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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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With the prime minister and defense and security ministers arrayed
against him, an isolated TER-PETROSSIAN resigned the presidency on 3
February 1998. Robert KOCHARIAN, TER-PETROSSIAN's prime minister, was
elected president in March 1998. Concerns about Armenia's economic
performance rose in 1997 with a slowdown in growth and an increase in
inflation.

@Armenia:Geography

Location: Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 45 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 29,800 sq km
land: 28,400 sq km
water: 1,400 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 1,254 km
border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Terrain: high Armenian Plateau with mountains; little forest land;
fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Debed River 400 m
highest point: Aragats Lerr 4,095 m

Natural resources: small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc,
alumina

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 24%
forests and woodland: 15%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,870 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts

Environment-current issues: soil pollution from toxic chemicals such
as DDT; energy blockade, the result of conflict with Azerbaijan, has
led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for firewood; pollution
of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake
Sevan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens
drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant
without adequate (IAEA-recommended) safety and backup systems

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: landlocked

@Armenia:People

Population: 3,421,775 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 26% (male 460,191; female 441,906)
15-64 years: 65% (male 1,092,652; female 1,139,916)
65 years and over: 9% (male 119,464; female 167,646) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.36% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 13.52 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.82 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -8.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 40.77 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.73 years
male: 62.45 years
female: 71.23 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.69 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Armenian(s)
adjective: Armenian

Ethnic groups: Armenian 93%, Azeri 3%, Russian 2%, other (mostly
Yezidi Kurds) 2% (1989)
note: as of the end of 1993, virtually all Azeris had emigrated from
Armenia

Religions: Armenian Orthodox 94%

Languages: Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 98% (1989 est.)

@Armenia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
conventional short form: Armenia
local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
local short form: Hayastan
former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic

Data code: AM

Government type: republic

National capital: Yerevan

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (marzer, singular-marz) and 1
city* (k'aghak'ner, singular - k'aghak'); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir,
Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor,
Yerevan*

Independence: 28 May 1918 (First Armenian Republic); 23 September 1991
(from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Referendum Day, 21 September

Constitution: adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 March 1998)
head of government: Prime Minister Armen DARBINYAN (since 10 April
1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
special election last held 30 March 1998 (next election to be held
March 2003); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Robert KOCHARIAN elected president; percent of
vote-Robert KOCHARIAN 59%, Karen DEMIRCHYAN 41%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or
Azgayin Zhoghov (190 seats; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 5 July 1995 (next to be held NA July 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-Republican Bloc 159 (ANM 63, DLP-Hanrapetutyun Bloc 6, Republic
Party 4, CDU 3, Intellectual Armenia 3, Social Democratic Party 2,
independents 78), SWM 8, ACP 7, NDU 5, NSDU 3, DLP 1, ARF 1, other 4,
vacant 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Armenian National Movement or ANM [Vano
SIRADEGIAN, chairman]; National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen
MANUKIAN]; Intellectual Armenia [H. TOKMAJIAN]; Social Democratic
(Hnchakian) Party [Yeghia NACHARIAN]; Shamiram Women's Movement or SWM
[Maria NERSISSIAN]; Armenian Communist Party or ACP [Sergey BADALYAN];
Union of National Self-Determination or NSDU [Paruir HAIRIKIAN,
chairman]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF;
Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Azat ARSHAKYN, chairman];
Democratic Liberal Party [Orthosis GYONJIAN, chairman]; Republican
Party [Andranik MARKARYAN]

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), CIS,
EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM (observer), OSCE,
PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
(applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Rouben SHUGARIAN
chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976
FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter TOMSEN
embassy: 18 General Baghramian Avenue, Yerevan
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [374] (2) 524-661, 521-611
FAX: [374] (2) 151-550, 151-511

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and
gold

@Armenia:Economy

Economy-overview: Under the old Soviet central planning system,
Armenia had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine
tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in
exchange for raw materials and energy. Since the implosion of the USSR
in December 1991, Armenia has switched to small-scale agriculture away
from the large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet area. The
agricultural sector has long-term needs for more investment and
updated technology. The privatization of industry has been at a slower
pace, but ahead of most of the rest of the CIS. Armenia is a food
importer and its mineral deposits (gold, bauxite) are small. The
ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the ethnic Armenian-dominated
region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the embargoes imposed by Azerbaijan and
Turkey contributed to a severe economic decline in the early 1990s. By
1994, however, the Armenian Government had launched an ambitious
IMF-sponsored economic program that has resulted in positive growth
rates in 1995-97. Armenia also managed to slash inflation and to
privatize most small and medium-sized enterprises. The chronic energy
shortages Armenia suffered in recent years has been partially offset
by the energy supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at Metsamor,
which in 1996 supplied about 40% of the country's energy needs,
according to the Armenian Government. Moreover, Armenia is expanding
its energy imports from Iran.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$9.5 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.7% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,750 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 38%
industry: 32%
services: 30% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 13.2% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.6 million (1997)
by occupation: manufacturing, mining, and construction 25%,
agriculture 38%, services 37%

Unemployment rate: 10.6% officially registered unemployed, but large
numbers of underemployed (June 1997)

Budget:
revenues: $322 million
expenditures: $424 million, including capital expenditures of $80
million (1998 est.)

Industries: much of industry is shut down; metal-cutting machine
tools, forging-pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted
wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, washing machines, chemicals,
trucks, watches, instruments, microelectronics

Industrial production growth rate: 0.7% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 2.768 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 6.3 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,570 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; vineyards
near Yerevan are famous for brandy and other liqueurs; minor livestock
sector

Exports:
total value: $290 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: gold and jewelry, aluminum, transport equipment,
electrical equipment, scrap metal
partners: Iran, Russia, Turkmenistan, Georgia

Imports:
total value: $727 million (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: grain, other foods, fuel, other energy
partners: Iran, Russia, Turkmenistan, Georgia, US, EU

Debt-external: $820 million (of which $75 million to Russia) (1997
est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: commitments (excluding Russia), $1,385 million ($675 million in
disbursements) (1992-95)

Currency: 1 dram = 100 luma (introduced new currency in November 1993)

Exchange rates: dram per US$1-499.89 (November 1997), 414.04 (1996),
405.91 (1995), 288.65 (1994), 9.11 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 650,000

Telephone system: joint venture agreement to install fiber-optic cable
and construct facilities for cellular telephone service is in the
implementation phase
domestic: NA
international: international connections to other former Soviet
republics are by landline or microwave radio relay and to other
countries by satellite and by leased connection through the Moscow
international gateway switch; satellite earth station-1 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 3, shortwave NA (1991)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1
note: 100% of population receives Armenian and Russian TV programs

Televisions: NA

@Armenia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 825 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines
broad gauge: 825 km 1.520-m gauge (1992)

Highways:
total: 8,580 km
paved: 8,580 km
unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: NA km

Pipelines: natural gas 900 km (1991)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 11 (1996 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

@Armenia:Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Security Forces
(internal and border troops)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 914,134 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 726,938 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 31,814 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: 33.3 billion drams (1998);
note-conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using
prevailing exchange rates could produce misleading results

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Armenia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the
Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan in the longstanding, separatist
conflict against the Azerbaijani Government; traditional demands on
former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis mostly for domestic
consumption; used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs to
Western Europe and the US

______________________________________________________________________

ARUBA

(part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

@Aruba:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 N, 69 58 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 193 sq km
land: 193 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 68.5 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: flat with a few hills; scant vegetation

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Jamanota 188 m

Natural resources: negligible; white sandy beaches

Land use:
arable land: 11%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 89% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

@Aruba:People

Population: 68,325 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (male 7,775; female 7,114)
15-64 years: 69% (male 22,616; female 24,700)
65 years and over: 9% (male 2,523; female 3,597) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.47% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 13.74 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 6.4 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.96 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.92 years
male: 73.22 years
female: 80.81 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Aruban(s)
adjective: Aruban

Ethnic groups: mixed white/Caribbean Amerindian 80%

Religions: Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim,
Confucian, Jewish

Languages: Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch,
English dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish

Literacy: NA

@Aruba:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Aruba

Data code: AA

Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full
autonomy in internal affairs obtained in 1986 upon separation from the
Netherlands Antilles

Government type: parliamentary

National capital: Oranjestad

Administrative divisions: none (part of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands)

Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; in 1990,
Aruba requested and received from the Netherlands cancellation of the
agreement to automatically give independence to the island in 1996)

National holiday: Flag Day, 18 March

Constitution: 1 January 1986

Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English
common law influence

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard of the Netherlands
(since 30 April 1980), represented by Governor General Olindo KOOLMAN
(since 1 January 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Jan (Henny) H. EMAN (since 29 July
1994) and Deputy Prime Minister Glenbert F. CROES
cabinet: Council of Ministers (elected by the Staten)
elections: the queen is a constitutional monarch; governor general
appointed for a six-year term by the queen; prime minister and deputy
prime minister elected by the Staten for a four-year term; election
last held 12 July 1997 (next to be held by December 2001)
election results: inconclusive; no party won majority in December 1997
parliamentary elections; no new government formed as of May 1998

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislature or Staten (21 seats;
members elected by direct popular vote and serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 12 December 1997 (next to be held by NA December
2001)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-AVP 10,
MEP 9, OLA 2; although elections were held 12 December 1997, a new
government had not been formed as of May 1998

Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice; judges are appointed by
the Netherlands monarch

Political parties and leaders: Electoral Movement Party or MEP [Nelson
ODUBER]; Aruban People's Party or AVP [Jan (Henny) H. EMAN]; National
Democratic Action or ADN [Pedro Charro KELLY]; New Patriotic Party or
PPN [Eddy WERLEMEN]; Aruban Patriotic Party or PPA [Benny NISBET];
Aruban Democratic Party or PDA [Leo BERLINSKI]; Democratic Action '86
or AD '86 [Arturo ODUBER]; Aruban Liberal Party or OLA [Glenbert
CROES]

International organization participation: ECLAC (associate), Interpol,
IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL, WToO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (represented by the Kingdom
of the Netherlands)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Consul General James L. WILLIAMS
embassy: J.B. Gorsiraweg #1, Curacao
mailing address: P.O. Box 158, Willemstad, Curacao
telephone: [599] (9) 461-3066
FAX: 461-6489

Flag description: blue with two narrow horizontal yellow stripes
across the lower portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in
white in the upper hoist-side corner

@Aruba:Economy

Economy-overview: Tourism is the mainstay of the Aruban economy,
although offshore banking and oil refining and storage are also
important. The rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last decade
has resulted in a substantial expansion of other activities.
Construction has boomed, with hotel capacity five times the 1985
level. In addition, the reopening of the country's oil refinery in
1993, a major source of employment and foreign exchange earnings, has
further spurred growth. Aruba's small labor force and less than 1%
unemployment rate have led to a large number of unfilled job vacancies
despite sharp rises in wage rates in recent years.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1.4 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$21,000 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3.2% (1996)

Labor force: NA
by occupation: most employment is in the tourist industry (1996)

Unemployment rate: 0.6% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $376 million
expenditures: $409 million, including capital expenditures of $107
million (1997 est.)

Industries: tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 90,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 340 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 5,154 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: aloes; livestock; fishing

Exports:
total value: $1.7 billion (including oil re-exports) (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: mostly refined petroleum products
partners: US 64%, EU

Imports:
total value: $2 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: food, consumer goods, manufactures, petroleum products,
crude oil for refining and reexport
partners: US 8%, EU

Debt-external: $669 million (December 1995)

Economic aid: the Netherlands provided a 1996 aid package of $224
million to Aruba, the Netherlands Antilles, and Suriname

Currency: 1 Aruban florin (Af.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Aruban florins (Af.) per US$1-1.7900 (fixed rate since
1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 22,922 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: more than adequate
international: 1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten (Netherlands
Antilles); extensive interisland microwave radio relay links

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 19,000 (1993 est.)

@Aruba:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km
note: most coastal roads are paved, while unpaved roads serve large
tracts of the interior

Ports and harbors: Barcadera, Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas

Merchant marine:
total: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,365 GRT/29,170
DWT (1997 est.)

Airports: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Aruba:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands

@Aruba:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: drug money-laundering center and transit point for
narcotics bound for the US and Europe; added to the US list of major
drug producing or drug transit countries in December 1996

______________________________________________________________________

ASHMORE AND CARTIER ISLANDS

(territory of Australia)

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean, northwest of
Australia

Geographic coordinates: 12 14 S, 123 05 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 5 sq km
land: 5 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and
Cartier Island

Area-comparative: about eight times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 74.1 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: low with sand and coral

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 3 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (all grass and sand)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: surrounded by shoals and reefs that can pose maritime
hazards

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in
August 1983

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:People

Population:
note: there are only seasonal caretakers

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands
conventional short form: Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Data code: AT

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from Canberra
by the Australian Department of the Environment, Sport, and
Territories

Legal system: relevant laws of the Northern Territory of Australia

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Economy

Economy-overview: no economic activity

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic
visits by the Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

ATLANTIC OCEAN

@Atlantic Ocean:Geography

Location: body of water between Africa, Europe, Antarctica, and the
Western Hemisphere

Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N, 25 00 W

Map references: World

Area:
total: 82.217 million sq km
note: includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait,
Denmark Strait, Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea,
North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Scotia Sea, Weddell Sea, and other tributary
water bodies

Area-comparative: slightly less than nine times the size of the US;
second-largest of the world's four oceans (after the Pacific Ocean,
but larger than Indian Ocean or Arctic Ocean)

Coastline: 111,866 km

Climate: tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of
Africa near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea;
hurricanes can occur from May to December, but are most frequent from
August to November

Terrain: surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark
Strait, and Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm water gyre
(broad, circular system of currents) in the northern Atlantic,
counterclockwise warm water gyre in the southern Atlantic; the ocean
floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a rugged north-south
centerline for the entire Atlantic basin

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Puerto Rico Trench -8,605 m
highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and
whales), sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic
nodules, precious stones

Natural hazards: icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and
the northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been
spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; icebergs from
Antarctica occur in the extreme southern Atlantic Ocean; ships subject
to superstructure icing in extreme northern Atlantic from October to
May and extreme southern Atlantic from May to October; persistent fog
can be a maritime hazard from May to September

Environment-current issues: endangered marine species include the
manatee, seals, sea lions, turtles, and whales; drift net fishing is
hastening the decline of fish stocks and contributing to international
disputes; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Brazil,
and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico,
Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and
municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and Mediterranean
Sea

Environment-international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: major chokepoints include the Dardanelles, Strait of
Gibraltar, access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits
include the Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The
Sound (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator divides the
Atlantic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean

@Atlantic Ocean:Government

Data code: none; the US Government has not approved a standard for
hydrographic codes-see the Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data
Codes appendix

@Atlantic Ocean:Economy

Economy-overview: The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's most
heavily trafficked sea routes, between and within the Eastern and
Western Hemispheres. Other economic activity includes the exploitation
of natural resources, e.g., fishing, the dredging of aragonite sands
(The Bahamas), and production of crude oil and natural gas (Caribbean
Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).

Communications

Telephone system:
international: numerous submarine cables with most between continental
Europe and the UK, between North America and the UK, and in the
Mediterranean; numerous direct links across Atlantic via satellite
networks

@Atlantic Ocean:Transportation

Ports and harbors: Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp
(Belgium), Barcelona (Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca
(Morocco), Colon (Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal),
Gdansk (Poland), Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas
(Canary Islands, Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon (Portugal), London
(UK), Marseille (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada),
Naples (Italy), New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria), Oslo
(Norway), Piraeus (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam
(Netherlands), Saint Petersburg (Russia), Stockholm (Sweden)

Transportation-note: Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two
important waterways

@Atlantic Ocean:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)

______________________________________________________________________

AUSTRALIA

@Australia:Geography

Location: Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South
Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 S, 133 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 7,686,850 sq km
land: 7,617,930 sq km
water: 68,920 sq km
note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 25,760 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east;
tropical in north

Terrain: mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m
highest point: Mount Kosciusko 2,229 m

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver,
uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds,
natural gas, petroleum

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 54%
forests and woodland: 19%
other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 21,070 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cyclones along the coast; severe droughts

Environment-current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial
development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity
rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing
for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique
animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast
coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased
shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh
water resources

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

Geography-note: world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country;
population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts;
regular, tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor"
occurs along the west coast in the summer

@Australia:People

Population: 18,613,087 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 21% (male 2,023,147; female 1,926,206)
15-64 years: 66% (male 6,251,159; female 6,105,381)
65 years and over: 13% (male 1,005,196; female 1,301,998) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.93% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 13.47 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 6.89 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.26 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.89 years
male: 76.95 years
female: 82.98 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Australian(s)
adjective: Australian

Ethnic groups: Caucasian 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%

Religions: Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%,
non-Christian 11%

Languages: English, native languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (1980 est.)

@Australia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia
conventional short form: Australia

Data code: AS

Government type: democratic, federal-state system recognizing the
British monarch as sovereign

National capital: Canberra

Administrative divisions: 6 states and 2 territories*; Australian
Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland,
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

Dependent areas: Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos
(Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald
Islands, Norfolk Island

Independence: 1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)

National holiday: Australia Day, 26 January (1788)

Constitution: 9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901

Legal system: based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir William DEANE (since 16 February
1996)
head of government: Prime Minister John Winston HOWARD (since 11 March
1996); Deputy Prime Minister Timothy Andrew FISCHER (since 11 March
1996)
cabinet: Cabinet selected from among the members of Federal Parliament
by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
appointed by the queen; following legislative elections, the leader of
the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually
appointed prime minister by the governor general for a three-year term

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the
Senate (76 seats-12 from each of the six states and two from each of
the two territories; one-half of the members elected every three years
by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of
Representatives (148 seats; members elected by popular vote on the
basis of proportional representation to serve three-year terms; no
state can have fewer than five representatives)
elections: Senate-last held 2 March 1996 (next to be held by March
1999); House of Representatives-last held 2 March 1996 (next to be
held by March 1999)
election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-Liberal-National 37, Labor 29, Australian Democrats 8, Greens 1,
independent 1; note-subsequent to the election, there has been a
change in the distribution of seats; the new distribution is as
follows-Liberal-National 37, Labor 28, Australian Democrats 7, Greens
2, independents 2; House of Representatives-percent of vote by
party-NA; seats by party-Liberal-National 94, Labor 49, independent 5
note: it is widely anticipated that the prime minister will call
elections in late 1998

Judicial branch: High Court, the Chief Justice and six other justices
are appointed by the governor general

Political parties and leaders:
government: coalition of Liberal Party, John Winston HOWARD, and
National Party, Timothy Andrew FISCHER
opposition: Australian Labor Party, Kim BEAZLEY; Australian Democratic
Party, Meg LEES; Green Party, Bob BROWN

Political pressure groups and leaders: Australian Democratic Labor
Party (anti-Communist Labor Party splinter group); Peace and Nuclear
Disarmament Action (Nuclear Disarmament Party splinter group)

International organization participation: AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC,
AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G- 8, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINUGUA,
MTCR, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Andrew Sharp PEACOCK
chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 797-3000
FAX: [1] (202) 797-3168
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, and
San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Genta Hawkins HOLMES
embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital
Territory 2600
mailing address: APO AP 96549
telephone: [61] (6) 270-5000
FAX: [61] (6) 270-5970
consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side
quadrant; the remaining half is a representation of the Southern Cross
constellation in white with one small five-pointed star and four,
larger, seven-pointed stars

@Australia:Economy

Economy-overview: Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist
economy, with a per capita GDP at the level of the highly
industrialized West European countries. Rich in natural resources,
Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products, minerals,
metals, and fossil fuels. Commodities account for 57% of the value of
total exports, so that a downturn in world commodity prices can have a
big impact on the economy. The government is pushing for increased
exports of manufactured goods, but competition in international
markets continues to be severe. Australia has suffered from the low
growth and high unemployment characterizing the OECD countries in the
early 1990s, but the economy has expanded at reasonably steady rates
in recent years. In addition to high unemployment, short-term economic
problems include a balancing of output growth and inflationary
pressures and the stimulation of exports to offset rising imports,
especially given the economic crisis in Asia.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$394 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$21,400 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 31%
services: 65% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 9.2 million (December 1997)
by occupation: services 73%, industry 22%, agriculture 5% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8.4% (1997)

Budget:
revenues: $89.35 billion
expenditures: $91.92 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY97/98 est.)

Industries: mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food
processing, chemicals, steel

Industrial production growth rate: 1.2% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 38.83 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 163.082 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 8,901 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep,
poultry

Exports:
total value: $68 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, iron ore, wheat,
machinery and transport equipment
partners: Japan 20%, ASEAN 16%, South Korea 9%, US 9%, NZ 8%, UK,
Taiwan, Hong Kong, China (1997)

Imports:
total value: $67 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, computers and office
machines, telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and
petroleum products
partners: US 22%, Japan 17%, UK 6%, China 5%, NZ 5% (1994/95)

Debt-external: $150 billion (December 1996)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $1.43 billion (FY97/98)

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1-1.4865 (February
1998), (1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3668 (1994),
1.4704 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 8.7 million (1987 est.)

Telephone system: excellent domestic and international service
domestic: domestic satellite system
international: submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and
Indonesia; satellite earth stations-10 Intelsat (4 Indian Ocean and 6
Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat (Indian and Pacific Ocean Regions)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 258, FM 67, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 134 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 9.2 million (1992 est.)

@Australia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 38,563 km (2,914 km electrified; 172 km dual gauge)
broad gauge: 6,083 km 1.600-m gauge
standard gauge: 16,752 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 15,728 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total: 913,000 km
paved: 353,331 km (including 1,3630 km of expressways)
unpaved: 559,669 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 8,368 km; mainly by small, shallow-draft craft

Pipelines: crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural gas
5,600 km

Ports and harbors: Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport
(Tasmania), Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart (Tasmania), Launceston
(Tasmania), Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville

Merchant marine:
total: 64 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,122,604 GRT/3,045,417
DWT
ships by type: bulk 31, cargo 3, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk
1, container 5, liquefied gas tanker 4, oil tanker 10, passenger 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 5 (1997 est.)

Airports: 419 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 259
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 111
914 to 1,523 m: 119
under 914 m: 8 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 160
1,524 to 2,437 m: 22
914 to 1,523 m: 123
under 914 m: 15 (1997 est.)

@Australia:Military

Military branches: Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal
Australian Air Force

Military manpower-military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 4,873,392 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 4,206,104 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 128,524 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $8.2 billion (FY97/98)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.9% (FY97/98)

@Australia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: territorial claim in Antarctica (Australian
Antarctic Territory)

Illicit drugs: Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit
opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of
opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

______________________________________________________________________

AUSTRIA

@Austria:Geography

Location: Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates: 47 20 N, 13 20 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 83,858 sq km
land: 82,738 sq km
water: 1,120 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
total: 2,562 km
border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366
km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330
km, Switzerland 164 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent
rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional
showers

Terrain: in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the
eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m
highest point: Grossglockner 3,797 m

Natural resources: iron ore, oil, timber, magnesite, lead, coal,
lignite, copper, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 23%
forests and woodland: 39%
other: 20% (1996 est.)

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: some forest degradation caused by air and
soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural
chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired
power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting
Austria between northern and southern Europe

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law
of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

Geography-note: landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of
central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys;
major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern
lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures
elsewhere

@Austria:People

Population: 8,133,611 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 709,890; female 673,696)
15-64 years: 68% (male 2,783,569; female 2,707,113)
65 years and over: 15% (male 471,924; female 787,419) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.05% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 9.89 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 10.05 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.16 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.31 years
male: 74.13 years
female: 80.67 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.37 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Austrian(s)
adjective: Austrian

Ethnic groups: German 99.4%, Croatian 0.3%, Slovene 0.2%, other 0.1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 78%, Protestant 5%, other 17%

Languages: German

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1974 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Austria:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Austria
conventional short form: Austria
local long form: Republik Oesterreich
local short form: Oesterreich

Data code: AU

Government type: federal republic

National capital: Vienna

Administrative divisions: 9 states (bundeslaender,
singular-bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten, Niederoesterreich,
Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien

Independence: 1156 (from Bavaria)

National holiday: National Day, 26 October (1955)

Constitution: 1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)

Legal system: civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review
of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate
administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential
elections

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992)
head of government: Chancellor Viktor KLIMA (since 28 January 1997);
Vice Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (since 22 April 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of
the chancellor
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
presidential election last held 24 May 1992 (next to be held 19 April
1998); chancellor chosen by the president from the majority party in
the National Council; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the
advice of the chancellor
election results: Thomas KLESTIL elected president; percent of vote,
second ballot-Thomas KLESTIL 57%, Rudolf STREICHER 43%

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung
consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (64 members; members
represent each of the provinces on the basis of population, but with
each province having at least three representatives; members serve a
four- or six-year term) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183
seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year
terms)
elections: National Council-last held 17 December 1995 (next to be
held Fall 1999)
election results: National Council-percent of vote by party-SPOe
38.3%, OeVP 28.3%, FPOe 22.1%, LF 5.3%, Greens 4.6%, other 1.4%; seats
by party-SPOe 71, OeVP 53, FPOe 40, LF 10, Greens 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof;
Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court
or Verfassungsgerichtshof

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party of Austria or
SPOe [Viktor KLIMA, chairman]; Austrian People's Party or OeVP
[Wolfgang SCHUESSEL, chairman]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe
[Joerg HAIDER, chairman]; Communist Party or KPOe [Walter BEIER,
chairman]; The Greens or GA [Madeleine PETROVIC, parliamentary caucus
floor leader and Alexander VAN DER BELLEN, party spokesman]; Liberal
Forum or LF [Heide SCHMIDT]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Federal Chamber of Trade and
Commerce; Austrian Trade Union Federation (primarily Socialist) or
OeGB; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP
representing business, labor, and farmers; OeVP-oriented League of
Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman Catholic Church, including its
chief lay organization, Catholic Action

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD,
ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINUGUA, MINURSO, MTCR, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS
(observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNTSO,
UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Helmut TUERK
chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kathryn Walt HALL
embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091, Vienna
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [43] (1) 313-39
FAX: [43] (1) 310-0682

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and red

@Austria:Economy

Economy-overview: Austria, a member of the European Union since 1
January 1995, has a well-developed market economy with a high standard
of living. With exports of goods and services reaching over 40% of
GDP, Austria's economy is closely integrated with other EU member
countries, especially with Germany. Austria's entry into the EU has
drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to
the single European market. Austria is well on its way to meeting all
Maastricht convergence criteria for monetary union, through
privatization efforts, the 1996-98 budget consolidation programs, and
austerity measures, which were expected to bring total public sector
deficit down to 3% of GDP in 1997 and public debt in line with the 60%
of GDP required by the EU. Cuts mainly affect the civil service and
Austria's generous social system, the two major causes of the
government deficit. To meet increased competition from both the EU and
Central European countries, Austria will need to emphasize
knowledge-based sectors of the economy and deregulate the service
sector, particularly telecommunications and the energy sector.
Economic prospects are expected to brighten in 1998 with GDP growth
projected to be 2.5%.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$174.1 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.1% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$21,400 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 1.5%
industry: 31.6%
services: 66.9% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1.3% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 3.646 million (1996)
by occupation: services 66.1%, industry and crafts 29.6%, agriculture
and forestry 1.3% (salaried employees, 1996)
note: an estimated 150,000 Austrians are employed abroad; foreign
laborers in Austria number 298,000 (1996)

Unemployment rate: 7.1% (January 1998)

Budget:
revenues: $53.6 billion
expenditures: $61.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: food, iron and steel, machines, textiles, chemicals,
electrical, paper and pulp, tourism, mining, motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate: 1% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 15.65 million kW (1996)

Electricity-production: 54.8 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 6,900 kWh (1996)

Agriculture-products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit,
dairy products; cattle, pigs, poultry; sawn wood

Exports:
total value: $57.8 billion (1996)
commodities: machinery and equipment, iron and steel, lumber,
textiles, paper products, chemicals
partners: EU 64.7% (Germany 37.7%, Italy 8.5%), Eastern Europe 14.9%,
Japan 1.5%, US 3.1% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $67.3 billion (1996)
commodities: petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, vehicles,
chemicals, textiles and clothing, pharmaceuticals
partners: EU 70.7% (Germany 42.8%, Italy 8.7%), Eastern Europe 10%,
Japan 2.4%, US 4.5% (1996)

Debt-external: $29.4 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $480 million; assistance to central and eastern Europe
$400 million (1996)

Currency: 1 Austrian schilling (AS) = 100 groschen

Exchange rates: Austrian schillings (AS) per US$1-12.776 (January
1998), 12.204 (1997), 10.587 (1996), 10.081 (1995), 11.422 (1994),
11.632 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 3.47 million (1986 est.)
note: 88% of all households had telephones in the 1993 census

Telephone system:
domestic: highly developed and efficient
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean) and 2 Eutelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 105 (repeaters 684), shortwave 0

Radios: 70% of all households indicated that they had radios in the
1993 census

Television broadcast stations: 57 (repeaters 914)

Televisions: 2,418,584 (1984 est.)
note: 91% of households indicated that they had televisions in the
1993 census

@Austria:Transportation

Railways:
total: 5,636 km
standard gauge: 5,294 km 1.435-m gauge (3,263 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 342 km 1.000-m and 0.760-m gauge (84 km electrified)
(1996)

Highways: 129,055 km
paved: 129,055 km (including 1,607 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 356 km (1996)

Pipelines: crude oil 777 km; natural gas 909.1 km

Ports and harbors: Linz, Vienna, Enns, Krems

Merchant marine:
total: 25 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 84,103 GRT/114,616 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 19, combination bulk 2, container 1,
refrigerated cargo 2 (1997 est.)

Airports: 55 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 20
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 10 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 35
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 31 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Austria:Military

Military branches: Army (includes Flying Division)

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 2,098,409 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,744,035 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 46,854 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $1.8 billion (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 0.83% (1998 est.)

@Austria:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and
South American cocaine destined for Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________

AZERBAIJAN

Introduction

Current issues: Azerbaijan continues to be plagued by an unresolved
10-year-old conflict with Armenian separatists over its
Nagorno-Karabakh region. The Karabakh Armenians have declared
independence and seized almost 20% of the country's territory,
creating almost 1 million Azerbaijani refugees in the process. Both
sides have generally observed a Russian-mediated cease-fire in place
since May 1994.

@Azerbaijan:Geography

Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran
and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 40 30 N, 47 30 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 86,600 sq km
land: 86,100 sq km
water: 500 sq km
note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the
Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by
Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
total: 2,013 km
border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia
(with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with
Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179
km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
note: Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: dry, semiarid steppe

Terrain: large, flat Kur-Araz Lowland (much of it below sea level)
with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag (Karabakh) Upland
in west; Baku lies on Abseron (Apsheron) Peninsula that juts into
Caspian Sea

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous
metals, alumina

Land use:
arable land: 18%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: 11%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: droughts; some lowland areas threatened by rising
levels of the Caspian Sea

Environment-current issues: local scientists consider the Abseron
(Apsheron) Peninsula (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea
to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of
severe air, water, and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the
use of DDT as a pesticide and also from toxic defoliants used in the
production of cotton

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Climate Change, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity

Geography-note: landlocked

@Azerbaijan:People

Population: 7,855,576 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (male 1,300,236; female 1,247,027)
15-64 years: 61% (male 2,336,568; female 2,468,679)
65 years and over: 7% (male 195,322; female 307,744) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.7% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 22.2 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 9.41 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 81.64 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.3 years
male: 59.01 years
female: 67.81 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.72 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Azerbaijani(s)
adjective: Azerbaijani

Ethnic groups: Azeri 90%, Dagestani Peoples 3.2%, Russian 2.5%,
Armenian 2.3%, other 2% (1995 est.)
note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh
region

Religions: Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox
2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.)
note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; actual
practicing adherents are much lower

Languages: Azeri 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 99%
female: 96% (1989 est.)

@Azerbaijan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Azerbaijani Republic
conventional short form: Azerbaijan
local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
local short form: none
former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: AJ

Government type: republic

National capital: Baku (Baki)

Administrative divisions: 59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon-singular), 11
cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar
respublika); Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas
Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, Ali Bayramli Sahari*, Astara
Rayonu, Baki Sahari*, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu,
Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu,
Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Ganca Sahari*, Goranboy
Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli
Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran
Rayonu, Lankaran Sahari*, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu, Mingacevir
Sahari*, Naftalan Sahari*, Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi**, Neftcala
Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan
Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu,
Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Saki Sahari*, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi
Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Sumqayit Sahari*,
Susa Rayonu, Susa Sahari*, Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu,
Xacmaz Rayonu, Xankandi Sahari*, Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali
Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Yevlax
Sahari*, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu

Independence: 30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 May

Constitution: adopted 12 November 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Heydar ALIYEV (since 18 June 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 26 November
1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed
by the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term;
election last held 3 October 1993 (next to be held October 1998);
prime minister and first deputy prime ministers appointed by the
president and confirmed by the National Assembly
election results: Heydar ALIYEV elected president; percent of
vote-Heydar ALIYEV 97%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125
seats; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 12 and 26 November 1995 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-YAP and
allies 115, AXC 4, AMIP 3, YMP 1, vacant 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: New Azerbaijan Party or YAP [Heydar
ALIYEV, chairman]; Azerbaijan Popular Front or AXC [Abulfaz ELCHIBEY,
chairman]; Party for National Independence of Azerbaijan or AMIP
[Etibar MAMMADOV, chairman]; Musavat Party or YMP [Isa GAMBAR,
chairman]; People's Democratic Party of Azerbaijan [Rafig TURABXANLY];
People's Freedom Party [Yunus OGUZ, chairman]; Democratic Party of
Independence of Azerbaijan [Vagit KERIMOV]; Communist Party of
Azerbaijan (CPA-2) [Firudin HASANOV]; Social Democratic Party of
Azerbaijan or SDP [Zardusht ALIZADE, chairman]; Liberal Party of
Azerbaijan [Lala HAJIYEVA]; Vahdat Party [Leyla YUNUSOV, Gadzhi
ALIZADE]; Azerbaijan Muslim Democratic Party (former Islamic Party)
[Haji Mekhti SHAMILLI]; Azerbaijan Democratic Party or ADP [Ilyas
ISMAYLOV]; Civic Solidarity [Sabir RUSTAMXANLI]; Ana Vatan Party
[Fazail AGAMALI]

Political pressure groups and leaders: self-proclaimed Armenian
Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement; Sadval,
Lezgin movement

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), CIS,
EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM (observer),
OIC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiz Mir Jalal PASHAYEV
chancery: (temporary) Suite 700, 927 15th Street NW, Washington, DC
20005 or P. O. Box 28790, Washington, DC 20038-8790
telephone: [1] (202) 842-0001
FAX: [1] (202) 842-0004

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Stanley ESCUDERO
embassy: Azadliq Prospekti 83, Baku
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [9] (9412) 98-03-35
FAX: [9] (9412) 96-04-69

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and
green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red
band

@Azerbaijan:Economy

Economy-overview: Azerbaijan is less developed industrially than
either Armenia or Georgia, the other Transcaucasian states. It
resembles the Central Asian states in its majority nominally Muslim
population, high structural unemployment, and low standard of living.
The economy's most prominent products are oil, cotton, and gas.
Production from the Caspian oil and gas field has been in decline for
several years, but the negotiation of more than a dozen
production-sharing arrangements (PSAs) with foreign firms, which have
thus far committed $30 billion to oil field development, should
generate the funds needed to spur future industrial development. Oil
production under the first of these PSAs, with the Azerbaijan
International Operating Company, began in November 1997. Azerbaijan
shares all the formidable problems of the ex-Soviet republics in
making the transition from a command to a market economy, but its

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