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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.7%
male: 94.5%
female: 83% (1995 est.)

@Peru:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru

Data code: PE

Government type: republic

National capital: Lima

Administrative divisions: 24 departments (departamentos,
singular-departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia
constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho,
Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La
Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco,
Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
note: the 1979 constitution mandated the creation of regions
(regiones, singular - region) to function eventually as autonomous
economic and administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been
constituted from 23 of the 24 departments - Amazonas (from Loreto),
Andres Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from
Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from
Cusco, Madre de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los
Libertadores-Huari (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui
(from Moquegua, Tacna, Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from
Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin),
Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another region has been delayed
by the reluctance of the constitutional province of Callao to merge
with the department of Lima; because of inadequate funding from the
central government and organizational and political difficulties, the
regions have yet to assume major responsibilities; the 1993
constitution retains the regions but limits their authority; the 1993
constitution also reaffirms the roles of departmental and municipal
governments

Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)

Constitution: 31 December 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Alberto Kenyo FUJIMORI Fujimori (since 28
July 1990); note - the president is both the chief of state and head
of government
head of government: President Alberto Kenyo FUJIMORI Fujimori (since
28 July 1990); note - the president is both the chief of state and
head of government
note: Prime Minister Alberto PANDOLFI Arbulu (since 3 April 1996) does
not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the
president
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 9 April 1995 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: President FUJIMORI reelected; percent of
vote-Alberto FUJIMORI 64.42%, Javier PEREZ de CUELLAR 21.80%, Mercedes
CABANILLAS 4.11%, other 9.67%

Legislative branch: unicameral Democratic Constituent Congress or
Congresso Constituyente Democratico (120 seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 9 April 1995 (next to be held NA April 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party-C90/NM 52.1%, UPP 14%, 11
other parties 33.9%; seats by party, when installed on 28 July
1995-C90/NM 67, UPP 17, APRA 8, FIM 6, (CODE)-Pais Posible 5, AP 4,
PPC 3, Renovacion 3, IU 2, OBRAS 2, other parties 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia),
judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary

Political parties and leaders: Change 90-New Majority (C90/NM),
Alberto FUJIMORI; Union for Peru (UPP), Javier PEREZ de CUELLAR;
American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), Luis ALVA Castro;
Independent Moralizing Front (FIM), Fernando OLIVERA Vega; Democratic
Coordinator (CODE)-Pais Posible, Jose BARBA Caballero and Alejandro
TOLEDO; Popular Action Party (AP), Juan DIAZ Leon; Popular Christian
Party (PPC), Luis BEDOYA Reyes; Renovation Party, Rafael REY Rey;
Civic Works Movement (OBRAS), Ricardo BELMONT; United Left (IU);
Independent Agrarian Movement (MIA)

Political pressure groups and leaders: leftist guerrilla groups
include Shining Path, Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Oscar
RAMIREZ Durand (top leader at large); Tupac Amaru Revolutionary
Movement or MRTA, Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez
(top leader at large)

International organization participation: AG, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11,
G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA,
RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ricardo V. LUNA MENDOZA
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Agana (Guam), Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles,
New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dennis C. JETT
embassy: Avenida Encalada, Cuadra 17, Monterrico, Lima
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO
AA 34031-5000
telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000
FAX: [51] (1) 434-3037

Flag description: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side),
white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the
coat of arms features a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the
source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins,
all framed by a green wreath

@Peru:Economy

Economy-overview: The Peruvian economy has become increasingly
market-oriented, with major privatizations completed since 1990 in the
mining, electricity, and telecommunications industries. In the 1980s,
the economy suffered from hyperinflation, declining per capita output,
and mounting external debt. Peru was shut off from IMF and World Bank
support in the mid-1980s because of its huge debt arrears. An
austerity program implemented shortly after the FUJIMORI government
took office in July 1990 contributed to a third consecutive yearly
contraction of economic activity, but the slide came to a halt late
that year, and in 1991 output rose 2.4%. After a burst of inflation as
the austerity program eliminated government price subsidies, monthly
price increases eased to the single-digit level and by December 1991
dropped to the lowest increase since mid-1987. Lima obtained a
financial rescue package from multilateral lenders in September 1991,
although it faced $14 billion in arrears on its external debt. By
working with the IMF and World Bank on new financial conditions and
arrangements, the government succeeded in ending its arrears by March
1993. In 1992, GDP fell by 2.8%, in part because a warmer-than-usual
El Nino current resulted in a 30% drop in the fish catch, but the
economy rebounded as strong foreign investment helped push growth to
7% in 1993, about 13% in 1994, and 6.8% in 1995. Growth slowed to
about 2.8% in 1996 as the government adopted tight fiscal and monetary
policy to reduce the current account deficit and meet its IMF targets.
Growth then rebounded to 7.3% in 1997 even as inflation fell to its
lowest level in 23 years. Capital inflows surged to record levels in
early 1997 and have remained strong despite economic shocks stemming
from the Asian financial crisis and the El Nino weather events.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$110.2 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 7.3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$4,420 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 14%
industry: 41%
services: 45% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 6.7% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 7.6 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: agriculture, mining and quarrying, manufacturing,
construction, transport, services

Unemployment rate: 8.2%; extensive underemployment (1996)

Budget:
revenues: $8.5 billion
expenditures: $9.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $2
billion (1996 est.)

Industries: mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing,
food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal
fabrication

Industrial production growth rate: 1.2% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 4.187 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 15.6 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 648 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, wheat,
potatoes, plantains, coca; poultry, red meats, dairy products, wool;
fish catch of 6.9 million metric tons (1990)

Exports:
total value: $5.9 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: copper, zinc, fishmeal, crude petroleum and byproducts,
lead, refined silver, coffee, cotton
partners: US 20%, Japan 7%, UK 7%, China 7%, Germany 5% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $9.2 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum,
iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
partners: US 31%, Colombia 7%, Chile 6%, Venezuela 6%, UK 6% (1996)

Debt-external: $25.7 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $363 million (1993)

Currency: 1 nuevo sol (S/.) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: nuevo sol (S/.) per US$1-2.750 (January 1998), 2.664
(1997), 2.453 (1996), 2.253 (1995), 2.195 (1994), 1.988 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 779,306 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: adequate for most requirements
domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic
satellite system with 12 earth stations
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 273, FM 0, shortwave 144

Radios: 5.7 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 140

Televisions: 2 million (1993 est.)

@Peru:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,041 km
standard gauge: 1,726 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 315 km 0.914-m gauge (1994)

Highways:
total: 72,800 km
paved: 7,353 km
unpaved: 65,447 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208
km of Lago Titicaca

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km

Ports and harbors: Callao, Chimbote, Ilo, Matarani, Paita, Puerto
Maldonado, Salaverry, San Martin, Talara, Iquitos, Pucallpa,
Yurimaguas
note: Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are all on the upper reaches
of the Amazon and its tributaries

Merchant marine:
total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 68,752 GRT/100,213 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 7 (1997 est.)

Airports: 244 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 43
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 201
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
914 to 1,523 m: 73
under 914 m: 100 (1997 est.)

@Peru:Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del
Peru; includes Naval Air, Marines, and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza
Aerea del Peru), National Police

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 6,756,771 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 4,555,282 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 264,915 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $998 million (1996); note-may not
include off-budget purchases related to military modernization program

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.9% (1996)

@Peru:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: three sections of the boundary with Ecuador
are in dispute

Illicit drugs: until recently the world's largest coca leaf producer,
Peru has reduced the area of coca under cultivation by 40%, from
115,300 hectares in 1995 to 68,800 hectares at the end of 1997; source
of supply for most of the world's cocaine base; most of cocaine base
is shipped to Colombian drug dealers for processing into cocaine for
the international drug market, but exports of finished cocaine are
increasing

______________________________________________________________________

PHILIPPINES

@Philippines:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea
and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 122 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 300,000 sq km
land: 298,170 sq km
water: 1,830 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Arizona

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 36,289 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from
coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed
polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth

Climate: tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April);
southwest monsoon (May to October)

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Philippine Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Apo 2,954 m

Natural resources: timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold,
salt, copper

Land use:
arable land: 19%
permanent crops: 12%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 46%
other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 15,800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and
struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; landslides; active
volcanoes; destructive earthquakes; tsunamis

Environment-current issues: uncontrolled deforestation in watershed
areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in Manila; increasing
pollution of coastal mangrove swamps which are important fish breeding
grounds

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification

@Philippines:People

Population: 77,725,862 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 38% (male 14,867,972; female 14,379,722)
15-64 years: 59% (male 22,582,178; female 23,136,055)
65 years and over: 3% (male 1,232,813; female 1,527,122) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 2.09% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 28.43 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 6.52 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 34.56 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.35 years
male: 63.57 years
female: 69.28 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.54 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Filipino(s)
adjective: Philippine

Ethnic groups: Christian Malay 91.5%, Muslim Malay 4%, Chinese 1.5%,
other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 83%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 5%, Buddhist and
other 3%

Languages: Pilipino (official, based on Tagalog), English (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.6%
male: 95%
female: 94.3% (1995 est.)

@Philippines:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of the Philippines
conventional short form: Philippines
local long form: Republika ng Pilipinas
local short form: Pilipinas

Data code: RP

Government type: republic

National capital: Manila

Administrative divisions: 72 provinces and 61 chartered cities*; Abra,
Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Angeles*, Antique,
Aurora, Bacolod*, Bago*, Baguio*, Bais*, Basilan, Basilan City*,
Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Batangas City*, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon,
Bulacan, Butuan*, Cabanatuan*, Cadiz*, Cagayan, Cagayan de Oro*,
Calbayog*, Caloocan*, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin,
Canlaon*, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cavite City*, Cebu, Cebu City*,
Cotabato*, Dagupan*, Danao*, Dapitan*, Davao City* Davao, Davao del
Sur, Davao Oriental, Dipolog*, Dumaguete*, Eastern Samar, General
Santos*, Gingoog*, Ifugao, Iligan*, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo,
Iloilo City*, Iriga*, Isabela, Kalinga-Apayao, La Carlota*, Laguna,
Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Laoag*, Lapu-Lapu*, La Union,
Legaspi*, Leyte, Lipa*, Lucena*, Maguindanao, Mandaue*, Manila*,
Marawi*, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental,
Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain, Naga*, Negros
Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva
Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Olongapo*, Ormoc*, Oroquieta*, Ozamis*,
Pagadian*, Palawan, Palayan*, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Pasay*, Puerto
Princesa*, Quezon, Quezon City*, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Roxas*,
Samar, San Carlos* (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos* (in
Pangasinan), San Jose*, San Pablo*, Silay*, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South
Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao*, Surigao del
Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tacloban*, Tagaytay*, Tagbilaran*, Tangub*,
Tarlac, Tawitawi, Toledo*, Trece Martires*, Zambales, Zamboanga*,
Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur

Independence: 4 July 1946 (from US)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 June (1898) (from Spain)

Constitution: 2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987

Legal system: based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Fidel Valdes RAMOS (since 30 June 1992) and
Vice President Joseph Ejercito ESTRADA (since 30 June 1992); note-the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Fidel Valdes RAMOS (since 30 June 1992)
and Vice President Joseph Ejercito ESTRADA (since 30 June 1992);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with the consent of the
Commission of Appointments
elections: president and vice president elected on separate tickets by
popular vote for six-year terms; election last held 11 May 1992 (next
to be held 11 May 1998)
election results: Fidel Valdes RAMOS elected president; percent of
vote-Fidel Valdes RAMOS 23.6% (a narrow plurality); Joseph Ejercito
ESTRADA elected vice president; percent of vote-NA%

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress or Kongreso consists of the
Senate or Senado (24 seats-one-half elected every three years; members
elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of
Representatives or Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan (204 seats; members
elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; note-an additional
50 members may be appointed by the president)
elections: Senate-last held 8 May 1995 (next to be held 11 May 1998);
House of Representatives-elections last held 8 May 1995 (next to be
held 11 May 1998)
election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-LDP 15, Lakas-NUCD 6, NPC 1, PRP 1, independent 1; House of
Representatives-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-Lakas-NUCD
126, LDP 28, NPC 28, NP 2, KBL 2, other 18

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, justices are appointed for four-year
terms by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar
Council

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Filipino Struggle (Laban ng
Demokratikong Pilipino, LDP), Edgardo ANGARA; People Power-National
Union of Christian Democrats (Lakas ng EDSA-NUCD or Lakas-NUCD), Jose
DE VENECIA, secretary general; Liberal Party (LP), Alfredo LIM,
standard bearer; Laban Ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino (LMMP or Fight of
the Patriotic Filipino Masses), Joseph ESTRADA, standard bearer;
National People's Coalition (NPC), Eduardo COJUANGCO; People's Reform
Party (PRP), Miriam DEFENSOR-SANTIAGO; New Society Movement (Kilusan
Bagong Lipunan, KBL), Imelda MARCOS; Nacionalista Party (NP), Salvador
H. LAUREL, president; Filipino Democratic Party (Partido Demokratikong
Philipinas or PDP), Jose COJUANGCO, is part of the ruling coalition
with the LDP
note: political parties are highly fluid and personalistic; the major
parties as of May 1998 are-Lakas-NUCD, LMMP, and LP

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP,
ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Raul Chaves RABE
chancery: 1600 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 467-9300
FAX: [1] (202) 328-7614
consulate(s) general: Agana (Guam), Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles,
New York, San Francisco, and Seattle
consulate(s): San Jose (Saipan)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas C. HUBBARD
embassy: 1201 Roxas Boulevard, Ermita Manila 1000
mailing address: FPO 96515
telephone: [63] (2) 523-1001
FAX: [63] (2) 522-4361

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red
with a white equilateral triangle based on the hoist side; in the
center of the triangle is a yellow sun with eight primary rays (each
containing three individual rays) and in each corner of the triangle
is a small yellow five-pointed star

@Philippines:Economy

Economy-overview: In 1997 the Philippine economy, primarily a mixture
of agriculture and light industry, continued its fifth year of
positive economic growth, led by expansion of exports and investment.
The government expects growth to slow to about 3% in 1998 due to
spillover effects of the financial crisis in East Asia. The government
has promised to continue its economic reforms to help the Philippines
match the pace of development in the newly industrialized countries of
East Asia. The strategy includes improving infrastructure, overhauling
the tax system to bolster government revenues, and moving toward
further deregulation and privatization of the economy.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$244 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5.1% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$3,200 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 22%
industry: 32%
services: 46% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 5.1% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 29.13 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 43.4%, services 22.6%, government services
17.9%, industry and commerce 16.1% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 8.7% (1997)

Budget:
revenues: $16.3 billion
expenditures: $16.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.7
billion (1996 est.)

Industries: textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food
processing, electronics assembly, petroleum refining, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 6.3% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 7.64 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 25.65 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 350 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: rice, coconuts, corn, sugarcane, bananas,
pineapples, mangoes; pork, eggs, beef; fish catch of 2 million metric
tons annually

Exports:
total value: $25 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: electronics and telecommunications 51%, machinery and
transport 10%, garments 9%, other 30%
partners: US 34%, Japan 17%, EU 17%, ASEAN 14%, Hong Kong 4%, Taiwan
4% (1997 est.)

Imports:
total value: $34 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: raw materials and intermediate goods 43%, capital goods
36%, consumer goods 9%, fuels 9%
partners: Japan 21%, US 20%, ASEAN 12%, EU 10%, Taiwan 5%, Hong Kong
4%, Saudi Arabia 4% (1997 est.)

Debt-external: $45.4 billion (December 1997)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $3 billion pledged at December 1997 for 1998

Currency: 1 Philippine peso (P) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Philippine pesos (P) per US$1-40.2 (April 1998), 26.36
(May 1997), 29.471 (1997), 26.216 (1996), 25.714 (1995), 26.417
(1994), 27.120 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 1.9 million (1997)

Telephone system: good international radiotelephone and submarine
cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate
domestic: domestic satellite system with 11 earth stations
international: submarine cables to Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan,
and Japan; satellite earth stations-3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2
Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 261, FM 55, shortwave 0

Radios: 9.03 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 29

Televisions: 9.2 million (1998)

@Philippines:Transportation

Railways:
total: 897 km of which 492 km in operation
narrow gauge: 492 km 1.067-m gauge (1996)

Highways:
total: 156,997 km (1996 est.)
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km
note: probably less than 30,000 km are designated arterial roads and
not all of these are all-weather roads

Waterways: 3,219 km; limited to shallow-draft (less than 1.5 m)
vessels

Pipelines: petroleum products 357 km

Ports and harbors: Batangas, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Guimaras
Island, Iligan, Iloilo, Jolo, Legaspi, Manila, Masao, Puerto Princesa,
San Fernando, Subic Bay, Zamboanga

Merchant marine:
total: 535 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,334,164 GRT/11,511,707
DWT
ships by type: bulk 206, cargo 130, chemical tanker 5, combination
bulk 12, container 11, liquefied gas tanker 10, livestock carrier 12,
oil tanker 48, passenger 4, passenger-cargo 13, refrigerated cargo 20,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 15, short-sea passenger 31, vehicle carrier 18
note: a flag of convenience registry; Japan owns 21 ships, Hong Kong
4, Cyprus 1, Denmark 1, Greece 1, Netherlands 1, Norway 1, Panama 1,
Singapore 1, and Taiwan 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 262 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 75
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 25
914 to 1,523 m: 30
under 914 m: 10 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 187
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 63
under 914 m: 121 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Philippines:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Coast Guard and Marine Corps),
Air Force

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 19,734,347 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 13,921,259 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 800,148 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $1.3 billion (1996)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 0.7% (1996)

@Philippines:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly
Islands with China, Malaysia, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei;
claims Malaysian state of Sabah

Illicit drugs: exports locally-produced marijuana and hashish to East
Asia, the US, and other Western markets; serves as a transit point for
heroin and crystal methamphetamine

______________________________________________________________________

PITCAIRN ISLANDS

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Pitcairn Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half
of the way from Peru to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 25 04 S, 130 06 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 47 sq km
land: 47 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 51 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical, hot, humid, modified by southeast trade winds;
rainy season (November to March)

Terrain: rugged volcanic formation; rocky coastline with cliffs

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pawala Valley Ridge 347 m

Natural resources: miro trees (used for handicrafts), fish
note: manganese, iron, copper, gold, silver, and zinc have been
discovered offshore

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons (especially November to March)

Environment-current issues: deforestation (only a small portion of the
original forest remains because of burning and clearing for
settlement)

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

@Pitcairn Islands:People

Population: 50 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: -0.6% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
noun: Pitcairn Islander(s)
adjective: Pitcairn Islander

Ethnic groups: descendants of the Bounty mutineers and their Tahitian
wives

Religions: Seventh-Day Adventist 100%

Languages: English (official), Tahitian/English dialect

@Pitcairn Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie, and Oeno Islands
conventional short form: Pitcairn Islands

Data code: PC

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: Adamstown

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday in June)

Constitution: Local Government Ordinance of 1964

Legal system: local island by-laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal with three years residency

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by UK High Commissioner to New Zealand and Governor
(non-resident) of the Pitcairn Islands Robert John ALSTON (since NA
August 1994); Commissioner (non-resident) G. D. HARRAWAY (since NA; is
the liaison person between the governor and the Island Council)
head of government: Island Magistrate and Chairman of the Island
Council Jay WARREN (since NA)
cabinet: NA
elections: the queen is a hereditary monarch; island magistrate
elected by popular vote for a three-year term; last known election
held NA December 1993 (next to be held NA December 1996)
election results: Jay WARREN re-elected island magistrate; percent of
vote-NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Island Council (10 seats, 6 popularly
elected, 1 appointed by the 6 elected members, 2 appointed by the
governor, and the Island Secretary; members serve one-year terms)
elections: take place each December; last held NA December 1997 (next
to be held NA December 1998)
election results: percent of vote-NA; seats-all independents

Judicial branch: Island Court, island magistrate presides over the
court and is elected every three years

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: SPC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
the UK)

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Pitcairn Islander coat of arms centered on the outer
half of the flag; the coat of arms is yellow, green, and light blue
with a shield featuring a yellow anchor

@Pitcairn Islands:Economy

Economy-overview: The inhabitants exist on fishing and subsistence
farming. The fertile soil of the valleys produces a wide variety of
fruits and vegetables, including citrus, sugarcane, watermelons,
bananas, yams, and beans. Bartering is an important part of the
economy. The major sources of revenue are the sale of postage stamps
to collectors and the sale of handicrafts to passing ships.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$NA

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$NA

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 14 able-bodied men (1993)
by occupation: no business community in the usual sense; some public
works; subsistence farming and fishing

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $729,884
expenditures: $878,119, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY94/95
est.)

Industries: postage stamps, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: NA kW

Electricity-production: NA kWh

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture-products: wide variety of fruits and vegetables

Exports: $NA
commodities: fruits, vegetables, curios
partners: NA

Imports: $NA
commodities: fuel oil, machinery, building materials, flour, sugar,
other foodstuffs
partners: NA

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA bilateral commitments (1992-93), $84,000

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1-1.7283 (January
1998), 1.5083 (1997), 1.4543 (1996), 1.5235 (1995), 1.6844 (1994),
1.8495 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 24

Telephone system: party line telephone service on the island
domestic: NA
international: radiotelephone

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: NA

@Pitcairn Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 6.4 km
paved: 0 km
unpaved: 6.4 km

Ports and harbors: Bounty Bay

Merchant marine: none

Airports: none

@Pitcairn Islands:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Pitcairn Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

POLAND

@Poland:Geography

Location: Central Europe, east of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 52 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 312,683 sq km
land: 304,510 sq km
water: 8,173 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than New Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 2,888 km
border countries: Belarus 605 km, Czech Republic 658 km, Germany 456
km, Lithuania 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206 km, Slovakia 444
km, Ukraine 428 km

Coastline: 491 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: defined by international treaties
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with
frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and
thundershowers

Terrain: mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Raczki Elblaskie -2 m
highest point: Rysy 2,499 m

Natural resources: coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead,
salt

Land use:
arable land: 47%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 13%
forests and woodland: 29%
other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: situation has improved since 1989 due to
decline in heavy industry and increased environmental concern by
postcommunist governments; air pollution nonetheless remains serious
because of sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants, and
the resulting acid rain has caused forest damage; water pollution from
industrial and municipal sources is also a problem, as is disposal of
hazardous wastes

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic
Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 94, Law of the Sea

Geography-note: historically, an area of conflict because of flat
terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain

@Poland:People

Population: 38,606,922 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 21% (male 4,075,959; female 3,883,778)
15-64 years: 68% (male 12,956,689; female 13,129,495)
65 years and over: 11% (male 1,732,788; female 2,828,213) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: -0.04% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 9.79 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 9.76 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.18 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.77 years
male: 68.6 years
female: 77.16 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.36 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Pole(s)
adjective: Polish

Ethnic groups: Polish 97.6%, German 1.3%, Ukrainian 0.6%, Byelorussian
0.5% (1990 est.)

Religions: Roman Catholic 95% (about 75% practicing), Eastern
Orthodox, Protestant, and other 5%

Languages: Polish

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 98% (1978 est.)

@Poland:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Poland
conventional short form: Poland
local long form: Rzeczpospolita Polska
local short form: Polska

Data code: PL

Government type: democratic state

National capital: Warsaw

Administrative divisions: 49 provinces (wojewodztwa,
singular-wojewodztwo); Biala Podlaska, Bialystok, Bielsko Biala,
Bydgoszcz, Chelm, Ciechanow, Czestochowa, Elblag, Gdansk, Gorzow,
Jelenia Gora, Kalisz, Katowice, Kielce, Konin, Koszalin, Krakow,
Krosno, Legnica, Leszno, Lodz, Lomza, Lublin, Nowy Sacz, Olsztyn,
Opole, Ostroleka, Pila, Piotrkow, Plock, Poznan, Przemysl, Radom,
Rzeszow, Siedlce, Sieradz, Skierniewice, Slupsk, Suwalki, Szczecin,
Tarnobrzeg, Tarnow, Torun, Walbrzych, Warszawa, Wloclawek, Wroclaw,
Zamosc, Zielona Gora

Independence: 11 November 1918 (independent republic proclaimed)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 3 May (1791); Independence Day,
November 11 (1918)

Constitution: 16 October 1997; adopted by the National Assembly on 2
April 1997; passed by national referendum 23 May 1997

Legal system: mixture of Continental (Napoleonic) civil law and
holdover communist legal theory; changes being gradually introduced as
part of broader democratization process; limited judicial review of
legislative acts although under the new constitution, the
Constitutional Tribunal ruling will become final as of October 1999;
court decisions can be appealed to the European Court of Justice in
Strasbourg

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Aleksander KWASNIEWSKI (since 23 December
1995)
head of government: Prime Minister Jerzy BUZEK (since NA October
1997), Deputy Prime Ministers Leszek BALCEROWICZ (since 31 October
1997), Janusz TOMASZEWSKI (since 31 October 1997)
cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the prime minister and
the Sejm; the prime minister proposes, the president appoints, and the
Sejm approves the Council of Ministers
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election first round held 5 November 1995, second round held 19
November 1995 (next to be held NA November 2000); prime minister and
deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the
Sejm
election results: Aleksander KWASNIEWSKI elected president; percent of
legislative vote, second round-Aleksander KWASNIEWSKI 51.7%, Lech
WALESA 48.3%; Jerzy BUZEK selected prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly or Zgromadzenie
Narodowe consists of the Sejm (460 seats; members are elected under a
complex system of proportional representation to serve four-year
terms) and the Senate or Senat (100 seats; members are elected by a
majority vote on a provincial basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: Sejm elections last held 21 September 1997 (next to be held
by NA September 2001); Senate-last held 21 September 1997 (next to be
held by NA September 2001)
election results: Sejm-percent of vote by party-AWS 33.8%, SLD 27.1%,
UW 13.4%, PSL 7.3%, ROP 5.6%, German Minority 0.4%, other 12.4%; seats
by party-AWS 201, SLD 164, UW 60, PSL 27, ROP 6, German Minority 2;
Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-AWS 51, SLD 28, UW
8, ROP 5, PSL 3, independents 5; note-seats by party in the Sejm as of
December 1997: AWS 200, SLD 164, UW 60, PSL 26, ROP 4, German Minority
2, other 4
note: four seats are constitutionally assigned to ethnic German
parties

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president
on the recommendation of the National Council of the Judiciary for an
indefinite period; Constitutional Tribunal, judges are chosen by the
Sejm for a 9-year term

Political parties and leaders:
post-Communist: Democratic Left Alliance or SLD (Social Democracy of
Poland) [Leszek MILLER]; Polish Peasant Party or PSL [Jaroslaw
KALINOWSKI]
post-Solidarity parties: Freedom Union or UW; note-Democratic Union
and Liberal Democratic Congress merged to form Freedom Union [Leszek
BALCEROWICZ]; Christian-National Union or ZCHN [Marian PILKA]; Center
Alliance Party or PC [Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI]; Peasant Alliance or PL
[Gabriel JANOWSKI]; Solidarity Electoral Action or AWS [Marian
KRZAKLEWSKI]; Union of Labor or UP [Aleksander MALACHOWSKI];
Conservative Party or PK [Aleksander HALL]; Nonparty Reform Bloc or
BBWR [Jacek LIPINSKI]; Nonparty Reform Block United for Elections or
BBWR-SW [Jerzy GWIZDZ]
non-Communist, non-Solidarity: Movement for the Reconstruction of
Poland or ROP [Jan OLSZEWSKI]; Confederation for an Independent Poland
or KPN [Leszek MOCZULSKI]; German Minority or MN [Gerhardt
BARTODZIEJ]; Union of Real Politics or UPR [Mariusz DZIERZAWSKY]

Political pressure groups and leaders: powerful Roman Catholic Church;
Solidarity (trade union); All Poland Trade Union Alliance or OPZZ
(trade union)

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC
(observer), CBSS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant),
FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM
(guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP,
UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO,
ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jerzy KOZMINSKI
chancery: 2640 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-3800 through 3802
FAX: [1] (202) 328-6271
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel FRIED
embassy: Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31 00-054, Warsaw
mailing address: American Embassy Warsaw, US Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-5010 (pouch)
telephone: [48] (22) 628-30-41
FAX: [48] (22) 628-82-98
consulate(s) general: Krakow

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red;
similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and
white

@Poland:Economy

Economy-overview: Poland today stands out as one of the most
successful and open transition economies. The privatization of small
and medium state-owned companies and a liberal law on establishing new
firms marked the rapid development of a private sector now responsible
for at least two-thirds of economic activity. In contrast to the
vibrant expansion of private non-farm activity, the large agriculture
component remains handicapped by structural problems, surplus labor,
inefficient small farms, and lack of investment. The government's
determination to enter the EU as soon as possible affects all aspects
of its economic policies. Improving Poland's worsening current account
deficit also is a priority. To date, the government has resisted
pressure for protectionist solutions and continues to support regional
free trade initiatives. The government export strategy emphasizes a
more aggressive export assistance program. Warsaw continues to hold
the budget deficit to less than 2% of GDP. Further progress on public
finance depends mainly on comprehensive reform of the social welfare
system and privatization of Poland's remaining state sector.
Restructuring and privatization of "sensitive sectors" (e.g., coal,
steel) has been delayed. Long-awaited privatizations in aviation,
energy, and telecommunications are scheduled for 1998.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$280.7 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6.9% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$7,250 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 6.6%
industry: 34.9%
services: 58.5% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 15% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 17.7 million (1997 est.)
by occupation: industry and construction 29.9%, agriculture 26%,
services 44.1% (1996)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1997)

Budget:
revenues: $33.8 billion
expenditures: $35.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals,
shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 11.2% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 33.5 million kW (1997 est.)

Electricity-production: 142 billion kWh (1997 est.)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 3,360 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: potatoes, milk, cheese, fruits, vegetables,
wheat; poultry and eggs; pork, beef

Exports:
total value: $26.4 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: intermediate goods 38%, machinery and transport equipment
23%, consumer goods 21%, foodstuffs 10%, fuels 7% (1996 est.)
partners: Germany 34.5%, Russia 6.8%, France 5.9%, Italy 5.6%, US
4.8%, Netherlands 4.1% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $44.5 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 32%, intermediate goods
20%, chemicals 15%, consumer goods 9%, food 9%, fuels 8% (1996 est.)
partners: Germany 26.5%, Italy 10.4%, Russia 7.3%, UK 6.3%,
Netherlands 4.8%, France 4.4% (1996)

Debt-external: $43 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: US, $210 million (1995-97)

Currency: 1 zloty (Zl) = 100 groszy

Exchange rates: zlotych (Zl) per US$1-3.54 (January 1998), 3.2793
(1997), 2.6961 (1996), 2.4250 (1995); note-a currency reform on 1
January 1995 replaced 10,000 old zlotys with 1 new zloty; 22,723
(1994), 18,115 (1993), 13,626 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 8.2 million (1996)

Telephone system: underdeveloped and outmoded system; government aims
to have 10 million phones in service by the year 2000; the process of
partial privatization of the state-owned telephone monopoly has begun
domestic: cable, open wire, and microwave radio relay; 3 cellular
networks
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat, NA Eutelsat, 2
Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean Regions), and 1 Intersputnik
(Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 27, FM 75, shortwave 1 (1994 est.)

Radios: 9.9 million registered (1996)

Television broadcast stations: 143 (1996)

Televisions: 9.4 million registered (1996)

@Poland:Transportation

Railways:
total: 24,313 km
broad gauge: 652 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 22,243 km 1.435-m gauge (11,648 km electrified; 8,978
km double track)
narrow gauge: 1,418 km various gauges including 1.000-m, 0.785-m,
0.750-m, and 0.600-m (1996)

Highways:
total: 374,990 km
paved: 245,243 km (including 258 km of expressways)
unpaved: 129,747 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 3,812 km navigable rivers and canals (1996)

Pipelines: crude oil and petroleum products 2,280 km; natural gas
17,000 km (1996)

Ports and harbors: Gdansk, Gdynia, Gliwice, Kolobrzeg, Szczecin,
Swinoujscie, Ustka, Warsaw, Wrocaw

Merchant marine:
total: 90 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,574,637 GRT/2,446,849
DWT
ships by type: bulk 67, cargo 10, chemical tanker 3, container 2,
passenger 1, refrigerated cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea
passenger 4
note: Poland owns an additional 35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
459,793 DWT operating under the registries of The Bahamas, Cyprus,
Liberia, Malta, and Vanuatu (1997 est.)

Airports: 83 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 68
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 23
1,524 to 2,437 m: 34
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 5 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1997 est.)

@Poland:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force, Territorial
Defense Forces

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 10,374,242 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 8,069,611 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 333,074 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $3.46 billion (1997)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.3% (1997)

@Poland:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: major illicit producer of amphetamines for the
international market; transshipment point for Asian and Latin American
illicit drugs to Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________

PORTUGAL

@Portugal:Geography

Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
west of Spain

Geographic coordinates: 39 30 N, 8 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 92,391 sq km
land: 91,951 sq km
water: 440 sq km
note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:
total: 1,214 km
border countries: Spain 1,214 km

Coastline: 1,793 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier
in south

Terrain: mountainous north of the Tagus, rolling plains in south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Ponta do Pico in Azores 2,351 m

Natural resources: fish, forests (cork), tungsten, iron ore, uranium
ore, marble

Land use:
arable land: 26%
permanent crops: 9%
permanent pastures: 9%
forests and woodland: 36%
other: 20% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 6,300 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: Azores subject to severe earthquakes

Environment-current issues: soil erosion; air pollution caused by
industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in
coastal areas

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban, Tropical Timber 94

Geography-note: Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations
along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

@Portugal:People

Population: 9,927,556 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 881,091; female 834,775)
15-64 years: 68% (male 3,283,273; female 3,429,233)
65 years and over: 15% (male 612,221; female 886,963) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.07% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 10.63 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 10.26 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.87 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.66 years
male: 72.27 years
female: 79.25 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.35 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)
adjective: Portuguese

Ethnic groups: homogeneous Mediterranean stock in mainland, Azores,
Madeira Islands; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to
mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000

Religions: Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant denominations 1%, other 2%

Languages: Portuguese

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 85%
male: 89%
female: 82% (1990 est.)

@Portugal:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Portuguese Republic
conventional short form: Portugal
local long form: Republica Portuguesa
local short form: Portugal

Data code: PO

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Lisbon

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (distritos, singular-distrito)
and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular-regiao
autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo
Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa, Madeira*,
Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real,
Viseu

Dependent areas: Macau (scheduled to become a Special Administrative
Region of China on 20 December 1999)

Independence: 1140 (independent republic proclaimed 5 October 1910)

National holiday: Day of Portugal, 10 June (1580)

Constitution: 25 April 1976, revised 30 October 1982, 1 June 1989, 5
November 1992, and 3 September 1997

Legal system: civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews
the constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jorge SAMPAIO (since 9 March 1996)
head of government: Prime Minister Antonio Manuel de Oliviera GUTERRES
(since 28 October 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the prime minister
note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative
body to the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 14 January 1996 (next to be held NA January 2001);
following assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or
leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by
the president
election results: Jorge SAMPAIO elected president; percent of
vote-Jorge SAMPAIO (Socialist) 53.8%, Anibal CAVACO SILVA (Social
Democrat) 46.2%

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia
da Republica (230 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
four-year terms)
elections: last held 1 October 1995 (next to be held by NA October
1999)
election results: percent of vote by party-PSD 34.0%, PS 43.8%, CDU
8.6%, CDS/PP 9.1%; seats by party-PSD 88, PS 112, CDU 15, CDS/PP 15

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica, judges
appointed for life by the Conselho Superior da Magistratura

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party or PSD [Marcelo
Rebelo DE SOUSA]; Portuguese Socialist Party or PS [Antonio GUTERRES];
Portuguese Communist Party or PCP [Carlos CARVALHAS]; Popular Party or
PP (formerly known as Center Democratic Party or CDS) [Rebelo DE
SOUSA]; National Solidarity Party or PSN [Manuel SERGIO]; United
Democratic Coalition or CDU (communists; includes the PCP and a number
of small leftist groups)

International organization participation: AfDB, Australia Group, BIS,
CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA
(observer), MINURSO, MONUA, MTCR, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS
(observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary),
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UPU, WCL, WEU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Fernando Antonio de Lacerda ANDRESEN
GUIMARAES
chancery: 2125 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 328-8610
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726
consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, Newark (New Jersey), and San
Francisco
consulate(s): Los Angeles, New Bedford (Massachusetts), Providence
(Rhode Island)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gerald S. MCGOWAN
embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600 Lisbon
mailing address: PSC 83, APO AE 09726
telephone: [351] (1) 727-3300
FAX: [351] (1) 726-9109
consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)

Flag description: two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths)
and red (three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on
the dividing line

@Portugal:Economy

Economy-overview: Portugal's short-term economic fundamentals remain
strong: 1997 was marked by a reduction in inflation, a rise in the GDP
growth rate, a reduction in the fiscal deficit, and a lowering of
interest rates. The Socialist government's primary economic goal is to
place Portugal in the initial group of countries adopting the single
European currency; Lisbon looks well positioned to be in the first
tranche of EMU countries. As for the long run, Portugal is increasing
its infrastructure spending, in anticipation of hosting the world's
International Exposition, which began in May 1998. Lisbon also is
working to modernize its capital plant and increase competitiveness in
hope of moving up closer to the EU average.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$149.5 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$15,200 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 6%
industry: 36%
services: 58% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.3% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 4.53 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: services 56%, manufacturing 23%, agriculture, forestry,
fisheries 11%, construction 8%, utilities 1%, mining 1% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 7% (January 1998)

Budget:
revenues: $48 billion
expenditures: $52 billion, including capital expenditures of $7.4
billion (1996 est.)

Industries: textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork;
metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 2.2% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 8.831 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 31.446 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 3,072 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: grain, potatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle,
goats, poultry, meat, dairy products

Exports:
total value: $23.8 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: clothing and footwear, machinery, cork and paper
products, hides
partners: EU 76%, other developed countries 9% (US 5%)

Imports:
total value: $33.9 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, agricultural products,
chemicals, petroleum, textiles
partners: EU 72%, other developed countries 8% (US 3%), less developed
countries 17% (1995)

Debt-external: $13.1 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $220 million (1996)
recipient: ODA, $70 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Portuguese escudo (Esc) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Portuguese escudos (Esc) per US$1-185.81 (January
1998), 175.31 (1997), 154.24 (1996), 151.11 (1995), 165.99 (1994),
160.80 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 358.61 million (1995 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: generally adequate integrated network of coaxial cables,
open wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth
stations
international: 6 submarine cables; satellite earth stations-3 Intelsat
(2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric
scatter to Azores; note - an earth station for Inmarsat (Atlantic
Ocean region) is planned

Radio broadcast stations: AM 57, FM 66 (repeaters 22), shortwave 0

Radios: 2.2 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 66 (repeaters 23)

Televisions: 2,970,892 (1993 est.)

@Portugal:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,072 km
broad gauge: 2,769 km 1.668-m gauge (528 km electrified; 426 km double
track)
narrow gauge: 303 km 1.000-m gauge (1996)

Highways:
total: 68,732 km
paved: 59,110 km (including 687 km of expressways)
unpaved: 9,622 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 820 km navigable; relatively unimportant to national
economy, used by shallow-draft craft limited to 300 metric-ton cargo
capacity

Pipelines: crude oil 22 km; petroleum products 58 km; natural gas 700
km
note: the secondary lines for the natural gas pipeline that will be
300 km long have not yet been built

Ports and harbors: Aveiro, Funchal (Madeira Islands), Horta (Azores),
Leixoes, Lisbon, Porto, Ponta Delgada (Azores), Praia da Vitoria
(Azores), Setubal, Viana do Castelo

Merchant marine:
total: 107 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 736,478 GRT/1,139,180
DWT
ships by type: bulk 8, cargo 60, chemical tanker 10, container 6,
liquefied gas tanker 9, oil tanker 8, refrigerated cargo 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger 3
note: Portugal has created a captive register on Madeira for
Portuguese-owned ships; ships on the Madeira Register (MAR) will have
taxation and crewing benefits of a flag of convenience (1997 est.)

Airports: 69 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 41
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 18
under 914 m: 6 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 28
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 27 (1997 est.)

@Portugal:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force, National
Republican Guard, Fiscal Guard, Public Security Police

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 2,545,464 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 2,048,310 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 76,870 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $2.07 billion (1996)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.9% (1996)

@Portugal:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor
province) disputed with Indonesia and not recognized by the UN

Illicit drugs: important gateway country for Latin American cocaine
entering the European market; transshipment point for hashish from
North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin

______________________________________________________________________

PUERTO RICO

(commonwealth associated with the US)

@Puerto Rico:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, east of the Dominican Republic

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 66 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 9,104 sq km
land: 8,959 sq km
water: 145 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Rhode
Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 501 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine, mild; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains with coastal plain belt in north; mountains
precipitous to sea on west coast; sandy beaches along most coastal
areas

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Cerro de Punta 1,338 m

Natural resources: some copper and nickel; potential for onshore and
offshore oil

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 26%
forests and woodland: 16%
other: 49% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 390 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts

Environment-current issues: occasional drought has caused water levels
in reservoirs to drop and has prompted water rationing

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: important location along the Mona Passage-a key
shipping lane to the Panama Canal; San Juan is one of the biggest and
best natural harbors in the Caribbean; many small rivers and high
central mountains ensure land is well watered; south coast relatively
dry; fertile coastal plain belt in north

@Puerto Rico:People

Population: 3,857,070 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24% (male 483,268; female 461,632)
15-64 years: 65% (male 1,206,385; female 1,310,406)
65 years and over: 11% (male 171,889; female 223,490) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.68% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 16.7 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.08 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 12.09 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.2 years
male: 69.58 years
female: 79.11 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.03 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Puerto Rican(s) (US citizens)
adjective: Puerto Rican

Ethnic groups: Hispanic

Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant denominations and other 15%

Languages: Spanish, English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 89%
male: 90%
female: 88% (1980 est.)

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