 7; Regional
Council-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-UPF 17, Free-Dom
Movement 13, PCR 9, PS 6
note: Reunion elects 3 representatives to the French Senate; elections
last held 24 September 1992 (next to be held NA); results-percent of
vote by party-NA; seats by party-RPR 1, FRA 1, independent 1; Reunion
also elects 5 deputies to the French National Assembly; elections last
held 25 May and 1 June 1997 (next to be held NA); results-percent of
vote by party-NA; seats by party-PCR 3, PS 1, and RPR-UDF 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeals or Cour d'Appel

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic or RPR [Andre
Maurice PIHOUEE]; Union for French Democracy or UDF [Ibrahim DINDAN];
Communist Party of Reunion or PCR [Paul VERGES]; France-Reunion Future
or FRA [Andre THIEN AH KOON]; Socialist Party or PS [Jean-Claude
FRUTEAU]; Center of Social Democrats or CDS; Union for France or UPF
(includes RPR and UDF); Free-DOM Movement [Marguerite SUDRE]; National
Front or FN [Alix MOREL, leader]

International organization participation: FZ, InOC, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas department of
France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas department of
France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used

@Reunion:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy has traditionally been based on
agriculture. Sugarcane has been the primary crop for more than a
century, and in some years it accounts for 85% of exports. The
government has been pushing the development of a tourist industry to
relieve high unemployment, which recently amounted to one-third of the
labor force. The gap in Reunion between the well-off and the poor is
extraordinary and accounts for the persistent social tensions. The
white and Indian communities are substantially better off than other
segments of the population, often approaching European standards,
whereas indigenous groups suffer the poverty and unemployment typical
of the poorer nations of the African continent. The outbreak of severe
rioting in February 1991 illustrates the seriousness of socioeconomic
tensions. The economic well-being of Reunion depends heavily on
continued financial assistance from France.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$3 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$4,300 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 242,169 (1993)
by occupation: agriculture 8%, industry 19%, services 73% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 35% (1994)

Budget:
revenues: $856.7 million
expenditures: $2.2437 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
(1993)

Industries: sugar, rum, cigarettes, handicraft items, flower oil
extraction

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 299,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 1.105 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,659 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: sugarcane, vanilla, tobacco, tropical fruits,
vegetables, corn

Exports:
total value: $171.776 million (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: sugar 63%, rum and molasses 4%, perfume essences 2%,
lobster 3%, (1993)
partners: France, Mauritius, Bahrain, South Africa, Italy, Madagascar

Imports:
total value: $2.354 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: manufactured goods, food, beverages, tobacco, machinery
and transportation equipment, raw materials, and petroleum products
partners: France, Mauritius, Bahrain, South Africa, Italy, Madagascar

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: substantial annual subsidies from France

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1-6.0836 (January 1998),
5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 191,647 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: adequate system; principal center is Saint-Denis
domestic: modern open wire and microwave radio relay network
international: radiotelephone communication to Comoros, France,
Madagascar; new microwave route to Mauritius; satellite earth
station-1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 13, shortwave 0

Radios: 155,000 (1993)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (repeaters 18)

Televisions: 116,181 (1992 est.)

@Reunion:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,784 km
paved: 2,187 km
unpaved: 597 km (1987 est.)

Ports and harbors: Le Port, Pointe des Galets

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Reunion:Military

Military branches: French forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, and
Gendarmerie)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 182,620 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 93,572 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 5,780 (1998 est.)

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of France

@Reunion:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

ROMANIA

@Romania:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between
Bulgaria and Ukraine

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 237,500 sq km
land: 230,340 sq km
water: 7,160 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries:
total: 2,508 km
border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km,
Serbia and Montenegro 476 km (all with Serbia), Ukraine (north) 362
km, Ukraine (east) 169 km

Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog;
sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of
Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from
the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m

Natural resources: petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural
gas, coal, iron ore, salt

Land use:
arable land: 41%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 21%
forests and woodland: 29%
other: 6% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 31,020 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes most severe in south and southwest;
geologic structure and climate promote landslides

Environment-current issues: soil erosion and degradation; water
pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents;
contamination of Danube delta wetlands

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

Geography-note: controls most easily traversable land route between
the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine

@Romania:People

Population: 22,395,848 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 2,169,581; female 2,078,515)
15-64 years: 68% (male 7,571,619; female 7,668,689)
65 years and over: 13% (male 1,213,406; female 1,694,038) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: -0.32% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 9.33 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 11.62 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.83 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.47 years
male: 66.67 years
female: 74.47 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.17 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Romanian(s)
adjective: Romanian

Ethnic groups: Romanian 89.1%, Hungarian 8.9%, German 0.4%, Ukrainian,
Serb, Croat, Russian, Turk, and Gypsy 1.6%

Religions: Romanian Orthodox 70%, Roman Catholic 6% (of which 3% are
Uniate), Protestant 6%, unaffiliated 18%

Languages: Romanian, Hungarian, German

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 98%
female: 95% (1992 est.)

@Romania:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : none
conventional short form: Romania
local long form: none
local short form: Romania

Data code: RO

Government type: republic

National capital: Bucharest

Administrative divisions: 40 counties (judete, singular-judet) and 1
municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor,
Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau,
Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj,
Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Maramures,
Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu,
Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea

Independence: 1881 (from Turkey; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)

National holiday: National Day of Romania, 1 December (1990)

Constitution: 8 December 1991

Legal system: former mixture of civil law system and communist legal
theory; is now based on the Constitution of France's Fifth Republic

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Emil CONSTANTINESCU (since 29 November 1996)
head of government: Prime Minister Radu VASILE (since 17 April 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
election last held 3 November 1996, with runoff between the top two
candidates held 17 November 1996 (next to be held NA 2000); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: percent of vote-Emil CONSTANTINESCU 54.4%, Ion
ILIESCU 45.6%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the
Senate or Senat (143 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote
on a proportional representation to serve four-year terms) and the
Chamber of Deputies or Adunarea Deputatilor (343 seats; members are
elected by direct popular vote on a proportional representation to
serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate-last held 3 November 1996 (next to be held NA 2000);
Chamber of Deputies-last held 3 November 1996 (next to be held NA
2000)
election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-CDR 30.7%, PDSR
23.1%, USD 13.2%, UDMR 6.8%, PRM 4.5%, PUNR 4.2%, others 17.5%; seats
by party-CDR 53, PDSR 41, USD 23, UDMR 11, PRM 8, PUNR 7; Chamber of
Deputies-percent of vote by party-CDR 30.2%, PDSR 21.5%, USD 12.9%,
UDMR 6.6% PRM 4.5%, PUNR 4.4%, others 19.9%; seats by party-CDR 122,
PDSR 91, USD 53, UDMR 25, PRM 19, PUNR 18, ethnic minorities 15

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice, judges are appointed by the
president on recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistrates

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party or PD [Petre ROMAN];
Romanian Social Democratic Party or PSDR [Sergiu CUNESCU]; Party of
Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR [Ion ILIESCU]; Democratic Union of
Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Bela MARKO]; National Liberal Party or
PNL [Mircea IONESCU-QUINTUS]; National Peasants' Christian and
Democratic Party or PNTCD [Ion DIACONESCU]; Romanian National Unity
Party or PUNR [Valeriu TABARA]; Socialist Labor Party or PSM [Ilie
VERDET]; Agrarian Democratic Party of Romania or PDAR [Victor SURDU];
The Democratic Convention or CDR [Ion DIACONESCU]; Romania Mare Party
(Greater Romanian Party) or PRM [Corneliu Vadim TUDOR]; Civic Alliance
Party or PAC [Nicolae MANOLESCU, chairman]; Liberal Party '93 or PL-93
[Dinu PATRICIU]; National Liberal Party-Democratic Convention or
PNL-CD [Nicolae CERVENI]; Socialist Party or PS [Tudor MOHORA]
note: to increase their voting strength several of the above-mentioned
parties united under umbrella organizations: PNTCD, PNL, and PNL-CD
form the bulk of the Democratic Convention or CDR [Ion DIACONESCU]; PD
and PSDR form the Union of Social Democrats or USD [Petre ROMAN]; and
PAC and PL-93 form the National Liberal Alliance or ANL [Nicolae
MANOLESCU]; PSM, PS, ANL, and numerous other small parties failed to
gain representation in the most recent election

Political pressure groups and leaders: various human rights and
professional associations

International organization participation: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE,
CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer),
NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UNIKOM, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mircea Dan GEOANA
chancery : 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James C. ROSAPEPE
embassy: Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest
mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
telephone: [40] (1) 210 01 49, 210 40 42
FAX: [40] (1) 210 03 95
branch office: Cluj-Napoca

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in
the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flags of Andorra
and Chad

@Romania:Economy

Economy-overview: Romania, one of the poorer countries in the region,
is continuing its difficult transition to a market-based economy.
After the collapse of the Soviet Bloc in 1989-91, Romania was left
with an obsolete industrial base and a pattern of industrial capacity
wholly unsuited to its needs. For the next few years the country
lagged behind most of its neighbors in the pace of restructuring. Then
in February 1997, Romania embarked on a comprehensive macroeconomic
stabilization and structural reform program. The domestic foreign
exchange market was freed, and controls on current-account
convertibility were removed in October. Restructuring programs include
liquidating large energy-intensive industries, and agricultural and
financial sector reform. The private sector share of GDP rose to an
estimated 58% in 1997, however, this total includes firms with
government-held minority stakes. Although progress has been made in
privatizing small- and medium-sized firms, delays in structural
reforms-including the postponement of sales of large state-owned
enterprises - threaten plans to revive GDP growth. In 1998, GDP will
likely be unchanged; and inflation is projected to fall to 45% from
151% in 1997.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$114.2 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: -6.6% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$5,300 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 19%
industry: 36%
services: 45% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 151% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 10.1 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: industry 28.6%, agriculture 34.4%, trade 10.4%,
construction 5.1%, other 21.5% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 8.8% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $10 billion
expenditures: $11.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.3
billion (1997 est.)

Industries: mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy,
chemicals, machine building, food processing, petroleum production and
refining

Industrial production growth rate: -5.9% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 22.06 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 55.19 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 2,412 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed,
potatoes, grapes; milk, eggs, meat

Exports:
total value: $8.4 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: textiles and footwear 27.5%, metals and metal products
16.2%, mineral products 9.0%, chemicals 11.2%, other 36.1% (1996)
partners: Germany 18.1%, Italy 16.7%, France 5.6%, Turkey 5%,
Netherlands 4.2%, China 3.0% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $10.4 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: fuels and minerals 24%, machinery and transport equipment
25%, food and agricultural goods 7.6%, chemicals 12.5%, other 30.9%
(1996)
partners: Germany 17.1%, Italy 15.6%, Russia 12.6%, France 5.0%, US
3.8%, Egypt 3.8% (1996)

Debt-external: $10 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 leu (L) = 100 bani

Exchange rates: lei (L) per US$1-8,293.40 (January 1998), 7,167.94
(1997), 3,084.22 (1996), 2,033.28 (1995), 1,655.09 (1994), 760.05
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 2.6 million (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: poor service; 89% of telephone network is automatic; trunk
network is microwave radio relay; roughly 3,300 villages with no
service (February 1990 est.)
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat; new digital
international direct-dial exchanges are in Bucharest (1993 est.)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 5, shortwave 0
note: in 1995, 135 local radio stations were registered

Radios: 4.64 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 436 cable TV stations, 66 local TV
stations

Televisions: 4.58 million (1992 est.)

@Romania:Transportation

Railways:
total: 11,365 km
broad gauge: 45 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 10,893 km 1.435-m gauge (3,723 km electrified; 3,060
km double track)
narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (1994)

Highways:
total: 153,170 km
paved: 78,117 km (including 113 km of expressways)
unpaved: 75,053 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 1,724 km (1984)

Pipelines: crude oil 2,800 km; petroleum products 1,429 km; natural
gas 6,400 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Braila, Constanta, Galati, Mangalia, Sulina, Tulcea

Merchant marine:
total: 227 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,332,117 GRT/3,464,613
DWT
ships by type: bulk 39, cargo 160, container 2, oil tanker 12,
passenger 1, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 10
note: Romania owns an additional 11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
827,625 DWT operating under the registries of The Bahamas, Cyprus,
Liberia, and Malta (1997 est.)

Airports: 24 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 19
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Romania:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces,
Paramilitary Forces, Civil Defense

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 5,888,775 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 4,951,586 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 197,036 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $650 million (1996)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.5% (1996)

@Romania:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: dispute with Ukraine over continental shelf of
the Black Sea under which significant gas and oil deposits may exist;
agreed in 1997 to two-year negotiating period, after which either
party can refer dispute to the International Court of Justice

Illicit drugs: important transshipment point for Southwest Asian
heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American
cocaine bound for Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________

RUSSIA

@Russia:Geography

Location: Northern Asia (that part west of the Urals is sometimes
included with Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and
the North Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 100 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 17,075,200 sq km
land: 16,995,800 sq km
water: 79,400 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than 1.8 times the size of the US

Land boundaries:
total: 19,917 km
border countries: Azerbaijan 284 km, Belarus 959 km, China (southeast)
3,605 km, China (south) 40 km, Estonia 294 km, Finland 1,313 km,
Georgia 723 km, Kazakhstan 6,846 km, North Korea 19 km, Latvia 217 km,
Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 227 km, Mongolia 3,441 km, Norway 167
km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206 km, Ukraine 1,576 km

Coastline: 37,653 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in
much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the
polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in
Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic
coast

Terrain: broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous
forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern
border regions

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Mount El'brus 5,633 m

Natural resources: wide natural resource base including major deposits
of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, timber
note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder
exploitation of natural resources

Land use:
arable land: 8%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 46%
other: 42% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 40,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment
to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and
earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula

Environment-current issues: air pollution from heavy industry,
emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation in major
cities; industrial and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and
sea coasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from
improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of
sometimes intense radioactive contamination

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic
Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94

Geography-note: largest country in the world in terms of area but
unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world;
despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates
(either too cold or too dry) for agriculture

@Russia:People

Population: 146,861,022 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20% (male 14,756,787; female 14,189,564)
15-64 years: 68% (male 48,138,173; female 51,366,412)
65 years and over: 12% (male 5,699,334; female 12,710,752) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: -0.31% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 9.57 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 14.89 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.44 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 23.26 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.97 years
male: 58.61 years
female: 71.64 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.34 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Russian(s)
adjective: Russian

Ethnic groups: Russian 81.5%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 3%, Chuvash 1.2%,
Bashkir 0.9%, Byelorussian 0.8%, Moldavian 0.7%, other 8.1%

Religions: Russian Orthodox, Muslim, other

Languages: Russian, other

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 100%
female: 97% (1989 est.)

@Russia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Russian Federation
conventional short form: Russia
local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
local short form: Rossiya
former: Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

Data code: RS

Government type: federation

National capital: Moscow

Administrative divisions: oblasts (oblastey, singular-oblast'), 21
autonomous republics* (avtonomnyk respublik, singular-avtonomnaya
respublika), 10 autonomous okrugs**(avtonomnykh okrugov,
singular-avtonomnyy okrug), 6 krays*** (krayev, singular-kray), 2
federal cities (singular-gorod)****, and 1 autonomous
oblast*****(avtonomnaya oblast'); Adygeya (Maykop)*, Aginskiy
Buryatskiy (Aginskoye)**, Altay (Gorno-Altaysk)*, Altayskiy
(Barnaul)***, Amurskaya (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'skaya,
Astrakhanskaya, Bashkortostan (Ufa)*, Belgorodskaya, Bryanskaya,
Buryatiya (Ulan-Ude)*, Chechnya (Groznyy)*, Chelyabinskaya,
Chitinskaya, Chukotskiy (Anadyr')**, Chuvashiya (Cheboksary)*,
Dagestan (Makhachkala)*, Evenkiyskiy (Tura)**, Ingushetiya (Nazran')*,
Irkutskaya, Ivanovskaya, Kabardino-Balkariya (Nal'chik)*,
Kaliningradskaya, Kalmykiya (Elista)*, Kaluzkskaya, Kamchatskaya
(Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Karachayevo-Cherkesiya (Cherkessk)*,
Kareliya (Petrozavodsk)*, Kemerovskaya, Khabarovskiy***, Khakasiya
(Abakan)*, Khanty-Mansiyskiy (Khanty-Mansiysk)**, Kirovskaya, Komi
(Syktyvkar)*, Koryakskiy (Palana)**, Kostromskaya, Krasnodarskiy***,
Krasnoyarskiy***, Kurganskaya, Kurskaya, Leningradskaya, Lipetskaya,
Magadanskaya, Mariy-El (Yoshkar-Ola)*, Mordoviya (Saransk)*,
Moskovskaya, Moskva****, Murmanskaya, Nenetskiy (Nar'yan-Mar)**,
Nizhegorodskaya, Novgorodskaya, Novosibirskaya, Omskaya,
Orenburgskaya, Orlovskaya (Orel), Penzenskaya, Permskaya,
Komi-Permyatskiy (Kudymkar)**, Primorskiy (Vladivostok)***,
Pskovskaya, Rostovskaya, Ryazanskaya, Sakha (Yakutsk)*, Sakhalinskaya
(Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samarskaya, Sankt-Peterburg****, Saratovskaya,
Severnaya Osetiya-Alaniya (Vladikavkaz)*, Smolenskaya,
Stavropol'skiy***, Sverdlovskaya (Yekaterinburg), Tambovskaya,
Tatarstan (Kazan')*, Taymyrskiy (Dudinka)**, Tomskaya, Tul'skaya,
Tverskaya, Tyumenskaya, Tyva (Kyzyl)*, Udmurtiya (Izhevsk)*,
Ul'yanovskaya, Ust'-Ordynskiy Buryatskiy (Ust'-Ordynskiy)**,
Vladimirskaya, Volgogradskaya, Vologodskaya, Voronezhskaya,
Yamalo-Nenetskiy (Salekhard)**, Yaroslavskaya, Yevreyskaya*****;
note-when using a place name with an adjectival ending 'skaya' or
'skiy,' the word Oblast' or Avonomnyy Okrug or Kray should be added to
the place name
note: the autonomous republics of Chechnya and Ingushetiya were
formerly the autonomous republic of Checheno-Ingushetia (the boundary
between Chechnya and Ingushetia has yet to be determined); the cities
of Moscow and St. Petersburg are federal cities; administrative
divisions have the same names as their administrative centers
(exceptions have the administrative center name following in
parentheses)

Independence: 24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, June 12 (1990)

Constitution: adopted 12 December 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Boris Nikolayevich YEL'TSIN (since 12 June
1991)
head of government: Premier and Chairman of the Russian Federation
Government Sergey Vladilenovich KIRIYENKO (since 23 March 1998),
Deputy Premiers and Deputy Chairmen of the Government Viktor
Borisovich KHRISTENKO (since 28 April 1998), Boris Yefimovich NEMTSOV
(since 28 April 1998), Oleg Nikolayevich SYSUYEV (since 17 March 1997)
cabinet: Ministries of the Government or "Government" appointed by the
president
note: there is also a Presidential Administration that drafts
presidential edicts and provides staff and policy support to the
entire executive branch; a Security Council that was originally
established as a presidential advisory body in June 1991 with
responsibility for managing individual and state security; a Defense
Council and a Foreign Policy Council formed in July 1996 and October
1996 respectively
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
election last held 16 June 1996 with runoff election on 3 July 1996
(next to be held NA June 2000); note-no vice president; if the
president dies in office, cannot exercise his powers because of ill
health, is impeached, or resigns, the premier succeeds him; the
premier serves as acting president until a new presidential election
is held, which must be within three months; premier and deputy
premiers appointed by the president with the approval of the Duma
election results: Boris Nikolayevich YEL'TSIN elected president;
percent of vote in runoff - YEL'TSIN 54%, Gennadiy Andreyevich
ZYUGANOV 40%

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or Federal'noye
Sobraniye consists of the Federation Council or Sovet Federatsii (178
seats, filled ex-officio by the top executive and legislative
officials in each of the 89 federal administrative units-oblasts,
krays, republics, autonomous okrugs and oblasts, and the cities of
Moscow and St. Petersburg; members serve four-year terms) and the
State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya Duma (450 seats, half elected in
single-member districts and half elected from national party lists;
members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: State Duma-last held 17 December 1995 (next to be held NA
December 1999)
election results: State Duma-percent of vote received by parties
clearing the 5% threshold entitling them to a proportional share of
the 225 party list seats-Communist Party of the Russian Federation
22.3%, Liberal Democratic Party of Russia 11.2%, Our Home Is Russia
10.1%, Yabloko Bloc 6.9%; seats by party-Communist Party of the
Russian Federation 157, independents 78, Our Home Is Russia 55,
Liberal Democratic Party of Russia 51, Yabloko Bloc 45, Agrarian Party
of Russia 20, Russia's Democratic Choice 9, Power To the People 9,
Congress of Russian Communities 5, Forward, Russia! 3, Women of Russia
3, other parties 15

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, judges are appointed for life
by the Federation Council on recommendation of the president; Supreme
Court, judges are appointed for life by the Federation Council on
recommendation of the president; Superior Court of Arbitration, judges
are appointed for life by the Federation Council on recommendation of
the president

Political parties and leaders:
pro-market democrats: Yabloko Bloc [Grigoriy Alekseyevich YAVLINSKIY];
Russia's Democratic Choice Party [Yegor Timurovich GAYDAR]; Forward,
Russia! [Boris Grigor'yevich FEDOROV]
centrists/special interest parties: Our Home Is Russia [Viktor
Stepanovich CHERNOMYRDIN]; Russian People's Republican Party
[Aleksandr Ivanovich LEBED]; Congress of Russian Communities [Dmitriy
Olegovich ROGOZIN]; Women of Russia [Alevtina Vasil'yevna FEDULOVA and
Yekaterina Filippovna LAKHOVA]
anti-market and/or ultranationalist: Communist Party of the Russian
Federation [Gennadiy Andreyevich ZYUGANOV]; Liberal Democratic Party
of Russia [Vladimir Vol'fovich ZHIRINOVSKIY]; Agrarian Party [Mikhail
Ivanovich LAPSHIN]; Power To the People [Nikolay Ivanovich RYZHKOV and
Sergey Nikolayevich BABURIN]; Russian Communist Workers' Party [Viktor
Ivanovich ANPILOV and Viktor Arkad'yevich TYUL'KIN]
note: some 269 political parties, blocs, and associations tried to
gather enough signatures to run slates of candidates in the 17
December 1995 Duma elections; 43 succeeded

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: BIS (pending member), BSEC,
CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN (observer), CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer),
MINUGUA, MINURSO, MTCR, NSG, OAS (observer), OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN
Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR,
UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO (applicant), ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Yuliy Mikhaylovich VORONTSOV
chancery: 2650 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5700 through 5704
FAX: [1] (202) 298-5735
consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco, and Seattle

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James F. COLLINS
embassy: Novinskiy Bul'var 19/23, Moscow
mailing address: APO AE 09721
telephone: [7] (095) 252-24-51 through 59
FAX: [7] (095) 956-42-61
consulate(s) general: St. Petersburg, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue,
and red

@Russia:Economy

Economy-overview: Russia, a vast country with a wealth of natural
resources, a well-educated population, and a diverse, but declining,
industrial base, continues to experience formidable difficulties in
moving from its old centrally planned economy to a modern market
economy. After seven consecutive years of contraction 1990-96 in which
GDP fell by one-third, GDP grew by 0.4% in 1997, according to official
statistics. Moscow continued to make strides in its battle against
inflation, which fell to 11%, half the 1996 rate. The central
government made good on most back wages owed public-sector
employees-including the military-although the stock of wage arrears to
employees of private enterprises remained large. Privatization
revenues increased significantly, largely on the strength of a few
high-profile tenders, such as that of telecommunications giant
Svyazinvest. On the downside, Moscow continued to struggle with a
severe fiscal imbalance. Lagging tax collections led the government to
adopt a revised budget in spring 1997 that cut spending by about 20%
despite protests from the legislature. Russia's traditional trade
surplus continued to contract-largely because of soft international
commodity prices-and Moscow's WTrO accession made only halting
progress. Although President YEL'TSIN brought in a new economic team
early in 1997, key structural reform initiatives continue to move
slowly. A revised tax code remains stuck in the Duma, while little
progress is being made on agricultural land reform. Small business
development has lagged. Prospects for a return to robust growth have
been set back by the spillover from Asia's financial turmoil, which
hit Russia hard during the last quarter of 1997. Moscow at first tried
to both support the ruble and keep interest rates down, but this
policy proved unsustainable, and in early December 1997 the Central
Bank let interest rates rise sharply. As the year ended, Russian
authorities were attempting to put the best face on the financial
situation, while at the same time scaling back their previous
optimistic growth projections for 1998 to 1%-2%. Because of Russia's
severe macroeconomic constraints, resources allocated to the military
sector have declined sharply since the implosion of the USSR in
December 1991.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$692 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 0.4% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$4,700 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 7%
industry: 39%
services: 54% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 11% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 66 million (1997)
by occupation: NA

Unemployment rate: 9% (1997 est.) with considerable additional
underemployment

Budget:
revenues: $59 billion
expenditures: $70 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997
est.)

Industries: complete range of mining and extractive industries
producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine
building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space
vehicles; shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment;
communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and
construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting
equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables,
textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: 1.9% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 214.687 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 834 billion kWh (1997)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 5,508 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, vegetables,
fruits (because of its northern location does not grow citrus, cotton,
tea, and other warm climate products); meat, milk

Exports:
total value: $86.7 billion (1997)
commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, wood and
wood products, metals, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and
military manufactures
partners: Europe, North America, Japan, Third World countries

Imports:
total value: $66.9 billion (1997)
commodities: machinery and equipment, consumer goods, medicines, meat,
grain, sugar, semifinished metal products
partners: Europe, North America, Japan, Third World countries

Debt-external: $135 billion (yearend 1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $15 billion drawn (1990-97)
note: US commitments, including Ex-Im, $15 billion (1990-96); other
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1990-96), $125 billion

Currency: 1 ruble (R) = 100 kopeks

Exchange rates: rubles per US$1-5,941 (December 1997), 5,785 (1997),
5,121 (1996), 4,559 (1995), 2,191 (1994), 992 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 25.4 million (1993 est.)

Telephone system: total pay phones for long distant calls 34,100;
enlisting foreign help, by means of joint ventures, to speed up the
modernization of its telecommunications system; in 1992, only 661,000
new telephones were installed compared with 855,000 in 1991, and in
1992 the number of unsatisfied applications for telephones reached
11,000,000; expanded access to international electronic mail service
available via Sprint network; the inadequacy of Russian
telecommunications is a severe handicap to the economy, especially
with respect to international connections
domestic: NMT-450 analog cellular telephone networks are operational
and growing in Moscow and St. Petersburg; intercity fiber-optic cable
installation remains limited
international: international traffic is inadequately handled by a
system of satellites, landlines, microwave radio relay, and outdated
submarine cables; much of this traffic passes through the
international gateway switch in Moscow which carries most of the
international traffic for the other countries of the Commonwealth of
Independent States; a new Russian Intersputnik satellite will link
Moscow and St. Petersburg with Rome from whence calls will be relayed
to destinations in Europe and overseas; satellite earth stations-NA
Intelsat, 4 Intersputnik (2 Atlantic Ocean region and 2 Indian Ocean
region), NA Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean region), and NA Orbita

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA; note-there are
about 1,050 (including AM, FM, and shortwave) radio broadcast stations
throughout the country

Radios: 50 million (1993 est.)(radio receivers with multiple speaker
systems for program diffusion 74,300,000)

Television broadcast stations: 7,183

Televisions: 54.85 million (1992 est.)

@Russia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 154,000 km; note-87,000 km in common carrier service (38,000 km
electrified); 67,000 km serve specific industries and are not
available for common carrier use
broad gauge: 154,000 km 1.520-m gauge (1 January 1994)

Highways:
total: 948,000 km (including 416,000 km which serve specific
industries or farms and are not maintained by governmental highway
maintenance departments)
paved: 336,000 km
unpaved: 612,000 km (including 411,000 km of graveled or other forms
of macadam surface and 201,000 km of unstabilized earth) (1995 est.)

Waterways: total navigable routes in general use 101,000 km; routes
with navigation guides serving the Russian River Fleet 95,900 km;
routes with night navigational aids 60,400 km; man-made navigable
routes 16,900 km (1 January 1994)

Pipelines: crude oil 48,000 km; petroleum products 15,000 km; natural
gas 140,000 km (30 June 1993)

Ports and harbors: Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', Kaliningrad, Kazan',
Khabarovsk, Kholmsk, Krasnoyarsk, Moscow, Murmansk, Nakhodka,
Nevel'sk, Novorossiysk, Petropavlovsk, St. Petersburg, Rostov, Sochi,
Tuapse, Vladivostok, Volgograd, Vostochnyy, Vyborg

Merchant marine:
total: 540 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,531,937 GRT/6,253,940
DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 18, cargo 291, combination bulk
21, combination ore/oil 12, container 24, multifunction large-load
carrier 2, oil tanker 107, passenger 2, passenger-cargo 4,
refrigerated cargo 20, roll-on/roll-off cargo 28, short-sea passenger
9, specialized tanker 1
note: Russia owns an additional 176 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
3,240,776 DWT operating under the registries of The Bahamas, Cambodia,
Cyprus, Honduras, Liberia, Malta, Panama, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, and Singapore (1997 est.)

Airports: 2,517 (1994 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 630
over 3,047 m: 54
2,438 to 3,047 m: 202
1,524 to 2,437 m: 108
914 to 1,523 m: 115
under 914 m: 151 (1994 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1,887
over 3,047 m: 25
2,438 to 3,047 m: 45
1,524 to 2,437 m: 134
914 to 1,523 m: 291
under 914 m: 1,392 (1994 est.)

@Russia:Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Forces, Air Defense
Forces, Strategic Rocket Forces
note: the air force and air defense force are to merge in mid-1998

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 38,585,841 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 30,098,346 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 1,128,416 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA
note: the Intelligence Community estimates that defense spending in
Russia fell by about 10% in real terms in 1996, reducing Russian
defense outlays to about one-sixth of peak Soviet levels in the late
1980s (1997 est.)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Russia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: two disputed sections of the boundary with
China remain to be settled; islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, and
Shikotan and the Habomai group occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945,
now administered by Russia, claimed by Japan; Caspian Sea boundaries
are not yet determined among Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and
Turkmenistan; Estonian and Russian negotiators reached a technical
border agreement in December 1996 which has not been ratified; Estonia
claimed over 2,000 sq km of territory in the Narva and Pechora regions
of Russia - based on boundary established under the 1920 Peace Treaty
of Tartu; based on the 1920 Treaty of Riga, Latvia had claimed the
Abrene/Pytalovo section of border ceded by the Latvian Soviet
Socialist Republic to Russia in 1944; draft treaty delimiting the
boundary with Latvia has not been signed; has made no territorial
claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not
recognize the claims of any other nation; 1997 border agreement with
Lithuania not yet ratified; Svalbard is the focus of a maritime
boundary dispute in the Barents Sea between Norway and Russia

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly
for domestic consumption; government has active eradication program;
increasingly used as transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast
Asian opiates and cannabis and Latin American cocaine to Western
Europe, the US, and growing domestic market

______________________________________________________________________

RWANDA

Introduction

in April 1994 between Tutsi and Hutu factions, more than 2 million
refugees fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zaire, now
called Democratic Republic of the Congo. According to the UN High
Commission on Refugees, in 1996 and early 1997 nearly 1,300,000 Hutus
returned to Rwanda; of these, 720,000 returned from Democratic
Republic of the Congo, 480,000 from Tanzania, 88,000 from Burundi, and
10,000 from Uganda.

@Rwanda:Geography

Location: Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 26,340 sq km
land: 24,950 sq km
water: 1,390 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 893 km
border countries: Burundi 290 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 217
km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda 169 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to
January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible

Terrain: mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with
altitude declining from west to east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Rusizi River 950 m
highest point: Volcan Karisimbi 4,519 m

Natural resources: gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten
ore), natural gas, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 35%
permanent crops: 13%
permanent pastures: 18%
forests and woodland: 22%
other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; the volcanic Virunga mountains are
in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the
Congo

Environment-current issues: deforestation results from uncontrolled
cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the
Sea

Geography-note: landlocked; predominantly rural population

@Rwanda:People

Population: 7,956,172 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 1,785,650; female 1,772,609)
15-64 years: 53% (male 2,070,401; female 2,106,809)
65 years and over: 2% (male 90,941; female 129,762) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.5% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 38.99 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 19 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 5.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)
note: following the outbreak of genocidal strife in Rwanda in April
1994 between Tutsi and Hutu factions, more than 2 million refugees
fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and Democratic Republic
of the Congo, formerly Zaire; according to the UN High Commission on
Refugees, in 1996 and early 1997 nearly 1,300,000 Hutus returned to

Book of the day: