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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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Geography-note: most of the population concentrated in the cities of
Nouakchott and Nouadhibou and along the Senegal River in the southern
part of the country

@Mauritania:People

Population: 2,511,473 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (male 584,303; female 583,526)
15-64 years: 51% (male 624,144; female 660,478)
65 years and over: 3% (male 24,813; female 34,209) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.52% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 44.46 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 14.59 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 78.22 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 49.99 years
male: 46.95 years
female: 53.11 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.41 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Mauritanian(s)
adjective: Mauritanian

Ethnic groups: mixed Maur/black 40%, Maur 30%, black 30%

Religions: Muslim 100%

Languages: Hasaniya Arabic (official), Pular, Soninke, Wolof
(official), French

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 37.7%
male: 49.6%
female: 26.3% (1995 est.)

@Mauritania:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Mauritania
conventional short form: Mauritania
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Islamiyah al Muritaniyah
local short form: Muritaniyah

Data code: MR

Government type: republic

National capital: Nouakchott

Administrative divisions: 12 regions (regions, singular-region);
Adrar, Assaba, Brakna, Dakhlet Nouadhibou, Gorgol, Guidimaka, Hodh ech
Chargui, Hodh el Gharbi, Inchiri, Tagant, Tiris Zemmour, Trarza
note: there may be a new capital district of Nouakchott

Independence: 28 November 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1960)

Constitution: 12 July 1991

Legal system: three-tier system: Islamic (Shari'a) courts, special
courts, and state security courts (in the process of being eliminated)

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid Ahmed TAYA (since 12
December 1984)
head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed Lamine Ould GUIG (since 7
December 1997)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 12 December 1997 (next to be held NA December
2003); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid Ahmed TAYA reelected
with 90% of the vote

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature consists of the Senate or
Majlis al-Shuyukh (56 seats; 17 up for election every two years;
members elected by municipal leaders to serve six-year terms) and the
National Assembly or Majlis al-Watani (79 seats; members elected by
popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate-last held 12 April 1996 (next to be held NA 1998);
National Assembly-last held 11 and 18 October 1996 (next to be held NA
2001)
election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-PRDS 16, UFD/NE 1; National Assembly-percent of vote by
party-NA; seats by party-PRDS 71, AC 1, independents and other 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: legalized by constitution passed 12
July 1991, however, politics continue to be tribally based; emerging
parties include Democratic and Social Republican Party (PRDS), led by
President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed TAYA; Union of Democratic
Forces-New Era (UFD/NE), headed by Ahmed Ould DADDAH; Assembly for
Democracy and Unity (RDU), Ahmed Ould SIDI BABA; Popular Social and
Democratic Union (UPSD), Mohamed Mahmoud Ould MAH; Mauritanian Party
for Renewal (PMR), Hameida BOUCHRAYA; National Avant-Garde Party
(PAN), Khattry Ould JIDDOU; Mauritanian Party of the Democratic Center
(PCDM), Bamba Ould SIDI BADI; Action for Change (AC), Messoud Ould
BOULKHEIR

Political pressure groups and leaders: Mauritanian Workers Union
(UTM), Mohamed Ely Ould BRAHIM, secretary general; General
Confederation of Mauritanian Workers (CGTM), Abdallahi Ould MOHAMED,
secretary general

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT (associate),
ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77,
IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member),
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ahmed OULD SID'AHMED
chancery: 2129 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 232-5700
FAX: [1] (202) 319-2623

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Timberlake FOSTER
embassy: Rue Abdallahi Ould Oubeid, Nouakchott
mailing address: B. P. 222, Nouakchott
telephone: [222] (2) 526-60, 526-63
FAX: [222] (2) 515-92

Flag description: green with a yellow five-pointed star above a
yellow, horizontal crescent; the closed side of the crescent is down;
the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

@Mauritania:Economy

Economy-overview: A majority of the population still depends on
agriculture and livestock for a livelihood, even though most of the
nomads and many subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by
recurrent droughts in the 1970s and 1980s. Mauritania has extensive
deposits of iron ore, which account for almost 50% of total exports.
The decline in world demand for this ore, however, has led to cutbacks
in production. The nation's coastal waters are among the richest
fishing areas in the world, but overexploitation by foreigners
threatens this key source of revenue. The country's first deepwater
port opened near Nouakchott in 1986. In recent years, drought and
economic mismanagement have resulted in a substantial buildup of
foreign debt. The government has begun the second stage of an economic
reform program in consultation with the World Bank, the IMF, and major
donor countries. Short-term growth prospects are poor because of the
heavy debt service burden, rapid population growth, and vulnerability
to climatic conditions.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$4.1 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,750 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 26%
industry: 31%
services: 43% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 4.7% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 465,000 (1981 est.); 45,000 wage earners (1980)
by occupation: agriculture 47%, services 29%, industry and commerce
14%, government 10%

Unemployment rate: 23% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $329 million
expenditures: $265 million, including capital expenditures of $75
million (1996 est.)

Industries: fish processing, mining of iron ore and gypsum

Industrial production growth rate: 7.2% (1994)

Electricity-capacity: 105,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 143 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 63 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: dates, millet, sorghum, root crops; cattle,
sheep; fish products

Exports:
total value: $494 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: fish and fish products, iron ore, gold
partners: Japan 22%, Italy 16%, France 14%

Imports:
total value: $457 million (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: foodstuffs, consumer goods, petroleum products, capital
goods
partners: France 30%, Algeria 10%, Spain 7%, China 6%, US 3%

Debt-external: $2.5 billion (1995)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 ouguiya (UM) = 5 khoums

Exchange rates: ouguiyas (UM) per US$1-169.880 (January 1998), 148.916
(1997), 137.222 (1996), 129.768 (1995), 123.575 (1994), 120.806 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 17,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: poor system of cable and open-wire lines, minor
microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications
stations (improvements being made)
domestic: mostly cable and open-wire lines; a recently completed
domestic satellite telecommunications system links Nouakchott with
regional capitals
international: satellite earth stations-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
and 2 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 300,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 50,000 (1992 est.)

@Mauritania:Transportation

Railways:
total: 704 km (single track); note-owned and operated by government
mining company
standard gauge: 704 km 1.435-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 7,660 km
paved: 866 km
unpaved: 6,794 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: mostly ferry traffic on the Senegal River

Ports and harbors: Bogue, Kaedi, Nouadhibou, Nouakchott, Rosso

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 26 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

@Mauritania:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie,
National Guard, National Police, Presidential Guard

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 555,492 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 269,884 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $33 million (1995)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.5% (1995)

@Mauritania:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

MAURITIUS

@Mauritius:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of
Madagascar

Geographic coordinates: 20 17 S, 57 33 E

Map references: World

Area:
total: 1,860 sq km
land: 1,850 sq km
water: 10 sq km
note: includes Agalega Islands, Cargados Carajos Shoals (Saint
Brandon), and Rodrigues

Area-comparative: almost 11 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 177 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry winter
(May to November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May)

Terrain: small coastal plain rising to discontinuous mountains
encircling central plateau

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Piton de la Petite Riviere Noire 828 m

Natural resources: arable land, fish

Land use:
arable land: 49%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 3%
forests and woodland: 22%
other: 23% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 170 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cyclones (November to April); almost completely
surrounded by reefs that may pose maritime hazards

Environment-current issues: water pollution

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Mauritius:People

Population: 1,168,256 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 26% (male 155,917; female 152,563)
15-64 years: 68% (male 393,330; female 397,285)
65 years and over: 6% (male 28,092; female 41,069) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.2% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 18.64 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 6.69 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 16.54 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.9 years
male: 67.05 years
female: 74.74 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.22 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Mauritian(s)
adjective: Mauritian

Ethnic groups: Indo-Mauritian 68%, Creole 27%, Sino-Mauritian 3%,
Franco-Mauritian 2%

Religions: Hindu 52%, Christian 28.3% (Roman Catholic 26%, Protestant
2.3%), Muslim 16.6%, other 3.1%

Languages: English (official), Creole, French, Hindi, Urdu, Hakka,
Bojpoori

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 82.9%
male: 87.1%
female: 78.8% (1995 est.)

@Mauritius:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Mauritius
conventional short form: Mauritius

Data code: MP

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Port Louis

Administrative divisions: 9 districts and 3 dependencies*; Agalega
Islands*, Black River, Cargados Carajos*, Flacq, Grand Port, Moka,
Pamplemousses, Plaines Wilhems, Port Louis, Riviere du Rempart,
Rodrigues*, Savanne

Independence: 12 March 1968 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 March (1968)

Constitution: 12 March 1968; amended 12 March 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system with elements of
English common law in certain areas

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Cassam UTEEM (since 1 July 1992) and Vice
President Rabindranath GHURBURRUN (since 1 July 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Navinchandra RAMGOOLAM (since 27
December 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president and vice president elected by the National
Assembly for five-year terms; election last held 28 June 1997 (next to
be held NA 2002); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed
by the president and are responsible to the National Assembly
election results: Cassam UTEEM elected president and Rabindranath
GHURBURRUN elected vice president; percent of vote by the National
Assembly-NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (66 seats-62
popularly elected, 4 appointed; members serve five-year terms);
note-the election commission appoints four members from the losing
political parties to give representation to various ethnic minorities
elections: last held on 20 December 1995 (next to be held by December
2000)
election results: percent of vote by party-MLP/MMM 65%, MSM/MMR 20%,
other 15%; seats by party-MLP 35, MMM 25, allies of MLP and MMM on
Rodrigues Island 2; appointed were Rodrigues Movement 2, PMSD 1,
Hizbullah 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:
government party: Mauritian Labor Party or MLP [Navinchandra
RAMGOOLAM]
opposition parties: Hizbullah [Imam Mustapha BEEHARRY]; MSM/MMR
alliance consisting of the Militant Socialist Movement or MSM [Sir
Anerood JUGNAUTH] and the Mauritian Militant Renaissance or MMR [Dr.
Paramhansa NABABSING]; Mauritian Social Democrat Party or PMSD
[Xavier-Luc DUVAL]; Mauritian Militant Movement or MMM [Paul
BERENGER]; Organization of the People of Rodrigues or OPR [Louis Serge
CLAIR]; Rodrigues Movement [Nicholas Von MALLY, leader]

Political pressure groups and leaders: various labor unions

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, CCC,
ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, InOC, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM,
OAU, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Chitmansing JESSERAMSING
chancery: Suite 441, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 244-1491, 1492
FAX: [1] (202) 966-0983

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Harold Walter GEISEL (8 July 1996)
embassy: 4th Floor, Rogers House, John Kennedy Street, Port Louis
mailing address: International Mail: P.O. Box 544, Port Louis; US
Mail: American Embassy, Port Louis, Department of State, Washington,
DC 20521-2450
telephone: [230] 208-2347, 208-2354, 208-9763 through 9767
FAX: [230] 208-9534

Flag description: four equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue,
yellow, and green

@Mauritius:Economy

Economy-overview: Since independence in 1968, Mauritius has developed
from a low income, agriculturally based economy to a middle income
diversified economy with growing industrial, financial services, and
tourist sectors. For most of the period, annual growth has been of the
order of 5% to 6%. This remarkable achievement has been reflected in
increased life expectancy, lowered infant mortality, and a much
improved infrastructure. Sugarcane is grown on about 90% of the
cultivated land area and accounts for 25% of export earnings. The
government's development strategy centers on industrialization (with a
view to modernization and to exports), agricultural diversification,
and tourism. Economic performance in 1991-97 continued strong with
solid growth and low unemployment.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$11.7 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5.4% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$10,300 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 8%
industry: 29%
services: 63% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 6.5% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 514,000 (1995)
by occupation: construction and industry 36%, services 24%,
agriculture and fishing 14%, trade, restaurants, hotels 16%,
transportation and communication 7%, finance 3% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 1.8% (1995)

Budget:
revenues: $822 million (FY 94/95)
expenditures: $1 billion, including capital expenditures of $198
million (FY95/96 est.)

Industries: food processing (largely sugar milling), textiles, wearing
apparel; chemicals, metal products, transport equipment, nonelectrical
machinery; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 5.8% (1992)

Electricity-capacity: 361,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 960 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 852 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: sugarcane, tea, corn, potatoes, bananas, pulses;
cattle, goats; fish

Exports:
total value: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: clothing and textiles 55%, sugar 24% (1995)
partners: UK 34%, France 21%, US 15%, Germany 6%, Italy 4% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $2.2 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: manufactured goods 37%, capital equipment 19%, foodstuffs
13%, petroleum products 8%, chemicals 7% (1995)
partners: France 20%, India 8%, Hong Kong 7%, UK 6%, Germany 5% (1995)

Debt-external: $1.2 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Mauritian rupee (MauR) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Mauritian rupees (MauRs) per US$1-22.220 (January
1998), 20.561 (1997), 17.948 (1996), 17.386 (1995), 17.960 (1994),
17.648 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 65,000 (1985 est.)

Telephone system: small system with good service
domestic: primarily microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); new
microwave link to Reunion; HF radiotelephone links to several
countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 395,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1987 est.)
note: two new subscription channels began operation in 1995

Televisions: 151,096 (1991 est.)

@Mauritius:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 1,860 km
paved: 1,732 km (including 30 km of expressways)
unpaved: 128 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Port Louis

Merchant marine:
total: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 241,799 GRT/336,316 DWT
ships by type: cargo 7, combination bulk 2, container 6, liquefied gas
tanker 1, oil tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 3
note: a flag of convenience registry; India owns 1 ship (1997 est.)

Airports: 5 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

@Mauritius:Military

Military branches: National Police Force (includes the paramilitary
Special Mobile Force or SMF, Special Support Units or SSU, and
National Coast Guard)

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 336,655 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 170,695 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $13.9 million (FY94/95)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 0.1% (FY94/95)

@Mauritius:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: claims the island of Diego Garcia in
UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory; claims
French-administered Tromelin Island

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug
trade; heroin consumption and transshipment are growing problems

______________________________________________________________________

MAYOTTE

(territorial collectivity of France)

@Mayotte:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about
one-half of the way from northern Madagascar to northern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 12 50 S, 45 10 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 375 sq km
land: 375 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 185.2 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during
northeastern monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to
November)

Terrain: generally undulating, with deep ravines and ancient volcanic
peaks

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Benara 660 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: cyclones during rainy season

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: part of Comoro Archipelago

@Mayotte:People

Population: 141,944 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (male 33,067; female 33,016)
15-64 years: 52% (male 40,009; female 33,380)
65 years and over: 2% (male 1,214; female 1,258) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 5.16% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 46.96 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 9.22 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 13.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.2 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 71.13 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 59.58 years
male: 57.21 years
female: 62.02 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.48 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Mahorais (singular and plural)
adjective: Mahoran

Ethnic groups: NA

Religions: Muslim 99%, Christian (mostly Roman Catholic)

Languages: Mahorian (a Swahili dialect), French

Literacy: NA

@Mayotte:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territorial Collectivity of Mayotte
conventional short form: Mayotte

Data code: MF

Dependency status: territorial collectivity of France

Government type: NA

National capital: Mamoutzou

Administrative divisions: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Independence: none (territorial collectivity of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of France Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May
1995), represented by Prefect Philippe BOISADAM (since NA)
head of government: President of the General Council Younoussa BAMANA
(since NA 1977)
cabinet: NA
elections: prefect appointed by the president of France on the advice
of the French Ministry of the Interior; president of the General
Council elected by the members of the General Council for a six-year
term

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council or Conseil General (19
seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms)
elections: last held NA March 1997 (next to be held NA March 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; note-only nine of the
19 seats were subjected to voting in March 1997; after the election,
seats by party were as follows: MPM 8, RPR 5, independent candidates
5, local PS 1
note: Mayotte elects 1 member of the French Senate; elections last
held 24 September 1995 (next to be held 24 September 2001);
results-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-MPM 1; Mayotte
also elects 1 member to the French National Assembly; elections last
held 25 May and 1 June 1997 (next to be held as a special election on
NA May 2002); results-percent of vote by party-UDF/FD 51.7%, RPR
48.3%; seats by party-UDF/FD 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal Superieur d'Appel)

Political parties and leaders: Mahoran Popular Movement or MPM
[Younoussa BAMANA]; Mahoran Rally for the Republic or RPR [Mansour
KAMARDINE]; Democratic Front or FD [Youssouf MOUSSA]; Association for
French Mayotte or Association Pour Mayotte Francaise [Didier BEOUTIS];
Socialist Party or PS (local branch of French Parti Socialiste); Union
for French Democracy or UDF [Henri JEAN-BAPTISTE]

International organization participation: FZ

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territorial collectivity of
France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territorial collectivity
of France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used

@Mayotte:Economy

Economy-overview: Economic activity is based primarily on the
agricultural sector, including fishing and livestock raising. Mayotte
is not self-sufficient and must import a large portion of its food
requirements, mainly from France. The economy and future development
of the island are heavily dependent on French financial assistance, an
important supplement to GDP. Mayotte's remote location is an obstacle
to the development of tourism.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$63 million (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$600 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 38% (1991 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $73 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991
est.)

Industries: newly created lobster and shrimp industry

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: NA kW

Electricity-production: NA kWh

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture-products: vanilla, ylang-ylang (perfume essence), coffee,
copra

Exports:
total value: $3.64 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: ylang-ylang (perfume essence), vanilla, copra
partners: France 80%, Comoros 15%, Reunion

Imports:
total value: $131.5 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: building materials, machinery and transportation
equipment, metals, chemicals, rice, clothing, flour
partners: France 66%, Africa 14%, Southeast Asia 20%

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: extensive French financial assistance

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1-6.0836 (January 1998),
5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 450

Telephone system: small system administered by French Department of
Posts and Telecommunications
domestic: NA
international: microwave radio relay and HF radiotelephone
communications to Comoros and other international connections

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 30,000 (1994 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 3,500 (1994 est.)

@Mayotte:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 93 km
paved: 72 km
unpaved: 21 km

Ports and harbors: Dzaoudzi

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Mayotte:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of France; small
contingent of French forces stationed on the island

@Mayotte:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: claimed by Comoros

______________________________________________________________________

MEXICO

@Mexico:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of
Mexico, between Belize and the US and bordering the North Pacific
Ocean, between Guatemala and the US

Geographic coordinates: 23 00 N, 102 00 W

Map references: North America

Area:
total: 1,972,550 sq km
land: 1,923,040 sq km
water: 49,510 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 4,538 km
border countries: Belize 250 km, Guatemala 962 km, US 3,326 km

Coastline: 9,330 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies from tropical to desert

Terrain: high, rugged mountains, low coastal plains, high plateaus,
and desert

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 m
highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,700 m

Natural resources: petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc,
natural gas, timber

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 39%
forests and woodland: 26%
other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 61,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: tsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and
destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the
Gulf and Caribbean coasts

Environment-current issues: natural fresh water resources scarce and
polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme
southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in
urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification;
serious air pollution in the national capital and urban centers along
US-Mexico border

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: strategic location on southern border of US

@Mexico:People

Population: 98,552,776 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (male 17,883,007; female 17,193,082)
15-64 years: 60% (male 28,932,074; female 30,511,443)
65 years and over: 4% (male 1,808,581; female 2,224,589) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.77% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 25.49 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 4.91 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.89 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 25.82 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.63 years
male: 68.62 years
female: 74.79 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.91 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Mexican(s)
adjective: Mexican

Ethnic groups: mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or
predominantly Amerindian 30%, white 9%, other 1%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 6%

Languages: Spanish, various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional
indigenous languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 89.6%
male: 91.8%
female: 87.4% (1995 est.)

@Mexico:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: United Mexican States
conventional short form: Mexico
local long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanos
local short form: Mexico

Data code: MX

Government type: federal republic operating under a centralized
government

National capital: Mexico

Administrative divisions: 31 states (estados, singular-estado) and 1
federal district* (distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California,
Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila de
Zaragoza, Colima, Distrito Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero,
Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan de Ocampo, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo
Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro de Arteaga, Quintana Roo, San Luis
Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala,
Veracruz-Llave, Yucatan, Zacatecas

Independence: 16 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1810)

Constitution: 5 February 1917

Legal system: mixture of US constitutional theory and civil law
system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory (but not enforced)

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ernesto ZEDILLO Ponce de Leon (since 1
December 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and
head of government
head of government: President Ernesto ZEDILLO Ponce de Leon (since 1
December 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and
head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with consent of the Senate
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 21 August 1994 (next to be held in July or August
2000)
election results: Ernesto ZEDILLO Ponce de Leon elected president;
percent of vote-Ernesto ZEDILLO Ponce de Leon (PRI) 50.18%, Cuauhtemoc
CARDENAS Solorzano (PRD) 17.08%, Diego FERNANDEZ DE CEVALLOS (PAN)
26.69%, other 6.049%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la
Union consists of the Senate or Camara de Senadores (128 seats,
expanded from 64 seats at the last election; half are elected by
popular vote to serve six-year terms, and half are allocated or on
basis of each party's popular vote) and the Chamber of Deputies or
Camara de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members are directly elected by
popular vote to serve three-year terms; remaining 200 seats are
allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote, also for a
three-year term)
elections: Senate-last held 6 July 1997 for one-quarter of the seats;
Chamber of Deputies-last held 6 July 1997 (the next legislative
elections will coincide with the presidential election in July or
August 2000)
election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-PRI 77, PAN 33, PRD 16, PVEM 1, PT 1; note-the distribution of
seats as of May 1998 is as follows-PRI 77, PAN 31, PRD 15, PT 1,
independents 4; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party-PRI
39%, PAN 27%, PRD 26%; seats by party-PRI 239, PRD 125, PAN 121, PVEM
8, PT 7; note-the distribution of seats as of May 1998 is as
follows-PRI 237, PRD 127, PAN 120, PT 7, PVEM 6, independents 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia),
judges are appointed by the president with consent of the Senate

Political parties and leaders: (recognized parties) Institutional
Revolutionary Party (PRI), Mariano PALACIOS Alocer; National Action
Party (PAN), Felipe CALDERON Hinojosa; Party of the Democratic
Revolution (PRD), Andres Manuel LOPEZ Obrador; Cardenist Front for the
National Reconstruction Party (PFCRN), Rafael AGUILAR Talamantes;
Democratic Forum Party (PFD), Rosalia RAMIREZ; Mexican Green Ecologist
Party (PVEM), Jorge GONZALEZ Torres; Workers Party (PT), Alberto ANAYA
Gutierrez

Political pressure groups and leaders: Roman Catholic Church;
Confederation of Mexican Workers (CTM); Confederation of Industrial
Chambers (CONCAMIN); Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce
(CONCANACO); National Peasant Confederation (CNC); Revolutionary
Workers Party (PRT); Revolutionary Confederation of Workers and
Peasants (CROC); Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers (CROM);
Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic (COPARMEX);
National Chamber of Transformation Industries (CANACINTRA);
Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations (COECE);
Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services (FESEBES)

International organization participation: AG (observer), APEC, BCIE,
BIS (pending member), Caricom (observer), CCC, CDB, EBRD, ECLAC, FAO,
G- 6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM (observer),
OAS, OECD, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jesus REYES HEROLES Gonzalez Garza
chancery: 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: [1] (202) 728-1600
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Austin, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El
Paso, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Phoenix,
Sacramento, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto
Rico)
consulate(s): Albuquerque, Boston, Brownsville (Texas), Calexico
(California), Corpus Christi, Del Rio (Texas), Detroit, Douglas
(Arizona), Eagle Pass (Texas), Fresno (California), Laredo, McAllen
(Texas), Midland (Texas), Nogales (Arizona), Orlando, Oxnard
(California), Philadelphia, Portland (Oregon), St. Louis, Salt Lake
City, San Bernardino, San Jose, Santa Ana (California), Seattle

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge Charles BRAYSHAW
embassy: Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 06500 Mexico,
Distrito Federal
mailing address: P. O. Box 3087, Laredo, TX 78044-3087
telephone: [52] (5) 211-0042
FAX: [52] (5) 511-9980, 208-3373
consulate(s) general: Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Tijuana
consulate(s): Hermosillo, Matamoros, Merida, Nuevo Laredo

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side),
white, and red; the coat of arms (an eagle perched on a cactus with a
snake in its beak) is centered in the white band

@Mexico:Economy

Economy-overview: Mexico has a free market economy with a mixture of
modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated
by the private sector. The number of state-owned enterprises in Mexico
has fallen from more than 1,000 in 1982 to fewer than 200 in 1998. The
ZEDILLO administration is privatizing and expanding competition in sea
ports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity, natural gas
distribution, and airports. The Mexican economy is in its third year
of recovery from the recession of 1995, which was touched off by a
financial crisis. After declining 6.2% in 1995, real GDP grew 5.1% in
1996 and 7.3% in 1997 and is expected to rise by 5% in 1998. A strong
export sector helped to cushion the economy's decline in 1995 and led
the recovery in 1996 and 1997. Private consumption spending in 1998
probably will rise by at least 4% on the strength of increased
employment and rising real wages, and the troubled banking sector is
likely to increase lending for the first time in three years. Despite
the spillover from the Asian crisis, the medium-term outlook for
Mexico remains positive, with government and private sector economists
projecting average annual growth of 4% to 5% through the year 2000.
Mexico still needs to overcome many structural problems as it strives
to modernize its economy and raise living standards. Income
distribution is very unequal with the top 20% of income earners
accounting for 55% of income. The inefficient agricultural sector
employs 20% to 25% of the labor force but produces only 8% of GDP.
Trade with the United States and Canada has nearly doubled since NAFTA
was implemented in 1994. Mexico is pursuing additional trade
agreements with most countries in Latin America and with the European
Union to lessen its dependence on the United States, which accounts
for 80% of Mexico's total trade.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$694.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 7.3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$7,700 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 8%
industry: 33%
services: 59% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 15.7% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 36.6 million (1996)
by occupation: services 28.8%, agriculture, forestry, hunting, and
fishing 21.8%, commerce 17.1%, manufacturing 16.1%, construction 5.2%,
public administration and national defense 4.4%, transportation and
communications 4.1%

Unemployment rate: 3.7% (1997 est.) urban; plus considerable
underemployment

Budget:
revenues: $92 billion
expenditures: $94 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997
est.)

Industries: food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel,
petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer
durables, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 9.3% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 35.466 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 145.199 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,533 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton,
coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products

Exports:
total value: $110.4 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.), includes in-bond
industries
commodities: crude oil, oil products, coffee, silver, engines, motor
vehicles, cotton, consumer electronics
partners: US 85%, Canada 2.1%, Japan 1%, Spain 1%, Chile 1%, Brazil 1%
(1997 est.)

Imports:
total value: $109.8 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.), includes in-bond
industries
commodities: metal-working machines, steel mill products, agricultural
machinery, electrical equipment, car parts for assembly, repair parts
for motor vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft parts
partners: US 74.8%, Japan 4.1%, Germany 3.5%, Canada 1.8%, South Korea
1.4%, Italy 1.2%, France 1.1% (1997 est.)

Debt-external: $162 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $85 million (1993)

Currency: 1 New Mexican peso (Mex$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: market rate of Mexican pesos (Mex$) per US$1-8.1798
(January 1998), 7.9141 (1997), 7.5994(1996), 6.4194 (1995), 3.3751
(1994), 3.1156 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 11,890,868 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: highly developed system with extensive microwave
radio relay links; privatized in December 1990; opened to competition
January 1997
domestic: adequate telephone service for business and government, but
the population is poorly served; domestic satellite system with 120
earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network
international: satellite earth stations-5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Pacific Ocean); launched Solidaridad I satellite in November
1993 and Solidaridad II in October 1994, giving Mexico improved access
to South America, Central America and much of the US as well as
enhancing domestic communications; linked to Central American
Microwave System of trunk connections

Radio broadcast stations: AM 800, FM 500, shortwave 17

Radios: 22.5 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 238

Televisions: 13.1 million (1992 est.)

@Mexico:Transportation

Railways:
total: 20,567 km
standard gauge: 20,477 km 1.435-m gauge (246 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 90 km 0.914-m gauge (1994)

Highways:
total: 252,000 km
paved: 94,248 km (including 6,740 km of expressways)
unpaved: 157,752 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 2,900 km navigable rivers and coastal canals

Pipelines: crude oil 28,200 km; petroleum products 10,150 km; natural
gas 13,254 km; petrochemical 1,400 km

Ports and harbors: Acapulco, Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Ensenada,
Guaymas, La Paz, Lazaro Cardenas, Manzanillo, Mazatlan, Progreso,
Salina Cruz, Tampico, Topolobampo, Tuxpan, Veracruz

Merchant marine:
total: 53 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 899,224 GRT/1,312,505 DWT
ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 1, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 1,
container 4, liquefied gas tanker 7, oil tanker 29, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 2, short-sea passenger 3 (1997 est.)

Airports: 1,810 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 231
over 3,047 m: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 25
1,524 to 2,437 m: 94
914 to 1,523 m: 78
under 914 m: 25 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1,579
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 65
914 to 1,523 m: 472
under 914 m: 1,040 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Mexico:Military

Military branches: National Defense Secretariat (includes Army and Air
Force), Navy Secretariat (includes Naval Air and Marines)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 25,114,890 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 18,280,523 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 1,077,800 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $2.2 billion (1997)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 0.3% (1997)

@Mexico:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivation of opium poppy (cultivation in
1997-4,000 hectares, a 22% decrease from 1996; potential production-46
metric tons, about a 15% decrease from 1996) and cannabis continues in
spite of increased government eradication; major supplier of heroin
and marijuana to the US market; continues as the primary transshipment
country for US-bound cocaine from South America; increasingly involved
in the production and distribution of methamphetamines

______________________________________________________________________

MICRONESIA, FEDERATED STATES OF

@Micronesia, Federated States of:Geography

Location: Oceania, island group in the North Pacific Ocean, about
three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 6 55 N, 158 15 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 702 sq km
land: 702 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Pohnpei (Ponape), Truk (Chuuk) Islands, Yap Islands,
and Kosrae

Area-comparative: four times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 6,112 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the
eastern islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with
occasionally severe damage

Terrain: islands vary geologically from high mountainous islands to
low, coral atolls; volcanic outcroppings on Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Truk

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Totolom 791 m

Natural resources: forests, marine products, deep-seabed minerals

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons (June to December)

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography-note: four major island groups totaling 607 islands

@Micronesia, Federated States of:People

Population: 129,658 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 3.31% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 27.55 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 6.07 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 11.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 34.51 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.34 years
male: 66.38 years
female: 70.34 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.9 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Micronesian(s)
adjective: Micronesian; Kosrae(s), Pohnpeian(s), Trukese, Yapese

Ethnic groups: nine ethnic Micronesian and Polynesian groups

Religions: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 47%, other and none 3%

Languages: English (official and common language), Trukese, Pohnpeian,
Yapese, Kosrean

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 89%
male: 91%
female: 88% (1980 est.)

@Micronesia, Federated States of:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federated States of Micronesia
conventional short form: none
former: Kosrae, Ponape, Truk, and Yap Districts (Trust Territory of
the Pacific Islands)
abbreviation: FSM

Data code: FM

Government type: constitutional government in free association with
the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 3 November
1986

National capital: Palikir

Administrative divisions: 4 states; Kosrae, Pohnpei, Chuuk (Truk), Yap

Independence: 3 November 1986 (from the US-administered UN
Trusteeship)

National holiday: Proclamation of the Federated States of Micronesia,
10 May (1979)

Constitution: 10 May 1979

Legal system: based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the
legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jacob NENA (acting president since NA July
1996, president since 9 May 1997); Vice President Leo A. FALCAM (since
9 May 1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head
of government; Vice President Jacob NENA became acting president in
July 1996 after President Bailey OLTER suffered a stroke; OLTER was
declared incapacitated in November 1996; as provided for by the
constitution, 180 days later, with OLTER still unable to resume his
duties, NENA was sworn in as the new president; he will serve for the
remaining two years of OLTER's term
head of government: President Jacob NENA (acting president since NA
July 1996, president since 9 May 1997); Vice President Leo A. FALCAM
(since 9 May 1997); note - the president is both the chief of state
and head of government; Vice President Jacob NENA became acting
president in July 1996 after President Bailey OLTER suffered a stroke;
OLTER was declared incapacitated in November 1996; as provided for by
the constitution, 180 days later, with OLTER still unable to resume
his duties, NENA was sworn in as the new president; he will serve for
the remaining two years of OLTER's term
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president and vice president elected by Congress from among
the four senators-at-large for four-year terms; election last held 11
May 1995 (next to be held NA May 1999); note-because of the vacancy to
the post of vice president created after NENA left to become acting
president, a new election to fill the position for the remaining two
years of the term was held on 9 May 1997 (next to be held NA May 1999)
election results: Bailey OLTER reelected president; percent of
Congress vote-NA; Leo A. FALCAM elected vice president; percent of
Congress vote-NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Congress (14 seats; members elected by
popular vote; four - one elected from each of state-to serve four-year
terms and 10-elected from single-member districts delineated by
population-to serve two-year terms)
elections: elections for four-year term seats last held 7 March 1995
(next to be held NA March 1999); elections for two-year term seats
last held NA March 1997 (next to be held NA March 1999)
election results: percent of vote-NA; seats-independents 14

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: no formal parties

International organization participation: AsDB, ESCAP, G-77, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, Intelsat, ITU, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD,
WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jesse Bibiano MAREHALAU
chancery: 1725 N Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 223-4383
FAX: [1] (202) 223-4391
consulate(s) general: Honolulu and Tamuning (Guam)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Cheryl A.
MARTIN
embassy: address NA, Kolonia
mailing address: P. O. Box 1286, Pohnpei, Federated States of
Micronesia 96941
telephone: [691] 320-2187
FAX: [691] 320-2186

Flag description: light blue with four white five-pointed stars
centered; the stars are arranged in a diamond pattern

@Micronesia, Federated States of:Economy

Economy-overview: Economic activity consists primarily of subsistence
farming and fishing. The islands have few mineral deposits worth
exploiting, except for high-grade phosphate. The potential for a
tourist industry exists, but the remoteness of the location and a lack
of adequate facilities hinder development. Financial assistance from
the US is the primary source of revenue, with the US pledged to spend
$1 billion in the islands in the 1990s. Geographical isolation and a
poorly developed infrastructure are major impediments to long-term
growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$220 million (1996 est.)
note: GDP is supplemented by grant aid, averaging perhaps $100 million
annually

GDP-real growth rate: 1% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,760 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 4% (1996 est.)

Labor force: NA
by occupation: two-thirds are government employees

Unemployment rate: 27% (1989)

Budget:
revenues : $58 million
expenditures: $52 million, including capital expenditures of $4.7
million (FY95/96 est.)

Industries: tourism, construction, fish processing, craft items from
shell, wood, and pearls

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 38,500 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: NA kWh

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture-products: black pepper, tropical fruits and vegetables,
coconuts, cassava (tapioca), sweet potatoes; pigs, chickens

Exports:
total value: $73 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: fish, garments, bananas, black pepper
partners: Japan, US, Guam

Imports:
total value: $168 million (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: food, manufactured goods, machinery and equipment,
beverages
partners: US, Japan, Australia

Debt-external: $129 million

Economic aid:
recipient: under terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US will
provide $1.3 billion in grant aid during the period 1986-2001

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Communications

Telephones: 960

Telephone system:
domestic: islands interconnected by shortwave radiotelephone (used
mostly for government purposes)
international: satellite earth stations-4 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 1, shortwave 1

Radios: 17,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 6

Televisions: 1,290 (1993 est.)

@Micronesia, Federated States of:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 240 km
paved: 42 km
unpaved: 198 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Colonia (Yap), Kolonia (Pohnpei), Lele, Moen

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 6 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Micronesia, Federated States of:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@Micronesia, Federated States of:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

MIDWAY ISLANDS

(territory of the US)

@Midway Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-third
of the way from Honolulu to Tokyo

Geographic coordinates: 28 13 N, 177 22 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 6.2 sq km
land: 6.2 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Eastern Island and Sand Island

Area-comparative: about nine times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 15 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, but moderated by prevailing easterly winds

Terrain: low, nearly level

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 4 m

Natural resources: fish, wildlife

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: a coral atoll; closed to the public

@Midway Islands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants

Population growth rate: 0% (1998 est.)

@Midway Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Midway Islands

Data code: MQ

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; formerly
administered from Washington, DC, by the US Navy, under Naval
Facilities Engineering Command, Pacific Division; this facility has
been operationally closed since 10 September 1993; on 31 October 1996,
through a Presidential executive order, the jurisdiction and control
of the atoll was transferred to the Fish and Wildlife Service of the
US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge
system

National capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

Legal system: NA

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

@Midway Islands:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy is based on providing support services
for any remaining activities located on the islands. All food and
manufactured goods must be imported.

Electricity-capacity: NA kW

Electricity-production: NA kWh

@Midway Islands:Transportation

Highways:
total: 32 km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Pipelines: 7.8 km

Ports and harbors: Sand Island

Airports: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Midway Islands:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@Midway Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

MOLDOVA

@Moldova:Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania

Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 29 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 33,700 sq km
land: 33,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Hawaii

Land boundaries:
total: 1,389 km
border countries: Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: moderate winters, warm summers

Terrain: rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Nistru River 2 m
highest point: Mount Balaneshty 430 m

Natural resources: lignite, phosphorites, gypsum

Land use:
arable land: 53%
permanent crops: 14%
permanent pastures: 13%
forests and woodland: 13%
other: 7% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,110 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: heavy use of agricultural chemicals,
including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and
groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Ozone Layer
Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: landlocked

@Moldova:People

Population: 4,457,729 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 25% (male 568,609; female 548,837)
15-64 years: 65% (male 1,394,604; female 1,514,749)
65 years and over: 10% (male 159,972; female 270,958) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.04% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 14.35 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 12.42 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 43.72 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.32 years
male: 59.61 years
female: 69.27 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.88 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Moldovan(s)
adjective: Moldovan

Ethnic groups: Moldavian/Romanian 64.5%, Ukrainian 13.8%, Russian 13%,
Gagauz 3.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Bulgarian 2%, other 1.7% (1989 figures)
note: internal disputes with ethnic Russians and Ukrainians in the
Nistru region and Gagauz Turks in the south

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 98.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist (only about
1,000 members) (1991)
note: the large majority of churchgoers are ethnic Moldavian

Languages: Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian
language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: 99%
female: 94% (1989 est.)

@Moldova:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
conventional short form: Moldova
local long form: Republica Moldova
local short form: none
former: Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova; Moldavia

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