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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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Political parties and leaders: Alash National Freedom Party [Aron
ATABEK]; People's Unity Party or PUP (was Union of People's Unity)
[Akhan BIZHANOV, chairman]; Democratic Party [Tulegen ZHUKEYEV and
Altynbek SARSENBAYEV, cochairmen]; People's Congress of Kazakhstan or
NKK [Anuar ISMAILOV, chairman]; AZAMAT Movement [Petr SVOIK, Murat
AUEZOV, and Galym ABILSIITOV, cochairmen]; Communist Party or KPK
[Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN, first secretary]; National Democratic Party
[Hasen KOZHAKHMETOV, chairman]; AZAT party [Toleubek KARAMENDIN,
chairman]; Labor and Workers Movement [Madel ISMAILOV, chairman];
Peasant Union of the Republic Kazakhstan or KPU; Republican People's
Slavic Movement-Harmony or Lad [Aleksander SAMARKIN, chairman]; Party
for Social Justice and Economic Revival "Tagibat"; Social Democratic
Party of Kazakhstan or SDPK [Dos KUSHIMOV, cochairman]; People's
Cooperative Party [Umirzak SARSENOV, chairman]; Organization of
Veterans; Republican Party [Sabetkazy AKATAYEV]; Russian Center or RT
[Nina SIDOROVA, chairwoman]; Russian Cossacks [Vladimir DESYATOV, head
(ataman)]; Pensioners Movement or Pokoleniye [Irina SAVOSTINA,
chairwoman]; Liberal Movement [Asylbek BISENBAYEV, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Independent Trade Union Center
[Leonid SOLOMIN, president]; Kazakhstani-American Bureau on Human
Rights [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, executive director]; Democratic Committee on
Human Rights [Baretta YERGALIEVA, chairwoman]; Independent Miners
Union [Victor GAIPOV, president]; The Almaty-Helsinki Foundation for
Human Rights [Ninel FOKINA, chairwoman]; Legal Development of
Kazakhstan [Vitaliy VORONOV, chairman]

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, CIS, EAPC, EBRD,
ECE, ECO, ESCAP, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, OIC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Bolat K. NURGALIYEV
chancery: (temporary) 3421 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC
20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-4504 through 4507
FAX: [1] (202) 333-4509

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador A. Elizabeth JONES
embassy: 99/97 Furmanova Street, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan 480012
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [7] (3272) 63-39-05, 63-13-75, 63-24-26
FAX: [7] (3272) 63-38-83

Flag description: sky blue background representing the endless sky and
a gold sun with 32 rays soaring above a golden steppe eagle in the
center; on the hoist side is a "national ornamentation" in yellow

@Kazakhstan:Economy

Economy-overview: Kazakhstan, the second largest of the former Soviet
republics in territory, possesses enormous untapped fossil fuel
reserves as well as plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals.
It also has considerable agricultural potential with its vast steppe
lands accommodating both livestock and grain production. Kazakhstan's
industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these
natural resources and also on a relatively large machine building
sector specializing in construction equipment, tractors, agricultural
machinery, and some defense items. The breakup of the USSR and the
collapse of demand for Kazakhstan's traditional heavy industry
products have resulted in a sharp contraction of the economy since
1991, with the steepest annual decline occurring in 1994. In 1995-97
the pace of the government program of economic reform and
privatization quickened, resulting in a substantial shifting of assets
into the private sector. The December 1996 signing of the Caspian
Pipeline Consortium agreement to build a new pipeline from western
Kazakhstan's Tengiz oil field to the Black Sea increases prospects for
substantially larger oil exports in several years. The emigration of
large numbers of skilled Slavic managers and technicians from the
northern industrial areas will hold back future growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$50 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.1% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$3,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 12%
industry: 25%
services: 63% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 12% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 6.9 million
by occupation: industry 27%, agriculture and forestry 23%, other 50%
(1996)

Unemployment rate: 2.6% includes only officially registered
unemployed; also large additional numbers of unemployed and
underemployed workers (December 1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $3 billion
expenditures: $4.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $40
million (1996 est.)

Industries: oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc,
copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, iron and
steel, nonferrous metal, tractors and other agricultural machinery,
electric motors, construction materials; much of industrial capacity
is shut down and/or is in need of repair

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 18.9 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 61.7 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 3,800 kWh (1996 est.)

Agriculture-products: grain, mostly spring wheat, cotton; wool, meat

Exports:
total value: $5.6 billion (1996)
commodities: oil, ferrous and nonferrous metals, chemicals, grain,
wool, meat, coal
partners: Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Netherlands, China

Imports:
total value: $6 billion (1996)
commodities: machinery and parts, industrial materials, oil and gas
partners: Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Turkey, Germany

Debt-external: $3.3 billion (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $10 million (1993)
note: commitments, 1992-95, $4,780 million ($1,795 million
disbursements)

Currency: 1 Kazakhstani tenge = 100 tiyn

Exchange rates: tenges per US$1-76.4 (February 1998), 75.55 (January
1998), 75.44 (1997), 67.30 (1996), 60.95 (1995), 35.54 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 2.2 million

Telephone system: service is poor
domestic: landline and microwave radio relay
international: international traffic with other former Soviet
republics and China carried by landline and microwave radio relay and
with other countries by satellite and through 8 international
telecommunications circuits at the Moscow international gateway
switch; satellite earth stations-1 Intelsat and a new satellite earth
station established at Almaty of unknown type

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: 4.088 million (with multiple speakers for program diffusion
6.082 million)

Television broadcast stations: 1 broadcast station; Orbita (TV receive
only) earth station

Televisions: 4.75 million

@Kazakhstan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 13,841 km in common carrier service; does not include
industrial lines
broad gauge: 13,841 km 1.520-m gauge (3,299 km electrified) (1992)

Highways:
total: 141,076 km
paved: 113,566 km
unpaved: 27,510 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 4,002 km on the Syr Darya and Ertis Darya

Pipelines: crude oil 2,850 km; refined products 1,500 km; natural gas
3,480 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Aqtau (Shevchenko), Atyrau (Gur'yev), Oskemen
(Ust-Kamenogorsk), Pavlodar, Semey (Semipalatinsk)

Airports: 10 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 9
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Kazakhstan:Military

Military branches: Ministry of Defense (Border Guards, General Purpose
Forces, Air Force), Republican Guard

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 4,429,484 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 3,534,839 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 154,218 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: 18.9 billion tenges (1995);
note-conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Kazakhstan:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined
among Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan

Illicit drugs: significant illicit cultivation of cannabis and limited
cultivation of opium poppy and ephedra (for the drug ephedrone);
limited government eradication program; cannabis consumed largely in
the CIS; used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Russia,
North America, and Western Europe from Southwest Asia

______________________________________________________________________

KENYA

@Kenya:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia
and Tanzania

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 N, 38 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 582,650 sq km
land: 569,250 sq km
water: 13,400 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Nevada

Land boundaries:
total: 3,446 km
border countries: Ethiopia 830 km, Somalia 682 km, Sudan 232 km,
Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km

Coastline: 536 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior

Terrain: low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift
Valley; fertile plateau in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m

Natural resources: gold, limestone, soda ash, salt barytes, rubies,
fluorspar, garnets, wildlife

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 37%
forests and woodland: 30%
other: 25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 660 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring drought in northern and eastern regions

Environment-current issues: water pollution from urban and industrial
wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides
and fertilizers; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification;
poaching

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most
successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers on Mt.
Kenya; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of
scientific and economic value

@Kenya:People

Population: 28,337,071 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (male 6,248,260; female 6,109,443)
15-64 years: 54% (male 7,609,631; female 7,607,810)
65 years and over: 2% (male 333,881; female 428,046) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.71% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 31.68 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 14.19 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 59.38 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 47.57 years
male: 47.02 years
female: 48.13 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.07 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Kenyan(s)
adjective: Kenyan

Ethnic groups: Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba
11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian,
European, and Arab) 1%

Religions: Protestant (including Anglican) 38%, Roman Catholic 28%,
indigenous beliefs 26%, Muslim 6%, other 2%

Languages: English (official), Swahili (official), numerous indigenous
languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 78.1%
male: 86.3%
female: 70% (1995 est.)

@Kenya:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Kenya
conventional short form: Kenya
former: British East Africa

Data code: KE

Government type: republic

National capital: Nairobi

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 area*; Central, Coast,
Eastern, Nairobi Area*, North Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Western

Independence: 12 December 1963 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 December (1963)

Constitution: 12 December 1963, amended as a republic 1964; reissued
with amendments 1979, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1991, 1992, and 1997

Legal system: based on English common law, tribal law, and Islamic
law; judicial review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations; constitutional amendment of 1982
making Kenya a de jure one-party state repealed in 1991

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI (since 14 October
1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
head of government: President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI (since 14
October 1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and
head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote from among the members of
the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 29
December 1997 (next to be held by early 2003); vice president
appointed by the president
election results: President Daniel T. arap MOI reelected; percent of
vote-Daniel T. arap MOI (KANU) 40.12%, Mwai KIBAKI (DP) 31.09%, Raila
ODINGA (NDP) 10.2%, Michael WAMALWA (FORD-Kenya) 8.29%, Charity NGILU
(SDP) 7.71%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (222 seats,
12 appointed by the president, 210 members popularly elected to serve
5-year terms)
elections: last held 29 December 1997 (next to be held between 1
December 2002 and 30 April 2003)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-KANU
107, FORD-Asili 1, FORD-Kenya 17, FORD-People 3, DP 39, NDP 21, SDP
15, SAFINA 5, smaller parties 2; seats appointed by the president-KANU
6, FORD-Kenya 1, DP 2, SDP 1, NDP 1, SAFINA 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, chief justice is appointed by the
president; High Court

Political parties and leaders:
ruling party: Kenya African National Union or KANU [President Daniel
Toroitich arap MOI]
opposition party: Democratic Party of Kenya or DP [Mwai KIBAKI]; Forum
for the Restoration of Democracy-Asili or FORD-Asili [Martin SHIKUKU,
chairman]; Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya or FORD-Kenya
[Michael Kijana WAMALWA]; Forum for the Restoration of
Democracy-People or FORD-People [Kimani wa NYOIKE]; Forum for the
Restoration of Democracy-Saba Saba or Asili Saba Saba [Kenneth MATIBA,
chairman]; National Development Party or NDP [Raila ODINGA, president
and Dr. Charles MARANGA, secretary-general]; Social Democratic Party
or SDP [Charity NGILU]; SAFINA [Mutari KIGANO, chairman and Dr.
Richard LEAKEY, secretary-general]

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Convention Executive
Council or NCEC, a proreform coalition of political parties and
non-government organizations [Kivutha KIBWANA, leader]; Roman Catholic
and other Christian churches; human rights groups; labor unions;
Muslim organizations

International organization participation: ACP, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAU,
UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
UNMOP, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP, UNU, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Samson K. CHEMAI
chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Prudence B. BUSHNELL (17 July 1996)
embassy: corner of Moi Avenue and Haile Selassie Avenue, Nairobi
mailing address: P. O. Box 30137, Unit 64100, APO AE 09831
telephone: [254] (2) 334141
FAX: [254] (2) 340838

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red,
and green; the red band is edged in white; a large warrior's shield
covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center

@Kenya:Economy

Economy-overview: Since 1993, the government of Kenya has implemented
a program of economic liberalization and reform. Steps have included
the removal of import licensing and price controls, removal of foreign
exchange controls, fiscal and monetary restraint, and reduction of the
public sector through privatizing publicly owned companies and
downsizing the civil service. With the support of the World Bank, IMF,
and other donors, these reforms have led to a turnaround in economic
performance following a period of negative growth in the early 1990s.
Kenya's real GDP grew at 5% in 1995 and 4% in 1996, and inflation
remained under control. Growth slowed in 1997. Political violence
damaged the tourist industry, and the IMF allowed Kenya's Enhanced
Structural Adjustment Program to lapse due to the government's failure
to enact reform conditions and to adequately address public sector
corruption. Moreover, El Nino rains destroyed crops and damaged an
already crumbling infrastructure in 1997 and on into 1998. Long-term
barriers to development include electricity shortages, the
government's continued and inefficient dominance of key sectors,
endemic corruption, and the country's high population growth rate.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$45.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.9% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,600 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 27%
industry: 20%
services: 53% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 8.8% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 8.78 million (1993 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 75%-80%, non-agriculture 20%-25%

Unemployment rate: 35% urban (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $3 billion
expenditures: $3 billion, including capital expenditures of $638
million (FY96/97 est.)

Industries: small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries,
textiles, soap, cigarettes, flour), processing agricultural products;
oil refining, cement; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 3.8% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 808,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 3.59 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 134 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, tea, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit,
vegetables; dairy products, beef, pork, poultry, eggs

Exports:
total value: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: tea 18%, coffee 15%, petroleum products (1995)
partners: Uganda 22.8%, UK 20.1%, Tanzania 19.1%, Germany 14.0%,
Netherlands 7.6%, US 6.1%

Imports:
total value: $2.9 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery and transportation equipment 31%, consumer
goods 13%, petroleum products 12% (1995)
partners: UK 21.3%, UAE 18%, Japan 14%, Germany, US

Debt-external: $7 billion (1994 est.)

Economic aid: NA

Currency: 1 Kenyan shilling (KSh) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Kenyan shillings (KSh) per US$1-61.164 (January 1998),
58.732 (1997), 57.115 (1996), 51.430 (1995), 56.051 (1994), 58.001
(1993)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 357,251 (1989 est.)

Telephone system: in top group of African systems
domestic: primarily microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 6

Televisions: 260,000 (1993 est.)

@Kenya:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,652 km
narrow gauge: 2,652 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 63,800 km
paved: 8,868 km
unpaved: 54,932 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: part of Lake Victoria system is within boundaries of Kenya

Pipelines: petroleum products 483 km

Ports and harbors: Kisumu, Lamu, Mombasa

Merchant marine:
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,883 GRT/6,255 DWT
ships by type: oil tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 240 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 29
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 211
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 114
under 914 m: 83 (1997 est.)

@Kenya:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary General Service
Unit of the Police

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 6,870,889 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 4,257,985 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $134 million (FY94/95)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 3.9% (FY94/95)

@Kenya:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: administrative boundary with Sudan does not
coincide with international boundary

Illicit drugs: widespread harvesting of small, wild plots of marijuana
and qat (chat); transit country for South Asian heroin destined for
Europe and, sometimes, North America; Indian methaqualone also
transits on way to South Africa

______________________________________________________________________

KINGMAN REEF

(territory of the US)

@Kingman Reef:Geography

Location: Oceania, reef in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of
the way from Hawaii to American Samoa

Geographic coordinates: 6 24 N, 162 24 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 1 sq km
land: 1 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, but moderated by prevailing winds

Terrain: low and nearly level

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 1 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1996)

Natural hazards: wet or awash most of the time, maximum elevation of
about 1 meter makes Kingman Reef a maritime hazard

Environment-current issues: none

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: barren coral atoll with deep interior lagoon; closed
to the public

@Kingman Reef:People

Population: uninhabited

@Kingman Reef:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Kingman Reef

Data code: KQ

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered
from Washington, DC by the US Navy; however, it is awash the majority
of the time, so it is not usable and is uninhabited

National capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

Legal system: NA

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

@Kingman Reef:Economy

Economy-overview: no economic activity

@Kingman Reef:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: lagoon was used as a halfway station between Hawaii and
American Samoa by Pan American Airways for flying boats in 1937 and
1938

@Kingman Reef:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@Kingman Reef:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

KIRIBATI

@Kiribati:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the Pacific Ocean, straddling
the equator, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia;
note-on 1 January 1995, Kiribati unilaterally moved the International
Date Line from the middle of the country to include its easternmost
islands and make it the same day throughout the country

Geographic coordinates: 1 25 N, 173 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 717 sq km
land: 717 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes three island groups-Gilbert Islands, Line Islands,
Phoenix Islands

Area-comparative: four times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,143 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain: mostly low-lying coral atolls surrounded by extensive reefs

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Banaba 81 m

Natural resources: phosphate (production discontinued in 1979)

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: 51%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: 3%
other: 46% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons can occur any time, but usually November to
March; occasional tornadoes

Environment-current issues: heavy pollution in lagoon of south Tarawa
atoll due to heavy migration mixed with traditional practices such as
lagoon latrines and open-pit dumping; ground water at risk

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Marine
Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: 20 of the 33 islands are inhabited; Banaba (Ocean
Island) in Kiribati is one of the three great phosphate rock islands
in the Pacific Ocean-the others are Makatea in French Polynesia and
Nauru

@Kiribati:People

Population: 83,976 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.82% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 26.46 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.62 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 49.69 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 62.61 years
male: 60.79 years
female: 64.68 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.13 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: I-Kiribati (singular and plural)
adjective: I-Kiribati

Ethnic groups: Micronesian

Religions: Roman Catholic 53%, Protestant (Congregational) 41%,
Seventh-Day Adventist, Baha'i, Church of God, Mormon 6% (1985 est.)

Languages: English (official), Gilbertese

Literacy: NA

@Kiribati:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Kiribati
conventional short form: Kiribati
note: pronounced kir-ih-bahss
former: Gilbert Islands

Data code: KR

Government type: republic

National capital: Tarawa

Administrative divisions: 3 units; Gilbert Islands, Line Islands,
Phoenix Islands
note: in addition, there are 6 districts (Banaba, Central Gilberts,
Line Islands, Northern Gilberts, Southern Gilberts, Tarawa) and 21
island councils-one for each of the inhabited islands (Abaiang,
Abemama, Aranuka, Arorae, Banaba, Beru, Butaritari, Kanton,
Kiritimati, Kuria, Maiana, Makin, Marakei, Nikunau, Nonouti, Onotoa,
Tabiteuea, Tabuaeran, Tamana, Tarawa, Teraina)

Independence: 12 July 1979 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 July (1979)

Constitution: 12 July 1979

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President (Beretitenti) Teburoro TITO (since 1 October
1994); Vice President (Kauoman-ni-Beretitenti) Tewareka TENTOA (since
12 October 1994); note-the president is both the chief of state and
head of government
head of government: President (Beretitenti) Teburoro TITO (since 1
October 1994); Vice President (Kauoman-ni-Beretitenti) Tewareka TENTOA
(since 12 October 1994); note-the president is both the chief of state
and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of
the House of Assembly, includes the president, vice president,
attorney general, and up to eight other ministers
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
note-the House of Assembly chooses the presidential candidates from
among their members and then those candidates compete in a general
election; election last held 30 September 1994 (next to be held by NA
September 1998); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Teburoro TITO elected president; percent of
vote-Teburoro TITO 51.2%, Tewareka TENTOA 18.3%, Roniti TEIWAKI 16.0%,
Peter Taberannang TIMEON 14.5%

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly or Maneaba Ni
Maungatabu (41 seats; 39 elected by popular vote, one ex officio
member, and one nominated to represent Banaba; members serve four-year
terms)
elections: last held 22 July 1994 (next to be held by NA July 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-Maneaban
Te Mauri Party 13, National Progressive Party 7, independents 19

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, judges at all levels are appointed
by the president; High Court, judges at all levels are appointed by
the president; 26 Magistrates' courts judges at all levels are
appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: National Progressive Party, Teatao
TEANNAKI; New Movement Party, leader NA; Liberal Party, Tewareka
TENTOA; Maneaban Te Mauri Party, Teburoro TITO
note: there is no tradition of formally organized political parties in
Kiribati; they more closely resemble factions or interest groups
because they have no party headquarters, formal platforms, or party
structures

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFC, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol,
ITU, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Kiribati does not have an embassy
in the US; there is an honorary consulate in Honolulu

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Kiribati; the ambassador to the Marshall Islands is accredited to
Kiribati

Flag description: the upper half is red with a yellow frigate bird
flying over a yellow rising sun, and the lower half is blue with three
horizontal wavy white stripes to represent the ocean

@Kiribati:Economy

Economy-overview: A remote country of 33 scattered coral atolls,
Kiribati has few national resources. Commercially viable phosphate
deposits were exhausted at the time of independence from the UK in
1979. Copra and fish now represent the bulk of production and exports.
The economy has fluctuated widely in recent years. Real GDP growth has
declined from about 10% in 1988 to about 2.6% in 1995 and 1.9% in
1996. Growth in 1997 was expected to parallel the 1996 performance.
Economic development is constrained by a shortage of skilled workers,
weak infrastructure, and remoteness from international markets. The
financial sector is at an early stage of development as is the
expansion of private sector initiatives. Foreign financial aid,
largely from the UK and Japan, is a critical supplement to GDP, equal
in amount to 25%-50% of GDP in recent years. Remittances from workers
abroad account for more than $5 million each year.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$62 million (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 1.9% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$800 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 14%
industry: 7%
services: 79% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: -0.6% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 7,870 economically active, not including subsistence farmers
(1985 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2%; underemployment 70% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $33.3 million
expenditures: $47.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
million (1996 est.)

Industries: fishing, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: 0.7% (1992 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 2,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 7 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 88 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: copra, taro, breadfruit, sweet potatoes,
vegetables; fish

Exports:
total value: $6.7 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: copra 62%, seaweed, fish
partners: US, Australia, NZ (1996)

Imports:
total value: $37.4 million (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, miscellaneous
manufactured goods, fuel
partners: Australia 46%, Fiji, Japan, NZ, US (1996)

Debt-external: $7.2 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $4.725 million from Australia (FY96/97 est.); $2.175
million from NZ (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1-1.5281 (January
1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3667 (1994),
1.4704 (1993)

Fiscal year: NA

Communications

Telephones: 1,400 (1984 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
note: Kiribati is being linked to the Pacific Ocean Cooperative
Telecommunications Network, which should improve telephone service

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 15,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 0 (1988 est.)

@Kiribati:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 670 km (1996 est.)
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Waterways: small network of canals, totaling 5 km, in Line Islands

Ports and harbors: Banaba, Betio, English Harbor, Kanton

Merchant marine:
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,248 GRT/4,496 DWT
ships by type: oil tanker 1, passenger-cargo 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 21 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 5 (1997 est.)

@Kiribati:Military

Military branches: no regular military forces; Police Force (carries
out law enforcement functions and paramilitary duties; small police
posts are on all islands)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Kiribati:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

KOREA, NORTH

@Korea, North:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, northern half of the Korean Peninsula
bordering the Korea Bay and the Sea of Japan, between China and South
Korea

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 127 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 120,540 sq km
land: 120,410 sq km
water: 130 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Mississippi

Land boundaries:
total: 1,673 km
border countries: China 1,416 km, South Korea 238 km, Russia 19 km

Coastline: 2,495 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
military boundary line: 50 nm in the Sea of Japan and the exclusive
economic zone limit in the Yellow Sea where all foreign vessels and
aircraft without permission are banned

Climate: temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer

Terrain: mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys;
coastal plains wide in west, discontinuous in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sea of Japan 0 m
highest point: Paektu-san 2,744 m

Natural resources: coal, lead, tungsten, zinc, graphite, magnesite,
iron ore, copper, gold, pyrites, salt, fluorspar, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 14%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 61%
other: 23% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 14,600 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: late spring droughts often followed by severe
flooding; occasional typhoons during the early fall

Environment-current issues: localized air pollution attributable to
inadequate industrial controls; water pollution; inadequate supplies
of potable water

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the
Sea

Geography-note: strategic location bordering China, South Korea, and
Russia; mountainous interior is isolated, nearly inaccessible, and
sparsely populated

@Korea, North:People

Population: 21,234,387 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 26% (male 2,800,857; female 2,669,250)
15-64 years: 68% (male 7,089,039; female 7,406,901)
65 years and over: 6% (male 387,011; female 881,329) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.03% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 15.3 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 15.57 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.44 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 87.83 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 51.32 years
male: 48.88 years
female: 53.88 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Korean(s)
adjective: Korean

Ethnic groups: racially homogeneous; there is a small Chinese
community and a few ethnic Japanese

Religions: Buddhism and Confucianism, some Christianity and syncretic
Chondogyo
note: autonomous religious activities now almost nonexistent;
government-sponsored religious groups exist to provide illusion of
religious freedom

Languages: Korean

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write Korean
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (1990 est.)

@Korea, North:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Democratic People's Republic of Korea
conventional short form: North Korea
local long form: Choson-minjujuui-inmin-konghwaguk
local short form: none
note: the North Koreans generally use the term "Choson" to refer to
their country
abbreviation: DPRK

Data code: KN

Government type: Communist state; one-man dictatorship

National capital: P'yongyang

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and 3
special cities* (si, singular and plural); Chagang-do (Chagang
Province), Hamgyong-bukto (North Hamgyong Province), Hamgyong-namdo
(South Hamgyong Province), Hwanghae-bukto (North Hwanghae Province),
Hwanghae-namdo (South Hwanghae Province), Kaesong-si* (Kaesong City),
Kangwon-do (Kangwon Province), Namp'o-si* (Namp'o City),
P'yongan-bukto (North P'yongan Province), P'yongan-namdo (South
P'yongan Province), P'yongyang-si* (P'yongyang City), Yanggang-do
(Yanggang Province)

Independence: 9 September 1948 Democratic People's Republic of Korea
(DPRK) Foundation Day
note: 15 August 1945, date of independence from the Japanese and
celebrated in North Korea as National Liberation Day

National holiday: Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK)
Foundation Day, 9 September (1948)

Constitution: adopted 1948, completely revised 27 December 1972,
revised again in April 1992

Legal system: based on German civil law system with Japanese
influences and Communist legal theory; no judicial review of
legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: KIM Chong-il [de facto]; note-President KIM Il-song
was reelected without opposition 24 May 1990 and died 8 July 1994,
leaving his son KIM Chong-il as designated successor; KIM Chong-il
became General Secretary of the Korean Workers' Party on 8 October
1997, but has not assumed the presidency
head of government: KANG Song-san is premier, but is in ill health;
Vice Premier HONG Song-nam has been acting premier since NA February
1997
cabinet: State Administration Council appointed by the Supreme
People's Assembly
elections: premier elected by the Supreme People's Assembly
election results: NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme People's Assembly or Ch'oego
Inmin Hoeui (687 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 7-9 April 1990 (next to be held NA); note-the
term of the Assembly expired in April 1995 without a new election and
it has not been convened since the death of KIM Il-song in July 1994
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-the KWP
approves a single list of candidates who are elected without
opposition; minor parties hold a few seats

Judicial branch: Central Court, judges are elected by the Supreme
People's Assembly

Political parties and leaders: major party-Korean Workers' Party
(KWP), KIM Chong-il, General Secretary; Korean Social Democratic
Party, KIM Pyong-sik, chairman; Chondoist Chongu Party, YU Mi-yong,
chairwoman

International organization participation: ESCAP, FAO, G-77, ICAO,
ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, ISO,
ITU, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note-North Korea has a
Permanent Mission to the UN in New York, headed by YI Hyong-chol

Diplomatic representation from the US: none

Flag description: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple
width), and blue; the red band is edged in white; on the hoist side of
the red band is a white disk with a red five-pointed star

@Korea, North:Economy

Economy-overview: More than 90% of this command economy is socialized;
agricultural land is collectivized; and state-owned industry produces
95% of manufactured goods. State control of economic affairs is
unusually tight even for a communist country because of the small size
and homogeneity of the society and the strict rule of KIM Il-song in
the past and now his son, KIM Chong-il. Economic growth during the
period 1984-88 averaged 2%-3%, but output declined by an average of
4%-5% or more annually during 1989-97 because of systemic problems and
disruptions in economic and technological links with the former USSR
and China. The leadership has insisted on maintaining its high level
of military outlays from a shrinking economic pie. Moreover, a serious
drawdown in inventories and critical shortages in the energy sector
have led to increasing interruptions in industrial production.
Abundant mineral resources and hydropower have formed the basis of
industrial development since World War II. Manufacturing is centered
on heavy industry, including military industry, with light industry
lagging far behind. Despite the use of improved seed varieties,
expansion of irrigation, and the heavy use of fertilizers, North Korea
is not yet self-sufficient in food production. Indeed, a shortage of
arable lands, several years of poor harvests, systemic inefficiencies,
a cumbersome distribution system, and extensive floods in 1995-96
followed by a severe drought in 1997 have resulted in increasingly
serious food shortages. Substantial grain shipments from Japan and
South Korea are offsetting a portion of the losses. North Korea
remains far behind South Korea in economic development and living
standards.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$21.8 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: -3.7% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$900 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 25%
industry: 60%
services: 15% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 9.615 million
by occupation: agricultural 36%, nonagricultural 64%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $19.3 billion
expenditures: $19.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1992 est.)

Industries: military products; machine building, electric power,
chemicals; mining (coal, iron ore, magnesite, graphite, copper, zinc,
lead, and precious metals), metallurgy; textiles, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: -7% to -9% (1992 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 9.5 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 35.2 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,499 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: rice, corn, potatoes, soybeans, pulses; cattle,
pigs, pork, eggs

Exports:
total value: $912 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: minerals, metallurgical products, agricultural and
fishery products, manufactures (including armaments)
partners: China, Japan, South Korea, Germany, Hong Kong, Russia

Imports:
total value: $1.95 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: petroleum, grain, coking coal, machinery and equipment,
consumer goods
partners: China, Japan, Hong Kong, Germany, Russia, Singapore

Debt-external: $12 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: an estimated $200 million to $300 million in aid from US,
South Korea, Japan, and EU in 1997

Currency: 1 North Korean won (Wn) = 100 chon

Exchange rates: North Korean won (Wn) per US$1-2.15 (May 1994), 2.13
(May 1992), 2.14 (September 1991), 2.1 (January 1990), 2.3 (December
1989)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 30,000 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: system is believed to be available principally for
government business
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth stations-1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and
1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region); other international connections
through Moscow and Beijing

Radio broadcast stations: AM 18, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 3.5 million

Television broadcast stations: 11

Televisions: 400,000 (1992 est.)

@Korea, North:Transportation

Railways:
total: 5,000 km
standard gauge: 4,095 km 1.435-m gauge (3,500 km electrified; 159 km
double track)
narrow gauge: 665 km 0.762-m gauge
dual gauge: 240 km (standard and broad gauge) (1996 est.)

Highways:
total: 31,200 km
paved: 1,997 km
unpaved: 29,203 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 2,253 km; mostly navigable by small craft only

Pipelines: crude oil 37 km

Ports and harbors: Ch'ongjin, Haeju, Hungnam (Hamhung), Kimch'aek,
Kosong, Najin, Namp'o, Sinuiju, Songnim, Sonbong (formerly Unggi),
Ungsang, Wonsan

Merchant marine:
total: 105 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 663,527 GRT/930,587 DWT
ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 87, combination bulk 1, multifunction
large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 3, passenger 3, passenger-cargo 1,
short-sea passenger 2
note: North Korea owns an additional 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 15,143 DWT operating under the registry of Honduras (1997
est.)

Airports: 49 (1994 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 22
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1994 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 27
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 6 (1994 est.)

@Korea, North:Military

Military branches: Korean People's Army (includes Army, Navy, Air
Force), Civil Security Forces

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 5,704,690 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 3,449,880 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 175,181 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $5 billion to $7 billion (1995
est.)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 25% (1995 est.)

@Korea, North:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: 33-km section of boundary with China in the
Paektu-san (mountain) area is indefinite; Demarcation Line with South
Korea

______________________________________________________________________

KOREA, SOUTH

@Korea, South:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, southern half of the Korean Peninsula
bordering the Sea of Japan and the Yellow Sea

Geographic coordinates: 37 00 N, 127 30 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 98,480 sq km
land: 98,190 sq km
water: 290 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Indiana

Land boundaries:
total: 238 km
border countries: North Korea 238 km

Coastline: 2,413 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: not specified
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm; 3 nm in the Korea Strait

Climate: temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter

Terrain: mostly hills and mountains; wide coastal plains in west and
south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sea of Japan 0 m
highest point: Halla-san 1,950 m

Natural resources: coal, tungsten, graphite, molybdenum, lead,
hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 19%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 65%
other: 13% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 13,350 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional typhoons bring high winds and floods;
low-level seismic activity common in southwest

Environment-current issues: air pollution in large cities; water
pollution from the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents; drift
net fishing

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

@Korea, South:People

Population: 46,416,796 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (male 5,505,564; female 4,894,780)
15-64 years: 71% (male 16,772,319; female 16,272,145)
65 years and over: 7% (male 1,126,963; female 1,845,025) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.01% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 16.08 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.67 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.14 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.79 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.95 years
male: 70.37 years
female: 78 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.79 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Korean(s)
adjective: Korean

Ethnic groups: homogeneous (except for about 20,000 Chinese)

Religions: Christianity 49%, Buddhism 47%, Confucianism 3%, pervasive
folk religion (shamanism), Chondogyo (Religion of the Heavenly Way),
and other 1%

Languages: Korean, English widely taught in junior high and high
school

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99.3%
female: 96.7% (1995 est.)

@Korea, South:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Korea
conventional short form: South Korea
local long form: Taehan-min'guk
local short form: none
note: the South Koreans generally use the term "Hanguk" to refer to
their country
abbreviation: ROK

Data code: KS

Government type: republic

National capital: Seoul

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and 6
special cities* (gwangyoksi, singular and plural); Cheju-do,
Cholla-bukto, Cholla-namdo, Ch'ungch'ong-bukto, Ch'ungch'ong-namdo,
Inch'on-gwangyoksi*, Kangwon-do, Kwangju-gwangyoksi*, Kyonggi-do,
Kyongsang-bukto, Kyongsang-namdo, Pusan-gwangyoksi*, Soul-t'ukpyolsi*,
Taegu-gwangyoksi*, Taejon-gwangyoksi*

Independence: 15 August 1945; note-date of liberation from Japanese
colonial rule

National holiday: Liberation Day, 15 August (1945)

Constitution: 25 February 1988

Legal system: combines elements of continental European civil law
systems, Anglo-American law, and Chinese classical thought

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Kim Dae-jung (since 25 February 1998)
head of government: Acting Prime Minister KIM Chong-p'il (since 3
March 1998)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the president on the prime
minister's recommendation
elections: president elected by popular vote for a single five-year
term; election last held 18 December 1997 (next to be held 18 December
2002); prime minister appointed by the president; deputy prime
ministers appointed by the president on the prime minister's
recommendation
election results: Kim Dae-jung elected president; percent of vote-Kim
Dae-jung (NCNP) 40.3%, YI Hoe-chang (GNP) 38.7%, YI In-che (NPP) 19.2%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Kukhoe (299 seats;
members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 11 April 1996 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-NKP 139,
NCNP 79, ULD 50, DP 15, independents 16; note-the distribution of
seats as of February 1998 was GNP 165, NCNP 78, ULD 43, NPP 8,
independents 4, vacant 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, justices are appointed by the
president subject to the consent of the National Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Grand National Party (GNP), CHO Sun,
president; National Congress for New Politics (NCNP), Kim Dae-jung,
president; United Liberal Democrats (ULD), PAK Tae-chun, president;
New People's Party (NPP), YI In-che, president
note: subsequent to the legislative election of April 1996 the
following parties disbanded-New Korea Party (NKP) and Democratic Party
(DP)

Political pressure groups and leaders: Korean National Council of
Churches; National Democratic Alliance of Korea; National Federation
of Student Associations; National Federation of Farmers' Associations;
National Council of Labor Unions; Federation of Korean Trade Unions;
Korean Veterans' Association; Federation of Korean Industries; Korean
Traders Association; Korean Confederation of Trade Unions

International organization participation: AfDB, APEC, AsDB, BIS
(pending member), CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NSG, OAS (observer),
OECD, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNOMIG, UNU,
UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador YI Hong-ku
chancery: 2450 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-5600
consulate(s) general: Agana (Guam), Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston,
Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San
Francisco, and Seattle

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen W. BOSWORTH
embassy: 82 Sejong-Ro, Chongro-ku, Seoul
mailing address: American Embassy, Unit 15550, APO AP 96205-0001
telephone: [82] (2) 397-4114
FAX: [82] (2) 738-8845
consulate(s): Pusan

Flag description: white with a red (top) and blue yin-yang symbol in
the center; there is a different black trigram from the ancient I
Ching (Book of Changes) in each corner of the white field

@Korea, South:Economy

Economy-overview: As one of the Four Dragons of East Asia, South Korea
has achieved an incredible record of growth. Three decades ago its GDP
per capita was comparable with levels in the poorer countries of
Africa and Asia. Today its GDP per capita is eight times India's, 15
times North Korea's, and already up with the lesser economies of the
European Union. This success through the late 1980s was achieved by a
system of close government business ties, including directed credit,
import restrictions, sponsorship of specific industries, and a strong
labor effort. The government promoted the import of raw materials and
technology at the expense of consumer goods and encouraged savings and
investment over consumption. The Asian financial crisis of 1997/98
exposed certain longstanding weaknesses in South Korea's development
model, including high debt/equity ratios, massive foreign borrowing,
and an undisciplined financial sector. Also, a number of private
sector conglomerates are near bankruptcy. At yearend 1997, an
international effort, spearheaded by the IMF, was underway to shore up
reserves and stabilize the economy. Growth in 1998 will be sharply
cut. Long-term growth will depend on how successfully South Korea
implements planned economic reforms that would bolster the financial
sector, improve corporate management, and open the economy further to
foreign participation.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$631.2 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$13,700 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 8%
industry: 45%
services: 47% (1991 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 5% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 20 million
by occupation: services and other 52%, mining and manufacturing 27%,
agriculture, fishing, forestry 21% (1991)

Unemployment rate: 2% (1996)

Budget:
revenues: $101 billion
expenditures: $101 billion, including capital expenditures of $20
billion (1996 est.)

Industries: electronics, automobile production, chemicals,
shipbuilding, steel, textiles, clothing, footwear, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: 8.2% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 31.665 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 174.52 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 3,831 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: rice, root crops, barley, vegetables, fruit;
cattle, pigs, chickens, milk, eggs; fish catch of 2.9 million metric
tons, seventh largest in world

Exports:
total value: $129.8 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: electronic and electrical equipment, machinery, steel,
automobiles, ships; textiles, clothing, footwear; fish
partners: US 17%, EU 13%, Japan 12% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $150.2 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery, electronics and electronic equipment, oil,
steel, transport equipment, textiles, organic chemicals, grains
partners: US 22%, Japan 21%, EU 13% (1995)

Debt-external: $154 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 South Korean won (W) = 100 chun (theoretical)

Exchange rates: South Korean won (W) per US$1-1,706.80 (January 1998),
951.29 (1997), 804.45 (1996), 771.27 (1995), 803.45 (1994), 802.67
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 16.6 million (1993)

Telephone system: excellent domestic and international services
domestic: NA
international: fiber-optic submarine cable to China; satellite earth
stations-3 Intelsat (2 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1
Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 79, FM 46, shortwave 0

Radios: 42 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 256 (57 of which are 1 kW or greater)
(1987 est.)

Televisions: 9.3 million (1992 est.)

@Korea, South:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,081 km
standard gauge: 3,081 km 1.435-m gauge (560 km electrified) (1996
est.)

Highways:
total: 83,400 km
paved: 63,467 km (including 1,920 km of expressways)
unpaved: 19,933 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,609 km; use restricted to small native craft

Pipelines: petroleum products 455 km; note-additionally, there is a
parallel petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) pipeline being
completed

Ports and harbors: Chinhae, Inch'on, Kunsan, Masan, Mokp'o, P'ohang,
Pusan, Tonghae-hang, Ulsan, Yosu

Merchant marine:
total: 474 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,749,052 GRT/10,447,597
DWT
ships by type: bulk 118, cargo 131, chemical tanker 28, combination
bulk 3, combination ore/oil 1, container 70, liquefied gas tanker 12,
multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 72, refrigerated cargo
22, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea passenger 2, vehicle carrier
13
note: South Korea owns an additional 273 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 11,985,267 DWT operating under the registries of Cambodia,
Cyprus, Liberia, Malta, Panama, and Singapore (1997 est.)

Airports: 103 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 67
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 18
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 19 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 36
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 32 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 202 (1997 est.)

@Korea, South:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, National
Maritime Police (Coast Guard)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 13,849,615 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 8,837,541 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 399,034 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $17.4 billion (1996)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 3.3% (1996)

@Korea, South:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Demarcation Line with North Korea; Liancourt
Rocks (Takeshima/Tokdo) claimed by Japan

______________________________________________________________________

KUWAIT

@Kuwait:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iraq and
Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 29 30 N, 45 45 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 17,820 sq km
land: 17,820 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries:
total: 464 km
border countries: Iraq 242 km, Saudi Arabia 222 km

Coastline: 499 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters

Terrain: flat to slightly undulating desert plain

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 306 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, shrimp, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 8%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 92% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: sudden cloudbursts are common from October to April,
they bring inordinate amounts of rain which can damage roads and
houses; sandstorms and dust storms occur throughout the year, but are
most common between March and August

Environment-current issues: limited natural fresh water resources;
some of world's largest and most sophisticated desalination facilities
provide much of the water; air and water pollution; desertification

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Marine
Dumping

Geography-note: strategic location at head of Persian Gulf

@Kuwait:People

Population: 1,913,285 (July 1998 est.)
note: includes 1,168,185 non-nationals (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (male 338,933; female 279,087)
15-64 years: 66% (male 811,713; female 444,679)
65 years and over: 2% (male 23,642; female 15,231) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 4.1% (1998 est.)
note: this rate reflects the continued post-Gulf crisis return of
expatriates

Birth rate: 20.97 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 2.29 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 22.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.21 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.82 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.55 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10.74 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.78 years
male: 74.76 years
female: 78.91 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.44 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Kuwaiti(s)
adjective: Kuwaiti

Ethnic groups: Kuwaiti 45%, other Arab 35%, South Asian 9%, Iranian
4%, other 7%

Religions: Muslim 85% (Sunni 45%, Shi'a 40%), Christian, Hindu, Parsi,
and other 15%

Languages: Arabic (official), English widely spoken

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 78.6%
male: 82.2%
female: 74.9% (1995 est.)

@Kuwait:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: State of Kuwait
conventional short form: Kuwait
local long form: Dawlat al Kuwayt
local short form: Al Kuwayt

Data code: KU

Government type: nominal constitutional monarchy

National capital: Kuwait

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