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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
noun: Niuean(s)
adjective: Niuean

Ethnic groups: Polynesian (with some 200 Europeans, Samoans, and
Tongans)

Religions: Ekalesia Niue (Niuean Church) 75%-a Protestant church
closely related to the London Missionary Society, Latter-Day Saints
10%, other 15% (mostly Roman Catholic, Jehovah's Witnesses,
Seventh-Day Adventist)

Languages: Polynesian closely related to Tongan and Samoan, English

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: 95%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Niue:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Niue

Data code: NE

Dependency status: self-governing in free association with New
Zealand; Niue fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand
retains responsibility for external affairs

Government type: self-governing parliamentary democracy

National capital: Alofi

Administrative divisions: none; note-there are no first-order
administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there
are 14 villages each with its own village council whose members are
elected and serve three-year terms

Independence: on 19 October 1974, Niue became a self-governing
parliamentary government in free association with New Zealand

National holiday: Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840) (Treaty of Waitangi
established British sovereignty)

Constitution: 19 October 1974 (Niue Constitution Act)

Legal system: English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952);
the queen and New Zealand are represented by New Zealand High
Commissioner Warren SEARELL (since NA August 1993)
head of government: Premier Frank Fakaotimanava LUI (since 12 March
1993)
cabinet: Cabinet consists of the premier and three ministers
elections: the queen is a hereditary monarch; premier elected by the
Legislative Assembly for a three-year term; election last held 23
February 1996 (next to be held NA March 1999)
election results: Frank Fakaotimanava LUI elected premier; percent of
Legislative Assembly vote-NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (20 seats; members
elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; six elected from a
common roll and 14 are village representatives)
elections: last held 23 February 1996 (next to be held NA March 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-NPP 9,
independents 11

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of New Zealand; High Court of Niue

Political parties and leaders: Niue People's Action Party (NPP), Young
VIVIAN

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing territory in
free association with New Zealand)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing territory
in free association with New Zealand)

Flag description: yellow with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant; the flag of the UK bears five yellow five-pointed
stars-a large one on a blue disk in the center and a smaller one on
each arm of the bold red cross

@Niue:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy is heavily dependent on aid from New
Zealand and remittances as Niue has no indigenous export product.
Government expenditures regularly exceed revenues, with the shortfall
made up by grants from New Zealand; the grants are used to pay wages
to public employees. Niue cut government expenditures in 1994-96 by
reducing the public service by almost half. The agricultural sector
consists mainly of subsistence gardening, although some cash crops are
grown for export. Industry consists primarily of small factories to
process passion fruit, lime oil, honey, and coconut cream. The sale of
postage stamps to foreign collectors is an important source of
revenue. The island in recent years has suffered a serious loss of
population because of migration of Niueans to New Zealand. A small
tourist industry is developing.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$2.4 million (1993 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,200 (1993 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 5% (1992)

Labor force:
total: 450 (1992 est.)
by occupation: most work on family plantations; paid work exists only
in government service, small industry, and the Niue Development Board

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $5.5 million
expenditures: $6.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1985 est.)

Industries: tourism, handicrafts, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 1,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 3 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,633 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coconuts, passion fruit, honey, limes, taro,
yams, cassava (tapioca), sweet potatoes; pigs, poultry, beef cattle

Exports:
total value: $117,500 (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities: canned coconut cream, copra, honey, passion fruit
products, pawpaw, root crops, limes, footballs, stamps, handicrafts
partners: NZ 89%, Fiji, Cook Islands, Australia

Imports:
total value: $4.1 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities: food, live animals, manufactured goods, machinery, fuels,
lubricants, chemicals, drugs
partners: NZ 59%, Fiji 20%, Japan 13%, Samoa, Australia, US

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $5.9 million from NZ (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1-1.7283 (January
1998), 1.5082 (1997), 1.4543 (1996), 1.5235 (1995), 1.6844 (1994),
1.8495 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 276 (1992 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: single-line telephone system connects all villages on island
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1987 est.)

Radios: 1,000

Television broadcast stations: 0
note: there is cable television

Televisions: 312 (1991 est.)

@Niue:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 234 km
paved: 0 km
unpaved: 234 km

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Niue:Military

Military branches: Police Force

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

@Niue:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

NORFOLK ISLAND

(territory of Australia)

@Norfolk Island:Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of
Australia

Geographic coordinates: 29 02 S, 167 57 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 34.6 sq km
land: 34.6 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 32 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: subtropical, mild, little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: volcanic formation with mostly rolling plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Bates 319 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 75% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons (especially May to July)

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

@Norfolk Island:People

Population: 2,179 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: -0.69% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
noun: Norfolk Islander(s)
adjective: Norfolk Islander(s)

Ethnic groups: descendants of the Bounty mutineers, Australian, New
Zealander, Polynesians

Religions: Anglican 39%, Roman Catholic 11.7%, Uniting Church in
Australia 16.4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 4.4%, none 9.2%, unknown 16.9%,
other 2.4% (1986)

Languages: English (official), Norfolk a mixture of 18th century
English and ancient Tahitian

@Norfolk Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of Norfolk Island
conventional short form: Norfolk Island

Data code: NF

Dependency status: territory of Australia; Canberra administers
Commonwealth responsibilities on Norfolk Island through the Department
of Environment, Sport and Territories

Government type: NA

National capital: Kingston (administrative center); Burnt Pine
(commercial center)

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: Pitcairners Arrival Day Anniversary, 8 June (1856)

Constitution: Norfolk Island Act of 1979

Legal system: based on the laws of Australia, local ordinances and
acts; English common law applies in matters not covered by either
Australian or Norfolk Island law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952);
the queen and Australia are represented by Administrator A.J. MESSNER
(since NA)
head of government: Assembly President and Chief Minister David
Earnest BUFFETT (since NA 1995)
cabinet: Executive Council is made up of four of the nine members of
the Legislative Assembly; the council devises government policy and
acts as an advisor to the Administrator
elections: the queen is a hereditary monarch; administrator appointed
by the governor general of Australia; chief minister elected by the
Legislative Assembly for a term of not more than three years; election
last held NA May 1995 (next to be held NA May 1998)
election results: David Earnest BUFFETT elected chief minister;
percent of Legislative Assembly vote-NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (9 seats; members
elected by electors who have nine equal votes each but only four votes
can be given to any one candidate; members serve three-year terms)
elections: last held NA May 1995 (next to be held NA May 1998)
election results: percent of vote-NA; seats-independents 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Petty Sessions

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: three vertical bands of green (hoist side), white,
and green with a large green Norfolk Island pine tree centered in the
slightly wider white band

@Norfolk Island:Economy

Economy-overview: The primary economic activity is tourism, which has
brought a level of prosperity unusual among inhabitants of the Pacific
islands. The number of visitors has increased steadily over the years
and reached 28,000 in FY92/93. Revenues from tourism have helped the
agricultural sector to become self-sufficient in the production of
beef, poultry, and eggs.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$NA

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$NA

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 1,395 (1991 est.)
by occupation: tourism NA%, subsistence agriculture NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $4.6 million
expenditures: $4.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY92/93)

Industries: tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: NA kW

Electricity-production: NA kWh

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture-products: Norfolk Island pine seed, Kentia palm seed,
cereals, vegetables, fruit; cattle, poultry

Exports:
total value: $1.5 million (f.o.b., FY91/92)
commodities: postage stamps, seeds of the Norfolk Island pine and
Kentia palm, small quantities of avocados
partners: Australia, other Pacific island countries, NZ, Asia, Europe

Imports:
total value: $17.9 million (c.i.f., FY91/92)
commodities: NA
partners: Australia, other Pacific island countries, NZ, Asia, Europe

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1-1.5281 (January
1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3667 (1994),
1.4704 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 1,087 (1983 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: radiotelephone service with Sydney (Australia)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 2,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 1,500 (1995 est.)

@Norfolk Island:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 80 km
paved: 53 km
unpaved: 27 km

Ports and harbors: none; loading jetties at Kingston and Cascade

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Norfolk Island:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of Australia

@Norfolk Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS

(commonwealth in political union with the US)

@Northern Mariana Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the North Pacific Ocean, about
three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to the Philippines

Geographic coordinates: 15 12 N, 145 45 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 477 sq km
land: 477 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes 14 islands including Saipan, Rota, and Tinian

Area-comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,482 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; moderated by northeast trade winds, little
seasonal temperature variation; dry season December to June, rainy
season July to October

Terrain: southern islands are limestone with level terraces and
fringing coral reefs; northern islands are volcanic

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Agrihan 965 m

Natural resources: arable land, fish

Land use:
arable land: 21%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: 19%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: active volcanoes on Pagan and Agrihan; typhoons
(especially August to November)

Environment-current issues: contamination of groundwater on Saipan may
contribute to disease; clean-up of landfill; protection of endangered
species conflicts with development

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean

@Northern Mariana Islands:People

Population: 66,561 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24% (male 8,110; female 7,869)
15-64 years: 74% (male 23,847; female 25,659)
65 years and over: 2% (male 518; female 558) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 4.2% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 22.81 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 2.28 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 21.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.53 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.82 years
male: 72.76 years
female: 79.08 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.89 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: NA
adjective: NA

Ethnic groups: Chamorro, Carolinians and other Micronesians,
Caucasian, Japanese, Chinese, Korean

Religions: Christian (Roman Catholic majority, although traditional
beliefs and taboos may still be found)

Languages: English, Chamorro, Carolinian
note: 86% of population speaks a language other than English at home

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 97%
female: 96% (1980 est.)

@Northern Mariana Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
conventional short form: Northern Mariana Islands

Data code: CQ

Dependency status: commonwealth in political union with the US;
federal funds to the Commonwealth administered by the US Department of
the Interior, Office of Insular Affairs

Government type: commonwealth; self-governing with locally elected
governor, lieutenant governor, and legislature

National capital: Saipan

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: none (commonwealth in political union with the US)

National holiday: Commonwealth Day, 8 January (1978)

Constitution: Covenant Agreement effective 4 November 1986 and the
Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

Legal system: based on US system except for customs, wages,
immigration laws, and taxation

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; indigenous inhabitants are US
citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of the US William Jefferson CLINTON (since
20 January 1993); Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January
1993)
head of government: Governor Pedro P. TENORIO (since NA January 1998)
and Lieutenant Governor Jesus R. SABLAN (since NA January 1998)
cabinet: NA
elections: governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket
by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held in NA November
1997 (next to be held NA November 2001)
election results: Pedro P. TENORIO elected governor of Northern
Mariana Islands in three-way race; percent of vote-Pedro P. TENORIO
(Republican) 47%

Legislative branch: bicameral Legislature consists of the Senate (9
seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year
staggered terms) and the House of Representatives (18 seats; members
are elected by popular vote to serve two-year terms)
elections: Senate-last held NA November 1997 (next to be held NA
November 1999); House of Representatives-last held NA November 1997
(next to be held NA November 1999)
election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-NA (Republicans retained a majority of the seats); House of
Representatives-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-NA
(Republicans retained a majority of the seats)
note: the Commonwealth does not have a nonvoting delegate in Congress;
instead, it has an elected official or "resident representative"
located in Washington, DC; seats by party-Republican 1 (Juan N.
BABAUTA)

Judicial branch: Commonwealth Supreme Court; Superior Court; Federal
District Court

Political parties and leaders: Republican Party, Benigno R. FITIAL,
leader; Democratic Party, chairman (currently vacant)

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), SPC

Flag description: blue with a white five-pointed star superimposed on
the gray silhouette of a latte stone (a traditional foundation stone
used in building) in the center, surrounded by a wreath

@Northern Mariana Islands:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy benefits substantially from financial
assistance from the US. The rate of funding has declined as locally
generated government revenues have grown. An agreement for the years
1986 to 1992 entitled the islands to $228 million for capital
development, government operations, and special programs. Since 1992,
funding has been extended one year at a time. The commonwealth
received $27.7 million from FY93/94 through FY95/96. For FY96/97
through FY02/03, funding of $11 million will be provided for
infrastructure, with an equal local match. A rapidly growing chief
source of income is the tourist industry, which now employs about 50%
of the work force. Japanese tourists predominate. The agricultural
sector is of minor importance and is made up of cattle ranches and
small farms producing coconuts, breadfruit, tomatoes, and melons.
Garment production is the fastest growing industry with employment of
12,000 mostly Chinese workers and shipments of $800 million to the US
in 1997 under duty and quota exemptions.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$524 million (1994 est.)
note: GDP numbers reflect US spending

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$10,500 (1994 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 6.5% (1994 est.)

Labor force:
total: 7,476 total indigenous labor force; 2,699 unemployed; 22,560
foreign workers (1995)
by occupation: NA

Unemployment rate: 14% (residents)

Budget:
revenues: $190.4 million
expenditures: $190.4 million, including capital expenditures of $19.1
million (FY94/95)

Industries: tourism, construction, garments, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: NA kW

Electricity-production: NA kWh

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture-products: coconuts, fruits, vegetables; cattle

Exports: NA
commodities: garments
partners: NA

Imports: NA
commodities: food, construction equipment and materials, petroleum
products
partners: US, Japan

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Communications

Telephones: 13,618 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3

Radios: 15,460 (1995 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1
note: there is 1 cable TV station

Televisions: 15,460 (1995 est.)

@Northern Mariana Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 362 km (1991 est.)
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Saipan, Tinian

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 5 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Northern Mariana Islands:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@Northern Mariana Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

NORWAY

@Norway:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden

Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 324,220 sq km
land: 307,860 sq km
water: 16,360 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 2,515 km
border countries: Finland 729 km, Sweden 1,619 km, Russia 167 km

Coastline: 21,925 km (includes mainland 3,419 km, large islands 2,413
km, long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 16,093
km)

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 10 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate: temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current;
colder interior; rainy year-round on west coast

Terrain: glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken
by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented
by fjords; arctic tundra in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m
highest point: Glittertinden 2,472 m

Natural resources: petroleum, copper, natural gas, pyrites, nickel,
iron ore, zinc, lead, fish, timber, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 27%
other: 70% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 970 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: water pollution; acid rain damaging
forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air
pollution from vehicle emissions

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off
its much indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes
and air routes in North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest
coastlines in world; Norway only NATO member having a land boundary
with Russia

@Norway:People

Population: 4,419,955 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20% (male 444,373; female 420,940)
15-64 years: 65% (male 1,454,733; female 1,407,395)
65 years and over: 15% (male 288,056; female 404,458) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.44% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 12.9 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 10.17 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.01 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.23 years
male: 75.42 years
female: 81.21 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Norwegian(s)
adjective: Norwegian

Ethnic groups: Germanic (Nordic, Alpine, Baltic), Lapps (Sami) 20,000

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 87.8% (state church), other Protestant
and Roman Catholic 3.8%, none 3.2%, unknown 5.2% (1980)

Languages: Norwegian (official)
note: small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1976 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Norway:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway
conventional short form: Norway
local long form: Kongeriket Norge
local short form: Norge

Data code: NO

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Oslo

Administrative divisions: 19 provinces (fylker, singular-fylke);
Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og
Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland,
Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold

Dependent areas: Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard

Independence: 26 October 1905 (from Sweden)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)

Constitution: 17 May 1814, modified in 1884

Legal system: mixture of customary law, civil law system, and common
law traditions; Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature
when asked; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent
Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS (born 20 July 1973)
head of government: Prime Minister Kjell Magne BONDEVIK (since 15
October 1997)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the king with the approval of the
Parliament
elections: none; the king is a hereditary monarch; following
parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of
a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the king
with the approval of the Parliament

Legislative branch: modified unicameral Parliament or Storting which,
for certain purposes, divides itself into two chambers (165 seats;
members are elected by popular vote by proportional representation to
serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 15 September 1997 (next to be held NA September
2001)
election results: percent of vote by party-Labor 35%, Center Party
7.9%, Conservatives 14.3%, Christian People's 13.7%, Socialist Left
6%, Progress 15.3%, Liberal Party 4.4%, other parties 1.6%; seats by
party-Labor 65, Center Party 11, Conservatives 23, Christian People's
25, Socialist Left 9, Progress 25, Liberal Party 6, other parties 1
note: for certain purposes, the Parliament divides itself into two
chambers and elects one-fourth of its membership to an upper house or
Lagting; the 39-member Saami assembly has advisory functions on
regional control of natural resources and decision-making capacity on
matters relating to the preservation of the Saami culture

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Hoyesterett, justices appointed by
the king

Political parties and leaders: Labor Party [Thorbjorn JAGLAND];
Conservative Party [Jan PETERSEN]; Center Party [Anne ENGER
LAHNSTEIN]; Christian People's Party [Valgerd HAUGLAND]; Socialist
Left [Kjellbjoerg LUNDE]; Norwegian Communist [Kare Andre NILSEN];
Progress Party [Carl I. HAGEN]; Liberal [Odd Einar DORUM]; Left Party;
Red Electoral Alliance [Erling FOLKVORD]

International organization participation: AfDB,AsDB, Australia Group,
BIS, CBSS, CCC,CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUA, MTCR,
NAM (guest), NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCRO,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNTSO,
UPU, WEU (associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Tom-Erik VRAALSON
chancery: 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-6000
FAX: [1] (202) 337-0870
consulate(s) general: Houston, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, and San
Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador David HERMELIN
embassy: Drammensveien 18, 0244 Oslo
mailing address: PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 09707
telephone: [47] 22 44 85 50
FAX: [47] 22 44 33 63

Flag description: red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends
to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to
the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

@Norway:Economy

Economy-overview: Norway is a prosperous bastion of welfare
capitalism. The economy consists of a combination of free market
activity and government intervention. The government controls key
areas, such as the vital petroleum sector (through large-scale state
enterprises), and extensively subsidizes agriculture, fishing, and
areas with sparse resources. Norway maintains an extensive welfare
system that helps propel public sector expenditures to more than 50%
of GDP and results in one of the highest average tax levels in the
world. A small country with a high dependence on international trade,
Norway is basically an exporter of raw materials and semiprocessed
goods, with an abundance of small- and medium-sized firms, and is
ranked among the major shipping nations. The country is richly endowed
with natural resources-petroleum, hydropower, fish, forests, and
minerals-and is highly dependent on its oil sector. Only Saudi Arabia
exports more oil than Norway. Norway imports more than half its food
needs. Oslo opted to stay out of the EU during a referendum in
November 1994. Economic growth in 1998 should be about the same as in
1997. Inflation probably will move up toward 3% because of tightness
in labor markets. Despite their high per capita income-outstripped
among major nations only by the US-and their generous welfare
benefits, Norwegians worry about that time in the 21st century when
the oil and gas run out.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$120.5 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$27,400 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 2.9%
industry: 34.7%
services: 62.4% (1991)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2.13 million
by occupation: services 71%, industry 23%, agriculture, forestry, and
fishing 6% (1993)

Unemployment rate: 2.6% (yearend 1997)

Budget:
revenues: $48.6 billion
expenditures: $53 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1994
est.)

Industries: petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and
paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 26.431 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 121.375 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 26,547 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: oats, other grains; beef, milk; livestock output
exceeds value of crops; among world's top 10 fishing nations; fish
catch of 2.33 million metric tons in 1994

Exports:
total value: $49.3 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 43%, metals and products
11%, foodstuffs (mostly fish) 9%, chemicals and raw materials 25%,
natural gas 6.0%, ships 5.4%
partners: EU 77.2% (UK 19.8%, Germany 12.7%, Netherlands 9.1%, France
7.8%, Sweden 9.8%), US 6.0% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $35.1 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery and equipment and manufactured consumer goods
54%, chemicals and other industrial inputs 39%, foodstuffs 6%
partners: EU 71.0% (Sweden 15.4%, Germany 13.8%, UK 9.7%, Denmark
7.5%, Netherlands 4.4%), US 6.6% (1995)

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $1.014 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1-7.4875 (January 1998),
7.0734 (1997), 6.4498 (1996), 6.3352 (1995), 7.0576 (1994), 7.0941
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 2.39 million (1994 est.); 470,000 mobile phones in use in
1994

Telephone system: high-quality domestic and international telephone,
telegraph, and telex services
domestic: NA domestic satellite earth stations
international: 2 buried coaxial cable systems; 4 coaxial submarine
cables; satellite earth stations-NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic
Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions);
note-Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic
countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 46, FM 493 (350 private and 143
government), shortwave 0

Radios: 3.3 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 54 (repeaters 2,100)

Televisions: 1.5 million (1993 est.)

@Norway:Transportation

Railways:
total: 4,023 km
standard gauge: 4,023 km 1.435-m gauge (2,422 km electrified; 96 km
double track) (1996)

Highways:
total: 91,323 km
paved: 65,753 km (including 106 km of expressways)
unpaved: 25,570 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,577 km along west coast; 2.4 m draft vessels maximum

Pipelines: refined products 53 km

Ports and harbors: Bergen, Drammen, Floro, Hammerfest, Harstad,
Haugesund, Kristiansand, Larvik, Narvik, Oslo, Porsgrunn, Stavanger,
Tromso, Trondheim

Merchant marine:
total: 762 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,042,709
GRT/33,839,476 DWT
ships by type: bulk 102, cargo 128, chemical tanker 91, combination
bulk 9, combination ore/oil 38, container 18, liquefied gas tanker 91,
multi-function large load carrier 1, oil tanker 145, passenger 13,
passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 13, roll-on/roll-off cargo 52,
short-sea passenger 23, vehicle carrier 37
note: the government has created an internal register, the Norwegian
International Ship register (NIS), as a subset of the Norwegian
register; ships on the NIS enjoy many benefits of flags of convenience
and do not have to be crewed by Norwegians (1997 est.)

Airports: 102 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 65
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 28 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 37
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 32 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Norway:Military

Military branches: Norwegian Army, Royal Norwegian Navy (includes
Coast Artillery and Coast Guard), Royal Norwegian Air Force, Home
Guard

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,107,727 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 921,368 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 27,406 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $3.7 billion (1995)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.9% (1995)

@Norway:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud
Land); Svalbard is the focus of a maritime boundary dispute in the
Barents Sea between Norway and Russia

Illicit drugs: minor transshipment point for drugs shipped via the CIS
and Baltic states for the European market; increasing domestic
consumption of cannabis and amphetamines

______________________________________________________________________

OMAN

@Oman:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and
Persian Gulf, between Yemen and UAE

Geographic coordinates: 21 00 N, 57 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 212,460 sq km
land: 212,460 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries:
total: 1,374 km
border countries: Saudi Arabia 676 km, UAE 410 km, Yemen 288 km

Coastline: 2,092 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong
southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south

Terrain: vast central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and
south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal ash Sham 2,980 m

Natural resources: petroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble,
limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 95% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 580 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: summer winds often raise large sandstorms and dust
storms in interior; periodic droughts

Environment-current issues: rising soil salinity; beach pollution from
oil spills; very limited natural fresh water resources

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: strategic location with small foothold on Musandam
Peninsula adjacent to Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for
world crude oil

@Oman:People

Population: 2,363,591 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 41% (male 488,244; female 469,831)
15-64 years: 57% (male 835,872; female 514,236)
65 years and over: 2% (male 28,966; female 26,442) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.45% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 37.83 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 4.37 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.63 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.1 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 25.55 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.02 years
male: 69.04 years
female: 73.1 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.13 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Omani(s)
adjective: Omani

Ethnic groups: Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri
Lankan, Bangladeshi), African

Religions: Ibadhi Muslim 75%, Sunni Muslim, Shi'a Muslim, Hindu

Languages: Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: approaching 80%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Oman:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Sultanate of Oman
conventional short form: Oman
local long form: Saltanat Uman
local short form: Uman

Data code: MU

Government type: monarchy

National capital: Muscat

Administrative divisions: 6 regions (mintaqah, singular-mintaqat) and
2 governorates* (muhafazah, singular-muhafazat) Ad Dakhiliyah, Al
Batinah, Al Wusta, Ash Sharqiyah, Az Zahirah, Masqat, Musandam*,
Zufar*

Independence: 1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese)

National holiday: National Day, 18 November (1940)

Constitution: none; note-on 6 November 1996, Sultan QABOOS issued a
royal decree promulgating a new basic law which, among other things,
clarifies the royal succession, provides for a prime minister, bars
ministers from holding interests in companies doing business with the
government, establishes a bicameral Omani council, and guarantees
basic civil liberties for Omani citizens

Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law; ultimate
appeal to the sultan; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: limited to approximately 50,000 Omanis chosen by the
government to vote in elections for the Majlis ash-Shura

Executive branch:
chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al Said
(since 23 July 1970); note-the sultan is both the chief of state and
head of government
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al Said
(since 23 July 1970); note-the sultan is both the chief of state and
head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the sultan
elections: none; the sultan is a hereditary monarch

Legislative branch: bicameral Majlis Oman consists of an upper chamber
or Majlis ad-Dawla (41 seats; members appointed by the Sultan; has
advisory powers only) and a lower chamber or Majlis ash-Shura (82
seats; members elected by limited suffrage, however, the Sultan makes
final selections and can negate election results; body has some
limited power to propose legislation, but otherwise has only advisory
powers)
elections: last held NA October 1997 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: NA

Judicial branch: none; traditional Islamic judges and a nascent civil
court system, administered by region

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF,
ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM,
OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
(applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Abdallah bin Muhammad bin Aqil al-DHAHAB
chancery: 2535 Belmont Road, NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-1980 through 1982, 1988
FAX: [1] (202) 745-4933

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Frances D. COOK
embassy: Jameat A'Duwal Al Arabiya Street, Al Khuwair area, Muscat
mailing address: domestic: Unit 73000, Box 1, APO AE 09890-3000;
international: P. O. Box 202, Code No. 115, Medinat Qaboos, Muscat
telephone: [968] 698989 (Medinat Qaboos, switchboard)
FAX: [968] 699779

Flag description: three horizontal bands of white, red, and green of
equal width with a broad, vertical, red band on the hoist side; the
national emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath superimposed on two
crossed swords in scabbards) in white is centered at the top of the
vertical band

@Oman:Economy

Economy-overview: Economic performance is closely tied to the fortunes
of the oil industry. Petroleum accounts for 75% of export earnings and
government revenues and for roughly 40% of GDP. Oman has proved oil
reserves of 4 billion barrels, equivalent to about 20 years'
production at the current rate of extraction. Agriculture is carried
on at a subsistence level and the general population depends on
imported food. The year 1996 was marked by higher oil production and
prices. The government is encouraging private investment, both
domestic and foreign, as a prime force for further economic
development.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$17.2 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$8,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 3%
industry: 43%
services: 54% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 780,500 (1997 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 37% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $5.2 billion
expenditures: $6 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.3
billion (1998 est.)

Industries: crude oil production and refining, natural gas production,
construction, cement, copper

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1994 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 1.744 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 7.8 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 3,670 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: dates, limes, bananas, alfalfa, vegetables;
camels, cattle; annual fish catch averages 100,000 metric tons

Exports:
total value: $7.6 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: petroleum 75%, reexports, fish, processed copper,
textiles
partners: Japan 29%, South Korea 17%, China 12%, Thailand 11%, US 7%
(1996)

Imports:
total value: $4.8 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods,
food, livestock, lubricants
partners: UAE 22% (largely reexports), Japan 15%, UK 15%, France 6%,
US 5% (1996)

Debt-external: $3 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $82 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Omani rial (RO) = 1,000 baiza

Exchange rates: Omani rials (RO) per US$1-0.3845 (fixed rate since
1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 150,000 (1994 est.)

Telephone system: modern system consisting of open wire, microwave,
and radiotelephone communication stations; limited coaxial cable
domestic: open wire, microwave, radiotelephone communications, and a
domestic satellite system with 8 earth stations
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and
1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 1

Radios: 1.043 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9

Televisions: 1.195 million (1992 est.)

@Oman:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 32,800 km
paved: 9,840 km (including 550 km of expressways)
unpaved: 22,960 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,300 km; natural gas 1,030 km

Ports and harbors: Matrah, Mina' al Fahl, Mina' Raysut

Merchant marine:
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,306 GRT/8,210 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, passenger 1, passenger-cargo 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 138 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 132
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 57
914 to 1,523 m: 32
under 914 m: 35 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Oman:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary (includes Royal
Oman Police)

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 740,901 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 414,528 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: NA

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $1.82 billion (1996)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 13.7% (1996)

@Oman:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: no defined boundary with most of UAE, but
Administrative Line in far north

______________________________________________________________________

PACIFIC OCEAN

@Pacific Ocean:Geography

Location: body of water between Antarctica, Asia, Australia, and the
Western Hemisphere

Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N, 160 00 W

Map references: World

Area:
total: 165.384 million sq km
note: includes Bali Sea, Bellingshausen Sea, Bering Sea, Bering
Strait, Coral Sea, East China Sea, Flores Sea, Gulf of Alaska, Gulf of
Tonkin, Java Sea, Philippine Sea, Ross Sea, Savu Sea, Sea of Japan,
Sea of Okhotsk, South China Sea, Tasman Sea, Timor Sea, and other
tributary water bodies

Area-comparative: about 18 times the size of the US; the largest ocean
(followed by the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Arctic
Ocean); covers about one-third of the global surface; larger than the
total land area of the world

Coastline: 135,663 km

Climate: planetary air pressure systems and resultant wind patterns
exhibit remarkable uniformity in the south and east; trade winds and
westerly winds are well-developed patterns, modified by seasonal
fluctuations; tropical cyclones (hurricanes) may form south of Mexico
from June to October and affect Mexico and Central America;
continental influences cause climatic uniformity to be much less
pronounced in the eastern and western regions at the same latitude in
the North Pacific Ocean; the western Pacific is monsoonal-a rainy
season occurs during the summer months, when moisture-laden winds blow
from the ocean over the land, and a dry season during the winter
months, when dry winds blow from the Asian land mass back to the
ocean; tropical cyclones (typhoons) may strike southeast and East Asia
from May to December

Terrain: surface currents in the northern Pacific are dominated by a
clockwise, warm-water gyre (broad circular system of currents) and in
the southern Pacific by a counterclockwise, cool-water gyre; in the
northern Pacific, sea ice forms in the Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk
in winter; in the southern Pacific, sea ice from Antarctica reaches
its northernmost extent in October; the ocean floor in the eastern
Pacific is dominated by the East Pacific Rise, while the western
Pacific is dissected by deep trenches, including the Mariana Trench,
which is the world's deepest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mariana Trench -10,924 m
highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, polymetallic nodules, sand and
gravel aggregates, placer deposits, fish

Natural hazards: surrounded by a zone of violent volcanic and
earthquake activity sometimes referred to as the "Pacific Ring of
Fire"; subject to tropical cyclones (typhoons) in southeast and east
Asia from May to December (most frequent from July to October);
tropical cyclones (hurricanes) may form south of Mexico and strike
Central America and Mexico from June to October (most common in August
and September); southern shipping lanes subject to icebergs from
Antarctica; cyclical El Nino phenomenon occurs off the coast of Peru,
when the trade winds slacken and the warm Equatorial Countercurrent
moves south, killing the plankton that is the primary food source for
anchovies; consequently, the anchovies move to better feeding grounds,
causing resident marine birds to starve by the thousands because of
the loss of their food source; ships subject to superstructure icing
in extreme north from October to May and in extreme south from May to
October; persistent fog in the northern Pacific can be a maritime
hazard from June to December

Environment-current issues: endangered marine species include the
dugong, sea lion, sea otter, seals, turtles, and whales; oil pollution
in Philippine Sea and South China Sea

Environment-international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: the major choke points are the Bering Strait, Panama
Canal, Luzon Strait, and the Singapore Strait; the Equator divides the
Pacific Ocean into the North Pacific Ocean and the South Pacific
Ocean; dotted with low coral islands and rugged volcanic islands in
the southwestern Pacific Ocean

@Pacific Ocean:Government

Data code: none; the US Government has not approved a standard for
hydrographic codes-see the Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Codes
appendix

@Pacific Ocean:Economy

Economy-overview: The Pacific Ocean is a major contributor to the
world economy and particularly to those nations its waters directly
touch. It provides low-cost sea transportation between East and West,
extensive fishing grounds, offshore oil and gas fields, minerals, and
sand and gravel for the construction industry. In 1985 over half (54%)
of the world's fish catch came from the Pacific Ocean, which is the
only ocean where the fish catch has increased every year since 1978.
Exploitation of offshore oil and gas reserves is playing an
ever-increasing role in the energy supplies of Australia, NZ, China,
US, and Peru. The high cost of recovering offshore oil and gas,
combined with the wide swings in world prices for oil since 1985, has
slowed but not stopped new drillings.

Communications

Telephone system:
international: several submarine cables with network nodal points on
Guam and Hawaii

@Pacific Ocean:Transportation

Ports and harbors: Bangkok (Thailand), Hong Kong, Kao-hsiung (Taiwan),
Los Angeles (US), Manila (Philippines), Pusan (South Korea), San
Francisco (US), Seattle (US), Shanghai (China), Singapore, Sydney
(Australia), Vladivostok (Russia), Wellington (NZ), Yokohama (Japan)

@Pacific Ocean:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)

______________________________________________________________________

PAKISTAN

@Pakistan:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on
the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north

Geographic coordinates: 30 00 N, 70 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 803,940 sq km
land: 778,720 sq km
water: 25,220 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:
total: 6,774 km
border countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km,
Iran 909 km

Coastline: 1,046 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in
north

Terrain: flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest;
Balochistan plateau in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m

Natural resources: land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited
petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone

Land use:
arable land: 27%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 6%
forests and woodland: 5%
other: 61% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 171,100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially
in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July
and August)

Environment-current issues: water pollution from raw sewage,
industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh
water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to
potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography-note: controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional
invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

@Pakistan:People

Population: 135,135,195 (July 1998 est.)
note: population figures based on 1981 national census results-1998
census results are pending

Age structure:
0-14 years: 42% (male 29,083,284; female 27,425,172)
15-64 years: 54% (male 37,432,059; female 35,731,170)
65 years and over: 4% (male 2,716,739; female 2,746,771) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 2.2% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 34.38 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 10.69 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.99 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 93.48 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 59.07 years
male: 58.23 years
female: 59.96 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.91 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Pakistani(s)
adjective: Pakistani

Ethnic groups: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir
(immigrants from India and their descendants)

Religions: Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and
other 3%

Languages: Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%,
Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%,
English (official and lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most
government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 37.8%
male: 50%
female: 24.4% (1995 est.)

@Pakistan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
conventional short form: Pakistan
former: West Pakistan

Data code: PK

Government type: federal republic

National capital: Islamabad

Administrative divisions: 4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital
territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*,
Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier, Punjab, Sindh
note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and
Kashmir region includes Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas

Independence: 14 August 1947 (from UK)

National holiday: Pakistan Day, 23 March (1956) (proclamation of the
republic)

Constitution: 10 April 1973, suspended 5 July 1977, restored with
amendments 30 December 1985

Legal system: based on English common law with provisions to
accommodate Pakistan's status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal; separate electorates and
reserved parliamentary seats for non-Muslims and tribal areas

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mohammad Rafiq TARAR (since 31 December
1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Mohammad Nawaz SHARIF (since 17
February 1997)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term;
election last held 31 December 1997 (next to be held no later than 1
January 2002); following legislative elections, the leader of the
majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually elected
prime minister by the National Assembly; election last held 3 February
1997 (next to be held NA February 2002)
election results: Mohammad Rafiq TARAR elected president; percent of
Parliament and provincial vote-NA; Mohammad Nawaz SHARIF elected prime
minister; percent of National Assembly vote-NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists
of the Senate (87 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial
assemblies to serve six-year terms; one-third of the members up for
election every two years) and the National Assembly (217 seats; 207
represent Muslims and 10 represent non-Muslims; members elected by
popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate-last held 12 March 1997 (next to be held NA March
1999); National Assembly-last held 3 February 1997 (next to be held NA
February 2002)
election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-PML/N 30, PPP 17, ANP 7, MQM/A 6, JWP 5, BNP 4, JUI/F 2, PML/J
2, BNM/M 1, PKMAP 1, TJP 1, independents 6, vacant 5; National
Assembly-percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party-PML/N 137, PPP
18, MQM/A 12, ANP 10, BNP 3, JWP 2, JUI/F 2, PPP/SB 1, NPP 1,
independents 21, minorities 10

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judicial chiefs are appointed by the
president; Federal Islamic (Shari'at) Court

Political parties and leaders:
government: Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction (PML/N),
Nawaz SHARIF; Balochistan National Movement/Mengal Group (BNM/M),
Sardar Akhtar MENGAL; Mutahida Qaumi Movement, Altaf faction (MQM/A),
Altaf HUSSAIN; Jamiat-al-Hadith (JAH); Jamhoori Watan Party (JWP),
Akbar Khan BUGTI; Pakistan People's Party/Shaheed Bhutto (PPP/SB),
Ghinva BHUTTO; Baluch National Party (BNP), leader NA
opposition: Pakistan People's Party (PPP), Benazir BHUTTO; Pakistan
Muslim League, Junejo faction (PML/J), Hamid Nasir CHATTHA; National
People's Party (NPP), Ghulam Mustapha JATOI; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami
Party (PKMAP), Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI; Balochistan National
Movement/Hayee Group (BNM/H), Dr. HAYEE Baluch; Pakhtun Quami Party
(PKQP), Mohammed AFZAL Khan; Awami National Party (ANP), Wali KHAN
frequently shifting: Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Niazi faction (JUP/NI);
Pakistan Muslim League, Functional Group (PML/F), Pir PAGARO; Pakistan
National Party (PNP); Milli Yakjheti Council (MYC) is an umbrella
organization which includes Jamaat-i-Islami (JI), Qazi Hussain AHMED,
Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami-ul-Haq faction (JUI/S), Tehrik-I-Jafria
Pakistan (TJP), Allama Sajid NAQVI, and Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan,
Noorani faction (JUP/NO)
note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently; subsequent
to the election Jamiat Ulema-i-Islami, Fazlur Rehman group (JUI/F) was
disbanded

Political pressure groups and leaders: military remains important
political force; ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small
merchants also influential

International organization participation: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ECO,
ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, PCA,
SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH,
UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Riaz KHOKAR
chancery: 2315 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6200
FAX: [1] (202) 387-0484
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas W. SIMONS, Jr.
embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
mailing address: P. O. Box 1048, Unit 62200, APO AE 09812-2200
telephone: [92] (51) 826161 through 826179
FAX: [92] (51) 214222
consulate(s) general: Karachi, Lahore
consulate(s): Peshawar

Flag description: green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the
role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white
crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star,
and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

@Pakistan:Economy

Economy-overview: Pakistan continues to suffer through a damaging
foreign exchange crisis. The crisis stems from years of loose fiscal
policies that exacerbated inflation and allowed the public debt, money
supply, and current account deficit to explode. In April 1997, Prime

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