Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Books, poems, drama…

The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Part 27 out of 51

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 5.2 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

Birth rate: 40.12 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.96 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.14 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 41.12 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 67.57 years
male: 65.87 years
female: 69.35 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.84 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Maldivian(s)
adjective: Maldivian

Ethnic groups: Sinhalese, Dravidian, Arab, African

Religions: Sunni Muslim

Languages: Maldivian Divehi (dialect of Sinhala, script derived from
Arabic), English spoken by most government officials

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.2%
male: 93.3%
female: 93% (1995 est.)

@Maldives:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Maldives
conventional short form: Maldives
local long form: Dhivehi Raajjeyge Jumhooriyyaa
local short form: Dhivehi Raajje

Data code: MV

Government type: republic

National capital: Male (Maale)

Administrative divisions: 19 atolls (atholhu, singular and plural) and
1 other first-order administrative division*; Alifu, Baa, Dhaalu,
Faafu, Gaafu Alifu, Gaafu Dhaalu, Gnaviyani, Haa Alifu, Haa Dhaalu,
Kaafu, Laamu, Lhaviyani, Maale*, Meemu, Noonu, Raa, Seenu, Shaviyani,
Thaa, Vaavu

Independence: 26 July 1965 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 July (1965)

Constitution: 4 June 1968

Legal system: based on Islamic law with admixtures of English common
law primarily in commercial matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM (since 11 November
1978); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
head of government: President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM (since 11 November
1978); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Ministry of Atolls appointed by the president; note-need not
be members of Majilis
elections: president elected by secret ballot of the Majlis for a
five-year term; election last held 1 October 1993 (next to be held NA
October 1998)
election results: President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM reelected; percent of
Majlis vote-Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM 92.76%

Legislative branch: unicameral Citizens' Council or Majlis (48 seats;
40 elected by popular vote, 8 appointed by the president; members
serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 2 December 1994 (next to be held NA December
1999)
election results: percent of vote-NA; seats-independents 40

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: although political parties are not
banned, none exist

International organization participation: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: Maldives does not have an embassy
in the US, but does have a Permanent Mission to the UN in New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Maldives; the US Ambassador to Sri Lanka is accredited to Maldives
and makes periodic visits there

Flag description: red with a large green rectangle in the center
bearing a vertical white crescent; the closed side of the crescent is
on the hoist side of the flag

@Maldives:Economy

Economy-overview: Tourism, Maldives largest industry, accounts for
about 18% of GDP and more than 60% of the Maldives' foreign exchange
receipts. Over 90% of government tax revenue comes from import duties
and tourism-related taxes. About 350,000 tourists visited the islands
in 1997. Fishing is a second leading growth sector. The Maldivian
Government began an economic reform program in 1989 initially by
lifting import quotas and opening some exports to the private sector.
Subsequently, it has liberalized regulations to allow more foreign
investment. Agriculture and manufacturing continue to play a minor
role in the economy, constrained by the limited availability of
cultivable land and the shortage of domestic labor. Most staple foods
must be imported. Industry, which consists mainly of garment
production, boat building, and handicrafts, accounts for about 15% of
GDP. Maldivian authorities worry about the impact of erosion and
possible global warming on their low-lying country; 80% of the area is
three feet or less above sea level.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$500 million (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6.2% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,800 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 22%
industry: 15%
services: 63% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 6.3% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 56,435 (1990 est.)
by occupation: fishing industry and agriculture 25%, services 21%,
manufacturing and construction 21%, trade, restaurants, and hotels
16%, transportation and communication 10%, other 7%

Unemployment rate: NEGL%

Budget:
revenues: $88 million (excluding foreign grants)
expenditures: $141 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995 est.)

Industries: fish processing, tourism, shipping, boat building, coconut
processing, garments, woven mats, rope, handicrafts, coral and sand
mining

Industrial production growth rate: 6.3% (1994 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 14,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 50 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 191 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coconuts, corn, sweet potatoes; fishing

Exports:
total value: $59 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: fish, clothing
partners: Sri Lanka, US, Germany, Singapore, UK

Imports:
total value: $302 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: consumer goods, intermediate and capital goods, petroleum
products
partners: Singapore, India, Sri Lanka, Hong Kong, Japan, Thailand

Debt-external: $179 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 rufiyaa (Rf) = 100 laari

Exchange rates: rufiyaa (Rf) per US$1-11.770 (1995-January 1998),
11.586 (1994), 10.957 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 8,523 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: minimal domestic and international facilities
domestic: inter-atoll communication primarily through HF transceivers
and VHF/UHF telephones
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 28,284 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 7,309 (1992 est.)

@Maldives:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km; note-Male has 9.6 km of coral highways within the city
(1988 est.)

Ports and harbors: Gan, Male

Merchant marine:
total: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 70,703 GRT/108,485 DWT
ships by type: cargo 17, container 1, oil tanker 1, short-sea
passenger 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Maldives:Military

Military branches: National Security Service (paramilitary police
force)

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 63,879 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 35,610 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Maldives:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

MALI

@Mali:Geography

Location: Western Africa, southwest of Algeria

Geographic coordinates: 17 00 N, 4 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1.24 million sq km
land: 1.22 million sq km
water: 20,000 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 7,243 km
border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858
km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal
419 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy,
humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand;
savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m

Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium,
bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but
not exploited

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: 6%
other: 67% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 780 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry
seasons; recurring droughts

Environment-current issues: deforestation; soil erosion;
desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography-note: landlocked

@Mali:People

Population: 10,108,569 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 47% (male 2,405,624; female 2,383,728)
15-64 years: 49% (male 2,367,538; female 2,628,399)
65 years and over: 4% (male 152,999; female 170,281) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.24% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 49.88 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 19.04 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.57 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 121.72 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 47.03 years
male: 45.67 years
female: 48.43 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.02 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Malian(s)
adjective: Malian

Ethnic groups: Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Sarakole), Peul 17%,
Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%

Religions: Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%

Languages: French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 31%
male: 39.4%
female: 23.1% (1995 est.)

@Mali:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Mali
conventional short form: Mali
local long form: Republique de Mali
local short form: Mali
former: French Sudan

Data code: ML

Government type: republic

National capital: Bamako

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (regions, singular-region); Gao,
Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou

Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 22
September (1960)

Constitution: adopted 12 January 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court (which was
formally established on 9 March 1994); has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Alpha Oumar KONARE (since 8 June 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Ibrahima Boubacar KEITA (since
March 1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 11 May 1997 (next to be held May 2002); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: Alpha Oumar KONARE reelected president; percent of
vote-Alpha Oumar KONARE 85.15%, Mamadou DIABY 4.09%, other 10.76%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (147 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 20 July and 3 August 1997 (next to be held in two
rounds in 2002); note-much of the opposition boycotted the election
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-ADEMA
130, PARENA 8, CDS 4, UDD 3, PDP 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA
[Ibrahim N'DIAYE, secretary-general]; Party for National Renewal or
PARENA [Yoro DIAKITE, chairman; Tiebile DRAME, secretary-general];
Democratic and Social Convention or CDS [Mamadou Bakary SANGARE,
chairman]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla
COULIBALY, leader]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Me
Idrissa TRAORE, leader]; National Congress for Democratic Initiative
or CNID [Mountaga TALL, chairman]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic
Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Bamou TOURE, secretary-general]; Rally for
Democracy and Progress or RDP [Almamy SYLLA, chairman]; Rally for
Democracy and Labor or RDT [Ali GNANGADO, leader]; Union of Democratic
Forces for Progress or UFDP [Youssouf TOURE, secretary-general];
Movement for the Independence, Renaissance and Integration of Africa
or MIRIA [Mohamed Lamine TRAORE, Mouhamedou DICKO, leaders]

Political pressure groups and leaders: United Movement and Fronts of
Azawad or MFUA; Patriotic Movement of the Ghanda Kaye or MPGK

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, MIPONUH, MONUA,
NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Cheick Oumar DIARRAH
chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador David P. RAWSON
embassy: Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed V, Bamako
mailing address: B. P. 34, Bamako
telephone: [223] 22 54 70
FAX: [223] 22 37 12

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side),
yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Mali:Economy

Economy-overview: Mali is among the poorest countries in the world,
with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is
largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About
10% of the population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is
engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on
processing farm commodities. Mali is heavily dependent on foreign aid
and vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices for cotton, its main
export. In 1997, the government continued its successful
implementation of an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program
that is helping the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign
investment. Mali's adherence to economic reform, and the 50%
devaluation of the African franc in January 1994, has pushed up
economic growth. Several multinational corporations increased gold
mining operations in 1996 and the government anticipates that Mali
will become a major Sub-Saharan gold exporter in the next few years.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$6 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$600 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 49%
industry: 17%
services: 34% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: NA
by occupation: agriculture 80%, services 19%, industry and commerce 1%
(1981)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $730 million
expenditures: $770 million, including capital expenditures of $320
million (1997 est.)

Industries: minor local consumer goods production and food processing;
construction; phosphate and gold mining

Industrial production growth rate: 0.6% (1995 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 87,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 290 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 31 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts;
cattle, sheep, goats

Exports:
total value: $473 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: cotton, livestock, gold
partners: mostly franc zone and Western Europe

Imports:
total value: $797 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, construction
materials, petroleum, textiles
partners: mostly franc zone and Western Europe

Debt-external: $2.8 billion (1995)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1-608.36 (January 1998),
583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16
(1993)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 11,000 (1982 est.)

Telephone system: domestic system poor but improving; provides only
minimal service
domestic: network consists of microwave radio relay, open wire, and
radiotelephone communications stations; expansion of microwave radio
relay in progress
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 1

Radios: 430,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 11,000 (1992 est.)

@Mali:Transportation

Railways:
total: 641 km; (linked to Senegal's rail system through Kayes)
narrow gauge: 641 km 1.000-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 15,100 km
paved: 1,827 km
unpaved: 13,273 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,815 km navigable

Ports and harbors: Koulikoro

Airports: 28 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 22
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 10 (1997 est.)

@Mali:Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard,
National Guard, National Police (Surete Nationale)

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 2,051,976 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,174,078 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $66 million (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.2% (1994)

@Mali:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

MALTA

@Malta:Geography

Location: Southern Europe, islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of
Sicily (Italy)

Geographic coordinates: 35 50 N, 14 35 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 320 sq km
land: 320 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 140 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 25 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly low, rocky, flat to dissected plains; many coastal
cliffs

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Dingli Cliffs 245 m

Natural resources: limestone, salt

Land use:
arable land: 38%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 59% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: very limited natural fresh water
resources; increasing reliance on desalination

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography-note: the country comprises an archipelago, with only the
three largest islands (Malta, Gozo, and Comino) being inhabited;
numerous bays provide good harbors

@Malta:People

Population: 379,563 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 21% (male 40,655; female 38,425)
15-64 years: 68% (male 128,958; female 127,391)
65 years and over: 11% (male 18,629; female 25,505) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.58% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 11.73 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.35 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.57 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.6 years
male: 75.3 years
female: 80.05 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.73 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Maltese (singular and plural)
adjective: Maltese

Ethnic groups: Maltese (descendants of ancient Carthaginians and
Phoenicians, with strong elements of Italian and other Mediterranean
stock)

Religions: Roman Catholic 98%

Languages: Maltese (official), English (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 88%
male: 88%
female: 88% (1985)

@Malta:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Malta
conventional short form: Malta

Data code: MT

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Valletta

Administrative divisions: none (administered directly from Valletta)

Independence: 21 September 1964 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1964)

Constitution: 1964 constitution substantially amended on 13 December
1974

Legal system: based on English common law and Roman civil law; has
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ugo MIFSUD BONNICI (since 4 April 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Dr. Alfred SANT (since 28 October
1996); Deputy Prime Minister/Foreign and Environment Minister Dr.
George VELLA (since 29 October 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime
minister
elections: president elected by the House of Representatives for a
five-year term; election last held NA April 1994 (next to be held by
NA April 1999); following House of Representatives elections, the
leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is
usually appointed prime minister by the president for a five-year term
election results: Ugo MIFSUD BONNICI elected president; percent of
House of Representatives vote-NA

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (usually 65
seats; note-additional seats are given to the party with the largest
popular vote to ensure a legislative majority; current total: 69
seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 26 October 1996 (next to be held by October 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party-MLP 50.7%, NP 46.5%; seats
by party-NP 34, MLP 31 (MLP 35, NP 34 after adjustment)

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, judges are appointed by the
president on the advice of the prime minister; Court of Appeal, judges
are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

Political parties and leaders: Nationalist Party or NP [Edward FENECH
ADAMI]; Malta Labor Party or MLP [Alfred SANT]

International organization participation: C, CCC, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
EU (applicant), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO
(correspondent), ITU, NAM, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mark Anthony MICALLEF
chancery: 2017 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-3611, 3612
FAX: [1] (202) 387-5470
consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kathryn Haycock PROFFITT
embassy: 2nd Floor, Development House, Saint Anne Street, Floriana,
Malta
mailing address: P. O. Box 535, Valletta
telephone: [356] 235960
FAX: [356] 223322

Flag description: two equal vertical bands of white (hoist side) and
red; in the upper hoist-side corner is a representation of the George
Cross, edged in red

@Malta:Economy

Economy-overview: Significant resources are limestone, a favorable
geographic location, and a productive labor force. Malta produces only
about 20% of its food needs, has limited freshwater supplies, and has
no domestic energy sources. The economy is dependent on foreign trade,
manufacturing (especially electronics and textiles), and tourism; the
state-owned Malta drydocks employs about 3,800 people. In 1996,
approximately 1 million tourists visited the island. Per capita GDP of
$12,900 places Malta in the range of the less affluent EU countries.
The island is divided politically over the question of joining the EU.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$4.9 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.8% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$12,900 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 34%
services: 61% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.3% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 148,085 (September 1996)
by occupation: public services 34%, other services 32%, manufacturing
and construction 22%, agriculture 2% (1996)

Unemployment rate: 3.7% (September 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $1.3 billion
expenditures: $1.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $219
million (1997 est.)

Industries: tourism; electronics, ship building and repair,
construction; food and beverages, textiles, footwear, clothing,
tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 250,000 kW (1994)

Electricity-production: 1.45 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 3,923 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: potatoes, cauliflower, grapes, wheat, barley,
tomatoes, citrus, cut flowers, green peppers; pork, milk, poultry,
eggs

Exports:
total value: $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, clothing and footware,
printed matter
partners: Italy 32%, Germany 16%, UK 8%

Imports:
total value: $2.8 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: food, petroleum, machinery and semimanufactured goods
partners: Italy 27%, Germany 14%, UK 13%, US 9%

Debt-external: $134 million (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Maltese lira (LM) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Maltese liri (LM) per US$1-0.3960 (January 1998),
0.3857 (1997), 0.3604 (1996), 0.3529 (1995), 0.3776 (1994), 0.3821
(1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 191,876 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: automatic system satisfies normal requirements
domestic: submarine cable and microwave radio relay between islands
international: 2 submarine cables; satellite earth station-1 Intelsat
(Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 189,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1996 est.)

Televisions: 300,000 (1996 est.)

@Malta:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 1,582 km
paved: 1,471 km
unpaved: 111 km (1993 est.)

Ports and harbors: Marsaxlokk, Valletta

Merchant marine:
total: 1,287 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,396,164
GRT/37,390,720 DWT
ships by type: bulk 350, cargo 404, chemical tanker 38, combination
bulk 20, combination ore/oil 15, container 55, liquefied gas tanker 1,
livestock carrier 2, multifunction large-load carrier 3, oil tanker
269, passenger 7, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated
cargo 43, roll-on/roll-off cargo 42, short-sea passenger 17,
specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 16
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 51 countries
among which includes Greece 477, Russia 61, Switzerland 51, Italy 50,
Norway 49, Croatia 39, Turkey 38, Germany 30, Georgia 23, and Monaco
23 (1997 est.)

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Malta:Military

Military branches: Armed Forces, Maltese Police Force

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 99,066 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 78,805 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $65.5 million (FY96/97)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.7% (FY96/97)

@Malta:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Malta and Tunisia are discussing the
commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their
countries, particularly for oil exploration

Illicit drugs: minor transshipment point for hashish from North Africa
to Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________

MAN, ISLE OF

(British crown dependency)

@Man, Isle of:Geography

Location: Western Europe, island in the Irish Sea, between Great
Britain and Ireland

Geographic coordinates: 54 15 N, 4 30 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 588 sq km
land: 588 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than three times the size of
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 113 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: cool summers and mild winters; humid; overcast about half the
time

Terrain: hills in north and south bisected by central valley

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Irish Sea 0 m
highest point: Snaefell 620 m

Natural resources: lead, iron ore

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA% (extensive arable land and forests)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: one small islet, the Calf of Man, lies to the
southwest, and is a bird sanctuary

@Man, Isle of:People

Population: 75,121 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 6,790; female 6,510)
15-64 years: 65% (male 24,466; female 24,366)
65 years and over: 17% (male 5,168; female 7,821) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.79% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 12.49 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 11.69 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 7.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 2.42 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.57 years
male: 74.04 years
female: 81.28 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.67 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Manxman, Manxwoman
adjective: Manx

Ethnic groups: Manx (Norse-Celtic descent), Briton

Religions: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian,
Society of Friends

Languages: English, Manx Gaelic

Literacy: NA

@Man, Isle of:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Isle of Man

Data code: IM

Dependency status: British crown dependency

Government type: NA

National capital: Douglas

Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)

Independence: none (British crown dependency)

National holiday: Tynwald Day, 5 July

Constitution: 1961, Isle of Man Constitution Act

Legal system: English law and local statute

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Lord of Mann Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6
February 1952), represented by Lieutenant Governor His Excellency Sir
Timothy DAUNT (since NA 1995)
head of government: President of the Tynwald and the Legislative
Council Sir Charles KERRUISH (since NA 1990)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
elections: the queen is a hereditary monarch; lieutenant governor
appointed by the queen for a five-year term; president of the
Legislative Council elected by the Tynwald for a five-year term;
election last held NA (next to be held NA)
election results: Sir Charles KERRUISH elected president of the
Legislative Council; percent of legislative vote-NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Tynwald consists of the Legislative
Council (a 10-member body composed of the Lord Bishop of Sodor and
Man, a nonvoting attorney general, and 8 others named by the House of
Keys) and the House of Keys (24 seats; members are elected by popular
vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Keys-last held 21 November 1996 (next to be held
NA 2001)
election results: House of Keys-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-independents 24

Judicial branch: High Court of Justice, justices are appointed by the
Lord Chancellor of England on the nomination of the lieutenant
governor

Political parties and leaders: there is no party system; members sit
as independents

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (British crown dependency)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (British crown dependency)

Flag description: red with the Three Legs of Man emblem (Trinacria),
in the center; the three legs are joined at the thigh and bent at the
knee; in order to have the toes pointing clockwise on both sides of
the flag, a two-sided emblem is used

@Man, Isle of:Economy

Economy-overview: Offshore banking, manufacturing, and tourism are key
sectors of the economy. The government's policy of offering incentives
to high-technology companies and financial institutions to locate on
the island has paid off in expanding employment opportunities in
high-income industries. As a result, agriculture and fishing, once the
mainstays of the economy, have declined in their shares of GDP.
Banking and other services now contribute more than half to GDP. Trade
is mostly with the UK. The Isle of Man enjoys free access to EU
markets.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$780 million (1994 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$10,800 (1994 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 33,577 (1996)
by occupation: manufacturing 11%, construction 10%, transport and
communication 8%, retail distribution 9%, professional and scientific
services 18%, public administration 6%, banking and finance 18%

Unemployment rate: 2% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $333.7 million
expenditures: $333.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY94/95 est.)

Industries: financial services, light manufacturing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: NA kW

Electricity-production: NA kWh

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture-products: cereals, vegetables; cattle, sheep, pigs,
poultry

Exports: $NA
commodities: tweeds, herring, processed shellfish, beef, lamb
partners: UK

Imports: $NA
commodities: timber, fertilizers, fish
partners: UK

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Manx pound (M) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Manx pounds (M) per US$1-0.6115 (January 1998),
0.6106 (1997), 0.6403 (1996), 0.6335 (1995), 0.6529 (1994), 0.6658
(1993); the Manx pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 46,000 (1996)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 4

Televisions: 24,450 licenses (1996)

@Man, Isle of:Transportation

Railways:
total: 52 km (27 km electrified)

Highways:
total: 640 km
paved: 320 km
unpaved: 320 km

Ports and harbors: Castletown, Douglas, Peel, Ramsey

Merchant marine:
total: 140 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,481,925 GRT/7,663,593
DWT
ships by type: bulk 28, cargo 8, chemical tanker 8, combination bulk
3, container 14, liquefied gas tanker 9, oil tanker 46, passenger 2,
railroad carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 15,
short-sea passenger 1, vehicle carrier 2
note: a flag of convenience registry; UK owns 11 ships, Switzerland 2,
South Africa 1, Denmark 1, Sweden 1, Belgium 1, and Netherlands 1
(1997 est.)

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Man, Isle of:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Man, Isle of:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

MARSHALL ISLANDS

@Marshall Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of atolls and reefs in the North Pacific
Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Papua New Guinea

Geographic coordinates: 9 00 N, 168 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 181.3 sq km
land: 181.3 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes the atolls of Bikini, Enewetak, and Kwajalein

Area-comparative: about the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 370.4 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: wet season from May to November; hot and humid; islands
border typhoon belt

Terrain: low coral limestone and sand islands

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Likiep 10 m

Natural resources: phosphate deposits, marine products, deep seabed
minerals

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: 60%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 40%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: occasional typhoons

Environment-current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography-note: two archipelagic island chains of 30 atolls and 1,152
islands; Bikini and Enewetak are former US nuclear test sites;
Kwajalein, the famous World War II battleground, is now used as a US
missile test range

@Marshall Islands:People

Population: 63,031 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 50% (male 16,073; female 15,432)
15-64 years: 48% (male 15,408; female 14,695)
65 years and over: 2% (male 669; female 754) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.85% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 45.39 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 6.9 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 44.54 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.48 years
male: 62.89 years
female: 66.14 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.72 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Marshallese (singular and plural)
adjective: Marshallese

Ethnic groups: Micronesian

Religions: Christian (mostly Protestant)

Languages: English (universally spoken and is the official language),
two major Marshallese dialects from the Malayo-Polynesian family,
Japanese

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93%
male: 100%
female: 88% (1980 est.)

@Marshall Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of the Marshall Islands
conventional short form: Marshall Islands
former: Marshall Islands District (Trust Territory of the Pacific
Islands)

Data code: RM

Government type: constitutional government in free association with
the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 21 October
1986

National capital: Majuro

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 21 October 1986 (from the US-administered UN
trusteeship)

National holiday: Proclamation of the Republic of the Marshall
Islands, 1 May (1979)

Constitution: 1 May 1979

Legal system: based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the
legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Imata KABUA (since 14 January 1997);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Imata KABUA (since 14 January 1997);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president from among the members of
Parliament
elections: president elected by Parliament from among its own members
for a four-year term; election last held 14 January 1997 (next to be
held NA January 2000); note-Imata KABUA elected to succeed and
complete the term of the late President Amata KABUA
election results: Imata KABUA elected president; percent of Parliament
vote-63%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Nitijela (33 seats;
members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 20 November 1995 (next to be held NA 2000;
note-new elections will be held upon the completion of the term of the
late President Amata KABUA)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-NA
note: the Council of Chiefs is a 12-member body that advises on
matters affecting customary law and practice

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; High Court

Political parties and leaders: traditionally there have been no
formally organized political parties; what has existed more closely
resembles factions or interest groups because they do not have party
headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures; the following two
"groupings" have competed in legislative balloting in recent years-Our
Islands Party, leader NA, and Ralik/Ratak Democratic Party (RRDP),
Ramsey REIMERS

International organization participation: AsDB, ESCAP, G-77, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol,
ITU, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WHO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Banny DE BRUM
chancery: 2433 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5414
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3236
consulate(s) general: Honolulu

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joan M. PLAISTED
embassy: Oceanside, Mejen Weto, Long Island, Majuro
mailing address: P. O. Box 1379, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall
Islands 96960-1379
telephone: [692] 247-4011
FAX: [692] 247-4012

Flag description: blue with two stripes radiating from the lower
hoist-side corner-orange (top) and white; there is a white star with
four large rays and 20 small rays on the hoist side above the two
stripes

@Marshall Islands:Economy

Economy-overview: US Government assistance is the mainstay of the
economy, constituting an important supplement to GDP. Agricultural
production is concentrated on small farms, and the most important
commercial crops are coconuts, tomatoes, melons, and breadfruit.
Small-scale industry is limited to handicrafts, fish processing, and
copra. The tourist industry, now a small source of foreign exchange
employing less than 10% of the labor force, remains the best hope for
future added income. The islands have few natural resources, and
imports far exceed exports. The government is drafting economic
reforms designed to increase revenue and compensate for reductions in
US Government grants-in FY95/96, the US Government provided grants of
$68 million, equal to roughly 70% of the country's GDP. More than 25%
of the government's FY95/96 budget was devoted to debt repayment. In
1996, efforts to stabilize the economy included a 27% reduction in the
government's work force and a 10% cut in the budget.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$98 million (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,680 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 15%
industry: 13%
services: 72% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 4% (FY95/96)

Labor force:
total: 4,800 (1986)
by occupation: NA

Unemployment rate: 16% (1991 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $80.1 million
expenditures: $77.4 million, including capital expenditures of $19.5
million (FY95/96 est.)

Industries: copra, fish, tourism, craft items from shell, wood, and
pearls, offshore banking (embryonic)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 16,000 kW (1994)

Electricity-production: 57 million kWh (1994)

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture-products: coconuts, cacao, taro, breadfruit, fruits; pigs,
chickens

Exports:
total value: $17.5 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: fish, coconut oil, fish, trochus shells
partners: US, Japan, Australia

Imports:
total value: $71.8 million (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fuels, beverages and
tobacco
partners: US, Japan, Australia, NZ

Debt-external: $128 million (FY95/96)

Economic aid:
recipient: under the terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US
is to provide approximately $68 million in aid annually

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Communications

Telephones: 2,000 (1997 est.)

Telephone system: telex services
domestic: Majuro Atoll and Ebeye and Kwajalein islands have regular,
seven-digit, direct-dial telephones; other islands interconnected by
shortwave radiotelephone (used mostly for government purposes)
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); US
Government satellite communications system on Kwajalein

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 1

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: NA

@Marshall Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km
note: paved roads on major islands (Majuro, Kwajalein), otherwise
stone-, coral-, or laterite-surfaced roads and tracks

Ports and harbors: Majuro

Merchant marine:
total: 128 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,274,057 GRT/10,641,686
DWT
ships by type: bulk 57, cargo 5, chemical tanker 1, combination
ore/oil 1, container 25, oil tanker 36, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2,
vehicle carrier 1
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes the ships of Canada 1,
China 1, Germany 1, Japan 1, and US 7 (1997 est.)

Airports: 16 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 5 (1997 est.)

@Marshall Islands:Military

Military branches: no regular military forces (a coast guard may be
established); Police Force

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@Marshall Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: claims US territory of Wake Island

______________________________________________________________________

MARTINIQUE

(overseas department of France)

@Martinique:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Trinidad
and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 14 40 N, 61 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 1,100 sq km
land: 1,060 sq km
water: 40 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than six times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 350 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; rainy season (June to
October); vulnerable to devastating cyclones (hurricanes) every eight
years on average; average temperature 17.3 degrees C; humid

Terrain: mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Montagne Pelee 1,397 m

Natural resources: coastal scenery and beaches, cultivable land

Land use:
arable land: 8%
permanent crops: 8%
permanent pastures: 17%
forests and woodland: 44%
other: 23% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hurricanes, flooding, and volcanic activity (an
average of one major natural disaster every five years)

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

@Martinique:People

Population: 407,284 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (male 47,431; female 46,457)
15-64 years: 67% (male 134,738; female 137,818)
65 years and over: 10% (male 17,216; female 23,624) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.05% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 16.52 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.91 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.89 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.13 years
male: 76.34 years
female: 81.98 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Martiniquais (singular and plural)
adjective: Martiniquais

Ethnic groups: African and African-white-Indian mixture 90%, white 5%,
East Indian, Lebanese, Chinese less than 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Hindu and pagan African 5%

Languages: French, Creole patois

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93%
male: 92%
female: 93% (1982 est.)

@Martinique:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Department of Martinique
conventional short form: Martinique
local long form: Departement de la Martinique
local short form: Martinique

Data code: MB

Dependency status: overseas department of France

Government type: NA

National capital: Fort-de-France

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French legal system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of France Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May
1995); Prefect Jean-Francois CORDET (since NA)
head of government: President of the General Council Claude LISE
(since 22 March 1992); President of the Regional Council Alfred
MARIE-JEANNE (since NA March 1998)
cabinet: NA
elections: prefect appointed by the president of France on the advice
of the French Ministry of Interior; the presidents of the General and
Regional Councils are elected by the members of those councils

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council or Conseil General (45
seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)
and a unicameral Regional Assembly or Conseil Regional (41 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)
elections: General Council-last held NA March 1994 (next to be held NA
2000); Regional Assembly-last held on NA March 1998 (next to be held
by March 2004)
election results: General Council-percent of vote by party-NA; seats
by party-NA; note-the PPM won a plurality; Regional Assembly-percent
of vote by party - NA; seats by party-NA
note: Martinique elects 2 seats to the French Senate; elections last
held 24 September 1995 (next to be held September 1998);
results-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-PS 2; Martinique
also elects 4 seats to the French National Assembly; elections last
held 1 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); results-percent of vote by
party-NA; seats by party-RPR 2, PS 1, independent 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic or RPR [Andre
LESUEUR]; Martinique Forces [Maurice LAOUCHEZ]; Martinique Socialist
Party or PPM [Ernest WAN-AJOUHU]; Socialist Federation of Martinique
or FSM [Jean CRUSOL]; Martinique Communist Party or PCM [George
ERICHOT]; Martinique Patriots or PM; Union for French Democracy or UDF
[Miguel LAVENTURE]; Martinique Independence Movement or MIM [Alfred
MARIE-JEANNE]; Republican Party or PR [Jean BAILLY]; National Council
of Popular Committees [Robert SAE]; Rally for Democratic Martinique
[Felix HILAIRE-FORTUNE]; Movement for a Liberated Martinique [Philippe
PETIT]; Union for the Renewal of Ste. Marie [Guy LORDINOT]; Combat
Worker [Gerard BEAUJOUR]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Proletarian Action Group or
GAP; Socialist Revolution Group or GRS [Philippe PIERRE-CHARLES];
Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance or ARC; Central Union for Martinique
Workers or CSTM [Marc PULVAR]; Frantz Fanon Circle; League of Workers
and Peasants; Association for the Protection of Martinique's Heritage
(ecologist) [Garcin MALSA]

International organization participation: FZ, WCL, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas department of
France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas department of
France)

Flag description: a light blue background is divided into four
quadrants by a white cross; in the center of each rectangle is a white
snake; the flag of France is used for official occasions

@Martinique:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy is based on sugarcane, bananas, tourism,
and light industry. Agriculture accounts for about 6% of GDP and the
small industrial sector for 11%. Sugar production has declined, with
most of the sugarcane now used for the production of rum. Banana
exports are increasing, going mostly to France. The bulk of meat,
vegetable, and grain requirements must be imported, contributing to a
chronic trade deficit that requires large annual transfers of aid from
France. Tourism has become more important than agricultural exports as
a source of foreign exchange. The majority of the work force is
employed in the service sector and in administration.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$3.95 billion (1995 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$10,000 (1995 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 6%
industry: 11%
services: 83% (1992 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3.9% (1990)

Labor force:
total: 160,000
by occupation: agriculture 10%, industry 17%, services 73% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 23.5% (1994)

Budget:
revenues: $658 million
expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $164
million (1994)

Industries: construction, rum, cement, oil refining, sugar, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 115,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 900 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 2,280 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: pineapples, avocados, bananas, flowers,
vegetables, sugarcane for rum

Exports:
total value: $220 million (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: refined petroleum products, bananas, rum, pineapples
partners: France 57%, Guadeloupe 31%, French Guiana (1991)

Imports:
total value: $1.6 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: petroleum products, crude oil, foodstuffs, construction
materials, vehicles, clothing and other consumer goods
partners: France 62%, UK, Italy, Germany, Japan, US (1991)

Debt-external: $180 million (1994)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: substantial annual French aid

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1-6.0836 (January 1998),
5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 209,672 (1994 est.)

Telephone system: domestic facilities are adequate
domestic: NA
international: microwave radio relay to Guadeloupe, Dominica, and
Saint Lucia; satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: 74,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 10

Televisions: 65,000 (1993 est.)

@Martinique:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,724 km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km (1994)

Ports and harbors: Fort-de-France, La Trinite

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Martinique:Military

Military branches: French forces (Army, Navy, Air Force), Gendarmerie

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of France

@Martinique:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for
the US and Europe

______________________________________________________________________

MAURITANIA

@Mauritania:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Senegal and Western Sahara

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 N, 12 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1,030,700 sq km
land: 1,030,400 sq km
water: 300 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than three times the size of New
Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 5,074 km
border countries: Algeria 463 km, Mali 2,237 km, Senegal 813 km,
Western Sahara 1,561 km

Coastline: 754 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty

Terrain: mostly barren, flat plains of the Sahara; some central hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sebkha de Ndrhamcha -3 m
highest point: Kediet Ijill 910 m

Natural resources: iron ore, gypsum, fish, copper, phosphate

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 38%
forests and woodland: 4%
other: 58% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 490 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind blows
primarily in March and April; periodic droughts

Environment-current issues: overgrazing, deforestation, and soil
erosion aggravated by drought are contributing to desertification;
very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Senegal which
is the only perennial river

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Book of the day: