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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Part 30 out of 51

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Airports: 174 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 22
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 4 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 152
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 38
under 914 m: 97 (1997 est.)

@Mozambique:Military

Military branches: Army, Naval Command, Air and Air Defense Forces,
Militia

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 4,265,778 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 2,457,587 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $84 million (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 5.3% (1994)

@Mozambique:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: Southern African transit hub for South American cocaine
probably destined for the European and US markets; producer of hashish
and methaqualone

______________________________________________________________________

NAMIBIA

@Namibia:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
Angola and South Africa

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 S, 17 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 825,418 sq km
land: 825,418 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than half the size of Alaska

Land boundaries:
total: 3,824 km
border countries: Angola 1,376 km, Botswana 1,360 km, South Africa 855
km, Zambia 233 km

Coastline: 1,572 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic

Terrain: mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari
Desert in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Konigstein 2,606 m

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, lead, tin,
lithium, cadmium, zinc, salt, vanadium, natural gas, fish; suspected
deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 22%
other: 31% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 60 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: prolonged periods of drought

Environment-current issues: very limited natural fresh water
resources; desertification

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Namibia:People

Population: 1,622,328 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (male 362,310; female 354,386)
15-64 years: 52% (male 414,281; female 426,921)
65 years and over: 4% (male 27,001; female 37,429) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.6% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 35.84 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 19.82 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 66.76 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 41.48 years
male: 41.73 years
female: 41.24 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.99 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Namibian(s)
adjective: Namibian

Ethnic groups: black 86%, white 6.6%, mixed 7.4%
note: about 50% of the population belong to the Ovambo tribe and 9% to
the Kavangos tribe; other ethnic groups are: Herero 7%, Damara 7%,
Nama 5%, Caprivian 4%, Bushmen 3%, Baster 2%, Tswana 0.5%

Religions: Christian 80% to 90% (Lutheran 50% at least, other
Christian denominations 30%), native religions 10% to 20%

Languages: English 7% (official), Afrikaans common language of most of
the population and about 60% of the white population, German 32%,
indigenous languages: Oshivambo, Herero, Nama

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 38%
male: 45%
female: 31% (1960 est.)

@Namibia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Namibia
conventional short form: Namibia

Data code: WA

Government type: republic

National capital: Windhoek

Administrative divisions: 13 regions; Caprivi, Erongo, Hardap, Karas,
Khomas, Kunene, Ohangwena, Okavango, Omaheke, Omusati, Oshana,
Oshikoto, Otjozondjupa

Independence: 21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 March (1990)

Constitution: ratified 9 February 1990; effective 12 March 1990

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and 1990 constitution

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Sam NUJOMA (since 21 March 1990); note-the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Sam NUJOMA (since 21 March 1990);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of
the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 7-8 December 1994 (next to be held NA December
1999)
election results: Sam NUJOMA elected president; percent of vote-76%

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature consists of the National
Council (26 seats; two members are chosen from each regional council
to serve six-year terms) and the National Assembly (72 seats; members
are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: National Council-last held 30 November-3 December 1992
(next to be held by December 1998); National Assembly-last held 7-8
December 1994 (next to be held NA December 1999)
election results: National Council-percent of vote by party-NA; seats
by party-SWAPO 19, DTA 6, UDF 1; National Assembly-percent of vote by
party-SWAPO 73.89%, DTA 20.78%, UDF 2.72%, DCN 0.83%, MAG 0.82%; seats
by party-SWAPO 53, DTA 15, UDF 2, MAG 1, DCN 1
note: the National Council is a purely advisory body

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: South West Africa People's Organization
or SWAPO [Sam NUJOMA]; National Democratic Party for Justice or NDPFJ
[Nbhwete NDJOBA]; Democratic Turnhalle Alliance of Namibia or DTA
[Mishake MUYONGO, president]; United Democratic Front or UDF [Justus
GAROEB]; Monitor Action Group or MAG [Kosie PRETORIUS]; Democratic
Coalition of Namibia or DCN [Moses K. KATJIUONGUA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM,
OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Veiccoh NGHIWETE
chancery: 1605 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 986-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 986-0443

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador George F. WARD, Jr. (24 July 1996)
embassy: Ausplan Building, 14 Lossen St., Windhoek
mailing address: Private Bag 12029 Ausspannplatz, Windhoek
telephone: [264] (61) 221601
FAX: [264] (61) 229792

Flag description: a large blue triangle with a yellow sunburst fills
the upper left section and an equal green triangle (solid) fills the
lower right section; the triangles are separated by a red stripe that
is contrasted by two narrow white-edge borders

@Namibia:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy is heavily dependent on the extraction
and processing of minerals for export. Mining accounts for 20% of GDP.
Namibia is the fourth-largest exporter of nonfuel minerals in Africa
and the world's fifth-largest producer of uranium. Rich alluvial
diamond deposits make Namibia a primary source for gem-quality
diamonds. Namibia also produces large quantities of lead, zinc, tin,
silver, and tungsten. Half of the population depends on agriculture
(largely subsistence agriculture) for its livelihood. Namibia must
import some of its food. Although per capita GDP is three to six times
the per capita GDP of Africa's poorest countries, the majority of
Namibia's people live in pronounced poverty because of the great
inequality of income distribution and the large amounts going to
foreigners. The Namibian economy has close links to South Africa.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$6.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$3,700 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 15%
industry: 20%
services: 65% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 8% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 500,000
by occupation: agriculture 49%, industry and commerce 25%, services
5%, government 18%, mining 3% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 30% to 40%, including underemployment (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.1 billion
expenditures: $1.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $193
million (FY96/97 est.)

Industries: meat packing, fish processing, dairy products; mining
(diamond, lead, zinc, tin, silver, tungsten, uranium, copper)

Industrial production growth rate: 10% (1994)

Electricity-capacity: 0 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 0 kWh (1995)
note: imports electricity from South Africa

Electricity-consumption per capita: 584 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: millet, sorghum, peanuts; livestock; fish

Exports:
total value: $1.45 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: diamonds, copper, gold, zinc, lead, uranium, cattle,
processed fish, karakul skins
partners: UK, South Africa, Spain, Japan (1994)

Imports:
total value: $1.55 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum products and fuel, machinery and
equipment, chemicals
partners: South Africa 85%, Germany, US, Japan (1994 est.)

Debt-external: $315 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Namibian dollar (N$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Nambian dollars (N$) per US$1-4.94193 (January 1998),
4.60796 (1997), 4.29935 (1996), 3.62709 (1995), 3.55080 (1994),
3.26774 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 89,722 (1992 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: good urban services; fair rural service; microwave radio
relay links major towns; connections to other populated places are by
open wire
international: NA
note: a fully automated digital network is to be operational by 1997

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 40, shortwave 0

Radios: 195,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3

Televisions: 27,000 (1993 est.)

@Namibia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,382 km
narrow gauge: 2,382 km 1.067-m gauge; single track (1995)

Highways:
total: 64,799 km
paved: 7,841 km
unpaved: 56,958 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Luderitz, Walvis Bay

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 135 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 22
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 113
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 20
914 to 1,523 m: 70
under 914 m: 21 (1997 est.)

@Namibia:Military

Military branches: National Defense Force (Army), Police

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 369,826 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 221,624 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $64 million (FY95/96)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.1% (FY95/96)

@Namibia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: quadripoint with Botswana, Zambia, and
Zimbabwe is in disagreement; dispute with Botswana over uninhabited
Kasikili (Sidudu) Island in Linyanti (Chobe) River is presently at the
ICJ; at least one other island in Linyanti River is contested

______________________________________________________________________

NAURU

@Nauru:Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, south of the
Marshall Islands

Geographic coordinates: 0 32 S, 166 55 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 21 sq km
land: 21 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 30 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; monsoonal; rainy season (November to February)

Terrain: sandy beach rises to fertile ring around raised coral reefs
with phosphate plateau in center

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location along plateau rim 61 m

Natural resources: phosphates

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: periodic droughts

Environment-current issues: limited natural fresh water resources,
roof storage tanks collect rainwater; intensive phosphate mining
during the past 90 years-mainly by a UK, Australia, and New Zealand
consortium-has left the central 90% of Nauru a wasteland and threatens
limited remaining land resources

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: Nauru is one of the three great phosphate rock islands
in the Pacific Ocean-the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati
and Makatea in French Polynesia; only 53 km south of Equator

@Nauru:People

Population: 10,501 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.33% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 18.03 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.1 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 40.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.68 years
male: 64.3 years
female: 69.18 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.08 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Nauruan(s)
adjective: Nauruan

Ethnic groups: Nauruan 58%, other Pacific Islander 26%, Chinese 8%,
European 8%

Religions: Christian (two-thirds Protestant, one-third Roman Catholic)

Languages: Nauruan (official, a distinct Pacific Island language),
English widely understood, spoken, and used for most government and
commercial purposes

Literacy: NA

@Nauru:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Nauru
conventional short form: Nauru
former: Pleasant Island

Data code: NR

Government type: republic

National capital: no official capital; government offices in Yaren
District

Administrative divisions: 14 districts; Aiwo, Anabar, Anetan, Anibare,
Baiti, Boe, Buada, Denigomodu, Ewa, Ijuw, Meneng, Nibok, Uaboe, Yaren

Independence: 31 January 1968 (from the Australia-, New Zealand-, and
UK-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Independence Day, 31 January (1968)

Constitution: 29 January 1968

Legal system: acts of the Nauru Parliament and British common law

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Kinza CLODUMAR (since 8 February 1997);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Kinza CLODUMAR (since 8 February 1997);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of
Parliament
elections: president elected by Parliament for a three-year term;
election last held 8 February 1997 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: Kinza CLODUMAR elected president; percent of
Parliament vote-NA
note: President CLODUMAR is the country's fifth president in five
months

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (18 seats; members elected
by popular vote to serve three-year terms)
elections: last held 18 November 1995 (next to be held NA November
1998)
election results: percent of vote-NA; seats-independents 18

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: loose multi-party system; Nauru Party
(informal), Bernard DOWIYOGO; Democratic Party, Kennan ADEANG

International organization participation: AsDB, C (special), ESCAP,
ICAO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, Sparteca, SPC,
SPF, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation in the US: Nauru does not have an embassy in
the US
consulate(s): Agana (Guam)

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Nauru; the US Ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Nauru

Flag description: blue with a narrow, horizontal, yellow stripe across
the center and a large white 12-pointed star below the stripe on the
hoist side; the star indicates the country's location in relation to
the Equator (the yellow stripe) and the 12 points symbolize the 12
original tribes of Nauru

@Nauru:Economy

Economy-overview: Revenues come from the export of phosphates, the
reserves of which are expected to be exhausted by the year 2000.
Phosphates have given Nauruans one of the highest per capita incomes
in the Third World, but incomes probably will drop sharply in the
future. Few other resources exist, so most necessities must be
imported, including fresh water from Australia. The rehabilitation of
mined land and the replacement of income from phosphates are serious
long-term problems. Substantial amounts of phosphate income are
invested in trust funds to help cushion the transition. However,
dividends from the trusts have declined sharply since 1990 and the
government has been borrowing heavily from the trusts to finance
fiscal deficits. In an effort to stem further escalation of fiscal
problems, the government has called for a freeze on wages for two
years, a reduction of over-staffed public service departments, drastic
cutbacks in hiring new government staff, privatization of numerous
government agencies, and closure of some overseas consulates.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$100 million (1993 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$10,000 (1993 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: -3.6% (1993)

Labor force:
by occupation: employed in mining phosphates, public administration,
education, and transportation

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget:
revenues: $23.4 million
expenditures: $64.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY95/96)

Industries: phosphate mining, financial services, coconut products

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 10,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 30 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 2,956 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coconuts predominate

Exports:
total value: $25.3 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: phosphates
partners: Australia, NZ

Imports:
total value: $21.1 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities: food, fuel, manufactures, building materials, machinery
partners: Australia, UK, NZ, Japan

Debt-external: $33.3 million

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $2.25 million from Australia (FY96/97 est.)

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1-1.5281 (January
1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3667 (1994),
1.4704 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 2,000 (1989 est.)

Telephone system: adequate local and international radiotelephone
communications provided via Australian facilities
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 4,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1991 est.)

Televisions: NA

@Nauru:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3.9 km; note-used to haul phosphates from the center of the
island to processing facilities on the southwest coast

Highways:
total: 30 km
paved: 24 km
unpaved: 6 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Nauru

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Nauru:Military

Military branches: no regular armed forces; Directorate of the Nauru
Police Force

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Nauru:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

NAVASSA ISLAND

(territory of the US)

@Navassa Island:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, about one-fourth of
the way from Haiti to Jamaica

Geographic coordinates: 18 25 N, 75 02 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 5.2 sq km
land: 5.2 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about nine times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 8 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: marine, tropical

Terrain: raised coral and limestone plateau, flat to undulating;
ringed by vertical white cliffs (9 to 15 meters high)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on southwest side 77 m

Natural resources: guano

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 10%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 90%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: strategic location 160 km south of the US Naval Base
at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; mostly exposed rock, but enough grassland to
support goat herds; dense stands of fig-like trees, scattered cactus

@Navassa Island:People

Population: uninhabited
note: transient Haitian fishermen and others camp on the island

@Navassa Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Navassa Island

Data code: BQ

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered
from Washington, DC, by the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department
of the Interior; in September 1996, the Coast Guard ceased operations
and maintenance of Navassa Island Light, a 46-meter-tall lighthouse
located on the southern side of the island; there has also been a
private claim advanced against the island

National capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

Legal system: NA

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

@Navassa Island:Economy

Economy-overview: no economic activity

@Navassa Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

@Navassa Island:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@Navassa Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: claimed by Haiti

______________________________________________________________________

NEPAL

@Nepal:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N, 84 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 140,800 sq km
land: 136,800 sq km
water: 4,000 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Arkansas

Land boundaries:
total: 2,926 km
border countries: China 1,236 km, India 1,690 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to
subtropical summers and mild winters in south

Terrain: Terai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central
hill region, rugged Himalayas in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Kanchan Kalan 70 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,848 m

Natural resources: quartz, water, timber, hydropower potential, scenic
beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 15%
forests and woodland: 42%
other: 26% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 8,500 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: severe thunderstorms, flooding, landslides, drought,
and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the
summer monsoons

Environment-current issues: the almost total dependence on wood for
fuel and cutting down trees to expand agricultural land without
replanting has resulted in widespread deforestation; soil erosion;
water pollution (use of contaminated water presents human health
risks)

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation

Geography-note: landlocked; strategic location between China and
India; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks

@Nepal:People

Population: 23,698,421 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 42% (male 5,087,855; female 4,779,941)
15-64 years: 55% (male 6,655,865; female 6,387,255)
65 years and over: 3% (male 392,141; female 395,364) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.52% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 35.66 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 10.44 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.99 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 75.98 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 57.89 years
male: 58.04 years
female: 57.74 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.87 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Nepalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Nepalese

Ethnic groups: Newars, Indians, Tibetans, Gurungs, Magars, Tamangs,
Bhotias, Rais, Limbus, Sherpas

Religions: Hindu 90%, Buddhist 5%, Muslim 3%, other 2% (1981)
note: only official Hindu state in the world, although no sharp
distinction between many Hindu and Buddhist groups

Languages: Nepali (official), 20 other languages divided into numerous
dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 27.5%
male: 40.9%
female: 14% (1995 est.)

People-note: refugee issue over the presence in Nepal of approximately
91,000 Bhutanese refugees, 90% of whom are in seven United Nations
Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) camps

@Nepal:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Nepal
conventional short form: Nepal

Data code: NP

Government type: parliamentary democracy as of 12 May 1991

National capital: Kathmandu

Administrative divisions: 14 zones (anchal, singular and plural);
Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi,
Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti

Independence: 1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan Shah)

National holiday: Birthday of His Majesty the King, 28 December (1945)

Constitution: 9 November 1990

Legal system: based on Hindu legal concepts and English common law;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King BIRENDRA Bir Bikram Shah Dev (succeeded to the
throne 31 January 1972 following the death of his father King MAHENDRA
Bir Bikram Shah Dev, crowned king 24 February 1975); Heir Apparent
Crown Prince DIPENDRA Bir Bikram
head of government: Prime Minister Girija Prasad KOIRALA (since 15
April 1998); note-Prime Minister KOIRALA-the country's seventh prime
minister since 1991-replaces Prime Minister Surya Bahadur THAPA, who
served from October 1997 until April 1998, when he resigned as part of
a power-sharing agreement with his coalition partners
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the king on the recommendation of the
prime minister
elections: none; the king is a constitutional monarch; following
legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a
majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the king

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the National
Council (60 seats; 35 appointed by the House of Representatives, 10 by
the king, and 15 elected by an electoral college; one-third of the
members elected every two years to serve six-year terms) and the House
of Representatives (205 seats; members elected by popular vote to
serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives-last held 15 November 1994 (next
to be held by 15 November 1999)
election results: House of Representatives-percent of vote by
party-NCP 33%, CPN/UML 31%, NDP 18%, Nepal Sadbhavana (Goodwill) Party
3%, NWPP 1%; seats by party - CPN/UML 88, NCP 83, NDP 20, NWPP 4,
Nepal Sadbhavana (Goodwill) Party 3, independents 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Sarbochha Adalat), chief justice is
appointed by the king on recommendation of the Constitutional Council,
the other judges are appointed by the king on the recommendation of
the Judicial Council

Political parties and leaders: Communist Party of Nepal/United
Marxist-Leninist (CPN/UML), Man Mohan ADHIKARI, party president,
Madhar KUMAR, general secretary; Nepali Congress Party (NCP), Girija
Prasad KOIRALA, party president, Daranath Rana DHATT, general
secretary; National Democratic Party (NDP; also called Rastriya
Prajantra Party or RPP), Surya Bahadur THAPA; Nepal Sadbhavana
(Goodwill) Party, Gajendra Narayan SINGH, president; Nepal Workers and
Peasants Party (NWPP), Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE, party chair

Political pressure groups and leaders: numerous small, left-leaning
student groups in the capital; several small, radical Nepalese
antimonarchist groups

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFCTU, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
chancery: 2131 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-4550
FAX: [1] (202) 667-5534
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ralph FRANK
embassy: Pani Pokhari, Kathmandu
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [977] (1) 411179
FAX: [977] (1) 419963

Flag description: red with a blue border around the unique shape of
two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a
white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle bears a white
12-pointed sun

@Nepal:Economy

Economy-overview: Nepal is among the poorest and least developed
countries in the world with more than half of its population living
below the poverty line. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy,
providing a livelihood for over 80% of the population and accounting
for 40% of GDP. Industrial activity mainly involves the processing of
agricultural produce including jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain.
Production of textiles and carpets has expanded recently and accounted
for about 80% of foreign exchange earnings in the past two years.
Apart from agricultural land and forests, exploitable natural
resources are mica, hydropower, and tourism. Agricultural production
is growing by about 5% on average as compared with annual population
growth of 2.5%. Since May 1991, the government has been moving forward
with economic reforms particularly those that encourage trade and
foreign investment, e.g., by eliminating business licenses and
registration requirements in order to simplify investment procedures.
The government has also been cutting expenditures by reducing
subsidies, privatizing state industries, and laying off civil
servants. More recently, however, political instability - five
different governments over the past few years-has hampered Kathmandu's
ability to forge consensus to implement key economic reforms. Nepal
has considerable scope for accelerating economic growth by exploiting
its potential in hydropower and tourism, areas where there has
recently been foreign investment interest. Prospects for foreign trade
or investment in other areas will remain poor, however, because of the
small size of the economy, its technological backwardness, its
remoteness, its landlocked geographic location, and its susceptibility
to natural disaster. The international community's role of funding
more than 60% of Nepal's development budget and more than 28% of total
budgetary expenditures will likely continue as a major ingredient of
growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$31.1 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4.2% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,370 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 40%
industry: 21%
services: 39% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 7.5% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 10 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 81%, services 16%, industry 3%
note: severe lack of skilled labor

Unemployment rate: NA%; substantial underemployment (1996)

Budget:
revenues: $536 million
expenditures: $818 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY96/97 est.)

Industries: tourism, carpet, textile; small rice, jute, sugar, and
oilseed mills; cigarette; cement and brick production

Industrial production growth rate: 14.7% (FY94/95 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 292,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 980 million kWh (1996)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 48 kWh (1996 est.)

Agriculture-products: rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, root crops; milk,
water buffalo meat

Exports:
total value: $419 million (f.o.b., 1997 est.) but does not include
unrecorded border trade with India
commodities: carpets, clothing, leather goods, jute goods, grain
partners: India, US, Germany, UK

Imports:
total value: $1.6 billion (c.i.f., 1997 est.)
commodities: petroleum products 20%, fertilizer 11%, machinery 10%
partners: India, Singapore, Japan, Germany

Debt-external: $2.6 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $411 million (FY97/98)

Currency: 1 Nepalese rupee (NR) = 100 paisa

Exchange rates: Nepalese rupees (NRs) per US$1-63.265 (January 1998),
58.010 (1997), 56.692 (1996), 51.890 (1995), 49.398 (1994), 48.607
(1993)

Fiscal year: 16 July-15 July

Communications

Telephones: 115,911 (1996 est.)

Telephone system: poor telephone and telegraph service; fair
radiotelephone communication service
domestic: NA
international: radiotelephone communications; satellite earth
station-1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 88, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 690,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9 (1996 est.)

Televisions: 45,000 (1992 est.)

@Nepal:Transportation

Railways:
total: 101 km; note-all in Kosi close to Indian border
narrow gauge: 101 km 0.762-m gauge

Highways:
total: 7,700 km
paved: 3,196 km
unpaved: 4,504 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 45 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 40
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 29 (1997 est.)

@Nepal:Military

Military branches: Royal Nepalese Army, Royal Nepalese Army Air
Service, Nepalese Police Force

Military manpower-military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 5,739,283 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 2,983,449 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 275,582 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $36 million (FY92/93)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY92/93)

@Nepal:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: with Bhutan over 91,000 Bhutanese refugees in
Nepal

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic and
international drug markets; transit point for opiates from Southeast
Asia to the West

______________________________________________________________________

NETHERLANDS

@Netherlands:Geography

Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and
Germany

Geographic coordinates: 52 30 N, 5 45 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 41,526 sq km
land: 33,889 sq km
water: 7,637 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey

Land boundaries:
total: 1,027 km
border countries: Belgium 450 km, Germany 577 km

Coastline: 451 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters

Terrain: mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some
hills in southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Prins Alexanderpolder -7 m
highest point: Vaalserberg 321 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, fertile soil

Land use:
arable land: 27%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 31%
forests and woodland: 10%
other: 31% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,600 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: the extensive system of dikes and dams, protects
nearly one-half of the total area from being flooded

Environment-current issues: water pollution in the form of heavy
metals, organic compounds, and nutrients such as nitrates and
phosphates; air pollution from vehicles and refining activities; acid
rain

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity

Geography-note: located at mouths of three major European rivers
(Rhine, Maas or Meuse, and Schelde)

@Netherlands:People

Population: 15,731,112 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 1,472,236; female 1,406,919)
15-64 years: 68% (male 5,457,225; female 5,268,376)
65 years and over: 14% (male 862,574; female 1,263,782) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.5% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 11.62 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.69 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.17 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.01 years
male: 75.14 years
female: 81.03 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.49 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Dutchman(men), Dutchwoman(women)
adjective: Dutch

Ethnic groups: Dutch 96%, Moroccans, Turks, and other 4% (1988)

Religions: Roman Catholic 34%, Protestant 25%, Muslim 3%, other 2%,
unaffiliated 36% (1991)

Languages: Dutch

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1979 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Netherlands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of the Netherlands
conventional short form: Netherlands
local long form: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
local short form: Nederland

Data code: NL

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Amsterdam; The Hague is the seat of government

Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (provincien,
singular-provincie); Drenthe, Flevoland, Friesland, Gelderland,
Groningen, Limburg, Noord-Brabant, Noord-Holland, Overijssel, Utrecht,
Zeeland, Zuid-Holland

Dependent areas: Aruba, Netherlands Antilles

Independence: 1579 (from Spain)

National holiday: Queen's Day, 30 April

Constitution: adopted 1814; amended many times, last time 17 February
1983

Legal system: civil law system incorporating French penal theory;
constitution does not permit judicial review of acts of the States
General; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April
1980); Heir Apparent WILLEM-ALEXANDER (born 27 April 1967), Prince of
Orange, son of Queen BEATRIX
head of government: Prime Minister Wim KOK (since 22 August 1994) and
Vice Prime Ministers Hans DIJKSTAL (since 22 August 1994) and Hans VAN
MIERLO (since 22 August 1994)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the queen
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary, constitutional monarch;
following Second Chamber elections, the leader of the majority party
or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister
by the queen; vice prime ministers appointed by the queen
note: there is a Council of State composed of the queen, crown prince,
and councillors consulted by the executive on legislative and
administrative policy

Legislative branch: bicameral States General or Staten Generaal
consists of the First Chamber or Eerste Kamer (75 seats; members
indirectly elected by the country's 12 provincial councils for
four-year terms) and the Second Chamber or Tweede Kamer (150 seats;
members directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: First Chamber-last held 9 June 1995 (next to be held 9 June
1999); Second Chamber-last held 3 May 1994 (next to be held 6 May
1998)
election results: First Chamber-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-VVD 23, CDA 19, PvdA 14, D'66 7, other 12; Second
Chamber-percent of vote by party-PvdA 24.3%, CDA 22.3%, VVD 20.4%,
D'66 16.5%, other 16.5%; seats by party-PvdA 37, CDA 34, VVD 31, D'66
24, other 24

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Hoge Raad, justices are nominated
for life by the crown

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Appeal or CDA
[Jaap DE HOOP SCHEFFER]; Labor Party or PvdA [Wim KOK]; People's Party
for Freedom and Democracy (Liberal) or VVD [Hans F. DIJKSTAL];
Democrats '66 or D'66 [Els BORST]; a host of minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: large multinational firms;
Federation of Netherlands Trade Union Movement (comprising Socialist
and Catholic trade unions) and a Protestant trade union; Federation of
Catholic and Protestant Employers Associations; the nondenominational
Federation of Netherlands Enterprises; and Interchurch Peace Council
or IKV

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC,
EIB, ESA, ESCAP, EU, FAO, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA,
NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO,
ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joris M. VOS (appointed 9 October 1997)
chancery: 4200 Linnean Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 244-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 362-3430
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kirk Terry DORNBUSH
embassy: Lange Voorhout 102, 2514 EJ, The Hague
mailing address: PSC 71, Box 1000, APO AE 09715
telephone: [31] (70) 310-9209
FAX: [31] (70) 361-4688
consulate(s) general: Amsterdam

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and blue; similar to the flag of Luxembourg, which uses a lighter blue
and is longer

@Netherlands:Economy

Economy-overview: This highly developed and affluent economy is based
on private enterprise. The government makes its presence felt,
however, through many regulations, permit requirements, and welfare
programs affecting most aspects of economic activity. Industrial
activity features food-processing, oil-refining, and metalworking. The
highly mechanized agricultural sector employs only 2% of the labor
force but provides large surpluses for export and the domestic
food-processing industry. Indeed, the Netherlands ranks third
worldwide in value of agricultural exports, behind the US and France.
Sharp cuts in subsidy and social security spending have been
accompanied by sustained growth in output and employment. Growth in
1998 should be a brisk 3.5%. The Dutch will almost certainly qualify
for the first wave of countries entering the European Monetary Union
(EMU) in 1999.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$343.9 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.25% (1997)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$22,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 18%
services: 78% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 6.6 million (1997)
by occupation: services 75%, manufacturing and construction 23%,
agriculture 2% (1996)

Unemployment rate: 6.9% (1997)

Budget:
revenues: $103.4 billion
expenditures: $112.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1998 draft)

Industries: agroindustries, metal and engineering products, electrical
machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, fishing, construction,
microelectronics

Industrial production growth rate: 3.75% (1997)

Electricity-capacity: 20.09 million kW (1996 est.)

Electricity-production: 82 billion kWh (1996 est.)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 4,968 kWh (1996 est.)

Agriculture-products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, fruits,
vegetables; livestock

Exports:
total value: $203.1 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: manufactures and machinery, chemicals; processed food and
tobacco, agricultural products
partners: EU 80% (Germany 29%, Belgium-Luxembourg 13%, UK 10%),
Central and Eastern Europe 4%, US 3% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $1.791 trillion (c.i.f., 1997)
commodities: raw materials and semifinished products, consumer goods,
transportation equipment, crude oil, food products
partners: EU 64% (Germany 22%, Belgium-Luxembourg 11%, UK 10%),
Central and Eastern Europe 4%, US 8% (1996)

Debt-external: $0

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $2.9 billion (1997)

Currency: 1 Netherlands guilder, gulden, or florin (f.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Netherlands guilders, gulden, or florins (f.) per
US$1-2.0462 (January 1998), 1.9513 (1997), 1.6859 (1996), 1.6057
(1995), 1.8200 (1994), 1.8573 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 8.272 million (1983 est.)

Telephone system: highly developed and well maintained; extensive
redundant system of multiconductor cables, supplemented by microwave
radio relay
domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; microwave radio relay
international: 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations-3 Intelsat
(1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat
(Atlantic and Indian Ocean Regions)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3 (relays 3), FM 12 (repeaters 39),
shortwave 0

Radios: 13.755 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 8 (repeaters 7)

Televisions: 7.4 million (1992 est.)

@Netherlands:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,739 km
standard gauge: 2,739 km 1.435-m gauge; (1,991 km electrified) (1996)

Highways:
total: 127,000 km
paved: 114,427 km (including 2,360 km of expressways)
unpaved: 12,573 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 6,340 km, of which 35% is usable by craft of 1,000 metric
ton capacity or larger

Pipelines: crude oil 418 km; petroleum products 965 km; natural gas
10,230 km

Ports and harbors: Amsterdam, Delfzijl, Dordrecht, Eemshaven,
Groningen, Haarlem, Ijmuiden, Maastricht, Rotterdam, Terneuzen,
Utrecht

Merchant marine:
total: 453 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,141,630 GRT/3,597,975
DWT
ships by type : bulk 2, cargo 269, chemical tanker 33, combination
bulk 2, container 44, liquefied gas tanker 16, livestock carrier 1,
multifunction large-load carrier 7, oil tanker 28, passenger 6,
refrigerated cargo 28, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11, short-sea passenger
3, specialized tanker 3
note: many Dutch-owned ships are also operating under the registry of
Netherlands Antilles (1997 est.)

Airports: 28 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 19
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 6 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Netherlands:Military

Military branches: Royal Netherlands Army, Royal Netherlands Navy
(includes Naval Air Service and Marine Corps), Royal Netherlands Air
Force, Royal Constabulary

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 4,136,224 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 3,617,322 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 94,734 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $8.2 billion (1995)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.1% (1995)

@Netherlands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: important gateway for cocaine, heroin, and hashish
entering Europe; European producer of illicit amphetamines and other
synthetic drugs

______________________________________________________________________

NETHERLANDS ANTILLES

(part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

@Netherlands Antilles:Geography

Location: Caribbean, two island groups in the Caribbean Sea-one
includes Curacao and Bonaire north of Venezuela and the other is east
of the Virgin Islands

Geographic coordinates: 12 15 N, 68 45 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 960 sq km
land: 960 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint
Maarten (Dutch part of the island of Saint Martin)

Area-comparative: more than five times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 10.2 km
border countries: Guadeloupe (Saint Martin) 10.2 km

Coastline: 364 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; ameliorated by northeast trade winds

Terrain: generally hilly, volcanic interiors

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Scenery 862 m

Natural resources: phosphates (Curacao only), salt (Bonaire only)

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 90% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: Curacao and Bonaire are south of Caribbean hurricane
belt, so are rarely threatened; Sint Maarten, Saba, and Sint Eustatius
are subject to hurricanes from July to October

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Whaling (extended from Netherlands)
signed, but not ratified: NA

@Netherlands Antilles:People

Population: 205,693 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 26% (male 27,001; female 26,091)
15-64 years: 67% (male 64,964; female 72,329)
65 years and over: 7% (male 6,393; female 8,915) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.06% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 17.61 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 6.63 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 12.95 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.05 years
male: 71.99 years
female: 76.2 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.11 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Netherlands Antillean(s)
adjective: Netherlands Antillean

Ethnic groups: mixed black 85%, Carib Amerindian, white, East Asian

Religions: Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, Seventh-Day Adventist

Languages: Dutch (official), Papiamento, a
Spanish-Portuguese-Dutch-English dialect predominates, English widely
spoken, Spanish

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 98%
female: 99% (1981 est.)

@Netherlands Antilles:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Netherlands Antilles
local long form: none
local short form: Nederlandse Antillen

Data code: NT

Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full
autonomy in internal affairs granted in 1954

Government type: parliamentary

National capital: Willemstad

Administrative divisions: none (part of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands)
note: each island has its own government

Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

National holiday: Queen's Day, 30 April (1938)

Constitution: 29 December 1954, Statute of the Realm of the
Netherlands, as amended

Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English
common law influence

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard of the Netherlands
(since 30 April 1980), represented by Governor General Jaime SALEH
(since NA October 1989)
head of government: Prime Minister Miguel POURIER (since 25 February
1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Staten
elections: the queen is a constitutional monarch; governor general
appointed by the queen for a six-year term; following legislative
elections, the leader of the majority party is usually elected prime
minister by the Staten; election last held 30 January 1998 (next to be
held by NA 2002)
election results: Miguel POURIER elected prime minister; percent of
legislative vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral States or Staten (22 seats; members are
elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 30 January 1998 (next to be held by NA 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-PAR 4,
PNP 3, SPA 1, PDB 2, UPB 1, MAN 2, PKLP 3, WIPM 1, SEA 1, DP-St.M 2,
FOL 2; no party won enough seats to form a government
note: the government of Prime Minister Miguel POURIER is a coalition
of several parties

Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice, are appointed by the
Netherlands monarch

Political parties and leaders:
Bonaire: Democratic Party of Bonaire (PDB), Jopi ABRAHAM; Patriotic
Union of Bonaire (UPB), Rudy ELLIS
Curacao: Antillean Restructuring Party (PAR), Miguel POURIER; National
People's Party (PNP), Suzy ROMER; New Antilles Movement (MAN),
Domenico Felip Don MARTINA; Workers' Liberation Front (FOL), Wilson
GODETT, Jr.; Socialist Independent (SI), George HUECK; Democratic
Party of Curacao (DP), Frank MAYNARD; Nos Patria, Chin BEHILIA; Social
Action Cause (KAS), Benny DEMEI; Labor Party People's Crusade (PLKP),
Errol COVA; Foundation Energetic Management Anti-Narcotics (FAME),
Eric LODEWIJKS; Pro Curacao Party (PPK), Winston LOURENS; C 93,
Stanley BROWN; People's Party (PAPU), Richard HODI
Saba: Windward Islands People's Movement (WIPM Saba), Ray HASSELL;
Saba Democratic Labor Movement, Steve HASSELL; Saba Unity Party,
Carmen SIMMONDS
Sint Eustatius: Democratic Party of Sint Eustatius (DP-St. E), Julian
WOODLEY; Windward Islands People's Movement (WIPM); St. Eustatius
Alliance (SEA), Ingrid WHITFIELD
Sint Maarten: Democratic Party of Sint Maarten (DP-St. M), Sarah
WESTCOTT-WILLIAMS; Patriotic Movement of Sint Maarten (SPA), William
MARLIN; Serious Alternative People's Party (SAPP) Julian ROLLOCKS
note: political parties are indigenous to each island

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), ECLAC
(associate), Interpol, IOC, UNESCO (associate), UPU, WMO, WToO
(associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (represented by the Kingdom
of the Netherlands)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Consul General James L. WILLIAMS
consulate(s) general: J.B. Gorsiraweg #1, Curacao
mailing address: P. O. Box 158, Willemstad, Curacao
telephone: [599] (9) 4613066
FAX: [599] (9) 4616489

Flag description: white with a horizontal blue stripe in the center
superimposed on a vertical red band also centered; five white
five-pointed stars are arranged in an oval pattern in the center of
the blue band; the five stars represent the five main islands of
Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten

@Netherlands Antilles:Economy

Economy-overview: Tourism, petroleum transshipment, and offshore
finance are the mainstays of this small economy, which is closely tied
to the outside world. The islands enjoy a high per capita income and a
well-developed infrastructure as compared with other countries in the
region. Almost all consumer and capital goods are imported, with
Venezuela and the US being the major suppliers. Poor soils and
inadequate water supplies hamper the development of agriculture.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$2.4 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: -1.3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$11,500 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 1%
industry: 15%
services: 84% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3.6% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 89,000
by occupation: government 65%, industry and commerce 28% (1983)

Unemployment rate: 12.8% (1993)

Budget:
revenues: $277 million
expenditures: $322 million, including capital expenditures of $14
million (1996 est.)

Industries: tourism (Curacao, Sint Maarten, and Bonaire), petroleum
refining (Curacao), petroleum transshipment facilities (Curacao and
Bonaire), light manufacturing (Curacao)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 200,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 840 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 4,128 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: aloes, sorghum, peanuts, vegetables, tropical
fruit

Exports:
total value: $NA
commodities: petroleum products 98% (1993)
partners: US 39%, Brazil 9%, Colombia 6% (1993)

Imports:
total value: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: crude petroleum 64%, food, manufactures (1993)
partners: Venezuela 26%, US 18%, Colombia 6%, Netherlands 6%, Japan 5%
(1993)

Debt-external: $1.95 billion (December 1995)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA; the Netherlands Antilles received a $97 million
Dutch aid package in 1996, making it the Netherlands' second largest
aid recipient behind India

Currency: 1 Netherlands Antillean guilder, gulden, or florin (NAf.) =
100 cents

Exchange rates: Netherlands Antillean guilders, gulden, or florins
(NAf.) per US$1 - 1.790 (fixed rate since 1989)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: generally adequate facilities
domestic: extensive interisland microwave radio relay links
international: 2 submarine cables; satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat
(Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 205,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 64,000 (1992 est.)

@Netherlands Antilles:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 600 km
paved: 300 km
unpaved: 300 km (1992 est.)

Ports and harbors: Kralendijk, Philipsburg, Willemstad

Merchant marine:
total: 97 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 894,479 GRT/1,230,865 DWT
ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 32, chemical tanker 1, container 5,
liquefied gas tanker 4, multifunction large-load carrier 19, oil
tanker 6, passenger 1, refrigerated cargo 17, roll-on/roll-off cargo 8
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships of 2 countries:
Belgium owns 9 ships, Germany 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 5 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Netherlands Antilles:Military

Military branches: Royal Netherlands Navy, Marine Corps, Royal
Netherlands Air Force, National Guard, Police Force

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 52,845 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 29,664 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 1,456 (1998 est.)

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands

@Netherlands Antilles:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: money-laundering center; transshipment point for South
American drugs bound for the US and Europe

______________________________________________________________________

NEW CALEDONIA

(overseas territory of France)

@New Caledonia:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east of
Australia

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 S, 165 30 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 19,060 sq km
land: 18,575 sq km
water: 485 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2,254 km

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