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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; modified by southeast trade winds; hot, humid

Terrain: coastal plains with interior mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Panie 1,628 m

Natural resources: nickel, chrome, iron, cobalt, manganese, silver,
gold, lead, copper

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 12%
forests and woodland: 39%
other: 49% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons most frequent from November to March

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

@New Caledonia:People

Population: 194,197 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 30% (male 29,423; female 28,320)
15-64 years: 65% (male 63,444; female 62,055)
65 years and over: 5% (male 5,202; female 5,753) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.64% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 21.08 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 4.84 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 12.71 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.01 years
male: 71.75 years
female: 78.44 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.46 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: New Caledonian(s)
adjective: New Caledonian

Ethnic groups: Melanesian 42.5%, European 37.1%, Wallisian 8.4%,
Polynesian 3.8%, Indonesian 3.6%, Vietnamese 1.6%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 60%, Protestant 30%, other 10%

Languages: French, 28 Melanesian-Polynesian dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91%
male: 92%
female: 90% (1976 est.)

@New Caledonia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies
conventional short form: New Caledonia
local long form: Territoire des Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances
local short form: Nouvelle-Caledonie

Data code: NC

Dependency status: overseas territory of France since 1956

Government type: NA

National capital: Noumea

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France); there
are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 3 provinces named Iles Loyaute, Nord, and
Sud

Independence: none (overseas territory of France; a referendum on
independence will be held in 1998)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: the 1988 Matignon Accords grant substantial autonomy to
the islands; formerly under French law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of France Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May
1995), represented by High Commissioner and President of the Council
of Government Dominque BUR (since NA August 1995)
head of government: President of the Territorial Congress Pierre
FROGIER (since 31 July 1995)
cabinet: Consultative Committee
elections: high commissioner appointed by the president of France on
the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the
Territorial Congress elected by the members of the congress

Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Congress or Congres
Territorial (54 seats; members are members of the three Provincial
Assemblies or Assemblees Provinciales elected by popular vote to serve
six-year terms)
elections: last held 9 July 1995 (next to be held NA July 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-RPR 22,
FLNKS 12, UNCT 9, UNI 5, DEPCA 2, FN 2, RCF 2, and other 2
note: New Caledonia elects 1 seat to the French Senate; elections last
held 27 September 1992 (next to be held NA September 2001);
results-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-RPR 1; New
Caledonia also elects 2 seats to the French National Assembly;
elections last held 25 May-1 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002);
results-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party - RPR 2

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel

Political parties and leaders: Progressive Melansian Union or UPM
[Edmond NEKIRIAI]; Melanesian proindependence Kanaka Socialist
National Liberation Front or FLNKS [Rock WAMYTAN]; Melanesian moderate
Kanak Socialist Liberation or LKS [Nidoish NAISSELINE]; National Front
or FN (extreme right) [Guy GEORGE]; Socialist Party of Kanaky or PSK
[Jacques VIOLETTE]; Union Oceanienne or UO (conservative) [Michel
HEMA]; Front de Developpement des Iles Loyautes or FDIL [Cono HAMU];
Union Caledonian or UC [Bernard LEPEU, president]; A New Caledonia for
All or UNCT [Didier LEROUX]; Kanaque Liberation Party or PALIKA [Paul
NEAOUTYINE and Elie POIGOUNE]; New Caledonia National Party [Georges
CHATENEY]; Oceanic Democratic Rally or RDO [Alois SAKO]; Kanaque
Federal Party of OPAO [Gabrielle PAITA and Auguste SIAPO]; Caledonian
Generation [Jean-Raymond POSTIC]; Union des Synicates de Travailleurs
Kanaks Exploites or USTKE [Louis Kotra UREGEY]; Federation for a New
Caledonian Society or FNSC [Jean-Pierre AIFA]; Union to Construct
Independence [Frances POADOUY]; Movement for France or MPF [Claude
SARAAN]; Rally for Caledonia in the Republic or RPCR is a coalition of
5 parties: Union for the Rebirth of Caledonia [Jean-Louis MIR];
Christian Social Democrats-All Ethnic Group Accord [Raymond MURA];
Rally for Caledonia [Jacques LAFLEUR]; Rally of the Republic [Dick
UKEIWE]; Liberal Caledonian Movement [Jean LEQUES]; Union Nationale
pour l'Indepedance or UNI; Developper Ensemble pour construire
l'Avenir or DEPCA; Rassemblement pour une Caledonie dans la France or
RCF

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), FZ,
ICFTU, SPC, WFTU, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of
France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of
France)

Flag description: three horizontal bands, blue (top), red, and green,
with a yellow disk enclosing a black symbol centered to the hoist
side; the flag of France is used for official occasions

@New Caledonia:Economy

Economy-overview: New Caledonia has more than 20% of the world's known
nickel resources. In recent years, the economy has suffered because of
depressed international demand for nickel, the principal source of
export earnings. Only a negligible amount of the land is suitable for
cultivation, and food accounts for about 25% of imports. In addition
to nickel, financial support from France and tourism are key to the
health of the economy. The outlook for 1998 is clouded by the
spillover of financial problems in East Asia and by lower expected
prices for nickel.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1.5 billion (1995 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$8,000 (1995 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 35%
services: 60% (1992 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1.7% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 70,044 (1988)
by occupation: agriculture 32%, industry 20%, services 40%, mining 8%
(1992)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1994)

Budget:
revenues: $755.6 million
expenditures: $755.6 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995 est.)

Industries: nickel mining and smelting

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 253,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 1.145 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 6,204 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: vegetables; beef, other livestock products

Exports:
total value: $500 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: ferronickels, nickel ore
partners: Japan 31%, France 29%, US 12%, Australia 7%, Taiwan 6% (1996
est.)

Imports:
total value: $930 million (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: foods, transport equipment, machinery and electrical
equipment, fuels, minerals
partners: France 45%, Australia 18%, Singapore 7%, New Zealand 6%,
Japan 4% (1996 est.)

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: important support from France

Currency: 1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per
US$1-110.60 (January 1998), 106.11 (1997), 93.00 (1996), 90.75 (1995),
100.93 (1994), 102.96 (1993); note-linked at the rate of 18.18 to the
French franc

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 38,748 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 97,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 7

Televisions: 47,000 (1992 est.)

@New Caledonia:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 5,562 km
paved: 975 km
unpaved: 4,587 km (1993)

Ports and harbors: Mueo, Noumea, Thio

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 30 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 25
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 12 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 7 (1997 est.)

@New Caledonia:Military

Military branches: French Armed Forces (Army, Navy, Air Force,
Gendarmerie); Police Force

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of France

@New Caledonia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Matthew and Hunter Islands claimed by France
and Vanuatu

______________________________________________________________________

NEW ZEALAND

@New Zealand:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of
Australia

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 S, 174 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 268,680 sq km
land: 268,670 sq km
water: 10 sq km
note: includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands,
Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands

Area-comparative: about the size of Colorado

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 15,134 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate with sharp regional contrasts

Terrain: predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Cook 3,764 m

Natural resources: natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber,
hydropower, gold, limestone

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 50%
forests and woodland: 28%
other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,850 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes are common, though usually not severe;
volcanic activity

Environment-current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; native flora
and fauna hard-hit by species introduced from outside

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography-note: about 80% of the population lives in cities

@New Zealand:People

Population: 3,625,388 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (male 427,776; female 407,074)
15-64 years: 65% (male 1,188,468; female 1,181,002)
65 years and over: 12% (male 182,253; female 238,815) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.04% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 14.89 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.6 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.37 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.55 years
male: 74.35 years
female: 80.91 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.91 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: New Zealander(s)
adjective: New Zealand

Ethnic groups: New Zealand European 74.5%, Maori 9.7%, other European
4.6%, Pacific Islander 3.8%, Asian and others 7.4%

Religions: Anglican 24%, Presbyterian 18%, Roman Catholic 15%,
Methodist 5%, Baptist 2%, other Protestant 3%, unspecified or none 33%
(1986)

Languages: English (official), Maori

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1980 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@New Zealand:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: New Zealand
abbreviation: NZ

Data code: NZ

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Wellington

Administrative divisions: 93 counties, 9 districts*, and 3 town
districts**; Akaroa, Amuri, Ashburton, Bay of Islands, Bruce, Buller,
Chatham Islands, Cheviot, Clifton, Clutha, Cook, Dannevirke, Egmont,
Eketahuna, Ellesmere, Eltham, Eyre, Featherston, Franklin, Golden Bay,
Great Barrier Island, Grey, Hauraki Plains, Hawera*, Hawke's Bay,
Heathcote, Hikurangi**, Hobson, Hokianga, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt,
Inangahua, Inglewood, Kaikoura, Kairanga, Kiwitea, Lake, Mackenzie,
Malvern, Manaia**, Manawatu, Mangonui, Maniototo, Marlborough,
Masterton, Matamata, Mount Herbert, Ohinemuri, Opotiki, Oroua,
Otamatea, Otorohanga*, Oxford, Pahiatua, Paparua, Patea, Piako,
Pohangina, Raglan, Rangiora*, Rangitikei, Rodney, Rotorua*, Runanga,
Saint Kilda, Silverpeaks, Southland, Stewart Island, Stratford,
Strathallan, Taranaki, Taumarunui, Taupo, Tauranga,
Thames-Coromandel*, Tuapeka, Vincent, Waiapu, Waiheke, Waihemo,
Waikato, Waikohu, Waimairi, Waimarino, Waimate, Waimate West, Waimea,
Waipa, Waipawa*, Waipukurau*, Wairarapa South, Wairewa, Wairoa,
Waitaki, Waitomo*, Waitotara, Wallace, Wanganui, Waverley**, Westland,
Whakatane*, Whangarei, Whangaroa, Woodville
note: there may be a new administrative structure of 16 regions
(Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Canterbury, Gisborne, Hawke's Bay,
Marlborough, Nelson, Northland, Otago, Southland, Taranaki, Tasman,
Waikato, Wanganui-Manawatu, Wellington, West Coast) that are
subdivided into 57 districts and 16 cities* (Ashburton, Auckland*,
Banks Peninsula, Buller, Carterton, Central Hawke's Bay, Central
Otago, Christchurch*, Clutha, Dunedin*, Far North, Franklin, Gisborne,
Gore, Grey, Hamilton*, Hastings, Hauraki, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt*,
Invercargill*, Kaikoura, Kaipara, Kapiti Coast, Kawerau, Mackenzie,
Manawatu, Manukau*, Marlborough, Masterton, Matamata Piako, Napier*,
Nelson*, New Plymouth, North Shore*, Opotiki, Otorohanga, Palmerston
North*, Papakura*, Porirua*, Queenstown Lakes, Rangitikei, Rodney,
Rotorua, Ruapehu, Selwyn, Southland, South Taranaki, South Waikato,
South Wairarapa, Stratford, Tararua, Tasman, Taupo, Tauranga, Thames
Coromandel, Timaru, Upper Hutt*, Waikato, Waimakariri, Waimate, Waipa,
Wairoa, Waitakere*, Waitaki, Waitomo, Wanganui, Wellington*, Western
Bay of Plenty, Westland, Whakatane, Whangarei)

Dependent areas: Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau

Independence: 26 September 1907 (from UK)

National holiday: Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840) (Treaty of Waitangi
established British sovereignty)

Constitution: no formal, written constitution; consists of various
documents, including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand
Parliaments; Constitution Act 1986 was to have come into force 1
January 1987, but has not been enacted

Legal system: based on English law, with special land legislation and
land courts for Maoris; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Michael HARDIE BOYS (since 21
March 1996)
head of government: Prime Minister Jenny SHIPLEY (since 8 December
1997) and Deputy Prime Minister Winston PETERS (since 16 December
1996); note-SHIPLEY wrested control of the National Party in November
from Prime Minister BOLGER, replacing BOLGER as prime minister in
December
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the
recommendation of the prime minister
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
appointed by the queen; following legislative elections, the leader of
the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually
appointed prime minister by the governor general for a three-year
term; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
note: the government is a coalition of the National Party and the New
Zealand First Party

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives-commonly
called Parliament (120 seats; members elected by popular vote in
single-member constituencies to serve three-year terms)
elections: last held 12 October 1996 (next must be called by October
1999)
election results: percent of vote by party-NP 34.1%, NZLP 28.3%, NZFP
13.1%, Alliance 10.1%, ACT 6.17%, UNZ 0.91%; seats by party-NP 44,
NZLP 37, NZFP 17, Alliance 13, ACT 8, UNZ 1

Judicial branch: High Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: National Party (NP), Jenny SHIPLEY; New
Zealand First Party (NZFP), Winston PETERS; New Zealand Labor Party
(NZLP, opposition), Helen CLARK; Alliance (a coalition of five small
parties-NewLabor Party, Jim ANDERTON; Democratic Party, John WRIGHT;
New Zealand Liberal Party, Frank GROVER; Green Party, Jeanette
FITZSIMONS; and Mana Motuhake, Sandra LEE), codeputy leaders are
Sandra LEE and Jeanette FITZSIMONS; United New Zealand (UNZ), Clive
MATTHEWSON; Conservative Party (formerly Right of Centre Party),
Trevor ROGERS; Association of Consumers and Taxpayers, New Zealand
(ACT), Richard PREBBLE; Christian Coalition (a coalition of the
Christian Democrats and Christian Heritage Party), coleaders Graeme
LEE and Rev. Graham CAPILL

International organization participation: ANZUS (US suspended security
obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, C,
CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MTCR, NAM (guest), OECD, PCA, Sparteca,
SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNPREDEP, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador-designate James BOLGER
chancery: 37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 328-4800
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Josiah Horton BEEMAN
embassy: 29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington
mailing address: P. O. Box 1190, Wellington; PSC 467, Box 1, FPO AP
96531-1001
telephone: [64] (4) 472-2068
FAX: [64] (4) 472-3537
consulate(s) general: Auckland

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in
the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross
constellation

@New Zealand:Economy

Economy-overview: Since 1984 the government has accomplished major
economic restructuring, moving an agrarian economy dependent on a
concessionary British market access toward a more industrialized, free
market economy that can compete globally. This dynamic growth has
boosted real incomes, broadened and deepened the technological
capabilities of the industrial sector, and contained inflationary
pressures. Business confidence strengthened in 1994, and export demand
picked up in the Asia-Pacific region, resulting in 6.2% growth. Growth
continued strong in 1995, but tailed off in 1996-97. Inflation remains
among the lowest in the industrial world. Per capita GDP has been
moving up to the levels of the big West European economies. However,
the Asian economic crisis may slow GDP growth in 1998.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$63.4 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$17,700 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 7.3%
industry: 25.9%
services: 66.8% (1990)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1,634,500 (September 1995)
by occupation: services 64.6%, industry 25.0%, agriculture 10.4%
(1994)

Unemployment rate: 5.9% (December 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $24.1 billion
expenditures: $21.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY95/96 est.)

Industries: food processing, wood and paper products, textiles,
machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism,
mining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 7.747 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 33.696 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 9,889 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits,
vegetables; wool, meat, dairy products; fish catch reached a record
503,000 metric tons in 1988

Exports:
total value: $18.5 billion (1997 est.)
commodities: wool, lamb, mutton, beef, fish, cheese, chemicals,
forestry products, fruits and vegetables, manufactures, dairy
products, wood
partners: Australia 19%, Japan 15%, UK 15%, US 12%

Imports:
total value: $19.2 billion (1997 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles and aircraft,
petroleum, consumer goods, plastics
partners: Australia 21%, US 18%, Japan 16%, UK 6%

Debt-external: $28.5 billion (FY95/96 est.)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $98 million (1993)

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1-1.7283 (January
1998), 1.5083 (1997), 1.4543 (1996), 1.5235 (1995), 1.6844 (1994),
1.8495 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 1.7 million (1986 est.)

Telephone system: excellent international and domestic systems
domestic: NA
international: submarine cables to Australia and Fiji; satellite earth
stations-2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 64, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 3.215 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 14 (1986 est.)

Televisions: 1.53 million (1992 est.)

@New Zealand:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,973 km
narrow gauge: 3,973 km 1.067-m gauge (519 km electrified)

Highways:
total: 92,200 km
paved: 53,568 km (including at least 144 km of expressways)
unpaved: 38,632 km (1994 est.)

Waterways: 1,609 km; of little importance to transportation

Pipelines: petroleum products 160 km; natural gas 1,000 km; liquefied
petroleum gas or LPG 150 km

Ports and harbors: Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Tauranga,
Wellington

Merchant marine:
total: 16 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 155,478 GRT/195,836 DWT
ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 1, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 3,
railcar carrier 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6 (1997 est.)

Airports: 111 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 44
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 31
under 914 m: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 67
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 43 (1997 est.)

@New Zealand:Military

Military branches: New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New
Zealand Air Force

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 938,194 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 789,542 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 25,612 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $1.12 billion (FY97/98)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.05% (FY97/98)

@New Zealand:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross
Dependency)

______________________________________________________________________

NICARAGUA

@Nicaragua:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the
North Pacific Ocean, between Costa Rica and Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 85 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 129,494 sq km
land: 120,254 sq km
water: 9,240 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than New York State

Land boundaries:
total: 1,231 km
border countries: Costa Rica 309 km, Honduras 922 km

Coastline: 910 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 25-nm security zone
continental shelf: natural prolongation
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands

Terrain: extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior
mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mogoton 2,438 m

Natural resources: gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber,
fish

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 27%
other: 17% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 880 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, and
occasionally severe hurricanes

Environment-current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water
pollution

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea

@Nicaragua:People

Population: 4,583,379 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (male 1,017,190; female 1,000,436)
15-64 years: 53% (male 1,191,323; female 1,251,828)
65 years and over: 3% (male 52,836; female 69,766) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.92% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 36.04 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.8 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 42.26 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.62 years
male: 64.26 years
female: 69.08 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.28 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Nicaraguan(s)
adjective: Nicaraguan

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 69%, white 17%,
black 9%, Amerindian 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant 5%

Languages: Spanish (official)
note: English- and Amerindian-speaking minorities on Atlantic coast

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 65.7%
male: 64.6%
female: 66.6% (1995 est.)

@Nicaragua:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Nicaragua
conventional short form: Nicaragua
local long form: Republica de Nicaragua
local short form: Nicaragua

Data code: NU

Government type: republic

National capital: Managua

Administrative divisions: 15 departments (departamentos,
singular-departamento), 2 autonomous regions* (regiones autonomistas,
singular-region autonomista); Boaco, Carazo, Chinandega, Chontales,
Esteli, Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa,
Nueva Segovia, Rio San Juan, Rivas, Atlantico Norte*, Atlantico Sur*

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 9 January 1987

Legal system: civil law system; Supreme Court may review
administrative acts

Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Arnoldo ALEMAN Lacayo (10 January 1997);
Vice President Enrique BOLANOS Geyer (10 January 1997)
head of government: President Arnoldo ALEMAN Lacayo (10 January 1997);
Vice President Enrique BOLANOS Geyer (10 January 1997)
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 20 October 1996 (next to be held NA 2001); note-in
July 1995 the term of the office of the president was amended to five
years
election results: Arnoldo ALEMAN Lacayo (Liberal Alliance) 51.03%,
Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (FSLN) 37.75%, Guillermo OSORNO (PCCN) 4.10%,
Noel VIDAURRE (PCN) 2.26%, Benjamin LANZAS (PRONAL) 0.53%, others (18
other candidates) remaining 4.33%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional
(93 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 20 October 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party-Liberal Alliance (ruling
party-includes PLC, PALI, PLIUN, and PUCA) 46.03%, FSLN 36.55%, PCCN
3.73%, PCN 2.12%, MRS 1.33%; seats by party-Liberal Alliance 42, FSLN
36, PCCN 4, PCN 3, PRONAL 2, MRS 1, PRN 1, PNC 1, PLI 1, AU 1, UNO-96
Alliance 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), 12 judges elected for
a seven-year term by the National Assembly

Political parties and leaders:
right: Nicaraguan Party of the Christian Road (PCCN), Guillermo
OSORNO, Roberto RODRIGUEZ; Liberal Constitutionalist Party (PLC), Jose
RIZO Castellon; Independent Liberal Party for National Unity (PLIUN),
Carlos GUERRA Gallardo; National Conservative Party (PCN), Adolfo
CALERO, Noel VIDAURRE; Nationalist Liberal Party (PLN), Enrique
SANCHEZ Herdocia
center right: Neoliberal Party (PALI), Adolfo GARCIA Esquivel;
Nicaraguan Resistance Party (PRN), Fabio GADEA; Independent Liberal
Party (PLI), Virgilio GODOY; National Project (PRONAL), Antonio LACAYO
Oyanguren; Conservative Action Movement (MAC), Hernaldo ZUNIGA
center left: Sandinista Renovation Movement (MRS), Sergio RAMIREZ;
Social Democratic Party (PSD), Adolfo JARQUIN; Social Christian Party
(PSC), Erick RAMIREZ; Movement for Revolutionary Unity (MUR), NA;
Central American Integrationist Party (PIAC), NA; Unity Alliance (AU),
Alejandro SERRANO; Conservative Party of Nicaragua (PCN), Dr. Fernando
AGUERO Rocha; National Democratic Party (PND), Alfredo CESAR Aguirre;
Central American Unionist Party (PUCA), Blanca ROJAS Echaverry; UNO-96
Alliance, Alfredo CESAR Aguirre; Nicaraguan Democratic Movement (MDN),
Alfredo GUZMAN
left: Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), Daniel ORTEGA
Saavedra

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Workers Front (FNT) is
a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions: Sandinista Workers'
Central (CST); Farm Workers Association (ATC); Health Workers
Federation (FETASALUD); National Union of Employees (UNE); National
Association of Educators of Nicaragua (ANDEN); Union of Journalists of
Nicaragua (UPN); Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional
Associations (CONAPRO); and the National Union of Farmers and Ranchers
(UNAG); Permanent Congress of Workers (CPT) is an umbrella group of
four non-Sandinista labor unions: Confederation of Labor Unification
(CUS); Autonomous Nicaraguan Workers' Central (CTN-A); Independent
General Confederation of Labor (CGT-I); and Labor Action and Unity
Central (CAUS); Nicaraguan Workers' Central (CTN) is an independent
labor union; Superior Council of Private Enterprise (COSEP) is a
confederation of business groups

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO,
G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer),
NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Francisco AGUIRRE Sacasa
chancery: 1627 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6570
consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New
York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lino GUTIERREZ
embassy: Kilometer 4.5 Carretera Sur., Managua
mailing address: APO AA 34021
telephone: [505] (2) 666010 through 666013, 666015 through 18, 666026,
666027, 666032 through 33
FAX: [505] (2) 669074

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white,
and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band;
the coat of arms features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA
DE NICARAGUA on the top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; similar to
the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by
the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in
the white band; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five
blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band

@Nicaragua:Economy

Economy-overview: The Nicaraguan economy, devastated during the 1980s
by economic mismanagement and civil war, is beginning to rebound. In
1991 President CHAMORRO launched an ambitious economic stabilization
program that reduced inflation and obtained substantial economic aid
from abroad. Economic growth rose sharply in 1995-97, due to surges in
exports and efforts to enhance trade liberalization. The program,
however, hit some snags, and a 1994-97 IMF Enhanced Structural
Adjustment Facility (ESAF) signed by the CHAMORRO administration with
the Fund lapsed in September 1996 due to non-compliance. In 1997,
however, the IMF resumed negotiations for an ESAF with the ALEMAN
administration, and agreed to an ESAF in 1998. IMF approval of the
ESAF cleared the way for debt relief by the Paris Club later that year
and has opened the way for debt relief under the Highly Indebted Poor
Countries Initiative. Implementation of a 1997 property
accord-designed to resolve conflict over properties confiscated by the
Sandinistas in the 1980s-should also help inspire international
investor confidence. Strong growth is forecast for 1998, with
implementation of a 1997 free trade agreement with Mexico expected to
boost agricultural exports, although the industrial sector may come
under pressure from increased Mexican competition.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$9.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,100 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 34%
industry: 21%
services: 45% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 11.6% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 1.5 million
by occupation: services 54%, agriculture 31%, industry 15% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: 16%; underemployment 36% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $389 million
expenditures: $551 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: food processing, chemicals, metal products, textiles,
clothing, petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear

Industrial production growth rate: 1.4% (1994 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 457,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 1.76 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 416 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, bananas, sugarcane, cotton, rice, corn,
cassava (tapioca), citrus, beans; beef, veal, pork, poultry, dairy
products

Exports:
total value: $635 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: coffee, seafood, meat, sugar, gold, bananas
partners: US, Central America, Germany, Canada

Imports:
total value: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: consumer goods, machinery and equipment, petroleum
products
partners: Central America, US, Venezuela, Japan

Debt-external: $6 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 gold cordoba (C$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: gold cordobas (C$) per US$1-9.76 (October 1997), 8.44
(1996), 7.55 (1995), 6.72 (1994), 5.62 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 66,810 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: low-capacity microwave radio relay and wire system
being expanded; connected to Central American Microwave System
domestic: wire and microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth stations-1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean
region) and 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 45, FM 0, shortwave 3

Radios: 1.037 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 7 (1994 est.)

Televisions: 260,000 (1992 est.)

@Nicaragua:Transportation

Railways:
total: 0 km
narrow gauge: 0 km 1.067-m gauge; note-part of the previous 376 km
system was closed and dismantled in 1993 and, in 1994, the remainder
was closed, the track and rolling stock being sold for scrap

Highways:
total: 18,000 km
paved: 1,818 km
unpaved: 16,182 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 2,220 km, including 2 large lakes

Pipelines: crude oil 56 km

Ports and harbors: Bluefields, Corinto, El Bluff, Puerto Cabezas,
Puerto Sandino, Rama, San Juan del Sur

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 185 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 13
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 5 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 172
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 27
under 914 m: 144 (1997 est.)

@Nicaragua:Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,067,336 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 656,672 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 51,576 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $27.48 million (1996)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.35% (1996)

@Nicaragua:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: territorial disputes with Colombia over the
Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; with
respect to the maritime boundary question in the Golfo de Fonseca, the
International Court of Justice (ICJ) referred the disputants to an
earlier agreement in this century and advised that some tripartite
resolution among El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua likely would be
required; maritime boundary dispute with Honduras

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine destined for the US

______________________________________________________________________

NIGER

@Niger:Geography

Location: Western Africa, southeast of Algeria

Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 8 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1.267 million sq km
land: 1,266,700 sq km
water: 300 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,697 km
border countries: Algeria 956 km, Benin 266 km, Burkina Faso 628 km,
Chad 1,175 km, Libya 354 km, Mali 821 km, Nigeria 1,497 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south

Terrain: predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling
plains in south; hills in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Niger River 200 m
highest point: Mont Greboun 1,944 m

Natural resources: uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold,
petroleum

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland: 2%
other: 88% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 660 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts

Environment-current issues: overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation;
desertification; wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus,
giraffe, and lion) threatened because of poaching and habitat
destruction

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography-note: landlocked

@Niger:People

Population: 9,671,848 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (male 2,374,482; female 2,277,176)
15-64 years: 50% (male 2,345,773; female 2,447,951)
65 years and over: 2% (male 119,644; female 106,822) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.96% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 53.01 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 23.38 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.12 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 114.39 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 41.52 years
male: 41.83 years
female: 41.21 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.3 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Nigerien(s)
adjective: Nigerien

Ethnic groups: Hausa 56%, Djerma 22%, Fula 8.5%, Tuareg 8%, Beri Beri
(Kanouri) 4.3%, Arab, Toubou, and Gourmantche 1.2%, about 1,200 French
expatriates

Religions: Muslim 80%, remainder indigenous beliefs and Christians

Languages: French (official), Hausa, Djerma

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 13.6%
male: 20.9%
female: 6.6% (1995 est.)

@Niger:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Niger
conventional short form: Niger
local long form: Republique du Niger
local short form: Niger

Data code: NG

Government type: republic

National capital: Niamey

Administrative divisions: 7 departments (departements,
singular-departement), and 1 capital district* (capitale district);
Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder

Independence: 3 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Republic Day, 18 December (1958)

Constitution: the constitution of January 1993 was revised by national
referendum on 12 May 1996

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ibrahim BARE Mainassara (since 28 January
1996); note-the president is both chief of state and head of
government
head of government: President Ibrahim BARE Mainassara (since 28
January 1996); Prime Minister Ibrahim MAYAKI (since 27 November 1997)
was appointed by the president; note - the president is both chief of
state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by President BARE
elections: the president is elected by popular vote for a five-year
term; last election 7-8 July 1996 (next election NA 2001);
note-Ibrahim BARE Mainassara initially became president when he ousted
President Mahamane OUSMANE in a coup on 27 January 1996 and
subsequently defeated him in the flawed election of July 1996
election results: percent of total vote-Ibrahim BARE Mainassara
52.22%, Mahamane OUSMANE 19.75%, Tandja MAMADOU 15.65%, Mahamadou
ISSOUFOU 7.60%, Moumouni AMADOU Djermakoye 4.77%

Legislative branch: two chamber National Assembly; one chamber with 83
seats directly elected by proportional representation for five-year
terms; selection process for second chamber not established
elections: last held 23 November 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-UNIRD
59, ANDPS-Zaman Lahiya 8, UDPS-Amana 3, coalition of independents 3,
MDP-Alkwali 1, UPDP-Shamuwa 4, DARAJA 3, PMT-Albarka 2

Judicial branch: State Court or Cour d'Etat; Court of Appeal or Cour
d'Appel

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy and Progress or
ADP-AUMUNCI [Issoufou BACHARD, chairman]; DARAJA [Ali TALBA,
chairman]; Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama
[Mahamane OUSMANE]; Movement for Development and Pan-Africanism or
MDP-Alkwali [Mai Manga BOUCAR, chairman]; National Movement of the
Development Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Tandja MAMADOU,
chairman]; National Union of Independents for Democratic Revival or
UNIRD [leader NA]; Niger Progressive Party-African Democratic Rally or
PPN-RDA [Dori ABDOULAI]; Niger Social Democrat Party or PADN [Malam
Adji WAZIRI]; Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism-Tarayya or
PNDS-Tarayya [Mahamadou ISSOUFOU]; Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and
Social Progress-Zaman Lahia or ANDPS-Zaman Lahia [Moumouni Adamou
DJERMAKOYE]; PMT-Albarka; Union for Democracy and Social
Progress-Amana or UDPS-Amana [Akoli DAOUEL]; Union of Patriots,
Democrats, and Progressives-Shamuwa or UPDP-Shamuwa [Professor Andre'
SALIFOU, chairman]; Union of Popular Forces for Democracy and
Progress-Sawaba or UFPDP-Sawaba [Djibo BAKARY, chairman]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU,
MIPONUH, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WAEMU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph DIATTA
chancery: 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4224 through 4227

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Charles O. CECIL
embassy: Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey
mailing address: B. P. 11201, Niamey
telephone: [227] 72 26 61 through 72 26 64
FAX: [227] 73 31 67

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white,
and green with a small orange disk (representing the sun) centered in
the white band; similar to the flag of India, which has a blue spoked
wheel centered in the white band

@Niger:Economy

Economy-overview: Niger is a poor, landlocked Sub-Saharan nation,
whose economy centers on subsistence agriculture, animal husbandry,
reexport trade, and increasingly less on uranium, its major export
since the 1970s. Terms of trade with Nigeria, Niger's largest regional
trade partner, have improved dramatically since the 50% devaluation of
the West African franc in January 1994; this devaluation boosted
exports of livestock, cowpeas, onions, and the products of Niger's
small cotton industry. The government relies on bilateral and
multilateral aid for operating expenses and public investment and is
strongly induced to adhere to structural adjustment programs designed
by the IMF and the World Bank. The US terminated bilateral assistance
to Niger after the coup of 1996. Other donors have reduced their aid.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$6.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$670 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 41%
industry: 18%
services: 41% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 5.3% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 70,000 receive regular wages or salaries
by occupation: agriculture 90%, industry and commerce 6%, government
4%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $370 million (including $160 million from foreign sources)
expenditures: $370 million, including capital expenditures of $186
million (1998 est.)

Industries: cement, brick, textiles, food processing, chemicals,
slaughterhouses, and a few other small light industries; uranium
mining

Industrial production growth rate: 0.5% (1994 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 63,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 170 million kWh (1995)
note: imports about 200 million kWh of electricity from Nigeria

Electricity-consumption per capita: 40 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum,
cassava (tapioca), rice; cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys,
horses, poultry

Exports:
total value: $188 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: uranium ore 67%, livestock products 20%, cowpeas, onions
partners: France 41%, Nigeria 22%, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Japan
18%

Imports:
total value: $374 million (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: consumer goods, primary materials, machinery, vehicles
and parts, petroleum, cereals
partners: France 24%, Nigeria 19%, Cote d'Ivoire, China,
Belgium-Luxembourg

Debt-external: $1.3 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA; bilateral donors: France, Germany, EU, Japan

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1-608.36 (January 1998),
583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16
(1993)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 14,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: small system of wire, radiotelephone communications,
and microwave radio relay links concentrated in southwestern area
domestic: wire, radiotelephone communications, and microwave radio
relay; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 15, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: 500,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 18 stations in a single network (1995)

Televisions: 38,000 (1992 est.)

@Niger:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 10,100 km
paved: 798 km
unpaved: 9,302 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: Niger river is navigable 300 km from Niamey to Gaya on the
Benin frontier from mid-December through March

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 27 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 18
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 3 (1997 est.)

@Niger:Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Republican
Guard, National Police

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 2,049,296 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,105,821 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 98,946 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $23 million (FY97/98)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.3% (FY92/93)

@Niger:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Libya claims about 19,400 sq km in northern
Niger; demarcation of international boundaries in the vicinity of Lake
Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in the past, is
completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and
Nigeria

______________________________________________________________________

NIGERIA

@Nigeria:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin
and Cameroon

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 8 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 923,770 sq km
land: 910,770 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:
total: 4,047 km
border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger
1,497 km

Coastline: 853 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 30 nm

Climate: varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in
north

Terrain: southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus;
mountains in southeast, plains in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m

Natural resources: petroleum, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal,
limestone, lead, zinc, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 33%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 44%
forests and woodland: 12%
other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 9,570 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts

Environment-current issues: soil degradation; rapid deforestation;
desertification; recent droughts in north severely affecting marginal
agricultural activities

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Nigeria:People

Population: 110,532,242 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 24,871,855; female 24,661,134)
15-64 years: 52% (male 29,420,428; female 28,343,567)
65 years and over: 3% (male 1,627,452; female 1,607,806) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 2.96% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 42.24 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 12.95 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 70.74 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 53.55 years
male: 52.68 years
female: 54.45 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.09 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian

Ethnic groups: Hausa, Fulani, Yoruba, Ibo, Kanuri, Ibibio, Tiv, Ijaw

Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%

Languages: English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Ibo, Fulani

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.1%
male: 67.3%
female: 47.3% (1995 est.)

@Nigeria:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form: Nigeria

Data code: NI

Government type: military government; Nigeria has been ruled by one
military regime after another since 31 December 1983; on 1 October
1995, the present military government announced it will turn power
over to democratically elected civilian authorities on 1 October 1998

National capital: Abuja
note: on 12 December 1991 the capital was officially moved from Lagos
to Abuja; many government offices remain in Lagos pending completion
of facilities in Abuja

Administrative divisions: 30 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Abuja
Federal Capital Territory*, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi,
Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Enugu, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna,
Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun,
Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe
note: the government has announced the creation of six additional
states named Bayelsa, Ebonyi, Ekiti, Gombe, Nassarawa, and Zamfara as
part of the process of transition to a civilian government

Independence: 1 October 1960 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1960)

Constitution: 1979 constitution still partially in force; plan for
1989 constitution to take effect in 1993 was not implemented; draft
1995 constitution has not been published; the military government
rules by decree

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and tribal law

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council and
Commander in Chief of Armed Forces Gen. Abdulsalam ABUBAKAR (since 9
June 1998); note-the chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council is
both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council and
Commander in Chief of Armed Forces Gen. Abdulsalam ABUBAKAR (since 9
June 1998); note-the chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council is
both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Federal Executive Council (chaired by the Chairman of the
Provisional Ruling Council)
elections: none; on 9 June 1998, the Provisional Ruling Council
appointed Gen. Abdulsalam ABUBAKAR as their new Chairman to replace
Gen. Sani ABACHA who died in office; Gen. ABUBAKAR immediately pledged
a program to return the government to civilian rule as promised by
Gen. ABACHA

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly, comprising a
109-member Senate and a 360-member House of Representatives
note: the National Assembly was suspended after the military takeover
of 17 November 1993; in October 1995, the government announced a
three-year program for transition to civilian rule; elections to the
National Assembly took place 25 April 1998 for a term starting 1
October 1998; the election was substantially boycotted by the
opposition and the legislature is unlikely to be representative of the
electorate

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the Provisional
Ruling Council; Federal Court of Appeal, judges are appointed by the
federal government on the advice of the Advisory Judicial Committee

Political parties and leaders: political party system, which was
suspended after the military takeover of 17 November 1993, was
reestablished by the Provisional Ruling Council on 30 September 1996
with the registration of five of 15 competing political parties; these
were the United Nigeria Congress Party or UNCP [Isa MOHAMMED,
chairman]; National Center Party of Nigeria or NCPN [Magaji ABDULLAHI,
chairman]; Grassroots Democratic Movement or GDM [Alhaji Gambo LAWAN,
chairman]; Committee for National Consensus or CNC [Barnabas GEMADE,
chairman]; Democratic Party of Nigeria or DPN [Saleh HASSAN, chairman]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C (suspended),
CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUA, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNPREDEP,
UNTAES, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Wakili Hassan ADAMU
chancery: 1333 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador William TWADDELL
embassy: 2 Louis Farrakhan Crescent, Lagos
mailing address: P. O. Box 554, Lagos
telephone: [234] (1) 261-0097
FAX: [234] (1) 261-0257

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side),
white, and green

@Nigeria:Economy

Economy-overview: The oil-rich Nigerian economy continues to be
hobbled by political instability, corruption, and poor macroeconomic
management. Nigeria's unpopular military rulers have failed to make
significant progress in diversifying the economy away from
overdependence on the capital intensive oil sector which provides 30%
of GDP, 95% of foreign exchange earnings, and about 80% of budgetary
revenues. The government's resistance to initiating greater
transparency and accountability in managing the country's multibillion
dollar oil earnings continues to limit economic growth and prevent an
agreement with the IMF and bilateral creditors on debt relief. The
largely subsistence agricultural sector has failed to keep up with
rapid population growth, and Nigeria, once a large net exporter of
food, now must import food. Agricultural production in 1996 suffered
from severe shortages of fertilizer, and production of fertilizer fell
even further in 1997.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$132.7 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.3% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,300 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 39%
industry: 31%
services: 30% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 12% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 42.844 million
by occupation: agriculture 54%, industry, commerce, and services 19%,
government 15%

Unemployment rate: 28% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $13.9 billion (1998 est.)
expenditures: $13.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
billion (1998 est.)

Industries: crude oil, coal, tin, columbite, palm oil, peanuts,
cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins, textiles, cement and other
construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals,
fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel

Industrial production growth rate: 4.1% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 5.881 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 16.21 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 152 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum,
millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs;
fishing and forest resources extensively exploited

Exports:
total value: $15 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber
partners: US 40%, EU 21% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $8 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery, chemicals, transportation equipment,
manufactured goods, food and animals
partners: EU 50%, US 12%, Japan 7%

Debt-external: $34 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 naira (N) = 100 kobo

Exchange rates: naira (N) per US$1-21.886 (December 1997), 21.886
(1997), 21.895 (1995), 21.996 (1994), 22.065 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 492,204 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: average system limited by poor maintenance; major
expansion in progress
domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and 20 domestic
satellite earth stations carry intercity traffic
international: satellite earth stations-3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean); 1 coaxial submarine cable

Radio broadcast stations: AM 35, FM 17, shortwave 0

Radios: 20 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 28

Televisions: 3.8 million (1992 est.)

@Nigeria:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,557 km
narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge
standard gauge: 52 km 1.435-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 32,105 km
paved: 26,005 km (including 2,044 km of expressways)
unpaved: 6,100 km (1994 est.)
note: many of the roads reported as paved may be graveled; because of
poor maintenance, much of the road system is barely useable

Waterways: 8,575 km consisting of the Niger and Benue rivers and
smaller rivers and creeks

Pipelines: crude oil 2,042 km; petroleum products 3,000 km; natural
gas 500 km

Ports and harbors: Calabar, Lagos, Onne, Port Harcourt, Sapele, Warri

Merchant marine:
total: 39 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 379,210 GRT/643,851 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 14, chemical tanker 3, oil tanker 20,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 72 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 36
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 36
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 20 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Nigeria:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Police Force

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 25,228,197 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 14,461,304 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 1,154,721 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $685 million (1996 est.)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: less than 1% (1996 est.)

@Nigeria:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: demarcation of international boundaries in the
vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in
the past, is completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad,
Niger, and Nigeria; dispute with Cameroon over land and maritime
boundaries in the vicinity of the Bakasi Peninsula has been referred
to the ICJ with a ruling expected in 1998; maritime boundary dispute
with Equatorial Guinea because of disputed jurisdiction over oil-rich
areas in the Gulf of Guinea

Illicit drugs: facilitates movement of heroin en route from Southeast
and Southwest Asia to Western Europe and North America; increasingly a
transit route for cocaine from South America intended for European,
East Asian, and North American markets

______________________________________________________________________

NIUE

(self-governing in free association with New Zealand)

@Niue:Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Tonga

Geographic coordinates: 19 02 S, 169 52 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 260 sq km
land: 260 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 64 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; modified by southeast trade winds

Terrain: steep limestone cliffs along coast, central plateau

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location near Mutalau settlement 68 m

Natural resources: fish, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 19%
permanent crops: 8%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 19%
other: 50% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons

Environment-current issues: traditional methods of burning brush and
trees to clear land for agriculture have threatened soil supplies
which are not naturally very abundant

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography-note: one of world's largest coral islands

@Niue:People

Population: 1,647 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: -3.65% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

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