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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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Data code: MD

Government type: republic

National capital: Chisinau

Administrative divisions: previously divided into 40 rayons; new
districts possible under new constitution of 1994

Independence: 27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 August 1991

Constitution: new constitution adopted 28 July 1994; replaces old
Soviet constitution of 1979

Legal system: based on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews
legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution;
it is unclear if Moldova accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction but
accepts many UN and OSCE documents

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Petru LUCINSCHI (since 15 January 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Ion CIUBUC (since 15 January 1997);
First Deputy Prime Minister Ion GUTU (since NA April 1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
election last held 17 November 1996; runoff election 1 December 1996
(next to be held NA November 2000); following legislative elections,
the leader of the majority party or leader of the majority coalition
is usually elected prime minister by Parliament
election results: Petru LUCINSCHI ran against Mircea SNEGUR and was
elected president; percent of vote-LUCINSCHI 54%, SNEGUR 46%; Prime
Minister Ion CIUBUC was appointed by the president 15 January 1997 and
was elected by a parliamentary vote of 75-15 on 24 January 1997

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Parlamentul (104 seats;
members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 27 February 1994 (next to be held 22 March 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-PDAM 56,
Socialist/Yedinstvo Bloc 28, Peasants and Intellectuals Bloc 11, FPCDM
9; note-seats as of June-July 1995 were as follows: PDAM 45, PSM/UN
28, Peasants and Intellectuals Bloc 11, PRCM 11, FPCDM 9
note: the comparative breakdown of seats by faction is approximate

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Popular Front or
FPCDM (formerly Moldovan Popular Front) [Iurie ROSCA, chairman];
Socialist Unity Faction or US of the Socialist Party of Moldova or
PSM; Social Democratic Party of Moldova or PSDM [Oazu NANTOI,
chairman]; Agrarian Democratic Party of Moldova or PDAM [Dumitru
MOTPAN, chairman]; Peasants and Intellectuals Bloc [Lidia ISTRATI,
chairwoman]; Liberal Party of Moldova or PLM [Mircea RUSU, chairman];
Socialist Party of Moldova or PSM [Valeriu SENIC and Victor MOREV,
cochairmen]; Party of Rivival and Conciliation of Moldova or PRCM
[Mircea SNEGUR, chairman]; Moldovan Party of Democratic Forces or PFDM
[Valeriu MATEI, chairman]; Party for Social Progress or PPSM [Eugen
SOBOR, chairman]; Communist Party or PCM [Vladimir VORONTIN, first
chairman]; Civic Unity [Vladimir SOLONARI]; Moldovan National Peasant
Party or PNTM [Simeon CERTAN]; Party of People's Social Justice
[Maricica LITVITCHI]; Party for a Democratic and Prosperous Moldova or
PMDP [Dumitru DIACOV]

Political pressure groups and leaders: The Ecology Movement of Moldova
or EMM [Alecu RENITSA, chairman]; The Christian Democratic League of
Women of Moldova or CDLWM [Lidia ISTRATI, chairwoman]; National
Christian Party of Moldova or NCPM [V. NIKU, leader]; The Peoples
Movement Gagauz Khalky or GKh [S. GULGAR, leader]; The Democratic
Party of Gagauzia or DPG [G. SAVOSTIN, chairman]; The Alliance of
Working People of Moldova or AWPM [G. POLOGOV, president]; Liberal
Convention of Moldova (now the Liberal Party); Association of Victims
of Repression [Alexander USATIUC]; Christian Democratic Youth
Organization [Valeriu BARBA]; National Youth League [Valeriu
STRELETS]; Union of Youth of Moldova [Petru GAVTON]

International organization participation: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE,
CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU,
OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
(applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nicolae TAU
chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John Todd STEWART
embassy: Strada Alexei Mateevicie #103, Chisinau 277014
mailing address: use embassy street address; pouch address-American
Embassy Chisinau, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7080
telephone: [373] (2) 23-37-72, RNX 548 (plus extension)
FAX: [373] (2) 23-30-44

Flag description: same color scheme as Romania-three equal vertical
bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag
is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and
talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in
its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its
breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized
ox head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow

@Moldova:Economy

Economy-overview: Moldova enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland
but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy depends
heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and
tobacco. Moldova must import all of its supplies of oil, coal, and
natural gas, largely from Russia. Energy shortages contributed to
sharp production declines after the breakup of the Soviet Union in
1991. The Moldovan Government has recently been making progress on an
ambitious economic reform agenda. As part of its reform efforts,
Moldova introduced a stable convertible currency, freed all prices,
stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises and backed
steady land privatization, removed export controls, and freed interest
rates. The IMF has suspended payment on Moldova's Extended Fund
Facility since November 1997, due to concerns about the budget deficit
and money supply growth. In late December Parliament agreed to a lower
1998 budget deficit to address IMF and World Bank concerns.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$10.8 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: -2% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,400 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 42%
industry: 36%
services: 22% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 11.2% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2.42 million (1995)
by occupation: agriculture 46.1%, industry 13.9%, other 40.0% (1996)

Unemployment rate: 1.4% (includes only officially registered
unemployed; large numbers of underemployed workers) (March 1997)

Budget:
revenues: $570 million
expenditures: $641 million, including capital expenditures of $28
million (1997 est.)

Industries: food processing, agricultural machinery, foundry
equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, hosiery,
sugar, vegetable oil, shoes, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: -2% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 2.906 million kW (1997)

Electricity-production: 1.5 billion kWh (1997)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 324 kWh (1996 est.)

Agriculture-products: vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets,
sunflower seed, tobacco; meat, milk

Exports:
total value: $816 million (1997)
commodities: foodstuffs, wine, tobacco, textiles and footwear,
machinery
partners: Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Romania, Germany

Imports:
total value: $1.16 billion (1997)
commodities: oil, gas, coal, steel, machinery, foodstuffs,
automobiles, and other consumer durables
partners: Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Romania, Germany

Debt-external: more than $1 billion (1997)

Economic aid:
recipient: IMF and World Bank, $512 million (1992-97)

Currency: the Moldovan leu (MLD) (plural lei) was introduced in late
1993

Exchange rates: lei (MLD) per US$1 (end of period)-4.6870 (January
1997), 4.6628 (1997), 4.6743 (1996), 4.4990 (1995), 4.2700 (1994),
3.6400 (1993), 0.4145 (1992); period average-4.6758 (January 1998),
81.6637 (1997), 4.6045 (1996), 4.4958 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 600,000 (1996 est.)

Telephone system: telecommunication system not well developed; 215,000
unsatisfied requests for telephone service (1991 est.); since 1997,
Chisinau has been considering privatizing its state-owned telephone
company
domestic: NA
international: international connections to other former Soviet
republics by landline and microwave radio relay through Ukraine and to
other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international
gateway switch; satellite earth stations - 1 Eutelsat and 1 Intelsat;
first fiber optic cable installed between Moldova and Romania

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 5, shortwave NA (1994)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2 (one national and one private) (1995)

Televisions: NA

@Moldova:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,328 km
broad gauge: 1,328 km 1.520-m gauge (1992)

Highways:
total: 12,300 km
paved: 10,738 km
unpaved: 1,562 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 424 km (1994)

Pipelines: natural gas 310 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 26 (1994 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 8
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 3 (1994 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 8 (1994 est.)

@Moldova:Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Republic
Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,145,260 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 902,238 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 38,082 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: 203 million lei (1995);
note-conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Moldova:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: certain territory of Moldova and
Ukraine-including Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina-are considered by
Bucharest as historically a part of Romania; this territory was
incorporated into the former Soviet Union following the
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1940

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly
for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western
Europe and Russia

______________________________________________________________________

MONACO

@Monaco:Geography

Location: Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, on the
southern coast of France, near the border with Italy

Geographic coordinates: 43 44 N, 7 24 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 1.95 sq km
land: 1.95 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about three times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 4.4 km
border countries: France 4.4 km

Coastline: 4.1 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain: hilly, rugged, rocky

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mont Agel 140 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (urban area)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: second smallest independent state in world (after Holy
See); almost entirely urban

@Monaco:People

Population: 32,035 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 2,730; female 2,659)
15-64 years: 64% (male 9,934; female 10,463)
65 years and over: 19% (male 2,300; female 3,949) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.4% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 10.71 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 11.86 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 5.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.41 years
male: 74.79 years
female: 82.21 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)
adjective: Monegasque or Monacan

Ethnic groups: French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque

Literacy: NA

@Monaco:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Principality of Monaco
conventional short form: Monaco
local long form: Principaute de Monaco
local short form: Monaco

Data code: MN

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Monaco

Administrative divisions: 4 quarters (quartiers, singular-quartier);
Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo

Independence: 1419 (rule by the House of Grimaldi)

National holiday: National Day, 19 November

Constitution: 17 December 1962

Legal system: based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Prince RAINIER III (since 9 May 1949); Heir Apparent
Prince ALBERT Alexandre Louis Pierre (born 14 March 1958)
head of government: Minister of State Michel LEVEQUE (since 3 February
1997)
cabinet: Council of Government is under the authority of the prince
elections: none; the prince is a hereditary monarch; minister of state
appointed by the prince from a list of three French national
candidates presented by the French Government

Legislative branch: unicameral National Council or Conseil National
(18 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year
terms)
elections: last held 24 and 31 January 1993 (next to be held NA
January 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-National
and Democratic Union 15, other 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Tribunal Supreme, judges named by
the prince on the basis of nominations by the National Council

Political parties and leaders: National and Democratic Union or UND
[Jean-Louis CAMPORA]

International organization participation: ACCT, ECE, IAEA, ICAO, ICRM,
IFRCS, IHO, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: Monaco does not have an embassy
in the US
consulate(s): New York
honorary consulate(s) general: Boston, Los Angeles, New Orleans, San
Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
honorary consulate(s): Dallas, Palm Beach, Philadelphia, and
Washington, DC

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseille (France) is accredited
to Monaco

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white;
similar to the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of
Poland which is white (top) and red

@Monaco:Economy

Economy-overview: Monaco, situated on the French Mediterranean coast,
is a popular resort, attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant
climate. The Principality has successfully sought to diversify into
services and small, high-value-added, nonpolluting industries. The
state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax
haven both for individuals who have established residence and for
foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices. About 55%
of Monaco's annual revenue comes from value-added taxes on hotels,
banks, and the industrial sector. Living standards are high, roughly
comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$800 million (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$25,000 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 30,540 (1 January 1994)

Unemployment rate: 3.1% (1994)

Budget:
revenues: $623.3 million
expenditures: $638.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995 est.)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 10,000 kW standby
note: electricity imported from France

Electricity-production: NA kWh

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture-products: none

Exports: $NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and
rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system
through customs union with France

Imports: $NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and
rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system
through customs union with France

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1-6.0836 (January 1998),
5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 53,180 (1994 est.)

Telephone system: automatic telephone system
domestic: NA
international: no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into
the French communications system

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 33,000 (1994 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 5 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 24,000 (1994 est.)

@Monaco:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1.7 km
standard gauge: 1.7 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways:
total: 50 km
paved: 50 km
unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Monaco

Merchant marine: none

Airports: linked to airport in Nice, France, by helicopter service

@Monaco:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of France

@Monaco:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

MONGOLIA

@Mongolia:Geography

Location: Northern Asia, between China and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 1.565 million sq km
land: 1.565 million sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries:
total: 8,114 km
border countries: China 4,673 km, Russia 3,441 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature
ranges)

Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and
southwest; Gobi Desert in southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m
highest point: Tavan Bogd Uul 4,374 m

Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten,
phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 80%
forests and woodland: 9%
other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dust storms can occur in the spring; grassland fires

Environment-current issues: limited natural fresh water resources;
policies of the former communist regime promoting rapid urbanization
and industrial growth have raised concerns about their negative
effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal and the
concentration of factories in Ulaanbaatar have severely polluted the
air; deforestation, overgrazing, the converting of virgin land to
agricultural production have increased soil erosion from wind and
rain; desertification

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: landlocked; strategic location between China and
Russia

@Mongolia:People

Population: 2,578,530 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 37% (male 483,795; female 468,700)
15-64 years: 59% (male 764,665; female 764,825)
65 years and over: 4% (male 41,488; female 55,057) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.54% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 23.56 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.19 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 66.34 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 61.46 years
male: 59.4 years
female: 63.61 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.75 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Mongolian(s)
adjective: Mongolian

Ethnic groups: Mongol 90%, Kazakh 4%, Chinese 2%, Russian 2%, other 2%

Religions: predominantly Tibetan Buddhist, Muslim 4%
note: previously limited religious activity because of communist
regime

Languages: Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian, Chinese

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 82.9%
male: 88.6%
female: 77.2% (1988 est.)

@Mongolia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Mongolia
local long form: none
local short form: Mongol Uls
former: Outer Mongolia

Data code: MG

Government type: republic

National capital: Ulaanbaatar

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (aymguud, singular-aymag) and 3
municipalities* (hotuud, singular-hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor,
Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan*, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan,
Erdenet*, Govi-Altay, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Ovorhangay,
Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs

Independence: 13 March 1921 (from China)

National holiday: National Day, 11 July (1921)

Constitution: 12 February 1992

Legal system: blend of Russian, Chinese, and Turkish systems of law;
no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (since 20 June 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Tsahiagiyn ELBEGDORJ (since 23
April 1998)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the State Great Hural
elections: president nominated by parties in the State Great Hural and
elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 18
May 1997 (next to be held summer 2001); following legislative
elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is
usually elected prime minister by the State Great Hural
election results: Natsagiyn BAGABANDI elected president; percent of
vote-Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (MPRP) 60.8%, Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (MNDP
and MSDP) 29.8%, Jambyn GOMBOJAV (MUTP) 6.6%; following a vote of
no-confidence against former Prime Minister Mendsaihan ENHSAIHAN,
Tsahiagiyn ELBEGDORJ was elected prime minister on 23 April 1998 by a
vote in the State Great Hural of 61 to 6 (nine members abstained)

Legislative branch: unicameral State Great Hural (76 seats; members
elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 30 June 1996 (next to be held NA June 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party-DUC 66%, MPRP 33%, MCP 1%;
seats by party - DUC 50 (MNDP 34, MSDP 13, independents 3), MPRP 25,
MCP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, serves as appeals court for people's
and provincial courts, but to date rarely overturns verdicts of lower
courts, judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts for
approval by the Great Hural

Political parties and leaders: Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party
(MPRP), N. ENKHBAYAR, general secretary; Democratic Union Coalition
(DUC), Mendsaihan ENHSAIHAN, general secretary (includes Mongolian
National Democratic Party or MNDP, T. ELBEGDORJ, chairman; Mongolian
Social Democratic Party or MSDP, Radnaasumbereliyn GONCHIGDORJ,
chairman; Green Party, NYAM; and Mongolian Democratic Party of
Believers or MDPB, leader NA); Mongolian Conservative Party (MCP),
JARGALSAIHAN; Democratic Power Coalition, D. BYAMBASUREN, chairman
(includes Mongolian Democratic Renaissance Party or MDRP, BYAMBASUREN,
chairman, and Mongolian People's Party or MPP, leader NA); Mongolian
National Solidarity Party (MNSP), leader NA; Bourgeois
Party/Capitalist Party, VARGALSAIHAN, chairman; United Heritage Party
(UHP), B. JAMTSAI (includes United Party of Herdsman and Farmers,
leader NA; Independence Party, leader NA; Traditional United
Conservative Party, leader NA; and Mongolian United Private Property
Owners Party, leader NA); Workers' Party, leader NA

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, NAM
(observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jalbuugiyn CHOINHOR
chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117
FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alphonse F. LA PORTA
embassy: inner north side of the Big Ring, just west of the Selbe Gol,
Ulaanbaatar
mailing address: c/o American Embassy Beijing, Micro Region 11, Big
Ring Road; PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [976] (1) 329095
FAX: [976] (1) 320776

Flag description: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side),
blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the
national emblem ("soyombo"-a columnar arrangement of abstract and
geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the
yin-yang symbol)

@Mongolia:Economy

Economy-overview: The government has embraced free-market economics,
freezing spending, easing price controls, liberalizing domestic and
international trade. Mongolia's severe climate, scattered population,
and wide expanses of unproductive land, however, have constrained
economic development. Economic activity traditionally has been based
on agriculture and the breeding of livestock. In past years, extensive
mineral resources had been developed with Soviet support; total Soviet
assistance at its height amounted to 30% of GDP, but disappeared
almost overnight in 1990-91. The mining and processing of coal,
copper, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part
of industrial production. The Mongolian leadership has been soliciting
support from foreign donors, who pledged some $250 million in aid in
October 1997. Economic growth picked up in 1997 after stalling in 1996
due to a series of natural disasters and declines in world prices of
copper and cashmere.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$5.6 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,200 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 34%
industry: 32%
services: 34% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 17.5% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.115 million (mid-1993 est.)
by occupation: primarily herding/agricultural

Unemployment rate: 15% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA

Industries: copper, construction materials, mining (particularly
coal); food and beverage, processing of animal products

Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 901,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 3.15 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,303 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, barley, potatoes, forage crops; sheep,
goats, cattle, camels, horses

Exports:
total value: $418 million (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool,
hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
partners: Russia 21%, China 18% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $443.4 million (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial
consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
partners: Russia 34%, China 15% (1996)

Debt-external: $500 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA $250 million (1998 est.)

Currency: 1 tughrik (Tug) = 100 mongos

Exchange rates: tughriks (Tug) per US$1-812.09 (December 1997), 789.99
(1997), 548.40 (1996), 448.61 (1995), 412.72 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 89,000 (1995 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station-1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean
Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 220,000

Television broadcast stations: 1 (provincial repeaters 18)

Televisions: 120,000 (1993 est.)

@Mongolia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,928 km
broad gauge: 1,928 km 1.524-m gauge (1994)

Highways:
total: 46,470 km
paved: 3,730 km
unpaved: 42,740 km (1997 est.)
note: much of the unpaved rural road system consists of rough
cross-country tracks

Waterways: 397 km of principal routes (1988)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 34 (1994 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
under 914 m: 1 (1994 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 26
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 5 (1994 est.)

@Mongolia:Military

Military branches: Mongolian People's Army (includes Internal Security
Forces and Frontier Guards), Air Force

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 680,345 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 443,668 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 28,112 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $22.8 million (1992)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1% (1992)

@Mongolia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

MONTSERRAT

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Montserrat:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, southeast of Puerto
Rico

Geographic coordinates: 16 45 N, 62 12 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 100 sq km
land: 100 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 0.6 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: volcanic islands, mostly mountainous, with small coastal
lowland

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Chances Peak 914 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 10%
forests and woodland: 40%
other: 30% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: severe hurricanes (June to November); volcanic
eruptions (full-scale eruptions of the Soufriere Hills volcano
occurred during 1996)

Environment-current issues: land erosion occurs on slopes that have
been cleared for cultivation

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

@Montserrat:People

Population: 12,828 (July 1998 est.)
note: demographic figures include an estimated 8,000 refugees who left
the island following the resumption of volcanic activity in July 1995

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 0.23% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 14.27 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 9.86 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 11.91 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.6 years
male: 73.83 years
female: 77.4 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.83 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Montserratian(s)
adjective: Montserratian

Ethnic groups: black, white

Religions: Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal,
Seventh-Day Adventist, other Christian denominations

Languages: English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 97%
male: 97%
female: 97% (1970 est.)

@Montserrat:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Montserrat

Data code: MH

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: Plymouth (abandoned in 1997 due to volcanic
activity)

Administrative divisions: 3 parishes; Saint Anthony, Saint Georges,
Saint Peter's

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday of June)

Constitution: present constitution came into force 19 December 1989

Legal system: English common law and statute law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor Anthony John ABBOTT (since NA September 1997)
head of government: Chief Minister David BRANDT (since 22 August 1997)
cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, the chief
minister, three other ministers, the attorney general, and the finance
secretary
elections: the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor appointed by
the queen; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority
party usually becomes chief minister; note-as a result of the last
election, a coalition party was formed between NPP, NDP, and one of
the independent candidates

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (11 seats, 7
popularly elected; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 11 November 1996 (next to be held by NA 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-PPA 2,
MNR 2, NPP 1, independent 2

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint
Lucia); one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands
and presides over the High Court

Political parties and leaders: National Progressive Party (NPP),
Reuben T. MEADE; Movement for National Reconstruction (MNR), Percival
Austin BRAMBLE; People's Progressive Alliance (PPA), Bertrand OSBORNE;
NDP

International organization participation: Caricom, CDB, ECLAC
(associate), ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), OECS, WCL

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
the UK)

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Montserratian coat of arms centered in the outer half
of the flag; the coat of arms features a woman standing beside a
yellow harp with her arm around a black cross

@Montserrat:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy of this volcanic island is small and
open, with economic activity centered on tourism and related services.
Tourism accounts for roughly one-quarter of Montserrat's national
income. The island's main export is electronic components, which are
mainly shipped to the US. The agriculture sector is small; cabbages,
carrots, cucumbers, and onions are grown for the domestic market;
additionally, some hot peppers and live plants are exported to the US
and Europe. Volcanic activity in mid-1997 led to a substantial
evacuation of the southern half of the island, including the capital,
Plymouth. Volcanic activity since July 1995 has resulted in the
departure of an estimated 8,000 people, mainly to Antigua and
Guadeloupe.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$43 million (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: -20.2% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$5,000 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 4.8%
industry: 18.4%
services: 76.8% (1990 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 6.2% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 4,521 (1992); note-later substantially lowered by flight of
people from volcanic activity
by occupation: community, social, and personal services 40.5%,
construction 13.5%, trade, restaurants, and hotels 12.3%,
manufacturing 10.5%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 8.8%, other
14.4% (1983 est.)

Unemployment rate: 6% (1995)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA

Industries: tourism, rum, textiles, electronic appliances

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 4,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 15 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,178 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cabbages, carrots, cucumbers, tomatoes, onions,
peppers; livestock products

Exports:
total value: $12.1 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: electronic components, plastic bags, apparel, hot
peppers, live plants, cattle
partners: US, Ireland

Imports:
total value: $29.9 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, foodstuffs,
manufactured goods, fuels, lubricants, and related materials
partners: NA

Debt-external: $10.2 million (December 1994)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1-2.7000 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 3,000

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 6,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 2,000 (1992 est.)

@Montserrat:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 269 km
paved: 203 km
unpaved: 66 km (1995)

Ports and harbors: Plymouth (abandoned)

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Montserrat:Military

Military branches: Police Force

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Montserrat:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

MOROCCO

@Morocco:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the
Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara

Geographic coordinates: 32 00 N, 5 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 446,550 sq km
land: 446,300 sq km
water: 250 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total: 2,017.9 km
border countries: Algeria 1,559 km, Western Sahara 443 km, Spain
(Ceuta) 6.3 km, Spain (Melilla) 9.6 km

Coastline: 1,835 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior

Terrain: northern coast and interior are mountainous with large areas
of bordering plateaus, intermontane valleys, and rich coastal plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sebkha Tah -55 m
highest point: Jebel Toubkal 4,165 m

Natural resources: phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish,
salt

Land use:
arable land: 21%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 47%
forests and woodland: 20%
other: 11% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,580 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: northern mountains geologically unstable and subject
to earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment-current issues: land degradation/desertification (soil
erosion resulting from farming of marginal areas, overgrazing,
destruction of vegetation); water supplies contaminated by raw sewage;
siltation of reservoirs; oil pollution of coastal waters

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea

Geography-note: strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar

@Morocco:People

Population: 29,114,497 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (male 5,398,692; female 5,200,660)
15-64 years: 59% (male 8,525,344; female 8,682,277)
65 years and over: 5% (male 606,203; female 701,321) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.89% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 26.37 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 6.24 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 52.99 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.51 years
male: 66.49 years
female: 70.64 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.35 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Moroccan(s)
adjective: Moroccan

Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99.1%, other 0.7%, Jewish 0.2%

Religions: Muslim 98.7%, Christian 1.1%, Jewish 0.2%

Languages: Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often the
language of business, government, and diplomacy

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 43.7%
male: 56.6%
female: 31% (1995 est.)

@Morocco:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Morocco
conventional short form: Morocco
local long form: Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah
local short form: Al Maghrib

Data code: MO

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Rabat

Administrative divisions: 37 provinces and 2 wilayas*; Agadir, Al
Hoceima, Azilal, Beni Mellal, Ben Slimane, Boulemane, Casablanca*,
Chaouen, El Jadida, El Kelaa des Srarhna, Er Rachidia, Essaouira, Fes,
Figuig, Guelmim, Ifrane, Kenitra, Khemisset, Khenifra, Khouribga,
Laayoune, Larache, Marrakech, Meknes, Nador, Ouarzazate, Oujda,
Rabat-Sale*, Safi, Settat, Sidi Kacem, Tanger, Tan-Tan, Taounate,
Taroudannt, Tata, Taza, Tetouan, Tiznit
note: three additional provinces of Ad Dakhla (Oued Eddahab),
Boujdour, and Es Smara as well as parts of Tan-Tan and Laayoune fall
within Moroccan-claimed Western Sahara;
decentralization/regionalization law passed by the legislature in
March 1997 creating many new provinces/regions; specific details and
scope of the reorganization not yet available

Independence: 2 March 1956 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 3 March (1961) (anniversary of King
HASSAN II's accession to the throne)

Constitution: 10 March 1972, revised 4 September 1992, amended (to
create bicameral legislature) September 1996

Legal system: based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law
system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber
of Supreme Court

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King HASSAN II (since 3 March 1961)
head of government: Prime Minister Abderrahmane YOUSSOUFI (since 14
March 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the king
elections: none; the king is a hereditary monarch; prime minister
appointed by the king

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or
Chamber of Counselors (270 seats; members elected indirectly by local
councils, professional organizations, and labor syndicates for
nine-year terms; one-third of the members are renewed every three
years) and a lower house or Chamber of Representatives (325 seats;
members elected by popular vote for five-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Counselors-last held 5 December 1997 (next to be
held NA December 2000); Chamber of Representatives-last held 14
November 1997 (next to be held NA November 2002)
election results: Chamber of Counselors-percent of vote by party-NA;
seats by party - RNI 42, MDS 33, UC 28, MP 27, PND 21, IP 21, USFP 16,
MNP 15, UT 13, FFD 12, CDT 11, UTM 8, PPS 7, PSD 4, PDI 4, UGTM 3,
UNMT 2, SD 1, ADP 1, SND 1, CS 1; Chamber of Representatives-percent
of vote by party-NA; seats by party-USFP 57, UC 50, RNI 46, MP 40, MDS
32, IP 32, MNP 19, PND 10, MPCD 9, PPS 9, FFD 9, PSD 5, OADP 4, PA 2,
PDI 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed on the
recommendation of the Supreme Council of the Judiciary, presided over
by the king

Political parties and leaders:
opposition: Socialist Union of Popular Forces (USFP), Abderrahmane
YOUSSOUFI; Istiqlal Party (IP), M'Hamed BOUCETTA; Party of Progress
and Socialism (PPS), Moulay Ismail al ALAOUI; Organization of
Democratic and Popular Action (OADP), Mohamed Ben SAID; Democratic
Socialist Party (PSD), Issa al-OUARDIGHI; Democratic Forces Front
(FFD), Thami KHIARI; Popular Constitutional and Democratic Movement
(MPCD), Dr. Abdelkarim al-KHATIB
pro-government: Constitutional Union (UC), Noureddine ALAMI; Popular
Movement (MP), Mohamed LAENSER; National Democratic Party (PND),
Mohamed Arsalane EL-JADIDI; National Popular Movement (MNP), Mahjoubi
AHARDANE; Social Democratic Movement (MDS), Mahmoud ARCHANE
independents: National Rally of Independents (RNI), Ahmed OSMAN;
Democracy and Istiqlal Party (PDI), Abdelwahed MACHE; Action Party
(PA), Ahmed ABAKIL; Labor Party (UT), leader NA
labor unions and community organizations (indirect elections only) :
Democratic Confederation of Labor (CDT), Noubir AMAOUI; General Union
of Moroccan Workers (UGTM), Abderrazzak AFILAL; Moroccan Union of
Workers (UTM), Mahjoub BENSEDIQ; Party of Shura and Istiqlal,
Abdelwaheb MAASH; Labor Union Commissions (CS), leader NA; Democratic
Trade Union (SD), leader NA; Association of Popular Trade Unions
(ADP), leader NA; Democratic National Trade Union (SND), leader NA;
Moroccan National Workers Union (UNMT), leader NA

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT (associate),
AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending
member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mohamed BENAISSA
chancery: 1601 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 462-7979 through 7982
FAX: [1] (202) 265-0161
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Edward M. GABRIEL
embassy: 2 Avenue de Marrakech, Rabat
mailing address: PSC 74, Box 003, APO AE 09718
telephone: [212] (7) 76 22 65
FAX: [212] (7) 76 56 61
consulate(s) general: Casablanca

Flag description: red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear
star) known as Solomon's seal in the center of the flag; green is the
traditional color of Islam

@Morocco:Economy

Economy-overview: Morocco faces the problems typical of developing
countries-restraining government spending, reducing constraints on
private activity and foreign trade, and keeping inflation within
manageable bounds. Since the early 1980s the government has pursued an
economic program toward these objectives with the support of the IMF,
the World Bank, and the Paris Club of creditors. The dirham is now
fully convertible for current account transactions; reforms of the
financial sector have been implemented; and state enterprises are
slowly being privatized. Drought conditions in 1997 depressed activity
in the key agricultural sector, holding down exports and contributing
to a 2.2% contraction in real GDP. Favorable rainfalls in the fall of
1997 have led to forecasts of robust, 8%-9% real GDP growth in 1998.
Servicing the external debt, preparing the economy for freer trade
with the European Union, improving education and living standards, and
finding jobs for Morocco's youthful population remain long-term
challenges.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$107 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: -2.2% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$3,500 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 14%
industry: 33%
services: 53% (1997)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 7.4 million
by occupation: agriculture 50%, services 26%, industry 15%, other 9%
(1985)

Unemployment rate: 16% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $10.4 billion
expenditures: $10.75 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.9
billion (1996 est.)

Industries: phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing,
leather goods, textiles, construction, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 3.788 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 10.8 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 411 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: barley, wheat, citrus, wine, vegetables, olives;
livestock

Exports:
total value: $6.9 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: food and beverages 30%, semiprocessed goods 23%, consumer
goods 21%, phosphates 17% (1995 est.)
partners: EU 63%, Japan 7.7%, India 6.6%, US 3.4%, Libya 3.4% (1996
est.)

Imports:
total value: $9.7 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: semiprocessed goods 26%, capital goods 25%, food and
beverages 18%, fuel and lubricants 15%, consumer goods 12%, raw
materials 4% (1995 est.)
partners: EU 57%, US 6.6%, Saudi Arabia 5.3%, Brazil 2.8% (1996 est.)

Debt-external: $23.4 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $297 million (1993)
note: $2.8 billion debt canceled by Saudi Arabia (1991)

Currency: 1 Moroccan dirham (DH) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Moroccan dirhams (DH) per US$1-9.822 (January 1998),
9.527 (1997), 8.716 (1996), 8.540 (1995), 9.203 (1994), 9.299 (1993)

Fiscal year: July 1-June 30

Communications

Telephones: 270,100 (1987 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and
microwave radio relay links; principal centers are Casablanca and
Rabat; secondary centers are Fes, Marrakech, Oujda, Tangier, and
Tetouan
international: 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat
(Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar,
Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to
Algeria; participant in Medarabtel

Radio broadcast stations: AM 20, FM 7, shortwave 0

Radios: 5.527 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 26 (repeaters 26)

Televisions: 1.21 million (1993 est.)

@Morocco:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,907 km
standard gauge: 1,907 km 1.435-m gauge (1003 km electrified; 246 km
double track) (1994)

Highways:
total: 60,626 km
paved: 30,556 km (including 219 km of expressways)
unpaved: 30,070 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 362 km; petroleum products 491 km (abandoned);
natural gas 241 km

Ports and harbors: Agadir, El Jadida, Casablanca, El Jorf Lasfar,
Kenitra, Mohammedia, Nador, Rabat, Safi, Tangier; also
Spanish-controlled Ceuta and Melilla

Merchant marine:
total: 40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 205,053 GRT/259,339 DWT
ships by type: cargo 9, chemical tanker 6, container 2, oil tanker 3,
refrigerated cargo 11, roll-on/roll-off cargo 8, short-sea passenger 1
(1997 est.)

Airports: 70 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 26
over 3,047 m: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 44
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 21
under 914 m: 11 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Morocco:Military

Military branches: Royal Armed Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 7,505,524 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 4,748,018 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 314,329 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $1.313 billion (1996)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 3.7% (1996)

@Morocco:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: claims and administers Western Sahara, but
sovereignty is unresolved and the UN is attempting to hold a
referendum on the issue; the UN-administered cease-fire has been in
effect since September 1991; Spain controls five places of sovereignty
(plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco-the coastal
enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla which Morocco contests, as well as the
islands of Penon de Alhucemas, Penon de Velez de la Gomera, and Islas
Chafarinas

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of hashish; trafficking on the
increase for both domestic and international drug markets; shipments
of hashish mostly directed to Western Europe; transit point for
cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________

MOZAMBIQUE

@Mozambique:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between
South Africa and Tanzania

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 S, 35 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 801,590 sq km
land: 784,090 sq km
water: 17,500 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:
total: 4,571 km
border countries: Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105
km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km

Coastline: 2,470 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical to subtropical

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in
northwest, mountains in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m

Natural resources: coal, titanium, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 56%
forests and woodland: 18%
other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,180 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: severe droughts and floods occur in central and
southern provinces; devastating cyclones

Environment-current issues: a long civil war and recurrent drought in
the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population
to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences;
desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Mozambique:People

Population: 18,641,469 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 4,129,779; female 4,232,091)
15-64 years: 53% (male 4,807,742; female 5,043,299)
65 years and over: 2% (male 177,895; female 250,663) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.57% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 43.52 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 17.81 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 120.26 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 45.37 years
male: 44.22 years
female: 46.55 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican

Ethnic groups: indigenous tribal groups 99.66% (Shangaan, Chokwe,
Manyika, Sena, Makua, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans
0.2%, Indians 0.08%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%

Languages: Portuguese (official), indigenous dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 40.1%
male: 57.7%
female: 23.3% (1995 est.)

@Mozambique:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form: Mozambique
local long form: Republica Popular de Mocambique
local short form: Mocambique

Data code: MZ

Government type: republic

National capital: Maputo

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provincias,
singular-provincia); Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo,
Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia

Independence: 25 June 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 June (1975)

Constitution: 30 November 1990

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO (since 6 November
1986); note-before being popularly elected, CHISSANO was elected
president by FRELIMO's Central Committee 4 November 1986 (reelected by
the Committee 30 July 1989)
head of government: Prime Minister Pascoal MOCUMBI (since NA December
1994)
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 27 October 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO elected president; percent
of vote-Joaquim CHISSANO 53.3%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 33.3%

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia
da Republica (250 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote
on a secret ballot to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 27-29 October 1994 (next to be held NA October
1999)
election results: percent of vote by party-Frelimo 44.33%, Renamo
33.78%, DU 5.15%, other 16.74%; seats by party-Frelimo 129, Renamo
112, DU 9
note: the presidential and legislative elections took place as called
for in the 1992 peace accords; Renamo participated in the elections

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the president and
judges elected by the Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Front for the Liberation of Mozambique
(Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or Frelimo [Joaquim Alberto
CHISSANO, chairman]; Mozambique National Resistance (Resistencia
Nacional Mocambicana) or Renamo [Afonso DHLAKAMA, president];
Democratic Union or DU [Antonio PALANGE, general secretary]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO
(correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Marcos Geraldo NAMASHULUA
chancery: Suite 570, 1990 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Bryan Dean CURRAN
embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
mailing address: P. O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone: [258] (1) 492797
FAX: [258] (1) 490114

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black,
and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the
black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow
five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black
superimposed on an open white book

@Mozambique:Economy

Economy-overview: Before the peace accord of October 1992, Mozambique
had been devastated by civil war and was one of the poorest countries
on the globe. Prospects subsequently improved, and with its solid
economic performance in 1996-97, Mozambique has begun to exploit its
sizable agricultural, hydropower, and transportation resources.
Foreign assistance programs help supply the foreign exchange required
to support the budget and pay for imports of goods and services. The
restoration of electrical transmission lines to South Africa and the
completion of a new transmission line to Zimbabwe (permitting the
giant Cahora Bassa hydropower plant to export large amounts of
electricity), proposed construction of a natural gas pipeline to South
Africa, and reform of transportation services will greatly improve
foreign exchange receipts. The Mozambique and South African
Governments are developing the Maputo corridor, linking the port of
Maputo with Witbank, South Africa. In the past few years, more than
700 state enterprises have been privatized, including the country's
largest commercial bank and a number of sizable manufacturing firms.
Other pending reform measures are the reform of tax collection and the
facilitation of private enterprise in the transportation, energy, and
telecommunications sectors.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$14.6 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 8% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$800 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 35%
industry: 13%
services: 52% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 5.8% (1997)

Labor force: NA
by occupation: 80% engaged in agriculture
note: in 1993, 47% of the wage earners were employed in industry, 28%
in transportation and communication; traditionally, a large number of
Mozambicans work abroad

Unemployment rate: NA

Budget:
revenues: $324 million
expenditures: $600 million, including capital expenditures of $310
million (1996 est.)

Industries: food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints),
petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: NA

Electricity-capacity: 2.358 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 465 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 73 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava
(tapioca), corn, rice, tropical fruits; beef, poultry

Exports:
total value: $226 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: shrimp 40%, cashews, cotton, sugar, copra, citrus
partners: Spain, South Africa, Japan, Portugal, US

Imports:
total value: $802 million (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: food, clothing, farm equipment, petroleum
partners: South Africa 38%, US, Japan, Portugal, France

Debt-external: $5.7 billion (December 1997)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 metical (Mt) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: meticais (Mt) per US$1-11,635.0 (January 1998),
11.543.6 (1997), 11,293.8 (1996), 9,024.3 (1995), 6,038.6 (1994),
3,874.2 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 59,000 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: fair system of tropospheric scatter, open-wire
lines, and microwave radio relay
domestic: microwave radio relay and tropospheric scatter
international: satellite earth stations-5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean
and 3 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 29, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 700,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 44,000 (1992 est.)

@Mozambique:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,131 km
narrow gauge: 2,988 km 1.067-m gauge; 143 km 0.762-m gauge (1994)

Highways:
total: 30,400 km
paved: 5,685 km
unpaved: 24,715 km (1996 est.)
note: highway traffic impeded by land mines not removed at end of
civil war

Waterways: about 3,750 km of navigable routes

Pipelines: crude oil (not operating) 306 km; petroleum products 289 km

Ports and harbors: Beira, Inhambane, Maputo, Cidade de Nacala, Pemba

Merchant marine:
total: 4 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,694 GRT/9,724 DWT
(1997 est.)

Book of the day: