Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Books, poems, drama…

The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Part 25 out of 51

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 5.2 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (constitutional amendment, July
1997)

Executive branch:
chief of state: King LETSIE III (since 7 February 1996, succeeded to
the throne following the death of his father, King MOSHOESHOE II, on
16 January 1996); note-King LETSIE III formerly occupied the throne
(November 1990 to February 1995) while his father was in exile
head of government: Prime Minister Ntsu MOKHEHLE (since 2 April 1993)
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: none; the king is a hereditary monarch, but, under the
terms of the constitution which came into effect after the March 1993
election, he has no executive or legislative powers; moreover, under
traditional law the king can be elected or deposed by a majority vote
of the College of Chiefs; following legislative elections, the leader
of the party that wins the most seats usually becomes prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (33
members-22 principal chiefs and 11 other members appointed by the
ruling party) and the Assembly (65 seats; members elected for a
five-year term by popular vote)
elections: last held 27 March 1993 (next to be held in May 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-BCP 65
note: due to a schism in the BCP, Prime Minister Ntsu MOKHEHLE formed
the new Lesotho Congress for Democracy or LCD in June 1997, taking 42
seats away from the BCP, reducing it to 23 seats and the role of an
opposition party

Judicial branch: High Court, Chief Justice appointed by the king;
Court of Appeal; Magistrate's Court; customary or traditional court

Political parties and leaders:
ruling party: Lesotho Congress for Democracy or LCD [Dr. Ntsu
MOKHEHLE, leader; Shakhane MOKHEHLE, secretary general]
opposition party: Basotho National Party or BNP [Evaristus
SEKHONYANA]; Basotholand Congress Party or BCP [Molapo QHOBELA]; Ha
Reeng ('Let's Go') Basotho Party or HBP [Khauta KHASU]; Lesotho Labor
Party or LLP [Mamolefi RANTHIMO]; Marematlou Freedom Party or MFP
[Vincent MALEBO]; National Progressive Party or NPP [Chief Peete
Nkoebe PEETE, leader]; Sefate Democratic Union or SDU [Bofihla
NKUEBE]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Charles MOFELI]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFCTU, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, SACU,
SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Eunice M. BULANE
chancery: 2511 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 797-5533 through 5536
FAX: [1] (202) 234-6815

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Bismarck MYRICK
embassy: 254 Kingsway, Maseru West (Consular Section)
mailing address: P. O. Box 333, Maseru 100, Lesotho
telephone: [266] 312666
FAX: [266] 310116

Flag description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner;
the upper half is white, bearing the brown silhouette of a large
shield with crossed spear and club; the lower half is a diagonal blue
band with a green triangle in the corner

@Lesotho:Economy

Economy-overview: Small, landlocked, and mountainous, Lesotho has no
important natural resources other than water. Its economy is based on
agriculture, light manufacturing, and remittances from miners employed
in South Africa. The number of such mine workers has declined steadily
over the past five years; in 1996 their remittances added about 33% to
GDP compared with the addition of roughly 67% in 1990. Manufacturing
depends largely on farm products which support the milling, canning,
leather, and jute industries. Recent foreign investments will enable
Lesotho to export garments made from imported textiles. Although
drought has decreased agricultural activity over the past few years,
completion of a major hydropower facility in January 1998 now permits
the sale of water to South Africa and will support the economy's
continued expansion. The pace of the privatization of state-owned
firms increased toward the end of 1994.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$5.1 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 9% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,500 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 10%
industry: 53%
services: 37% (1997)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 8.7% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 689,000 economically active
by occupation: 86% of resident population engaged in subsistence
agriculture; roughly 35% of the active male wage earners work in South
Africa

Unemployment rate: substantial unemployment and underemployment
effecting more than half of the labor force (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $507 million
expenditures: $487 million, including capital expenditures of $170
million (FY96/97 est.)

Industries: food, beverages, textiles, handicrafts; construction;
tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 19.7% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 0 kW (1995)
note: electricity supplied by South Africa

Electricity-production: 0 kWh (1995)
note: electricity supplied by South Africa

Electricity-consumption per capita: 163 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: corn, wheat, pulses, sorghum, barley; livestock

Exports:
total value: $218 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: clothing, wool, footwear, road vehicles, mohair (1995)
partners: South African Customs Union 52%, North America 38%, EU 9%
(1995)

Imports:
total value: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: corn, clothing, building materials, vehicles, machinery,
medicines, petroleum products (1993)
partners: South African Customs Union 90%, Asia 6%, EU 2% (1995)

Debt-external: $517 million (FY95/96 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 loti (L) = 100 lisente
note: maloti (M) is the plural form of loti

Exchange rates: maloti (M) per US$1-4.94193 (January 1998), 4.60796
(1997), 4.29935 (1996), 3.62709 (1995), 3.55080 (1994), 3.26774
(1993); note-the Basotho loti is at par with the South African rand

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 12,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: rudimentary system
domestic: consists of a few landlines, a small microwave radio relay
system, and a minor radiotelephone communication system
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 66,000

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 11,000 (1992 est.)

@Lesotho:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2.6 km; note-owned by, operated by, and included in the
statistics of South Africa
narrow gauge: 2.6 km 1.067-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 4,955 km
paved: 887 km
unpaved: 4,068 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 29 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 26
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 22 (1997 est.)

@Lesotho:Military

Military branches: Lesotho Defense Force (LDF; includes Army and Air
Wing), Royal Lesotho Mounted Police (RLMP)

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 490,128 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 264,255 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Lesotho:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

LIBERIA

Introduction

Current issues: The Abuja Peace Accords ended seven years of civil
warfare in Liberia. More than 20,000 of the estimated 33,000 factional
fighters gave up their arms to the Cease-Fire Monitoring Group of the
Economic Community of West African States (ECOMOG). Free and open
presidential and legislative elections were held 19 July 1997; former
faction leader, Charles TAYLOR, and his National Patriotic Party won
overwhelming victories. The years of civil strife coupled with the
flight of most business people disrupted formal economic activity, but
with peace restored and a popularly-elected government installed, the
difficult task of rebuilding the social and economic structure of this
war-torn country can proceed.

@Liberia:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Cote d'Ivoire and Sierra Leone

Geographic coordinates: 6 30 N, 9 30 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 111,370 sq km
land: 96,320 sq km
water: 15,050 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries:
total: 1,585 km
border countries: Guinea 563 km, Cote d'Ivoire 716 km, Sierra Leone
306 km

Coastline: 579 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; dry winters with hot days and cool to
cold nights; wet, cloudy summers with frequent heavy showers

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling coastal plains rising to rolling
plateau and low mountains in northeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Wuteve 1,380 m

Natural resources: iron ore, timber, diamonds, gold

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 59%
forests and woodland: 18%
other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dust-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara
(December to March)

Environment-current issues: tropical rain forest subject to
deforestation; soil erosion; loss of biodiversity; pollution of rivers
from the dumping of iron ore tailings and of coastal waters from oil
residue and raw sewage

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Desertification, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber
94
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental
Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation

@Liberia:People

Population: 2,771,901 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 622,797; female 616,902)
15-64 years: 52% (male 734,425; female 700,124)
65 years and over: 3% (male 47,099; female 50,554) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 5.76% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 41.88 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 11.28 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 27.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)
note: until domestic peace is restored, many Liberian refugees will
not return from exile

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 103.13 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 59.45 years
male: 56.81 years
female: 62.16 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.09 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Liberian(s)
adjective: Liberian

Ethnic groups: indigenous African tribes 95% (including Kpelle, Bassa,
Gio, Kru, Grebo, Mano, Krahn, Gola, Gbandi, Loma, Kissi, Vai, and
Bella), Americo-Liberians 2.5% (descendants of immigrants from the US
who had been slaves)

Religions: traditional 70%, Muslim 20%, Christian 10%

Languages: English 20% (official), about 20 tribal languages, of which
a few can be written and are used in correspondence

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 38.3%
male: 53.9%
female: 22.4% (1995 est.)

@Liberia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Liberia
conventional short form: Liberia

Data code: LI

Government type: republic

National capital: Monrovia

Administrative divisions: 13 counties; Bomi, Bong, Grand Bassa, Grand
Cape Mount, Grand Gedeh, Grand Kru, Lofa, Margibi, Maryland,
Montserrado, Nimba, River Cess, Sinoe

Independence: 26 July 1847

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 July (1847)

Constitution: 6 January 1986

Legal system: dual system of statutory law based on Anglo-American
common law for the modern sector and customary law based on unwritten
tribal practices for indigenous sector

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Charles Ghankay TAYLOR (since 2 August
1997); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
head of government: President Charles Ghankay TAYLOR (since 2 August
1997); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: the president is elected by universal adult suffrage for a
four-year term (renewable); election last held 19 July 1997 (next to
be held NA July 2003)
election results: Charles Ghankay TAYLOR elected president; percent of
vote-Charles Ghankay TAYLOR (NPP) 75.3%, Ellen Johnson SIRLEAF (UP)
9.6%, Alhaji KROMAH (ALCOP) 4%, other 11.1%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate
(26 seats; members serve NA-year terms) and the House of
Representatives (64 seats; members serve NA-year terms)
elections: Senate-last held 19 July 1997 (next to be held in NA 2003);
House of Representatives-last held 19 July 1997 (next to be held in NA
2003)
election results: Senate: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-NPP 21, UP 3, ALCOP 2; House of Representatives: percent of vote
by party-NA; seats by party-NPP 49, UP 7, ALCOP 3, Alliance of
Political Parties 2, UPP 2, LPP 1; note-the Alliance of Political
Parties was a coalition of Liberian Action Party and Liberian
Unification Party

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:
ruling party: National Patriotic Party or NPP [Charles Ghankay TAYLOR,
leader]
opposition party: All Liberia Coalition Party or ALCOP [Alhaji KROMAH,
chairman]; Free Democratic Party or FDP [Fayah GBOLLIE, chairman];
Liberian Action Party or LAP [Cletis WOTORSON]; Liberian National
Union or LINU [Harry MONIBA, chairman]; Liberian Peoples Party or LPP
[Togba-Nah TIPOTEH, chairman]; Liberian Unification Party or LUP
[Laveli SUPUWOOD]; National Democratic Party of Liberia or NDPL [Dr.
George E. Saigbe BOLEY, chairman]; National Reformation Party or NRP
[Martin SHERIF, chairman]; People's Democratic Party of Liberia or
PDPL [George Toe WASHINGTON, chairman]; People's Progressive Party or
PPP [Chea CHEAPOO, chairman]; Reformation Alliance Party or RAP [Henry
Boimah FAHNBULLEH, chairman]; True Whig Party or TWP [Rudolph SHERMAN,
chairman]; Unity Party or UP [Ellen JOHNSON-SIRLEAF, chairman]; United
People's Party or UPP [Gabriel Baccus MATTHEWS, chairman]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS,
FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM,
ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador designate Rachel DIGGS; Charge d'Affaires
ad interim Konah K. BLACKETT
chancery: 5201 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 723-0437
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chief of Mission William MILAM
embassy: 111 United Nations Drive, Monrovia
mailing address: P. O. Box 100098, Mamba Point, Monrovia
telephone: [231] 226-370
FAX: [231] 226-148

Flag description: 11 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom)
alternating with white; there is a white five-pointed star on a blue
square in the upper hoist-side corner; the design was based on the US
flag

@Liberia:Economy

Economy-overview: Civil war since 1990 has destroyed much of Liberia's
economy, especially the infrastructure in and around Monrovia. Many
businessmen have fled the country, taking capital and expertise with
them. Some returned during 1997. Many will not return. Richly endowed
with water, mineral resources, forests, and a climate favorable to
agriculture, Liberia had been a producer and exporter of basic
products, while local manufacturing, mainly foreign owned, had been
small in scope. The democratically elected government, installed in
August 1997, inherited massive international debts and currently
relies on revenues from its maritime registry to provide the bulk of
its foreign exchange earnings. The restoration of the infrastructure
and the raising of incomes in this ravaged economy depends on
continued disarmament of factions and the implementation of sound
macro- and micro-economic policies of the new government.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$2.6 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 30%
industry: 36%
services: 34%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
by occupation: agriculture 70%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA

Industries: rubber processing, food processing, construction
materials, furniture, palm oil processing, iron ore, diamonds

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 332,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 472 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 154 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: rubber, coffee, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca),
palm oil, sugarcane, bananas; sheep, goats; timber

Exports:
total value: $667 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: diamonds, iron ore, rubber, timber, coffee
partners: US, EU, Netherlands, Singapore

Imports:
total value: $5.8 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: mineral fuels, chemicals, machinery, transportation
equipment, manufactured goods; rice and other foodstuffs
partners: US, EU, Japan, China, Netherlands, ECOWAS, South Korea

Debt-external: $2 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Liberian dollar (L$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Liberian dollars (L$) per US$1-1.0000 (officially
fixed rate since 1940); market exchange rate: Liberian dollars (L$)
per US$1-50 (October 1995), 7 (January 1992); market rate floats
against the US dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: less than 25,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: telephone and telegraph service via microwave radio
relay network; main center is Monrovia
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 622,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1998)

Televisions: 51,000 (1992 est.)

@Liberia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 490 km (single track); note-three rail systems owned and
operated by foreign steel and financial interests in conjunction with
Liberian Government; one of these, the Lamco Railroad, closed in 1989
after iron ore production ceased; the other two were shut down by the
civil war
standard gauge: 345 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 145 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total: 10,600 km
paved: 657 km
unpaved: 9,943 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Buchanan, Greenville, Harper, Monrovia

Merchant marine:
total: 1,620 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 59,521,524
GRT/97,187,450 DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 4, bulk 413, cargo 117, chemical tanker
143, combination bulk 28, combination ore/oil 54, container 168,
liquefied gas tanker 89, multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil
tanker 424, passenger 35, refrigerated cargo 67, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 21, short-sea passenger 4, specialized tanker 11, vehicle
carrier 41
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 54 countries
among which are Germany 198, US 181, Norway 153, Greece 148, Japan
137, Hong Kong 109, China 58, UK 48, Singapore 43, and Monaco 41 (1997
est.)

Airports: 46 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 44
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 35 (1997 est.)

@Liberia:Military

Military branches:
note: The new government of Liberia has developed a plan for the armed
forces: total strength 5,000, of which Army 3,400, Navy 1,100, Air
Force 500; note - the Navy is to have several small coastal patrol
vessels and the Air Force is to comprise two air wings

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 631,546 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 337,744 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $14 million (1993)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.9% (1993)

@Liberia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: increasingly a transshipment point for Southeast and
Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine for the European and
US markets

______________________________________________________________________

LIBYA

@Libya:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Egypt and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates: 25 00 N, 17 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1,759,540 sq km
land: 1,759,540 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries:
total: 4,383 km
border countries: Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt 1,150 km, Niger
354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km

Coastline: 1,770 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
note: Gulf of Sidra closing line-32 degrees 30 minutes north

Climate: Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior

Terrain: mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus,
depressions

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m
highest point: Bikku Bitti 2,267 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, gypsum

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 8%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 91% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,700 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind
lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms

Environment-current issues: desertification; very limited natural
fresh water resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest
water development scheme in the world, is being built to bring water
from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Desertification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea

@Libya:People

Population: 5,690,727 (July 1998 est.)
note: includes 144,363 non-nationals (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (male 1,399,354; female 1,351,442)
15-64 years: 49% (male 1,412,067; female 1,361,372)
65 years and over: 3% (male 81,711; female 84,781) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.68% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 43.95 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.15 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 55.81 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 65.44 years
male: 63.21 years
female: 67.78 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.18 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Libyan(s)
adjective: Libyan

Ethnic groups: Berber and Arab 97%, Greeks, Maltese, Italians,
Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, Tunisians

Religions: Sunni Muslim 97%

Languages: Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the
major cities

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 76.2%
male: 87.9%
female: 63% (1995 est.)

@Libya:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
conventional short form: Libya
local long form: Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al
Ishtirakiyah
local short form: none

Data code: LY

Government type: Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory,
governed by the populace through local councils; in fact, a military
dictatorship

National capital: Tripoli

Administrative divisions: 25 municipalities (baladiyah,
singular-baladiyat); Ajdabiya, Al 'Aziziyah, Al Fatih, Al Jabal al
Akhdar, Al Jufrah, Al Khums, Al Kufrah, An Nuqat al Khams, Ash Shati',
Awbari, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan, Misratah,
Murzuq, Sabha, Sawfajjin, Surt, Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq, Yafran,
Zlitan
note: the 25 municipalities may have been replaced by 1,500 communes
in 1992

Independence: 24 December 1951 (from Italy)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)

Constitution: 11 December 1969, amended 2 March 1977

Legal system: based on Italian civil law system and Islamic law;
separate religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial
review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar
al-QADHAFI (since 1 September 1969); note-holds no official title, but
is de facto chief of state
head of government: Secretary of the General People's Committee
(Premier) Muhammad Ahmad al-MANQUSH (since NA January 1998)
cabinet: General People's Committee established by the General
People's Congress
elections: national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of
peoples' committees; head of government elected by the General
People's Congress; election last held NA (next to be held NA)
election results: Muhammad Ahmad al-MANQUSH elected head of
government; percent of General People's Congress vote-NA

Legislative branch: unicameral General People's Congress (NA seats;
members elected indirectly through a hierarchy of peoples' committees)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: various Arab nationalist
movements with almost negligible memberships may be functioning
clandestinely, as well as some Islamic elements

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF,
AMU, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU,
NAM, OAPEC, OAU, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Libya does not have an embassy in
the US

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US suspended all embassy
activities in Tripoli on 2 May 1980

Flag description: plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam
(the state religion)

@Libya:Economy

Economy-overview: The socialist-oriented economy depends primarily
upon revenues from the oil sector, which contributes practically all
export earnings and about one-third of GDP. Per capita GDP is the
highest in Africa at $6,700, but disproportionately little of national
income flows down to the lower orders of society. GDP growth
fluctuates sharply in response to changes in the world oil market; GDP
has either contracted or grown very sluggishly since 1992. Import
restrictions and inefficient resource allocations have led to periodic
shortages of basic goods and foodstuffs. The nonoil manufacturing and
construction sectors, which account for about 20% of GDP, have
expanded from processing mostly agricultural products to include the
production of petrochemicals, iron, steel, and aluminum. Although
agriculture accounts for only 5% of GDP, it employs 18% of the labor
force. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit farm output,
and Libya imports about 75% of its food requirements. The UN sanctions
imposed in April 1992 do not have a major impact on the economy
although they have increased transaction and transportation costs.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$38 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 0.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$6,700 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 55%
services: 40% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 30% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1 million
by occupation: industry 31%, services 27%, government 24%, agriculture
18%
note: 3% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national
(July 1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: 25% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $10.4 billion
expenditures: $10.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.5
billion (1995 est.)

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 4.6 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 17 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 3,239 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus,
vegetables, peanuts; meat, eggs

Exports:
total value: $9 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas
partners: Italy, Germany, Spain, France, Turkey, Greece, Egypt

Imports:
total value: $6.2 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: machinery, transport equipment, food, manufactured goods
partners: Italy, Germany, UK, France, Spain, Turkey, Tunisia, Eastern
Europe

Debt-external: $2.6 billion excluding military debt (1995 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Libyan dinar (LD) = 1,000 dirhams

Exchange rates: Libyan dinars (LD) per US$1-0.3902 (January 1998),
0.3891 (1997), 0.3651 (1996), 0.3532 (1995), 0.3596 (1994), 0.3250
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 370,000

Telephone system: modern telecommunications system
domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, tropospheric scatter,
and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean); planned Arabsat and Intersputnik satellite earth
stations; submarine cables to France and Italy; microwave radio relay
to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in
Medarabtel

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 1 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 12 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 500,000 (1993 est.)

@Libya:Transportation

Railways:
note: Libya has had no railroad in operation since 1965, all previous
systems having been dismantled; current plans are to construct a
1.435-m standard gauge line from the Tunisian frontier to Tripoli and
Misratah, then inland to Sabha, center of a mineral-rich area, but
there has been no progress; other plans made jointly with Egypt would
establish a rail line from As Sallum, Egypt, to Tobruk with completion
set for mid-1994; no progress has been reported

Highways:
total: 83,200 km
paved: 47,590 km
unpaved: 35,610 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: crude oil 4,383 km; petroleum products 443 km (includes
liquefied petroleum gas or LPG 256 km); natural gas 1,947 km

Ports and harbors: Al Khums, Banghazi, Darnah, Marsa al Burayqah,
Misratah, Ra's Lanuf, Tobruk, Tripoli, Zuwarah

Merchant marine:
total: 30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 615,505 GRT/1,044,175 DWT
ships by type: cargo 9, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas tanker 3, oil
tanker 9, roll-on/roll-off cargo 4, short-sea passenger 4 (1997 est.)

Airports: 145 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 60
over 3,047 m: 24
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 23
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 85
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 43
under 914 m: 20 (1997 est.)

@Libya:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Command

Military manpower-military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,229,080 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 731,963 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 59,730 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $1.4 billion (1994 est.)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 6.1% (1994 est.)

@Libya:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: maritime boundary dispute with Tunisia; Libya
claims about 19,400 sq km in northern Niger and part of southeastern
Algeria

______________________________________________________________________

LIECHTENSTEIN

@Liechtenstein:Geography

Location: Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland

Geographic coordinates: 47 10 N, 9 32 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 160 sq km
land: 160 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 76 km
border countries: Austria 35 km, Switzerland 41 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain;
cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers

Terrain: mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Ruggeller Riet 430 m
highest point: Grauspitz 2,599 m

Natural resources: hydroelectric potential

Land use:
arable land: 24%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 16%
forests and woodland: 35%
other: 25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography-note: along with Uzbekistan, one of the only two doubly
landlocked countries in the world; variety of microclimatic variations
based on elevation

@Liechtenstein:People

Population: 31,717 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 3,058; female 2,926)
15-64 years: 70% (male 11,084; female 11,154)
65 years and over: 11% (male 1,442; female 2,053) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.05% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 12.64 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.31 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 5.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.28 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.96 years
male: 75.51 years
female: 80.52 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.61 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Liechtensteiner(s)
adjective: Liechtenstein

Ethnic groups: Alemannic 87.5%, Italian, Turkish, and other 12.5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 7.4%, unknown 7.7%, other
4.9% (1996)

Languages: German (official), Alemannic dialect

Literacy:
definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (1981 est.)

@Liechtenstein:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Principality of Liechtenstein
conventional short form: Liechtenstein
local long form: Fuerstentum Liechtenstein
local short form: Liechtenstein

Data code: LS

Government type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

National capital: Vaduz

Administrative divisions: 11 communes (gemeinden, singular-gemeinde);
Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan,
Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz

Independence: 23 January 1719 (Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein
established)

National holiday: Assumption Day, 15 August

Constitution: 5 October 1921

Legal system: local civil and penal codes; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Prince Hans ADAM II (since 13 November 1989, assumed
executive powers 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS von und
zu Liechtenstein (born 11 June 1968)
head of government: Head of Government Mario FRICK (since 15 December
1993) and Deputy Head of Government Michael RITTER (since 2 February
1997)
cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Diet; confirmed by the prince
elections: none; the prince is a hereditary monarch; following
legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the Diet is
usually appointed the head of government by the prince and the leader
of the largest minority party in the Diet is usually appointed the
deputy head of government by the prince

Legislative branch: unicameral Diet or Landtag (25 seats; members are
elected by direct popular vote under proportional representation to
serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 2 February 1997 (next to be held by NA 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party-VU 50.1%, FBPL 41.3%, FL
8.5%; seats by party - VU 13, FBPL 10, FL 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Superior Court
or Obergericht

Political parties and leaders: Fatherland Union or VU [Dr. Oswald
KRANZ]; Progressive Citizens' Party or FBPL [Norbert SEEGER]; The Free
List or FL

International organization participation: CE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, IAEA,
ICRM, IFRCS, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UPU,
WCL, WIPO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: Liechtenstein does not have an
embassy in the US, but is represented by the Swiss embassy in routine
diplomatic matters

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Liechtenstein, but the US Ambassador at Bern (Switzerland) is also
accredited to Liechtenstein

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red
with a gold crown on the hoist side of the blue band

@Liechtenstein:Economy

Economy-overview: Despite its small size and limited natural
resources, Liechtenstein has developed into a prosperous, highly
industrialized, free-enterprise economy with a vital financial service
sector and living standards on a par with the urban areas of its large
European neighbors. Low business taxes-the maximum tax rate is 18%-and
easy incorporation rules have induced about 73,700 holding or
so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in
Liechtenstein, providing 30% of state revenues. The country
participates in a customs union with Switzerland and uses the Swiss
franc as its national currency. It imports more than 90% of its energy
requirements. Liechtenstein is a member of the European Economic Area
(an organization serving as a bridge between EFTA and EU) since May
1995. The government is working to harmonize its economic policies
with those of an integrated Europe.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$713 million (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$23,000 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 0.5% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 22,891 of which 13,847 are foreigners; 8,231 commute from
Austria and Switzerland to work each day
by occupation: industry, trade, and building 46%, services 52%,
agriculture, fishing, forestry, and horticulture 2% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: 1.6% (1997)

Budget:
revenues: $455 million
expenditures: $435 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: electronics, metal manufacturing, textiles, ceramics,
pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 23,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 150 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 8,000 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture-products: wheat, barley, maize, potatoes; livestock, dairy
products

Exports:
total value: $2.47 billion (1996)
commodities: small specialty machinery, dental products, stamps,
hardware, pottery
partners: EU and EFTA countries 60.57% (Switzerland 15.7%) (1995)

Imports:
total value: $917.3 million (1996)
commodities: machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor
vehicles
partners: EU countries, Switzerland (1996)

Debt-external: $0 (1996)

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes,
rappen, or centesimi

Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per
US$1-1.4757 (January 1998), 1.4513 (1997), 1.2360 (1996), 1.1825
(1995), 1.3677 (1994), 1.4776 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 22,857 subscribers (1996 est.)

Telephone system: automatic telephone system
domestic: NA
international: linked to Swiss networks by cable and microwave radio
relay

Radio broadcast stations: 1 broadcast station in Triesen
note: linked to Swiss networks

Radios: 12,134 license holders (1996)

Television broadcast stations: NA
note: linked to Swiss networks

Televisions: 11,785 license holders (1996)

@Liechtenstein:Transportation

Railways:
total: 18.5 km; note-owned, operated, and included in statistics of
Austrian Federal Railways
standard gauge: 18.5 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified)

Highways:
total: 250 km
paved: 250 km
unpaved: 0 km

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: none

@Liechtenstein:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of Switzerland

@Liechtenstein:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: claims 1,600 sq km of territory in the Czech
Republic confiscated from its royal family in 1918; the Czech Republic
insists that restitution does not go back before February 1948, when
the communists seized power

______________________________________________________________________

LITHUANIA

@Lithuania:Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and
Russia

Geographic coordinates: 56 00 N, 24 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 65,200 sq km
land: 65,200 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 1,273 km
border countries: Belarus 502 km, Latvia 453 km, Poland 91 km, Russia
(Kaliningrad) 227 km

Coastline: 99 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate
winters and summers

Terrain: lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Juozapines/Kalnas 292 m

Natural resources: peat

Land use:
arable land: 35%
permanent crops: 12%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland: 31%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 430 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: contamination of soil and groundwater with
petroleum products and chemicals at military bases

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Lithuania:People

Population: 3,600,158 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20% (male 376,034; female 360,446)
15-64 years: 67% (male 1,155,733; female 1,238,671)
65 years and over: 13% (male 159,526; female 309,748) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.45% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 10.57 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 12.94 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.52 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.75 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.83 years
male: 62.76 years
female: 75.21 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.46 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Lithuanian(s)
adjective: Lithuanian

Ethnic groups: Lithuanian 80.6%, Russian 8.7%, Polish 7%, Byelorussian
1.6%, other 2.1%

Religions: primarily Roman Catholic, others include Lutheran, Russian
Orthodox, Protestant, evangelical Christian Baptist, Islam, Judaism

Languages: Lithuanian (official), Polish, Russian

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 98% (1989 est.)

@Lithuania:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania
conventional short form: Lithuania
local long form: Lietuvos Respublika
local short form: Lietuva
former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: LH

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Vilnius

Administrative divisions: 44 regions (rajonai, singular-rajonas) and
11 municipalities*: Akmenes Rajonas, Alytaus Rajonas, Alytus*,
Anyksciu Rajonas, Birstonas*, Birzu Rajonas, Druskininkai*, Ignalinos
Rajonas, Jonavos Rajonas, Joniskio Rajonas, Jurbarko Rajonas,
Kaisiadoriu Rajonas, Kaunas*, Kauno Rajonas, Kedainiu Rajonas, Kelmes
Rajonas, Klaipeda*, Klaipedos Rajonas, Kretingos Rajonas, Kupiskio
Rajonas, Lazdiju Rajonas, Marijampole*, Marijampoles Rajonas, Mazeikiu
Rajonas, Moletu Rajonas, Neringa* Pakruojo Rajonas, Palanga*,
Panevezio Rajonas, Panevezys*, Pasvalio Rajonas, Plunges Rajonas,
Prienu Rajonas, Radviliskio Rajonas, Raseiniu Rajonas, Rokiskio
Rajonas, Sakiu Rajonas, Salcininku Rajonas, Siauliai*, Siauliu
Rajonas, Silales Rajonas, Silutes Rajonas, Sirvintu Rajonas, Skuodo
Rajonas, Svencioniu Rajonas, Taurages Rajonas, Telsiu Rajonas, Traku
Rajonas, Ukmerges Rajonas, Utenos Rajonas, Varenos Rajonas,
Vilkaviskio Rajonas, Vilniaus Rajonas, Vilnius*, Zarasu Rajonas

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Statehood Day, 16 February (1918)

Constitution: adopted 25 October 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of
legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Valdes ADAMKUS (since 26 February 1998)
head of government: Premier Gediminas VAGNORIUS (since 28 November
1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
nomination of the premier
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 21 December 1997 and 5 January 1998 (next to be
held NA 2003); premier appointed by the president on the approval of
the Parliament
election results: Valdas ADAMKUS elected president; percent of
vote-Valdas ADAMKUS 50.37%, Arturas PAULAUSKAS 49.7%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats, 71
members are directly elected by popular vote, 70 are elected by
proportional representation; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 20 October and 10 November 1996 (next to be held
NA October 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-TS 69,
LKDP 15, LCS 15, LDDP 12, LSDP 10, DP 2, independents 12, others 6

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the Parliament;
Court of Appeal, judges appointed by the Parliament

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party or LKDP
[Algirdas SAUDARGAS, chairman]; Democratic Labor Party of Lithuania or
LDDP [Ceslovas JURSENAS, chairman]; Lithuanian Nationalist Union or
LTS [Rimantas SMETONA, chairman]; Lithuanian Social Democratic Party
or LSDP [Aloyzas SAKALAS, chairman]; Lithuanian Farmer's Party or LUP
(previously Farmers' Union) [Albinas VAIZMUZIS, chairman]; Lithuanian
Center Union or LCS [Romualdas OZOLAS, chairman]; Homeland
Union/Conservative Party or TS [Vytautas LANDSBERGIS, chairman];
Lithuanian Polish Union or LLS [Rsztardas MACIEKIANIEC, chairman];
Democratic Party or DP [Lydie WURTH-POLFER, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Lithuanian Future Forum

International organization participation: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EAPC,
EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM,
IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol,
IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Stasys SAKALAUSKAS (appointed 30
September 1997)
chancery: 2622 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860
FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Keith C. SMITH
embassy: Akmenu 6, Vilnius 2600
mailing address: American Embassy, Vilnius, PSC 78, Box V, APO AE
09723
telephone: [370] (2) 223-031, 227-224
FAX: [370] 670-6084

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green,
and red

@Lithuania:Economy

Economy-overview: Lithuania has benefited from its disciplined
approach to market reform and its adherence to strict fiscal and
monetary policies imposed by the IMF, measures that have helped
constrain the growth of the money supply, reduce inflation to 8.6%,
and support GDP growth of 6% in 1997. Inflation is expected to fall in
1998 to 6% and GDP to grow at close to 7%. Foreign direct investment
in 1997 of some $430 million pushed the country over the $1 billion
mark, the first Baltic state to reach this milestone. However, the
current account deficit has hovered around 8% to 10% of GDP annually
since 1995-the result of greater demand for consumer goods and falling
growth in exports.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$15.4 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$4,230 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 9%
industry: 28%
services: 63% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 8.6% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.8 million
by occupation: industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry
20%, other 38% (1997)

Unemployment rate: 6.7% (January 1998)

Budget:
revenues: $1.5 billion
expenditures: $1.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television
sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding
(small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing,
fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic
components, computers, amber

Industrial production growth rate: 3.7% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 5.463 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 14.33 billion kWh (1997 est.)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 2,398 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: grain, potatoes, sugar beets, vegetables; meat,
milk, eggs; fish; flax fiber

Exports:
total value: $3.3 billion (1996)
commodities: agricultural products 16.9%, mineral products 15.7%,
textiles 15.2%, machinery 11.4%, live animals 7.7% (1996)
partners: Russia, Germany, Belarus, Latvia, Ukraine (1996)

Imports:
total value: $4.4 billion (1996)
commodities: mineral production 20%, machinery 16%, transport
equipment 10%, chemicals 10%, textiles 8%, foodstuff 6% (1996)
partners: Russia, Germany, Poland, Italy, Denmark (1996)

Debt-external: $895 million

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $144 million (1993)
note: commitments from the West and international financial
institutions, $765 million (1992-95)

Currency: 1 Lithuanian litas = 100 centas

Exchange rates: litai per US$1-4.000 (fixed rate since 1 May 1994),
3.978 (1994), 4.344 (1993), 1.773 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 1.012 million (1995)

Telephone system: telecommunications system ranks among the most
modern of the former Soviet republics
domestic: an NMT-450 analog cellular telephone network operates in
Vilnius and other cities; landlines and microwave radio relay connect
switching centers
international: international connections no longer depend on the
Moscow international gateway switch, but are established by satellite
through Oslo from Vilnius and through Copenhagen from Kaunas;
satellite earth stations-1 Eutelsat and 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean);
cellular network linked internationally through Copenhagen by
Eutelsat; international electronic mail is available; landlines or
microwave radio relay to former Soviet republics

Radio broadcast stations: AM 13, FM 26, shortwave 1, longwave 1

Radios: 1.42 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3

Televisions: 1.77 million (1993 est.)

@Lithuania:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,002 km
broad gauge: 2,002 km 1.524-m gauge (122 km electrified) (1994)

Highways:
total: 65,135 km
paved: 57,058 km (including 404 km of expressways)
unpaved: 8,077 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 600 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: crude oil, 105 km; natural gas 760 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Kaunas, Klaipeda

Merchant marine:
total: 51 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 307,947 GRT/341,733 DWT
ships by type: cargo 25, combination bulk 11, oil tanker 2, railcar
carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 8, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea
passenger 3 (1997 est.)

Airports: 96 (1994 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 25
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 14 (1994 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 71
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 63 (1994 est.)

@Lithuania:Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force,
Security Forces (internal and border troops), National Guard (Skat)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 905,259 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 712,593 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 26,211 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $81.2 million (1997)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 0.9% (1997)

@Lithuania:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: ongoing talks over boundary dispute with
Latvia (primary concern oil exploration rights); demarcation has begun
on border with Belarus; 1997 border agreement with Russia not yet
ratified

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs
from Southwest Asia and Latin America to Western Europe and
Scandinavia

______________________________________________________________________

LUXEMBOURG

@Luxembourg:Geography

Location: Western Europe, between France and Germany

Geographic coordinates: 49 45 N, 6 10 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 2,586 sq km
land: 2,586 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries:
total: 359 km
border countries: Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

Terrain: mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys;
uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to
Moselle floodplain in the southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Moselle River 133 m
highest point: Burgplatz 559 m

Natural resources: iron ore (no longer exploited)

Land use:
arable land: 24%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland: 21%
other: 34%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: air and water pollution in urban areas

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea

Geography-note: landlocked

@Luxembourg:People

Population: 425,017 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 39,565; female 37,824)
15-64 years: 67% (male 145,060; female 139,628)
65 years and over: 15% (male 25,449; female 37,491) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.02% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 11.12 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 9.29 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 8.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.04 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.49 years
male: 74.41 years
female: 80.68 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.63 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Luxembourger(s)
adjective: Luxembourg

Ethnic groups: Celtic base (with French and German blend), Portuguese,
Italian, and European (guest and worker residents)

Religions: Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant and Jewish 3%

Languages: Luxembourgian, German, French, English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (1980 est.)

@Luxembourg:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
conventional short form: Luxembourg
local long form: Grand-Duche de Luxembourg
local short form: Luxembourg

Data code: LU

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Luxembourg

Administrative divisions: 3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher,
Luxembourg

Independence: 1839

National holiday: National Day, 23 June (1921) (public celebration of
the Grand Duke's birthday)

Constitution: 17 October 1868, occasional revisions

Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: Grand Duke JEAN (since 12 November 1964); Heir
Apparent Prince HENRI (son of Grand Duke JEAN, born 16 April 1955)
head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 1
January 1995) and Vice Prime Minister Jacques F. POOS (since 21 July
1984)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the sovereign, responsible
to the Chamber of Deputies
elections: none; the grand duke is a hereditary monarch; prime
minister and vice prime minister appointed by the sovereign but are
responsible to the Chamber of Deputies

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des
Deputes (60 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 12 June 1994 (next to be held by June 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-CSV 21,
LSAP 17, DP 12, Action Committee for Democracy and Pension Rights 5,
Greens 5
note: the Council of State or Conseil d'Etat, which has 21 members who
are appointed for life, is an advisory body whose views are considered
by the Chamber of Deputies

Judicial branch: Superior Court of Justice or Cour Superieure de
Justice, judges are appointed for life by the Grand Duke;
Administrative Court or Tribunale Administratin, judges are appointed
for life by the Grand Duke

Political parties and leaders: Christian Social People's Party or CSV
[Erna HENNICOT-SCHOEPGES]; Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP
[Ben FAYOT]; Democratic Party or DP [Lydie Wurth POLFER]; Action
Committee for Democracy and Pension Rights [Roby MEHLEN]; the Green
Alternative [Abbes JACOBY]; other minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: group of steel companies
representing iron and steel industry; Centrale Paysanne representing
agricultural producers; Christian and Socialist labor unions;
Federation of Industrialists; Artisans and Shopkeepers Federation

International organization participation: ACCT, Australia Group,
Benelux, CCC, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MTCR, NATO, NEA, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alphonse BERNS
chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171
FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270
consulate(s) general: New York and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Clay CONSTANTINOU
embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel-Servais, 2535 Luxembourg City
mailing address: American Embassy Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE
09126-1410 (official mail); American Embassy Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box
9500, APO AE 09123 (personal mail)
telephone: [352] 46 01 23
FAX: [352] 46 14 01

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a
darker blue and is shorter; design was based on the flag of France

@Luxembourg:Economy

Economy-overview: The stable, prosperous economy features moderate
growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. Agriculture is based on
small family-owned farms. The industrial sector, until recently
dominated by steel, has become increasingly more diversified. During
the past decades, growth in the financial sector has more than
compensated for the decline in steel. Services, especially banking,
account for a growing proportion of the economy. Luxembourg
participates in an economic union with Belgium on trade and most
financial matters, is also closely connected economically to the
Netherlands, and, as a member of the EU, enjoys the advantages of the
open European market.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$13.48 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.6% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$33,700 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 21%
services: 74% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.3% (1995)

Labor force:
total: 213,100 (one-third of labor force is foreign workers, mostly
from Portugal, Italy, France, Belgium, and Germany)
by occupation: trade, restaurants, hotels 20%, mining, quarrying,
manufacturing 16%, other market services 18%, community, social,
personal services 14%, construction 11%, finance, insurance, real
estate, business services 9%, transport, storage, communications 8%,
agriculture, hunting, forestry, fishing 1%, electricity, gas, water 1%
(1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3.5% (1997)

Budget:
revenues: $5.46 billion
expenditures: $5.44 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: banking, iron and steel, food processing, chemicals, metal
products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum

Industrial production growth rate: 3.3% (1995 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 138,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 470 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 13,518 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits, wine
grapes; livestock products

Exports:
total value: $7.1 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: finished steel products, chemicals, rubber products,
glass, aluminum, other industrial products
partners: Germany 28%, France 18%, Belgium 15%, UK 7%, Netherlands 5%

Imports:
total value: $9.4 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods
partners: Belgium 38%, Germany 25%, France 11%, Netherlands 4%

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $50 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Luxembourg franc (LuxF) = 100 centimes; note-centimes no
longer in use

Exchange rates: Luxembourg francs (LuxF) per US$1-37.459 (January
1998), 35.774 (1997), 30.962 (1996), 29.480 (1995), 33.456 (1994),
34.597 (1993); note-the Luxembourg franc is at par with the Belgian
franc, which circulates freely in Luxembourg

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 221,900 (1994 est.)

Telephone system: highly developed, completely automated and efficient
system, mainly buried cables
domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; buried cable
international: 3 channels leased on TAT-6 coaxial submarine cable
(Europe to North America)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: 230,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 plus 1 direct-broadcast satellite
link

Televisions: 100,500 (1993 est.)

@Luxembourg:Transportation

Book of the day: