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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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Minister SHARIF introduced a stimulus package of tax cuts intended to
boost failing industrial output and spur export growth. At that time,
the IMF endorsed the program, paving the way for a $1.5 billion
Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility. Although the economy showed
signs of improvement following the measures, SHARIF has refused to
implement the tough structural reforms necessary for sustained,
longer-term growth. As a consequence, at yearend 1997, industrial
production continued to flag, foreign exchange reserves continued to
teeter around $1 billion-only four weeks of imports-and borrowing to
support the budget deficit already exceeded the amount allocated for
the entire fiscal year. At the same time, the government must cope
with long-standing economic vulnerabilities-inadequate infrastructure,
low levels of literacy, and increasing sectarian, ethnic, and tribal
violence.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$344 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.1% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,600 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 24.2%
industry: 26.4%
services: 49.4% (1997)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 11.8% (FY96/97)

Labor force:
total: 37.8 million (1998)
by occupation: agriculture 47%, mining and manufacturing 17%, services
17%, other 19%
note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of
child labor

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $9.6 billion
expenditures: $13.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY96/97)

Industries: textiles, food processing, beverages, construction
materials, clothing, paper products, shrimp

Industrial production growth rate: 3.3% (FY96/97 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 13.169 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 58.1 billion kWh (1997)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 436 kWh (1997)

Agriculture-products: cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits,
vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs

Exports:
total value: $8.2 billion (FY96/97)
commodities: cotton, textiles, clothing, rice, leather, carpets
partners: EU, US, Hong Kong, Japan

Imports:
total value: $11.4 billion (FY96/97)
commodities: petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, transportation
equipment, vegetable oils, animal fats, chemicals
partners: EU, Japan, US, China

Debt-external: $33 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: $2.2 billion from all bilateral and multilateral sources
(FY96/97)

Currency: 1 Pakistani rupee (PRe) = 100 paisa

Exchange rates: Pakistani rupees (PRs) per US$1-44.050 (January 1998),
41.112 (1997), 36.079 (1996), 31.643 (1995), 30.567 (1994), 28.1
(1993); note-annual average of official rate; parallel market rate is
higher

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 2.552 million (1997)

Telephone system: the domestic system is mediocre, but adequate for
government and business use, in part because major businesses have
established their own private systems; since 1988, the government has
promoted investment in the national telecommunications system on a
priority basis; despite major improvements in trunk and urban systems,
telecommunication services are still not readily available to the
major portion of the population
domestic: microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth stations-3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
and 2 Indian Ocean); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 26, FM 8, shortwave 11

Radios: 11.3 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 29

Televisions: 2.08 million (1993 est.)

@Pakistan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 8,163 km
broad gauge: 7,718 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified; 1,037 km
double track)
narrow gauge: 445 km 1.000-m gauge (1996 est.)

Highways:
total: 224,774 km
paved: 128,121 km
unpaved: 96,653 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 885 km; natural gas
4,044 km (1987)

Ports and harbors: Karachi, Port Muhammad bin Qasim

Merchant marine:
total: 24 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 416,875 GRT/684,580 DWT
ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 15, container 3, oil tanker 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 115 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 80
over 3,047 m: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 31
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 35
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 18 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 6 (1997 est.)

@Pakistan:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Civil Armed Forces, National
Guard

Military manpower-military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 32,450,056 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 19,888,353 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 1,472,272 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $3.3 billion (FY96/97)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 5.3% (FY96/97)

@Pakistan:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: status of Kashmir with India; water-sharing
problems with India over the Indus River (Wular Barrage)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium and hashish for the
international drug trade (cultivation in 1997-4,100 hectares, a 21%
increase over 1996; potential production-85 metric tons, a 13%
increase over 1996); center for processing Afghan heroin and key
transit area for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western markets

______________________________________________________________________

PALAU

@Palau:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the North Pacific Ocean,
southeast of the Philippines

Geographic coordinates: 7 30 N, 134 30 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 458 sq km
land: 458 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,519 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
extended fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: wet season May to November; hot and humid

Terrain: varying geologically from the high, mountainous main island
of Babelthuap to low, coral islands usually fringed by large barrier
reefs

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Ngerchelchauus 242 m

Natural resources: forests, minerals (especially gold), marine
products, deep-seabed minerals

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons (June to December)

Environment-current issues: inadequate facilities for disposal of
solid waste; threats to the marine ecosystem from sand and coral
dredging, illegal fishing practices, and overfishing

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Law of the Sea
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: includes World War II battleground of Beliliou
(Peleliu) and world-famous rock islands; archipelago of six island
groups totaling over 200 islands in the Caroline chain

@Palau:People

Population: 18,110 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 27% (male 2,555; female 2,405)
15-64 years: 68% (male 6,727; female 5,535)
65 years and over: 5% (male 416; female 472) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.96% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 21.26 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.9 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.22 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.82 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 67.54 years
male: 64.49 years
female: 70.78 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.6 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Palauan(s)
adjective: Palauan

Ethnic groups: Palauans are a composite of Polynesian, Malayan, and
Melanesian races

Religions: Christian (Catholics, Seventh-Day Adventists, Jehovah's
Witnesses, the Assembly of God, the Liebenzell Mission, and Latter-Day
Saints), Modekngei religion (one-third of the population observes this
religion which is indigenous to Palau)

Languages: English (official in all of Palau's 16 states), Sonsorolese
(official in the state of Sonsoral), Angaur and Japanese (in the state
of Anguar), Tobi (in the state of Tobi), Palauan (in the other 13
states)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92%
male: 93%
female: 90% (1980 est.)

@Palau:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Palau
conventional short form: Palau
local long form: Beluu er a Belau
local short form: Belau
former: Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

Data code: PS

Government type: constitutional government in free association with
the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 1 October
1994

National capital: Koror
note: a new capital is being built about 20 km northeast in eastern
Babelthuap

Administrative divisions: there are no first-order administrative
divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 16 states
named Aimeliik, Airai, Angaur, Kayangel, Koror, Melekeok, Ngaraard,
Ngardmau, Ngaremlengui, Ngatpang, Ngchesar, Ngerchelong, Ngiwal,
Peleliu, Sonsorol, Tobi

Independence: 1 October 1994 (from the US-administered UN Trusteeship)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 9 July (1979)

Constitution: 1 January 1981

Legal system: based on Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature,
municipal, common, and customary laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Kuniwo NAKAMURA (since 1 January 1993) and
Vice President Tommy E. REMENGESAU Jr. (since 1 January 1993);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Kuniwo NAKAMURA (since 1 January 1993)
and Vice President Tommy E. REMENGESAU Jr. (since 1 January 1993);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president and vice president elected on separate tickets by
popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 11 November 1996
(next to be held NA November 2000)
election results: Kuniwo NAKAMURA reelected president; percent of
vote-Kuniwo NAKAMURA 64%, Chief Ibedul Yutuka GIBBONS 36%; Tommy E.
REMENGESAU Jr. reelected vice president; percent of vote-Tommy E.
REMENGESAU Jr. 69%, Kione ISECHAL 31%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Olbiil Era Kelulau (OEK)
consists of the Senate (14 seats; members elected by popular vote on a
population basis to serve four-year terms) and the House of Delegates
(16 seats-one from each state; members elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate-last held 11 November 1996 (next to be held NA
November 2000); House of Delegates-last held 11 November 1996 (next to
be held NA November 2000)
election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-NA; House of Delegates-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; National Court; Court of Common Pleas

Political parties and leaders: Palau Nationalist Party, Polycarp
BASILIUS

International organization participation: ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IMF, SPC,
SPF, UN, WHO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Hersey KYOTA
chancery: 1150 18th Street NW, Suite 750, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 452-6814
FAX: [1] (202) 452-6281

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Thomas C. HUBBARD (resident in Manila); Charge
d'Affaires Gerald PASCUA
embassy: address NA, Koror
mailing address: P.O. Box 6028, Republic of Palau 96940
telephone: [680] 488-2920, 2990
FAX: [680] 488-2911

Flag description: light blue with a large yellow disk (representing
the moon) shifted slightly to the hoist side

@Palau:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy consists primarily of subsistence
agriculture and fishing. The government is the major employer of the
work force, relying heavily on financial assistance from the US. The
population enjoys a per capita income of more than twice that of the
Philippines and much of Micronesia. Long-run prospects for the tourist
sector have been greatly bolstered by the expansion of air travel in
the Pacific and the rising prosperity of leading East Asian countries.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$160 million (1997 est.)
note: GDP numbers reflect US spending

GDP-real growth rate: 10% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$8,800 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force: NA
by occupation: NA

Unemployment rate: 7%

Budget:
revenues: $52.9 million
expenditures: $59.9 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: tourism, craft items (from shell, wood, pearls), some
commercial fishing and agriculture

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 62,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 195 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 11,704 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coconuts, copra, cassava (tapioca), sweet
potatoes

Exports:
total value: $14.3 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: trochus (type of shellfish), tuna, copra, handicrafts
partners: US, Japan

Imports:
total value: $72.4 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: NA
partners: US

Debt-external: about $100 million (1989)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: the Compact of Free Association with the US, entered into after
the end of the UN trusteeship on 1 October 1994, will provide Palau
with up to $700 million in US aid over 15 years in return for
furnishing military facilities

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Communications

Telephones: 1,500 (1988 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 9,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 2

Televisions: 1,600 (1993 est.)

@Palau:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 61 km
paved: 36 km
unpaved: 25 km

Ports and harbors: Koror

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (1997 est.)

@Palau:Military

Military branches: NA

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@Palau:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

PALMYRA ATOLL

(territory of the US)

@Palmyra Atoll:Geography

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of
the way from Hawaii to American Samoa

Geographic coordinates: 5 52 N, 162 06 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 11.9 sq km
land: 11.9 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 20 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 14.5 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: equatorial, hot, and very rainy

Terrain: very low

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 2 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 100%
other: 0%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: about 50 islets covered with dense vegetation, coconut
trees, and balsa-like trees up to 30 meters tall

@Palmyra Atoll:People

Population: uninhabited

@Palmyra Atoll:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Palmyra Atoll

Data code: LQ

Dependency status: incorporated territory of the US; privately owned,
but administered from Washington, DC by the Office of Insular Affairs,
US Department of the Interior

Legal system: NA

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

@Palmyra Atoll:Economy

Economy-overview: no economic activity

@Palmyra Atoll:Transportation

Highways: much of the road and many causeways built during World War
II are unserviceable and overgrown

Ports and harbors: West Lagoon

Airports: airstrip has been overgrown by vegetation and is no longer
serviceable

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Palmyra Atoll:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@Palmyra Atoll:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

PANAMA

@Panama:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the
North Pacific Ocean, between Colombia and Costa Rica

Geographic coordinates: 9 00 N, 80 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 78,200 sq km
land: 75,990 sq km
water: 2,210 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:
total: 555 km
border countries: Colombia 225 km, Costa Rica 330 km

Coastline: 2,490 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to
January), short dry season (January to May)

Terrain: interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland
plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Volcan de Chiriqui 3,475 m

Natural resources: copper, mahogany forests, shrimp

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland: 44%
other: 27% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 320 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: water pollution from agricultural runoff
threatens fishery resources; deforestation of tropical rain forest;
land degradation

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography-note: strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming
land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal
that links North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific
Ocean

@Panama:People

Population: 2,735,943 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (male 446,001; female 428,532)
15-64 years: 62% (male 864,382; female 841,870)
65 years and over: 6% (male 74,529; female 80,629) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.56% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 21.99 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.14 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.47 years
male: 71.73 years
female: 77.31 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.57 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Panamanian(s)
adjective: Panamanian

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 70%, Amerindian
and mixed (West Indian) 14%, white 10%, Amerindian 6%

Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 15%

Languages: Spanish (official), English 14%
note: many Panamanians bilingual

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.8%
male: 91.4%
female: 90.2% (1995 est.)

@Panama:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Panama
conventional short form: Panama
local long form: Republica de Panama
local short form: Panama

Data code: PM

Government type: constitutional republic

National capital: Panama

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (provincias, singular-provincia)
and 2 territories* (comarca); Bocas del Toro, Chiriqui, Cocle, Colon,
Darien, Herrera, Los Santos, Panama, San Blas*, Veraguas, and a new,
as yet unnamed territory* or 'comarca' created 7 March 1997 when
President PEREZ BALLADARES signed a bill designating a reserve
stretched across three provinces

Independence: 3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent from
Spain 28 November 1821)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1903)

Constitution: 11 October 1972; major reforms adopted April 1983

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Justice; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ernesto PEREZ BALLADARES Gonzalez Revilla
(since 1 September 1994); First Vice President Tomas Gabriel
ALTAMIRANO DUQUE (since 1 September 1994); Second Vice President
Felipe Alejandro VIRZI Lopez (since 1 September 1994); note-the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Ernesto PEREZ BALLADARES Gonzalez
Revilla (since 1 September 1994); First Vice President Tomas Gabriel
ALTAMIRANO DUQUE (since 1 September 1994); Second Vice President
Felipe Alejandro VIRZI Lopez (since 1 September 1994); note-the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 8 May 1994 (next
to be held 2 May 1999)
election results: Ernesto PEREZ BALLADARES elected president; percent
of vote-Ernesto PEREZ BALLADARES (PRD) 33%, Mireya MOSCOSO DE GRUBER
(PA) 29%, Ruben BLADES (MPE) 17%, Ruben Dario CARLES (MOLIRENA) 16%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea
Legislativa (72 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 8 May 1994 (next to be held 2 May 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-PRD 32,
PS 4, PALA 1, PA 14, MPE 6, MOLIRENA 4, PLA 3, PRC 3, PLN 2, PDC 1,
UDI 1, MORENA 1
note: legislators from outlying rural districts are chosen on a
plurality basis while districts located in more populous towns and
cities elect multiple legislators by means of a proportion-based
formula

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia),
nine judges appointed for 10-year terms; five superior courts; three
courts of appeal

Political parties and leaders:
governing coalition: Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD), Gerardo
GONZALEZ; National Liberal Party (PLN), Raul ARANGO, founder; Popular
Nationalist Party, Jorge FLORES
other parties: Solidarity Party (PS), Samuel LEWIS GALINDO;
Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement (MOLIRENA), Guillermo FORD;
Arnulfista Party (PA), Mireya MOSCOSO DE GRUBER; Christian Democratic
Party (PDC), Ruben AROSEMENA; Papa Egoro Movement (MPE), Ruben BLADES;
Civic Renewal Party (PRC), Carlos ABADIA; National Renovation Movement
(MORENA), Pedro VALLARINO; Authentic Liberal Party (PLA); Labor Party
(PALA); Independent Democratic Union (UDI)

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Council of Organized
Workers (CONATO); National Council of Private Enterprise (CONEP);
Panamanian Association of Business Executives (APEDE); National Civic
Crusade; Chamber of Commerce; Panamanian Industrialists Society (SIP);
Workers Confederation of the Republic of Panama (CTRP)

International organization participation: AG (associate), CACM, CCC,
ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Eloy ALFARO de Alba
chancery: 2862 McGill Terrace NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-1407
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York,
Philadelphia, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), Tampa

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador William John HUGHES
embassy: Avenida Balboa and Calle 38, Apartado 6959, Panama City 5
mailing address: American Embassy Panama, Unit 0945, APO AA 34002
telephone: [507] 227-1777
FAX: [507] 227-1964

Flag description: divided into four, equal rectangles; the top
quadrants are white (hoist side) with a blue five-pointed star in the
center and plain red, the bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side)
and white with a red five-pointed star in the center

@Panama:Economy

Economy-overview: Because of its key geographic location, Panama's
economy is service-based, heavily weighted toward banking, commerce,
and tourism. Since taking office in 1994, President PEREZ BALLADARES
has advanced an economic reform program designed to liberalize the
trade regime, attract foreign investment, privatize state-owned
enterprises, institute fiscal reform, and encourage job creation
through labor code reform. The government privatized its two remaining
ports along the Panama Canal in 1997 and approved the sale of the
railroad in early 1998. It also plans to sell other assets, including
the electric company. Panama joined the World Trade Organization
(WTrO) and approved a tariff reduction that will give the country the
lowest average tariff rates in Latin America. A banking reform law was
approved by the legislature in early 1998 and will take effect in
June. After two years of near stagnation, the reforms are beginning to
take root; GDP grew by 3.6% in 1997 and is expected to grow by more
than 5% in 1998. The most important sectors driving growth have been
the Panama Canal and the shipping and port activities. The Colon Free
Zone also rebounded from a slow year in 1996.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$18 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.6% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$6,700 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 8%
industry: 18%
services: 74% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1.2% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 1.044 million (1997 est.)
by occupation: government and community services 31.8%, agriculture,
hunting, and fishing 26.8%, commerce, restaurants, and hotels 16.4%,
manufacturing and mining 9.4%, construction 3.2%, transportation and
communications 6.2%, finance, insurance, and real estate 4.3%
note: shortage of skilled labor, but an oversupply of unskilled labor

Unemployment rate: 13.1% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.4 billion
expenditures: $2.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $341
million (1997 est.)

Industries: construction, petroleum refining, brewing, cement and
other construction materials, sugar milling

Industrial production growth rate: 0.4% (1995 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 957 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 3.6 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,355 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: bananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane,
vegetables; livestock; fishing (shrimp)

Exports:
total value: $592 million (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: bananas 43%, shrimp 11%, sugar 4%, clothing 5%, coffee 2%
partners: US 37%, EU, Central America and Caribbean

Imports:
total value: $2.95 billion (c.i.f., 1997 est.)
commodities: capital goods 21%, crude oil 11%, foodstuffs 9%, consumer
goods, chemicals
partners: US 48%, EU, Central America and Caribbean, Japan

Debt-external: $7.26 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: NA

Currency: 1 balboa (B) = 100 centesimos

Exchange rates: balboas (B) per US$1-1.000 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 273,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: domestic and international facilities well developed
domestic: NA
international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth stations-2
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to the Central American Microwave
System

Radio broadcast stations: AM 91, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 564,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 23

Televisions: 420,000 (1992 est.)

@Panama:Transportation

Railways:
total: 355 km
broad gauge: 76 km 1.524-m gauge
narrow gauge: 279 km 0.914-m gauge

Highways:
total: 11,100 km
paved: 3,730 km (including 30 km of expressways)
unpaved: 7,370 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 800 km navigable by shallow draft vessels; 82 km Panama
Canal

Pipelines: crude oil 130 km

Ports and harbors: Balboa, Cristobal, Coco Solo, Vacamonte, Manzanillo

Merchant marine:
total: 4,350 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 89,622,112
GRT/137,529,188 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1,240, cargo 1,033, chemical tanker 195,
combination bulk 67, combination ore/oil 19, container 426, liquefied
gas tanker 175, livestock carrier 9, multifunction large-load carrier
5, oil tanker 524, passenger 40, passenger-cargo 6, railcar carrier 1,
refrigerated cargo 296, roll-on/roll-off cargo 101, short-sea
passenger 40, specialized tanker 15, vehicle carrier 158
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 76 countries
among which are Japan 1,236, Greece 418, Hong Kong 273, South Korea
247, Taiwan 227, China 185, Singapore 119, US 112, Switzerland 85, and
Indonesia 60 (1997 est.)

Airports: 109 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 40
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 19 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 69
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 52 (1997 est.)

@Panama:Military

Military branches: an amendment to the Constitution abolished the
armed forces, but there are security forces (Panamanian Public Forces
or PPF includes the National Police, National Maritime Service, and
National Air Service)

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 733,019 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 502,731 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $78 million (1995); note-for
police and security forces

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Panama:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: major cocaine transshipment point and major drug
money-laundering center; no recent signs of coca cultivation;
monitoring of financial transactions is improving

______________________________________________________________________

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

@Papua New Guinea:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, group of islands including the eastern
half of the island of New Guinea between the Coral Sea and the South
Pacific Ocean, east of Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 147 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 462,840 sq km
land: 452,860 sq km
water: 9,980 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total: 820 km
border countries: Indonesia 820 km

Coastline: 5,152 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast
monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Wilhelm 4,509 m

Natural resources: gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber, oil,
fisheries

Land use:
arable land: 0.1%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 92.9%
other: 6% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: active volcanism; situated along the Pacific "Rim of
Fire"; the country is subject to frequent and sometimes severe
earthquakes; mud slides

Environment-current issues: rain forest subject to deforestation as a
result of growing commercial demand for tropical timber; pollution
from mining projects; severe drought

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

Geography-note: shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia; one of
world's largest swamps along southwest coast

@Papua New Guinea:People

Population: 4,599,785 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40% (male 936,206; female 888,427)
15-64 years: 57% (male 1,374,471; female 1,263,750)
65 years and over: 3% (male 62,593; female 74,338) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.27% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 32.37 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 9.65 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 57.09 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 58.06 years
male: 57.18 years
female: 58.98 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.26 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Papua New Guinean(s)
adjective: Papua New Guinean

Ethnic groups: Melanesian, Papuan, Negrito, Micronesian, Polynesian

Religions: Roman Catholic 22%, Lutheran 16%,
Presbyterian/Methodist/London Missionary Society 8%, Anglican 5%,
Evangelical Alliance 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1%, other Protestant
sects 10%, indigenous beliefs 34%

Languages: English spoken by 1%-2%, pidgin English widespread, Motu
spoken in Papua region
note: 715 indigenous languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 72.2%
male: 81%
female: 62.7% (1995 est.)

@Papua New Guinea:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Independent State of Papua New Guinea
conventional short form: Papua New Guinea
abbreviation: PNG

Data code: PP

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Port Moresby

Administrative divisions: 20 provinces; Bougainville, Central, Chimbu,
Eastern Highlands, East New Britain, East Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Madang,
Manus, Milne Bay, Morobe, National Capital, New Ireland, Northern,
Sandaun, Southern Highlands, Western, Western Highlands, West New
Britain

Independence: 16 September 1975 (from the Australian-administered UN
trusteeship)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1975)

Constitution: 16 September 1975

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Silas ATOPARE (since 13 November 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Bill SKATE (since 22 July 1997);
Deputy Prime Minister Michael NALI (since 16 December 1997); note-NALI
replaces Deputy Prime Minister Chris HAIVETA (since 7 September 1994)
who Prime Minister SKATE fired on 12 December 1997 for his alleged
role in trying to discredit SKATE
cabinet: National Executive Council appointed by the governor general
on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
appointed by the National Executive Council; prime minister and deputy
prime minister appointed by the governor general for up to five years
on the basis of majority support in National Parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament-sometimes referred
to as the House of Assembly (109 seats-89 elected from open
electorates and 20 from provincial electorates; members elected by
popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 14-28 June 1997 (next to be held NA June 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party-PPP 15%, Pangu Pati 14%, NA
14%, PDM 8%, PNC 6%, PAP 5%, UP 3%, NP 1%, PUP 1%, independents 33%;
seats by party-PPP 16, Pangu Pati 15, NA 15, PDM 9, PNC 7, PAP 5, UP
3, NP 1, PUP 1, independents 37; note-association with political
parties is very fluid

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, the chief justice is appointed by the
governor general on the proposal of the National Executive Council
after consultation with the minister responsible for justice, other
judges are appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission

Political parties and leaders: Bougainville Unity Alliance (BUA),
Samuel AKOITAI; People's Progress Party (PPP), Michael NALI; Papua New
Guinea United Party (Pangu Pati), Chris HAIVETA; National Alliance
(NA), Michael SOMARE; People's Democratic Movement (PDM), Iario
LASARO; People's Action Party (PAP), Ted DIRO; United Party (UP),
Rimbiuk PATO; National Party (NP), Paul PORA; People's Unity Party
(PUP), Alfred KAIABE; Melanesian Alliance (MA), Fr. John MOMIS;
Movement for Greater Autonomy, Stephen POKAWIN; Christian Democratic
Party, Dilu GOMA; Papua New Guinea First Party (includes People's
National Congress or PNC, Bill SKATE, and Christian Country Party,
Avusi TANO) leader NA; People's Resources Awareness Party, leader NA;
Liberal Party, Rabbie SAMAI; People's Solidarity Party, Kala SWOKIM;
Melanesian Labour Party, Paul MONDIA; Black Action Party, Paul WANJIK;
League for National Advancement (LNA), leader NA; United Resource
Party, Masket IANGALIO; Hausman Party, Waim TOKAM; Milne Bay Party,
Simon MUMURIK

International organization participation: ACP, APEC, AsDB, ASEAN
(observer), C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, NAM, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nagora Y. BOGAN
chancery: 3rd floor, 1615 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC
20009
telephone: [1] (202) 745-3680
FAX: [1] (202) 745-3679

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Arma Jane KARAER
embassy: Douglas Street, Port Moresby
mailing address: P. O. Box 1492, Port Moresby
telephone: [675] 321-1455
FAX: [675] 321-3423

Flag description: divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the
upper triangle is red with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered;
the lower triangle is black with five white five-pointed stars of the
Southern Cross constellation centered

@Papua New Guinea:Economy

Economy-overview: Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural
resources, but exploitation has been hampered by the rugged terrain
and the high cost of developing an infrastructure. Agriculture
provides a subsistence livelihood for the bulk of the population.
Mineral deposits, including oil, copper, and gold, account for 72% of
export earnings. Budgetary support from Australia and development aid
under World Bank auspices have helped sustain the economy. In 1995,
Port Moresby reached agreement with the IMF and World Bank on a
structural adjustment program, of which the first phase was
successfully completed in 1996. Droughts caused by the El Nino weather
pattern wreaked havoc on Papua New Guinea's coffee, cocoa, and coconut
production, the mainstays of the agricultural-based economy and major
sources of export earnings. The coffee crop was slashed by up to 50%
in 1997. Moreover, droughts could bite into growth in 1998.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$11.6 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.3% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,650 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 26.4%
industry: 41%
services: 32.6% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 11.6% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 1.941 million
by occupation: agriculture 64% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $1.5 billion
expenditures: $1.35 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: copra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production,
wood chip production; mining of gold, silver, and copper; crude oil
production; construction, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 490,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 1.76 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 410 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, tea,
rubber, sweet potatoes, fruit, vegetables; poultry, pork

Exports:
total value: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: gold, copper ore, oil, logs, coffee, palm oil, cocoa,
lobster
partners: Australia, Japan, Germany, UK, South Korea

Imports:
total value: $1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods,
food, fuels, chemicals
partners: Australia, US, Singapore, Japan, UK

Debt-external: $3.2 billion (1995)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $291 million (1993); $240 million bilateral aid from
Australia (FY96/97 est.); $4.1 million ODA from NZ (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 kina (K) = 100 toea

Exchange rates: kina (K) per US$1-0.6299 (November 1997), 0.7588
(1996), 0.7835 (1995), 0.9950 (1994), 1.0221 (1993); note-the
government floated the kina on 10 October 1994

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 63,212 (1986 est.)

Telephone system: services are adequate and being improved; facilities
provide radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical
radio, and international radio communication services
domestic: mostly radiotelephone
international: submarine cables to Australia and Guam; satellite earth
station-1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); international radio communication
service

Radio broadcast stations: AM 31, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 298,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 10,000 (1992 est.)

@Papua New Guinea:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 19,600 km
paved: 686 km
unpaved: 18,914 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 10,940 km

Ports and harbors: Kieta, Lae, Madang, Port Moresby, Rabaul

Merchant marine:
total: 17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 32,859 GRT/45,270 DWT
ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 4, chemical tanker 1, combination ore/oil
5, container 1, oil tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off 2 (1997 est.)

Airports: 495 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 19
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 476
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 59
under 914 m: 404 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1997 est.)

@Papua New Guinea:Military

Military branches: Papua New Guinea Defense Force (includes Ground,
Naval, and Air Forces, and Special Forces Unit)

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,206,458 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 670,510 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $63 million (1997); note-includes
$12 million to cover leftover 1996 expenditures

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA

@Papua New Guinea:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

PARACEL ISLANDS

@Paracel Islands:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, group of small islands and reefs in the
South China Sea, about one-third of the way from central Vietnam to
the northern Philippines

Geographic coordinates: 16 30 N, 112 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: NA sq km
land: NA sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: NA

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 518 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: tropical

Terrain: NA

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Rocky Island 14 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: typhoons

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Paracel Islands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there are scattered Chinese garrisons

@Paracel Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Paracel Islands

Data code: PF

@Paracel Islands:Economy

Economy-overview: no economic activity

@Paracel Islands:Transportation

Ports and harbors: small Chinese port facilities on Woody Island and
Duncan Island being expanded

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Paracel Islands:Military

Military-note: occupied by China

@Paracel Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: occupied by China, but claimed by Taiwan and
Vietnam

______________________________________________________________________

PARAGUAY

@Paraguay:Geography

Location: Central South America, northeast of Argentina

Geographic coordinates: 23 00 S, 58 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 406,750 sq km
land: 397,300 sq km
water: 9,450 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than California

Land boundaries:
total: 3,920 km
border countries: Argentina 1,880 km, Bolivia 750 km, Brazil 1,290 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: subtropical; substantial rainfall in the eastern portions,
becoming semiarid in the far west

Terrain: grassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay; Gran
Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the
river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: junction of Rio Paraguay and Rio Parana 46 m
highest point: Cerro San Rafael 850 m

Natural resources: hydropower, timber, iron ore, manganese, limestone

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 55%
forests and woodland: 32%
other: 7% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 670 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: local flooding in southeast (early September to
June); poorly drained plains may become boggy (early October to June)

Environment-current issues: deforestation (an estimated 2 million
hectares of forest land have been lost from 1958-85); water pollution;
inadequate means for waste disposal present health risks for many
urban residents

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography-note: landlocked; lies between Argentina, Bolivia, and
Brazil

@Paraguay:People

Population: 5,291,020 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 39% (male 1,061,972; female 1,026,983)
15-64 years: 56% (male 1,483,089; female 1,473,372)
65 years and over: 5% (male 113,298; female 132,306) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.68% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 32.21 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.29 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 37.39 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.23 years
male: 70.27 years
female: 74.29 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.26 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Paraguayan(s)
adjective: Paraguayan

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Spanish and Amerindian) 95%, white plus
Amerindian 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Mennonite and other Protestant
denominations

Languages: Spanish (official), Guarani

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.1%
male: 93.5%
female: 90.6% (1995 est.)

@Paraguay:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Paraguay
conventional short form: Paraguay
local long form: Republica del Paraguay
local short form: Paraguay

Data code: PA

Government type: republic

National capital: Asuncion

Administrative divisions: 18 departments (departamentos,
singular-departamento); Alto Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amambay, Asuncion,
Boqueron, Caaguazu, Caazapa, Canindeyu, Central, Concepcion,
Cordillera, Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, Neembucu, Paraguari, Presidente
Hayes, San Pedro

Independence: 14 May 1811 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Days, 14-15 May (1811)

Constitution: promulgated 20 June 1992

Legal system: based on Argentine codes, Roman law, and French codes;
judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice; does
not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory up to age 60

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Juan Carlos WASMOSY (since 15 August 1993)
and Vice President Roberto Angel SEIFART (since 15 August 1993);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Juan Carlos WASMOSY (since 15 August
1993) and Vice President Roberto Angel SEIFART (since 15 August 1993);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 9 May 1993 (next
to be held 10 May 1998)
election results: Juan Carlos WASMOSY elected president; percent of
vote-Juan Carlos WASMOSY 40.09%, Domingo LAINO 32.06%, Guillermo
CABALLERO VARGAS 23.04%

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the
Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (45 seats; members are
elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Chamber of
Deputies or Camara de Diputados (80 seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators-last held 9 May 1993 (next to be held
10 May 1998); Chamber of Deputies-last held 9 May 1993 (next to be
held 10 May 1998)
election results: Chamber of Senators-percent of vote by party-NA;
seats by party - Colorado Party 20, PLRA 17, EN 8; Chamber of
Deputies-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-Colorado Party
38, PLRA 33, EN 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia),
judges appointed on the proposal of the Counsel of Magistrates
(Consejo de la Magistratura)

Political parties and leaders: Colorado Party, Luis Maria ARGANA,
president; Authentic Radical Liberal Party (PLRA), Domingo LAINO;
National Encounter (EN), Carlos FILIZZOLA; Christian Democratic Party
(PDC), Miguel MONTANER; Febrerista Revolutionary Party (PRF), Victor
SANCHEZ Villagra; Popular Democratic Party (PDP), Hugo Richer

Political pressure groups and leaders: Unitary Workers Central (CUT);
Roman Catholic Church; National Workers Central (CNT); Paraguayan
Workers Confederation (CPT)

International organization participation: AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU,
LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jorge G. Andres PRIETO CONTI
chancery: 2400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-6960 through 6962
FAX: [1] (202) 234-4508
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Maura A. HARTY
embassy: 1776 Avenida Mariscal Lopez, Casilla Postal 402, Asuncion
mailing address: Unit 4711, APO AA 34036-0001
telephone: [595] (21) 213-715
FAX: [595] (21) 213-728

Flag description: three equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and blue with an emblem centered in the white band; unusual flag in
that the emblem is different on each side; the obverse (hoist side at
the left) bears the national coat of arms (a yellow five-pointed star
within a green wreath capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all
within two circles); the reverse (hoist side at the right) bears the
seal of the treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of Liberty and the
words Paz y Justicia (Peace and Justice) capped by the words REPUBLICA
DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles)

@Paraguay:Economy

Economy-overview: Paraguay has a market economy marked by a large
informal sector. The informal sector features both reexport of
imported consumer goods (electronics, whiskeys, perfumes, cigarettes,
and office equipment) to neighboring countries as well as the
activities of thousands of microenterprises and urban street vendors.
The formal sector is largely oriented toward services. A large
percentage of the population derive their living from agricultural
activity, often on a subsistence basis. The formal economy has grown
an average of about 3% over the past five years. However, population
has increased at about the same rate over the same period, leaving per
capita income nearly stagnant. The WASMOSY government has continued to
pursue its economic reform agenda, albeit with limited success because
of in-fighting in the ruling party and resistance from the opposition.
Paraguay's ongoing integration into Mercosur (the Southern Cone Common
Market) offers potential for investment and growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$21.9 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.6% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$3,900 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 26.4%
industry: 24.9%
services: 48.7% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 6.2% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 1.8 million (1995 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 45%

Unemployment rate: 8.2% (urban) (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.25 billion
expenditures: $1.66 billion, including capital expenditures of $357
million (1995 est.)

Industries: meat packing, oilseed crushing, milling, brewing,
textiles, other light consumer goods, cement, construction

Industrial production growth rate: 5.1% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 6.533 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 40.05 billion kWh (1995)
note: exported about 36.96 billion kWh of electricity to Brazil

Electricity-consumption per capita: 577 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cotton, sugarcane, soybeans, corn, wheat,
tobacco, cassava (tapioca), fruits, vegetables; beef, pork, eggs,
milk; timber

Exports:
total value: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: cotton, soybeans, timber, vegetable oils, meat products,
coffee, tung oil
partners: Brazil 48%, Netherlands 22%, Argentina 9%, US 4%, Uruguay
3%, Chile 2% (1997)

Imports:
total value: $2.5 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: capital goods, consumer goods, foodstuffs, raw materials,
fuels
partners: Brazil 29%, US 22%, Argentina 14%, Hong Kong 9% (1995)

Debt-external: $1.3 billion (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $38 million (1993)

Currency: 1 guarani (G) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: guaranies (G) per US$-2,528.8 (January 1998), 2,191.0
(1997), 2,062.8 (1996), 1,970.4 (1995), 1,911.5 (1994), 1,744.3 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 88,730 (1985 est.)

Telephone system: meager telephone service; principal switching center
is Asuncion
domestic: fair microwave radio relay network
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 40, FM 0, shortwave 7

Radios: 775,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 5

Televisions: 370,000 (1992 est.)

@Paraguay:Transportation

Railways:
total: 971 km
standard gauge: 441 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 60 km 1.000-m gauge
other gauge: 470 km various gauges (privately owned)

Highways:
total: 29,500 km
paved: 2,803 km
unpaved: 26,697 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 3,100 km

Ports and harbors: Asuncion, Villeta, San Antonio, Encarnacion

Merchant marine:
total: 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 26,442 GRT/32,510 DWT
ships by type: cargo 14, chemical tanker 1, oil tanker 3,
roll-on/roll-off 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 948 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 10
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 938
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 29
914 to 1,523 m: 353
under 914 m: 555 (1997 est.)

@Paraguay:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Air and Marines), Air
Force

Military manpower-military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,274,297 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 921,323 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 53,514 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $94 million (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 0.6% (1994)

@Paraguay:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: short section of the boundary with Brazil,
just west of Salto del Guaira (Guaira Falls) on the Rio Parana, has
not been precisely delimited

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug
trade; transshipment country for Bolivian cocaine headed for Europe
and the US

______________________________________________________________________

PERU

@Peru:Geography

Location: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean,
between Chile and Ecuador

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 76 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 1,285,220 sq km
land: 1.28 million sq km
water: 5,220 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries:
total: 6,940 km
border countries: Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km,
Colombia 2,900 km, Ecuador 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,414 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west

Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in
center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m

Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron
ore, coal, phosphate, potash

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 21%
forests and woodland: 66%
other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild
volcanic activity

Environment-current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of the slopes
of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air
pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from
municipal and mining wastes

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest
navigable lake, with Bolivia

@Peru:People

Population: 26,111,110 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (male 4,745,363; female 4,589,017)
15-64 years: 60% (male 7,856,414; female 7,752,085)
65 years and over: 4% (male 535,566; female 632,665) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.97% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 26.69 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.81 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 43.42 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.97 years
male: 67.78 years
female: 72.25 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.31 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian

Ethnic groups: Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white)
37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic

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