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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Part 26 out of 51

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Railways:
total: 275 km
standard gauge: 275 km 1.435-m gauge (262 km electrified; 178 km
double track) (1995)

Highways:
total: 5,160 km
paved: 5,160 km (including 115 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 37 km; Moselle

Pipelines: petroleum products 48 km

Ports and harbors: Mertert

Merchant marine:
total: 32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 775,336 GRT/1,028,012 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 1, chemical tanker 1, container 3,
liquefied gas tanker 11, oil tanker 5, passenger 2, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 8 (1997 est.)

Airports: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Luxembourg:Military

Military branches: Army, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 108,111 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 88,807 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 2,388 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $142 million (1995)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 0.8% (1995)

@Luxembourg:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

MACAU

(Chinese territory under Portuguese administration)

@Macau:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China

Geographic coordinates: 22 10 N, 113 33 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 21 sq km
land: 21 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 0.34 km
border countries: China 0.34 km

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims: not specified

Climate: subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers

Terrain: generally flat

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Coloane Alto 174 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Ozone Layer Protection (extended from Portugal)
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: essentially urban; one causeway and two bridges
connect the two islands of Coloane and Taipa to the peninsula on
mainland

@Macau:People

Population: 429,152 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 25% (male 54,845; female 51,354)
15-64 years: 68% (male 138,871; female 153,801)
65 years and over: 7% (male 12,139; female 18,142) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.91% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 12.76 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 3.48 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 9.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 81.6 years
male: 78.66 years
female: 84.68 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.27 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Macanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Macau

Ethnic groups: Chinese 95%, Portuguese 3%, other 2%

Religions: Buddhist 50%, Roman Catholic 15%, none and other 35% (1997
est.)

Languages: Portuguese, Chinese (Cantonese)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90%
male: 93%
female: 86% (1981 est.)

@Macau:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Macau
local long form: none
local short form: Ilha de Macau

Data code: MC

Dependency status: Chinese territory under Portuguese administration;
note-scheduled to revert to China on 20 December 1999

Government type: NA

National capital: Macau

Administrative divisions: 2 districts (concelhos, singular-concelho);
Ilhas, Macau

Independence: none (Chinese territory under Portuguese administration;
Portugal signed an agreement with China on 13 April 1987 to return
Macau to Chinese administration on 20 December 1999; in the joint
declaration, China promises to respect Macau's existing social and
economic systems and lifestyle for 50 years after transition)

National holiday: Day of Portugal, 10 June (1580)

Constitution: 17 February 1976, Organic Law of Macau; Macau's future
constitution, the "Basic Law", promulgated by China's National
People's Congress on 31 March 1993, will go into effect 20 December
1999

Legal system: Portuguese civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of Portugal Jorge SAMPAIO (since 9 March
1996)
head of government: Governor General Vasco Joachim Rocha VIERA (since
20 March 1991)
cabinet: Consultative Council consists of a total of 15 members-five
appointed by the governor, two nominated by the governor, five elected
for a four-year term (two represent administrative bodies, one
represents moral, cultural, and welfare interests, and two represent
economic interests), and three statutory members
elections: none; governor general appointed by the president of
Portugal after consultation with the Legislative Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (23 seats; 8
elected by popular vote, 8 by indirect vote, and 7 appointed by the
governor; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 22 September 1996 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, consisting of five magistrates
including the president; lower court judges appointed for three-year
terms by the governor

Political parties and leaders: Association to Defend the Interests of
Macau, leader NA; Macau Democratic Center, leader NA; Group to Study
the Development of Macau, leader NA; Macau Independent Group, leader
NA

Political pressure groups and leaders: wealthy Macanese and Chinese
representing local interests, wealthy procommunist merchants
representing China's interests; in January 1967 the Macau Government
acceded to Chinese demands that gave China veto power over
administration

International organization participation: CCC, ESCAP (associate), IMO
(associate), Interpol (subbureau), UNESCO (associate), WMO, WToO
(associate), WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (Chinese territory under
Portuguese administration)

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US has no offices in Macau,
and US interests are monitored by the US Consulate General in Hong
Kong

Flag description: the flag of Portugal is used

@Macau:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy is based largely on tourism (including
gambling) and textile and fireworks manufacturing. Efforts to
diversify have spawned other small industries-toys, artificial
flowers, and electronics. The tourist sector has accounted for roughly
25% of GDP, and the clothing industry has provided about two-thirds of
export earnings; the gambling industry probably represents over 40% of
GDP. Macau depends on China for most of its food, fresh water, and
energy imports. Japan and Hong Kong are the main suppliers of raw
materials and capital goods.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$7.8 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: -0.3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$15,600 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3.9% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 271,228 (1995)
by occupation: industry 28%, restaurants and hotels 28%, other
services 44%

Unemployment rate: 3.6% (1995)

Budget:
revenues: $1.3 billion
expenditures: $1.07 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995 est.)

Industries: clothing, textiles, toys, electronics, footwear, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 260,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 1.3 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 3,250 kWh (1996 est.)

Agriculture-products: rice, vegetables

Exports:
total value: $1.99 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: textiles, clothing, toys, electronics, cement
partners: US 42%, EU 31.7%, Hong Kong 10%, China 9.8% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $1.99 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: raw materials, foodstuffs, capital goods, fuels,
lubricants
partners: Hong Kong 28.9%, China 21.8%, EU 14.7%, Japan 10.5% (1996)

Debt-external: $0 (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 pataca (P) = 100 avos

Exchange rates: patacas (P) per US$1-7.99 (1997), 7.962 (1996), 8.034
(1993-95), 7.973 (1992); note-linked to the Hong Kong dollar at the
rate of 1.03 patacas per Hong Kong dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 200,000 (1997 est.)

Telephone system: fairly modern communication facilities maintained
for domestic and international services
domestic: NA
international: HF radiotelephone communication facility; access to
international communications carriers provided via Hong Kong and
China; satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 135,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0
note: TV programs received from Hong Kong

Televisions: 34,000 (1992 est.)

@Macau:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 50 km
paved: 50 km
unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Macau

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Macau:Military

Military branches: NA

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 119,102 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 65,530 (1998 est.)

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of Portugal

@Macau:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

MACEDONIA, THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF

@Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, north of Greece

Geographic coordinates: 41 50 N, 22 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 25,333 sq km
land: 24,856 sq km
water: 477 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Vermont

Land boundaries:
total: 748 km
border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 228 km,
Serbia and Montenegro 221 km (all with Serbia)

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with
heavy snowfall

Terrain: mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys;
there are three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country
bisected by the Vardar River

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
highest point: Korab 2,753 m

Natural resources: chromium, lead, zinc, manganese, tungsten, nickel,
low-grade iron ore, asbestos, sulfur, timber

Land use:
arable land: 24%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: 39%
other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 830 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: high seismic risks

Environment-current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western
and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe

@Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of:People

Population: 2,009,387 (July 1998 est.)
note: the Macedonian government census of July 1994 put the population
at 1.94 million, but ethnic allocations were likely undercounted

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24% (male 244,636; female 230,103)
15-64 years: 67% (male 675,783; female 669,878)
65 years and over: 9% (male 85,030; female 103,957) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.68% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 15.71 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.08 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 19.49 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.77 years
male: 70.67 years
female: 75.03 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.06 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Macedonian(s)
adjective: Macedonian

Ethnic groups: Macedonian 65%, Albanian 22%, Turkish 4%, Serb 2%,
Gypsies 3%, other 4%

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 67%, Muslim 30%, other 3%

Languages: Macedonian 70%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian
3%, other 3%

Literacy: NA

@Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
conventional short form: none
local long form: Republika Makedonija
local short form: Makedonija
abbreviation: F.Y.R.O.M.

Data code: MK

Government type: emerging democracy

National capital: Skopje

Administrative divisions: 34 counties (opstinas, singular-opstina)
Berovo, Bitola, Brod, Debar, Delcevo, Gevgelija, Gostivar, Kavadarci,
Kicevo, Kocani, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Murgasevo,
Negotino, Ohrid, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Resen, Skopje-Centar,
Skopje-Cair, Skopje-Karpos, Skopje-Kisela Voda, Skopje-Gazi Baba,
Stip, Struga, Strumica, Sveti Nikole, Tetovo, Titov Veles, Valandovo,
Vinica
note: in September 1996, the Macedonian Parliament passed legislation
changing the territorial division of the country; names of the 123 new
municipalities are not yet available

Independence: 17 September 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: 8 September

Constitution: adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Kiro GLIGOROV (since 27 January 1991)
head of government: Prime Minister Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 4
September 1992)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the
deputies in the Assembly; note-after the withdrawal of the Liberal
Party (LP) from the ruling coalition in early 1996, the Council of
Ministers was reorganized without LP participation
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 16 October 1994 (next to be held NA 1999)
election results: Kiro GLIGOROV elected president; percent of
vote-Kiro GLIGOROV 78.4%

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly or Sobranje (120 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms);
note-Assembly to vote on new election laws in spring 1998
elections: last held 16 and 30 October 1994 (next to be held NA
October/November 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-SDSM 58,
LDP 29, SP 8, PDP 10, DPA 4, independents 7, other 4; note-since
October 1994 elections, some members of the Assembly have changed
their party affiliation; the seating as of January 1997 is as follows:
SDSM 61, LDP 27, SP 6, PDP 11, DPA 7, independents 3, other 5

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, judges are elected by the
Judicial Council; Judicial Court of the Republic, judges are elected
by the Judicial Council

Political parties and leaders: Social-Democratic Alliance of Macedonia
or SDSM (former Communist Party) [Branko CRVENKOVSKI, president];
Party for Democratic Prosperity or PDP [Abdurahman ALITI, president];
Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Stojan ANDOV and Petar GOSEV];
Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubislav IVANOV-ZINGO,
president]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic
Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Ljubcho
GEORGIEVSKI, president]; Democratic Party for Albanians or DPA [Arben
XHAFERI, president]; Democratic Alternative or DA [Vasil Tupur KOVSKI,
president]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Movement for All Macedonian
Action or MAAK; Democratic Party of Serbs; Democratic Party of Turks;
Party for Democratic Action (Slavic Muslim); Party for the Complete
Emancipation of Romas or PCER [Faik ABDI]

International organization participation: CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD,
ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, PFP, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ljubica Z. ACEVSKA
chancery: 3050 K Street, NW, Suite 210, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 337 3063
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher Robert HILL (18 July 1996)
embassy: Bul. Ilindenska bb, 9100 Skopje
mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
telephone: [389] (91) 116-180
FAX: [389] (91) 117-103

Flag description: a rising yellow sun with 8 rays extending to the
edges of the red field

@Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of:Economy

Economy-overview: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, although
the poorest republic in the former Yugoslav federation, can meet basic
food and energy needs through its own agricultural and coal resources.
The economy slowly rebounded in 1996-97 after years of recession.
Continued recovery depends on Macedonia's ability to attract
investment, to redevelop trade ties with Greece and Serbia and
Montenegro, and to maintain its commitment to economic liberalization.
The economy depends on outside sources for all of its oil and gas and
most of its modern machinery and parts. An important supplement of GDP
is the remittances from thousands of Macedonians working in Germany
and other West European nations.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$2 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 1.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$960 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 20.4%
industry: 38.6%
services: 41% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3.5% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 591,773 (June 1994)
by occupation: manufacturing and mining 40% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1997 est.); note-many employed workers are, in
fact, furloughees

Budget:
revenues: $1.06 billion
expenditures: $1 billion, including capital expenditures of $107
million (1996 est.)

Industries: coal, metallic chromium, lead, zinc, ferronickel,
textiles, wood products, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 3.4% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 1.366 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 5.4 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 2,584 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: rice, tobacco, wheat, corn, millet, cotton,
sesame, mulberry leaves, citrus, vegetables; beef, pork, poultry,
mutton

Exports:
total value: $1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: food, beverage, tobacco 17.0%, machinery and transport
equipment 13.3%, other manufactured goods 58%
partners: Bulgaria, other former Yugoslav republics, Germany, Italy

Imports:
total value: $1.6 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery and equipment 19%, chemicals 14%, fuels 12%
partners: other former Yugoslav republics, Germany, Bulgaria, Italy,
Austria

Debt-external: $1.06 billion (June 1997)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: US, $10 million (for humanitarian and technical assistance); in
December 1995, the EU agreed to provide a credit line of ECU 21.7
million for investment projects

Currency: 1 Macedonian denar (MKD) = 100 deni

Exchange rates: denar per US$1-31 (July 1997), 40.5 (September 1996),
38.8 (December 1995), 39 (November 1994), 865 (October 1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 125,000

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 369,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 5 (relays 2)

Televisions: 327,011 (1992 est.)

@Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of:Transportation

Railways:
total: 922 km
standard gauge: 922 km 1.435-m gauge (232 km electrified) (1997)

Highways:
total: 10,591 km
paved: 5,500 km (including 133 km of expressways)
unpaved: 5,091 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: none, lake transport only

Pipelines: 0 km

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 16 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 8 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (1997 est.)

@Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Police
Force

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 536,321 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 432,190 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 16,857 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: 7 billion denars (1993 est.);
note-conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: dispute with Greece over name; in September
1995, Skopje and Athens signed an interim accord resolving their
dispute over symbols and certain constitutional provisions; Athens
also lifted its economic embargo on The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia; 20 bilateral agreements remain unsigned in a dispute over
Bulgarian nonrecognition of Macedonian as a language distinct from
Bulgarian; the border commission formed by The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia and Serbia and Montenegro in April 1996 to
resolve differences in delineation of their mutual border has made no
progress so far; Albanians in Macedonia claim discrimination in
education, access to public-sector jobs and representation in
government; Party for Democratic Action (DPA) calls for a rewrite of
the constitution to declare ethnic Albanians a national group and
allow for regional autonomy

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and
hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine

______________________________________________________________________

MADAGASCAR

@Madagascar:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of
Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 47 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 587,040 sq km
land: 581,540 sq km
water: 5,500 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Arizona

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4,828 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m isobath
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south

Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m

Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz,
tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 41%
forests and woodland: 40%
other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,870 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic cyclones

Environment-current issues: soil erosion results from deforestation
and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw
sewage and other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna
unique to the island are endangered

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Marine
Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change, Law of the Sea

Geography-note: world's fourth-largest island; strategic location
along Mozambique Channel

@Madagascar:People

Population: 14,462,509 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 3,272,236; female 3,196,565)
15-64 years: 52% (male 3,722,459; female 3,792,178)
65 years and over: 3% (male 231,582; female 247,489) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.81% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 41.89 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 13.83 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 90.57 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 52.88 years
male: 51.7 years
female: 54.1 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.76 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)
adjective: Malagasy

Ethnic groups: Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo),
Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab
ancestry-Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French,
Indian, Creole, Comoran

Religions: indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%

Languages: French (official), Malagasy (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 80%
male: 88%
female: 73% (1990 est.)

@Madagascar:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar
conventional short form: Madagascar
local long form: Republique de Madagascar
local short form: Madagascar
former: Malagasy Republic

Data code: MA

Government type: republic

National capital: Antananarivo

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo,
Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliary

Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June (1960)

Constitution: 19 August 1992 by national referendum

Legal system: based on French civil law system and traditional
Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Didier RATSIRAKA (since 10 February 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Pascal RAKOTOMAVO (since 21
February 1997)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 29 December 1996 (next to be held NA 2002); prime
minister appointed by the president from a list of candidates
nominated by the National Assembly
election results: percent of the popular vote for president-Didier
RATSIRAKA (AREMA) 50.7%, Albert ZAFY (UNDD) 49.3%; percent of the
National Assembly vote for prime minister-NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the National
Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (138 seats; members are directly
elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the Senate or
Senat (two-thirds of Senate seats are to be filled from popularly
elected regional assemblies; the remaining third is to be filled by
presidential appointment; members serve four-year terms); note-the
establishment of the Senate has been indefinitely postponed; the total
number of seats in the Senate will be determined by the National
Assembly
elections: National Assembly-last held 16 June 1993 (next to be held
May 1998)
election results: National Assembly-percent of vote by party-NA; seats
by party - CFV coalition 76, PMDM/MFM 16, CSCD 11, Famima 10, RPSD 7,
various pro-Ratsiraka groups 10, others 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme); High Constitutional
Court (Haute Cour Constitutionnelle)

Political parties and leaders: Committee of Living Forces or CFV, an
alliance of National Union for Development and Democracy or UNDD
[Emmanuel RAKOTOVAHINY, president], Support Committee for Democracy
and Development in Madagascar or CSDDM [Francisque RAVONY, president],
Action and Reflection Group for the Development of Madagascar or GRAD,
Congress Party for Madagascar Independence-Renewal or AKFM-Fanavaozana
[Richard ANDRIAMANJATO, president], and some 12 other parties, trade
unions, and religious groups; Association of United Malagasys or
Famima [Didier RATSIRAKA, leader]; Confederation of Civil Societies
for Development or CSCD [Guy Willy RAZANAMASY]; Militant Party for the
Development of Madagascar or PMDM/MFM, formerly the Movement for
Proletarian Power [Manandafy RAKOTONIRINA]; Rally for Social Democracy
or RPSD [Evariste MARSON, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Council of Christian
Churches or FFKM; Federalist Movement

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Biclair Henri
ANDRIANANTOANDRO
chancery: 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-5525, 5526
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Howard T. PERLOW
embassy: 14-16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo
mailing address: B. P. 620, Antananarivo
telephone: [261] (2) 212-57, 200-89, 207-18
FAX: [261] (2) 345-39

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green
with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side

@Madagascar:Economy

Economy-overview: Madagascar suffers from chronic malnutrition,
underfunded health and education facilities, a roughly 3% annual
population growth rate, and severe loss of forest cover, accompanied
by erosion. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is the
mainstay of the economy, accounting for 33% of GDP and contributing
more than 70% to export earnings. Industry features textile
manufacturing and the processing of agricultural products. Growth in
output in 1992-97 averaged less than the growth rate of the
population. Growth has been held back by antigovernment strikes and
demonstrations, a decline in world coffee demand, and the erratic
commitment of the government to economic reform. Formidable obstacles
stand in the way of Madagascar's realizing its considerable growth
potential; the extent of government reforms, outside financial aid,
and foreign investment will be key determinants.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$10.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$730 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 33%
industry: 15%
services: 52% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 19.8% (1996)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $477 million
expenditures: $706 million, including capital expenditures of $264
million (1996 est.)

Industries: meat processing, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar,
textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper,
petroleum, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 3.8% (1993 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 220,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 595 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 43 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice,
cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products

Exports:
total value: $493 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: coffee 45%, vanilla 20%, cloves, shellfish, sugar,
petroleum products (1995 est.)
partners: France 41%, US, Japan, Italy (1995)

Imports:
total value: $612 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: intermediate manufactures 30%, capital goods 28%,
petroleum 15%, consumer goods 14%, food 13% (1995 est.)
partners: France 40%, Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, US (1995)

Debt-external: $4.4 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $454 million (1992-96)

Currency: 1 Malagasy franc (FMG) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Malagasy francs (FMG) per US$1-5,302.9 (December
1997), 5,090.9 (1997), 4,061.3 (1996), 4,265.6 (1995), 3,067.3 (1994),
1,913.8 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 96,000 (1988 est.)

Telephone system: system is above average for Africa
domestic: open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay, and
tropospheric scatter links
international: submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite earth stations-1
Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 2.565 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (repeaters 36)

Televisions: 260,000 (1992 est.)

@Madagascar:Transportation

Railways:
total : 883 km
narrow gauge: 883 km 1.000-m gauge (1994)

Highways:
total: 49,837 km
paved: 5,781 km
unpaved: 44,056 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: of local importance only; isolated streams and small
portions of Canal des Pangalanes

Ports and harbors: Antsiranana, Antsohimbondrona, Mahajanga,
Toamasina, Toliara

Merchant marine:
total: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,624 GRT/28,621 DWT
ships by type: cargo 4, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil
tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 (1997 est.)

Airports: 136 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 30
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 106
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 60
under 914 m: 42 (1997 est.)

@Madagascar:Military

Military branches: Popular Armed Forces (includes Intervention Forces,
Development Forces, Aeronaval Forces-includes Navy and Air Force),
Gendarmerie, Presidential Security Regiment

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 3,308,300 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,964,545 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 140,429 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $29 million (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1% (1994)

@Madagascar:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island,
Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island (all
administered by France)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild
varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point
for heroin

______________________________________________________________________

MALAWI

@Malawi:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, east of Zambia

Geographic coordinates: 13 30 S, 34 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 118,480 sq km
land: 94,080 sq km
water: 24,400 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
total: 2,881 km
border countries: Mozambique 1,569 km, Tanzania 475 km, Zambia 837 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to
November)

Terrain: narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills,
some mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: junction of the Shire River and international boundary
with Mozambique 37 m
highest point: Mount Mlanje Sapitwa 3,002 m

Natural resources: limestone, unexploited deposits of uranium, coal,
and bauxite

Land use:
arable land: 18%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland: 39%
other: 23% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 280 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: deforestation; land degradation; water
pollution from agricultural runoff, sewage, industrial wastes;
siltation of spawning grounds endangers fish populations

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography-note: landlocked

@Malawi:People

Population: 9,840,474 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (male 2,249,108; female 2,228,934)
15-64 years: 52% (male 2,512,768; female 2,584,516)
65 years and over: 2% (male 111,089; female 154,059) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.66% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 40.22 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 23.68 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 133.77 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 36.59 years
male: 36.64 years
female: 36.54 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.62 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Malawian(s)
adjective: Malawian

Ethnic groups: Chewa, Nyanja, Tumbuko, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga, Ngoni,
Ngonde, Asian, European

Religions: Protestant 55%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 20%, traditional
indigenous beliefs

Languages: English (official), Chichewa (official), other languages
important regionally

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 56.4%
male: 71.9%
female: 41.8% (1995 est.)

@Malawi:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Malawi
conventional short form: Malawi
former: Nyasaland

Data code: MI

Government type: multiparty democracy

National capital: Lilongwe

Administrative divisions: 24 districts; Blantyre, Chikwawa,
Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga, Kasungu, Lilongwe, Machinga
(Kasupe), Mangochi, Mchinji, Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Ntcheu, Nkhata
Bay, Nkhotakota, Nsanje, Ntchisi, Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba

Independence: 6 July 1964 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day 6 July (1964); Republic Day 6 July
(1966)

Constitution: 18 May 1995

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; judicial
review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Bakili MULUZI (since 21 May 1994); note-the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Bakili MULUZI (since 21 May 1994);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet named by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 17 May 1994 (next to be held by May 1999)
election results: Bakili MULUZI elected president; percent of vote-NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (177 seats; members
are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 17 May 1994 (next to be held by May 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-UDF 84,
AFORD 33, MCP 55, others 5; note-because of defections and
byelections, the seats in the National Assembly were held at the end
of the year as follows: UDF 84, MCP 47, AFORD 34, independents 8, and
vacant 4
note: the constitution of 18 May 1995, in addition to reducing the age
at which universal suffrage is conferred from 21 to 18 years, provided
for a bicameral legislature; by 1999, in addition to the existing
National Assembly, a Senate of 80 seats is to be elected

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Appeal; High Court (chief justice
appointed by the president, puisne judges appointed on the advice of
the Judicial Service Commission); magistrate's courts

Political parties and leaders:
ruling party: United Democratic Front or UDF [Bakili MULUZI]
opposition groups: Alliance for Democracy or AFORD [Chakufwa CHIHANA];
Congress for the Second Republic or CSR [Kanyama CHIUME]; Malawi
Congress Party or MCP [Gwanda CHAKUAMBA, president/John TEMBO, vice
president]; Malawi Democratic Party or MDP [Kampelo KALUA, president];
People Democratic Party or PDP [Rolf PATEL]; Social Democratic Party
or SDP [Eston KAKHOME, president]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, SADC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Willie CHOKANI
chancery: 2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 797-1007

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Amelia Ellen SHIPPY
embassy: address NA, in new capital city development area in Lilongwe
mailing address: P. O. Box 30016, Lilongwe 3, Malawi
telephone: [265] 783 166
FAX: [265] 780 471

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red,
and green with a radiant, rising, red sun centered in the black band

@Malawi:Economy

Economy-overview: Landlocked Malawi ranks among the world's least
developed countries. The economy is predominately agricultural, with
about 90% of the population living in rural areas. Agriculture
accounts for 45% of GDP and 90% of export revenues. The economy
depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF,
the World Bank, and individual donor nations. The new government faces
strong challenges, e.g., to spur exports, to improve educational and
health facilities, and to deal with environmental problems of
deforestation and erosion.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$8.6 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$900 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 45%
industry: 30%
services: 25% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 83.4% (1995)

Labor force:
total: 3.5 million
by occupation: agriculture 86%, wage earners 14% (1990 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $530 million
expenditures: $674 million, including capital expenditures of $129
million (1993)

Industries: tea, tobacco, sugar, sawmill products, cement, consumer
goods

Industrial production growth rate: 0.9% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 185,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 800 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 82 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, tea, corn, potatoes,
cassava (tapioca), sorghum, pulses; cattle, goats

Exports:
total value: $405 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: tobacco, tea, sugar, coffee, peanuts, wood products
partners: US, South Africa, Germany, Japan

Imports:
total value: $475 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: food, petroleum products, semimanufactures, consumer
goods, transportation equipment
partners: South Africa, Zimbabwe, Japan, US, UK, Germany

Debt-external: $2.3 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: donor pledges, $332 million (1996)

Currency: 1 Malawian kwacha (MK) = 100 tambala

Exchange rates: Malawian kwacha (MK) per US$1-17.5300 (October 1997),
15.3085 (1996), 15.2837 (1995), 8.7364 (1994), 4.4028 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 43,000 (1985 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: fair system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links,
and radiotelephone communications stations
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and
1 Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 0

Radios: 1.011 million (1995)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1987 est.)

Televisions: NA

@Malawi:Transportation

Railways:
total: 789 km
narrow gauge: 789 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total: 28,400 km
paved: 5,254 km
unpaved: 23,146 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi); Shire River, 144 km

Ports and harbors: Chipoka, Monkey Bay, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota

Airports: 45 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 39
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 24 (1997 est.)

@Malawi:Military

Military branches: Army (includes Air Wing and Naval Detachment),
Police (includes paramilitary Mobile Force Unit)

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49 : 2,248,023 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,151,594 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $10.4 million (FY94/95)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Malawi:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in
Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi)

______________________________________________________________________

MALAYSIA

@Malaysia:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, peninsula and northern one-third of the
island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia and the South China Sea, south
of Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 2 30 N, 112 30 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 329,750 sq km
land: 328,550 sq km
water: 1,200 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 2,669 km
border countries: Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782 km, Thailand 506 km

Coastline: 4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607
km)

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation;
specified boundary in the South China Sea
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast
(October to February) monsoons

Terrain: coastal plains rising to hills and mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Kinabalu 4,100 m

Natural resources: tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural
gas, bauxite

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 12%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 68%
other: 17% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,400 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding, landslides

Environment-current issues: air pollution from industrial and
vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation;
smoke/haze from Indonesian forest fires

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
Timber 94, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: strategic location along Strait of Malacca and
southern South China Sea

@Malaysia:People

Population: 20,932,901 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (male 3,832,040; female 3,635,136)
15-64 years: 60% (male 6,314,693; female 6,324,389)
65 years and over: 4% (male 359,006; female 467,637) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.11% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 26.5 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.36 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 22.45 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.36 years
male: 67.35 years
female: 73.56 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.37 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Malaysian(s)
adjective: Malaysian

Ethnic groups: Malay and other indigenous 58%, Chinese 26%, Indian 7%,
others 9%

Religions: Peninsular Malaysia-Muslim (Malays), Buddhist (Chinese),
Hindu (Indians); Sabah-Muslim 38%, Christian 17%, other 45%;
Sarawak-tribal religion 35%, Buddhist and Confucianist 24%, Muslim
20%, Christian 16%, other 5%

Languages: Peninsular Malaysia-Malay (official), English, Chinese
dialects, Tamil; Sabah-English, Malay, numerous tribal dialects,
Chinese (Mandarin and Hakka dialects predominate); Sarawak-English,
Malay, Mandarin, numerous tribal languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.5%
male: 89.1%
female: 78.1% (1995 est.)

@Malaysia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Malaysia
former: Malayan Union

Data code: MY

Government type: constitutional monarchy
note: Federation of Malaysia formed 9 July 1963; nominally headed by
the paramount ruler (king) and a bicameral Parliament; Peninsular
Malaysian states-hereditary rulers in all but Melaka and Penang, where
governors are appointed by Malaysian Government; powers of state
governments are limited by the federal constitution;
Sabah-self-governing state, holds 20 seats in House of
Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and
other powers delegated to federal government; Sarawak-self-governing
state, holds 27 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign
affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to
federal government

National capital: Kuala Lumpur

Administrative divisions: 13 states (negeri-negeri, singular-negeri)
and 2 federal territories* (wilayah-wilayah persekutuan,
singular-wilayah persekutuan); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Labuan*,
Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah,
Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu, Wilayah Persekutuan*
note: the city of Kuala Lumpur is located within the federal territory
of Wilayah Persekutuan; the terms therefore are not interchangeable

Independence: 31 August 1957 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 31 August (1957)

Constitution: 31 August 1957, amended 16 September 1963

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of
the federation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Paramount Ruler TUANKU JA'AFAR ibni Al-Marhum Tuanku
Abdul Rahman (since 26 April 1994) and Deputy Paramount Ruler Sultan
TUNKU SALAHUDDIN Abdul Aziz Shah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Hisammuddin
Alam Shah (since 26 April 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Dr. MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (since 16
July 1981); Deputy Prime Minister ANWAR bin Ibrahim (since 1 December
1993)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the
members of Parliament with consent of the paramount ruler
elections: paramount ruler and deputy paramount ruler elected by and
from the hereditary rulers of nine of the states for five-year terms;
election last held 4 February 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); prime
minister designated from among the members of the House of
Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader of the
party that wins a plurality of seats in the House of Representatives
becomes prime minister
election results: TUANKU JA'AFAR ibni Al-Marhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman
elected paramount ruler; Sultan TUNKU SALAHUDDIN Abdul Aziz Shah ibni
Al-Marhum Sultan Hisammuddin Alam Shah elected deputy paramount ruler

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlimen consists of the
Senate or Dewan Negara (69 seats; 43 appointed by the paramount ruler,
26 elected by the state legislatures; elected members serve six-year
terms) and the House of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat (192 seats;
members elected by popular vote directly weighted toward the rural
Malay population to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate-last held NA April 1995 (next to be held by 2000);
House of Representatives-last held 24-25 April 1995 (next to be held
by 2000)
election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-NA; House of Representatives-percent of vote by party-National
Front 63%, other 37%; seats by party-National Front 162, DAP 9, PBS 8,
PAS 7, Spirit of '46 6

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the paramount
ruler

Political parties and leaders:
Peninsular Malaysia: National Front, a confederation of 13 political
parties dominated by United Malays National Organization Baru (UMNO
Baru), MAHATHIR bin Mohamad; Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), LING
Liong Sik; Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia, LIM Keng Yaik; Malaysian Indian
Congress (MIC), S. Samy VELLU; major opposition parties are Parti
Islam SeMalaysia (PAS), Ustaz Fadzil Mohamed NOOR and the Democratic
Action Party (DAP), LIM Kit Siang
Sabah: National Front, dominated by the UMNO; Sabah Progressive Party
(SAPP), Datuk YONG Teck Lee; Parti Democratic Sabah (PDS), Bernard
DOMPOK; Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah (PBRS), Datuk Joseph KURUP
Sarawak: National Front, composed of the Party Pesaka Bumiputra
Bersatu (PBB), Datuk Patinggi Haji Abdul TAIB Mahmud; Sarawak United
People's Party (SUPP), Datuk Amar Stephen YONG Kuat Tze; Sarawak
National Party (SNAP), Datuk Amar James WONG; Parti Bansa Dayak
Sarawak (PBDS), Datuk Leo MOGGIE; major opposition party is Democratic
Action Party (DAP), LIM Kit Siang
note: subsequent to the election, the following parties were
dissolved-Spirit of '46 (Semangat '46), Tengku Tan Sri RAZALEIGH,
president, and Sabah United Party (Parti Bersatu Sabah, PBS), Datuk
Seri Joseph PAIRIN Kitingan

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, C, CCC,
CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUA, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNOMIL, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador DALI Mahmud Hashim
chancery: 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 328-2700
FAX: [1] (202) 483-7661
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John R. MALOTT
embassy: 376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur
mailing address: P. O. Box No. 10035, 50700 Kuala Lumpur or American
Embassy Kuala Lumpur, APO AP 96535-8152
telephone: [60] (3) 248-9011
FAX: [60] (3) 242-2207

Flag description: 14 equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating
with white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side
corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow fourteen-pointed star;
the crescent and the star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design
was based on the flag of the US

@Malaysia:Economy

Economy-overview: After decades of high GDP growth, Malaysia's
economy-shaken by the ongoing regional financial crisis in 1997/98-is
forecast by the government to grow only 4%-5% in 1998; private
forecasts project the growth rate could be as low as 2%. The sharp
decline in local currency and stock markets forced Kuala Lumpur to
announce tough cost-cutting measures-on top of a contractionary
budget-to further reduce the current account deficit to 3% of GDP in
1998 from 5.5% in 1997. To achieve this goal, Kuala Lumpur will cut
government spending by 20% and continue to slash big-ticket imports
and defer large-scale infrastructure projects. Government austerity
and slower growth mean increased unemployment and higher interest
rates that will bite into corporate earnings.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$227 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 7.4% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$11,100 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 14%
industry: 45%
services: 41% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 36% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 8.398 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: manufacturing 25%, agriculture, forestry, and fisheries
21%, local trade and tourism 17%, services 12%, government 11%,
construction 8% (1996)

Unemployment rate: 2.6% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $22.6 billion
expenditures: $22 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.3
billion (1996 est.)

Industries: Peninsular Malaysia-rubber and oil palm processing and
manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining
and smelting, logging and processing timber; Sabah-logging, petroleum
production; Sarawak-agriculture processing, petroleum production and
refining, logging

Industrial production growth rate: 14.4% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 7.83 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 42 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 2,132 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: Peninsular Malaysia-natural rubber, palm oil,
rice; Sabah-subsistence crops, rubber, timber, coconut, rice;
Sarawak-rubber, pepper; timber

Exports:
total value: $78.2 billion (1996)
commodities: electronic equipment, petroleum and petroleum products,
palm oil, wood and wood products, rubber, textiles
partners: US 21%, Singapore 20%, Japan 12%, Hong Kong 5%, UK 4%,
Thailand 4%, Germany 3% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $78.4 billion (1996)
commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, food
partners: Japan 27%, US 16%, Singapore 12%, Taiwan 5%, Germany 4%,
South Korea 4% (1995)

Debt-external: $27.5 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $45 million (1993)

Currency: 1 ringgit (M$) = 100 sen

Exchange rates: ringgits (M$) per US$1-4.3985 (January 1998), 2.8133
(1997), 2.5159 (1996), 2.5044 (1995), 2.6243 (1994), 2.5741 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 2,550,957 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: international service good
domestic: good intercity service provided on Peninsular Malaysia
mainly by microwave radio relay; adequate intercity microwave radio
relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; domestic satellite
system with 2 earth stations
international: submarine cables to India, Hong Kong and Singapore;
satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific
Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 28, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 8.08 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 33

Televisions: 2 million (1993 est.)

@Malaysia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,648 km
narrow gauge: 1,648 km 1.000-m gauge (148 km electrified)

Highways:
total: 94,500 km
paved: 70,970 km (including 580 km of expressways)
unpaved: 23,530 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 7,296 km (Peninsular Malaysia 3,209 km, Sabah 1,569 km,
Sarawak 2,518 km)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,307 km; natural gas 379 km

Ports and harbors: Bintulu, Kota Kinabalu, Kuantan, Kuching, Kudat,
Labuan, Lahad Datu, Lumut, Miri, Pasir Gudang, Penang, Port Dickson,
Port Kelang, Sandakan, Sibu, Tanjong Berhala, Tanjong Kidurong, Tawau

Merchant marine:
total: 359 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,586,576 GRT/6,747,771
DWT
ships by type: bulk 57, cargo 132, chemical tanker 23, container 48,
liquefied gas tanker 17, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 63,
refrigerated cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 5, short-sea passenger 1,
specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 8 (1997 est.)

Airports: 114 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 33
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 7 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 81
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 72 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Malaysia:Military

Military branches: Malaysian Army, Royal Malaysian Navy, Royal
Malaysian Air Force, Royal Malaysian Police Force, Marine Police,
Sarawak Border Scouts

Military manpower-military age: 21 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 5,402,322 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 3,274,265 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 184,232 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $2.5 billion (1997)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.6% (1997)

@Malaysia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly
Islands with China, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei;
Sabah State claimed by the Philippines; Brunei may wish to purchase
the Malaysian salient that divides Brunei into two parts; two islands
in dispute with Singapore; two islands in dispute with Indonesia

Illicit drugs: transit point for Golden Triangle heroin going to
Western markets despite severe penalties for drug trafficking

______________________________________________________________________

MALDIVES

@Maldives:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, group of atolls in the Indian Ocean,
south-southwest of India

Geographic coordinates: 3 15 N, 73 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 300 sq km
land: 300 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 1.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 644 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 35-310 nm as defined by geographic
coordinates; segment of zone coincides with maritime boundary with
India
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to
March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)

Terrain: flat, with white sandy beaches

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Wilingili 24 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 3%
forests and woodland: 3%
other: 84% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: low level of islands makes them very sensitive to sea
level rise

Environment-current issues: depletion of freshwater aquifers threatens
water supplies

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer
Protection
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the
Sea

Geography-note: 1,190 coral islands grouped into 26 atolls;
archipelago of strategic location astride and along major sea lanes in
Indian Ocean

@Maldives:People

Population: 290,211 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 47% (male 70,244; female 66,758)
15-64 years: 50% (male 73,784; female 70,539)
65 years and over: 3% (male 4,735; female 4,151) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.42% (1998 est.)

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