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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists); New Beginnings Movement
(NBM)

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB,
ECLAC, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UNITAR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard Leighton BERNAL
chancery: 1520 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 452-0660
FAX: [1] (202) 452-0081
consulate(s) general: Miami and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Stanley Louis MCLELLAND
embassy: Jamaica Mutual Life Center, 2 Oxford Road, 3rd floor,
Kingston
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [1] (809) 929-4850 through 4859
FAX: [1] (809) 926-6743

Flag description: diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four
triangles-green (top and bottom) and black (hoist side and outer side)

@Jamaica:Economy

Economy-overview: Key sectors in this island economy are bauxite
(alumina and bauxite account for more than half of exports) and
tourism. Since assuming office in 1992, Prime Minister PATTERSON has
eliminated most price controls, streamlined tax schedules, and
privatized government enterprises. Continued tight monetary and fiscal
policies have helped slow inflation and stabilize the exchange rate,
but have resulted in the slow-down of economic growth (moving from
1.5% in 1992 to 0.5% in 1995. In 1996, GDP was in negative growth
(-1.4%) and remained so in 1997. Serious problems include: high
interest rates; increased foreign competition; the weak financial
condition of business in general resulting in receiverships or
closures and downsizings of companies; the shift in investment
portfolios to non-productive, short-term high yield instruments; a
pressured, sometimes sliding, exchange rate; a widening merchandise
trade deficit; and a growing internal debt for government bailouts to
various ailing sectors of the economy. Jamaica's medium-term prospects
will depend upon encouraging investment in the productive sectors,
maintaining a competitive exchange rate, stabilizing the labor
environment, and implementing proper fiscal and monetary policies.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$9.5 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: -1.4% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$3,660 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 8%
industry: 37%
services: 55% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 17% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.14 million (1996)
by occupation: services 41%, agriculture 22.5%, industry 19%,
unemployed 17.5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 16% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $3 billion
expenditures: $3 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.163
billion (FY97/98 est.)

Industries: tourism, bauxite, textiles, food processing, light
manufactures

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 1.182 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 3.87 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,503 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus, potatoes,
vegetables; poultry, goats, milk

Exports:
total value: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: alumina, bauxite, sugar, bananas, rum
partners: US 37%, UK 13%, Canada 12%, Netherlands 9%, Norway 7%

Imports:
total value: $2.9 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, construction
materials, fuel, food, chemicals
partners: US 52%, Trinidad and Tobago 8%, Japan 6%, UK 4%, Canada 3%

Debt-external: $3.2 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $306 million (1996)

Currency: 1 Jamaican dollar (J$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Jamaican dollars (J$) per US$1-36.051 (November 1997),
37.120 (1996), 35.142 (1995), 33.086 (1994), 24.949 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 350,000 (1997 est.)

Telephone system: fully automatic domestic telephone network
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); 3
coaxial submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 7, shortwave 0 (1997)

Radios: 1.973 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 8

Televisions: 330,000 (1992 est.)

@Jamaica:Transportation

Railways:
total: 370 km
standard gauge: 370 km 1.435-m gauge; note-207 km belong to the
Jamaica Railway Corporation in common carrier service, but are no
longer operational; the remaining track is privately owned and used to
transport bauxite

Highways:
total: 18,700 km
paved: 13,100 km
unpaved: 5,600 km (gravel 3,200 km; improved earth 2,400 km) (1997
est.)

Pipelines: petroleum products 10 km

Ports and harbors: Alligator Pond, Discovery Bay, Kingston, Montego
Bay, Ocho Rios, Port Antonio, Rocky Point, Longswharf

Merchant marine:
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,931 GRT/10,545 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 (1997
est.)

Airports: 36 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 5 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 25
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 23 (1997 est.)

@Jamaica:Military

Military branches: Jamaica Defense Force (includes Ground Forces,
Coast Guard and Air Wing), Jamaica Constabulary Force

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 703,697 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 496,276 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 25,525 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $47.9 million (FY97/98 est.)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Jamaica:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine from Central and South
America to North America and Europe; illicit cultivation of cannabis;
government has an active manual cannabis eradication program

______________________________________________________________________

JAN MAYEN

(territory of Norway)

@Jan Mayen:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, island between the Greenland Sea and the
Norwegian Sea, northeast of Iceland

Geographic coordinates: 71 00 N, 8 00 W

Map references: Arctic Region

Area:
total: 373 sq km
land: 373 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 124.1 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 10 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate: arctic maritime with frequent storms and persistent fog

Terrain: volcanic island, partly covered by glaciers

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m
highest point: Haakon VII Toppen/Beerenberg 2,277 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: dominated by the volcano Beerenberg; volcanic
activity resumed in 1970

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: barren volcanic island with some moss and grass

@Jan Mayen:People

Population: no permanent inhabitants
note: there are personnel who operate the Long Range Navigation
(Loran) C base and the weather and coastal services radio station

@Jan Mayen:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Jan Mayen

Data code: JN

Dependency status: territory of Norway; administered from Oslo through
a governor (sysselmann) resident in Longyearbyen (Svalbard); however,
authority has been delegated to a station commander of the Norwegian
Defense Communication Service

Legal system: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Norway)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Norway)

Flag description: the flag of Norway is used

@Jan Mayen:Economy

Economy-overview: Jan Mayen is a volcanic island with no exploitable
natural resources. Economic activity is limited to providing services
for employees of Norway's radio and meteorological stations located on
the island.

Communications

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
note: radio and meteorological station

@Jan Mayen:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Jan Mayen:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of Norway

@Jan Mayen:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

JAPAN

@Japan:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, island chain between the North Pacific Ocean
and the Sea of Japan, east of the Korean Peninsula

Geographic coordinates: 36 00 N, 138 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 377,835 sq km
land: 374,744 sq km
water: 3,091 sq km
note: includes Bonin Islands (Ogasawara-gunto), Daito-shoto,
Minami-jima, Okino-tori-shima, Ryukyu Islands (Nansei-shoto), and
Volcano Islands (Kazan-retto)

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than California

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 29,751 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm; 3 nm in the international straits-La Perouse
or Soya, Tsugaru, Osumi, and Eastern and Western Channels of the Korea
or Tsushima Strait

Climate: varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Hachiro-gata -4 m
highest point: Fujiyama 3,776 m

Natural resources: negligible mineral resources, fish

Land use:
arable land: 11%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 2%
forests and woodland: 67%
other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 27,820 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500
seismic occurrences (mostly tremors) every year; tsunamis

Environment-current issues: air pollution from power plant emissions
results in acid rain; acidification of lakes and reservoirs degrading
water quality and threatening aquatic life; Japan's appetite for fish
and tropical timber is contributing to the depletion of these
resources in Asia and elsewhere

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

Geography-note: strategic location in northeast Asia

@Japan:People

Population: 125,931,533 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 15% (male 9,802,921; female 9,342,254)
15-64 years: 69% (male 43,486,840; female 43,135,979)
65 years and over: 16% (male 8,388,242; female 11,775,297) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.2% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 10.26 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.94 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 80 years
male: 76.91 years
female: 83.25 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.46 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Japanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Japanese

Ethnic groups: Japanese 99.4%, other 0.6% (mostly Korean)

Religions: observe both Shinto and Buddhist 84%, other 16% (including
Christian 0.7%)

Languages: Japanese

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1970 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Japan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Japan

Data code: JA

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Tokyo

Administrative divisions: 47 prefectures; Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba,
Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka, Fukushima, Gifu, Gumma, Hiroshima, Hokkaido,
Hyogo, Ibaraki, Ishikawa, Iwate, Kagawa, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kochi,
Kumamoto, Kyoto, Mie, Miyagi, Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki, Nara,
Niigata, Oita, Okayama, Okinawa, Osaka, Saga, Saitama, Shiga, Shimane,
Shizuoka, Tochigi, Tokushima, Tokyo, Tottori, Toyama, Wakayama,
Yamagata, Yamaguchi, Yamanashi

Independence: 660 BC (traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu)

National holiday: Birthday of the Emperor, 23 December (1933)

Constitution: 3 May 1947

Legal system: modeled after European civil law system with
English-American influence; judicial review of legislative acts in the
Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989)
head of government: Prime Minister Ryutaro HASHIMOTO (since 11 January
1996); note-an acting prime minister-determined upon a rotational
basis-serves when Prime Minister HASHIMOTO is out of the country
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections: none; the emperor is a constitutional monarch; the Diet
designates the prime minister; the constitution requires that the
prime minister must command a parliamentary majority, therefore,
following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or
leader of a majority coalition in the House of Representatives usually
becomes prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Diet or Kokkai consists of the House of
Councillors or Sangi-in (252 seats; one-half of the members elected
every three years-76 seats of which are elected from the 47 multi-seat
prefectural districts and 50 of which are elected from a single
nationwide list with voters casting ballots by party; members elected
by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of
Representatives or Shugi-in (500 seats-200 of which are elected from
11 regional blocks on a proportional representation basis and 300 of
which are elected from 300 single-seat districts; members elected by
popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: House of Councillors-last held 23 July 1995 (next to be
held NA July 1998); House of Representatives-last held 20 October 1996
(next to be held by October 2000)
election results: House of Councillors-percent of vote by party-NA;
seats by party - LDP 110, NFP 56, SDP 38, JCP 14, Sakigake 3, others
19, independents 12; note-the distribution of seats as of April 1998
is as follows-LDP 118, DPJ 41, Komei 24, SDP 21, JCP 14, Liberal Party
12, Sakigake 3, Reform Club 3, others 14, vacancies 2; House of
Representatives-percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party-LDP 240,
NFP 142, DPJ 52, JCP 26, SDP 15, Sun Party 10, others 15; note-the
distribution of seats as of April 1998 is as follows - LDP 261, DPJ
93, Liberal Party 40, New Peace Party 37, JCP 26, SDP 15, Reform Club
9, Sakigake 2, others 17

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice is appointed by the
emperor after designation by the cabinet, all other justices are
appointed by the cabinet

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), Ryutaro
HASHIMOTO, president, Koichi KATO, secretary general; Social
Democratic Party (SDP), Takako DOI, chairperson, Tadatoshi AKIBA,
secretary general; Sakigake (Harbinger), Akiko DOMOTO, chairperson,
Hiroyuki SONODA, secretary general; Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ),
Naoto KAN, leader, Tsutomu HATA, secretary general; Japan Communist
Party (JCP), Tetsuzo FUWA, chairman, Kazuo SHII, secretary general;
Komei, Toshiko HAMAYOTSU, chief; Liberal Party, Ichiro OZAWA,
president, Takeshi NODA, secretary general; New Peace Party, Takenori
KANZAKI, leader, Tetsuzo FUYUBASHI, secretary general; Reform Club,
Tatsuo OZAWA, leader, Katsuyuki ISHIDA, secretary general
note: subsequent to the last legislative elections, the New Frontier
Party (NFP) disbanded; the Sun Party was formed by former NFP members,
but later disbanded; the DPJ was formed by former members of the SDP
and Sakigake and, in April 1998, was joined by three additional
parties which had formed after the NFP disbanded; Reform Club, New
Peace Party, and Liberal Party were formed in January 1998 after the
NFP disbanded

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), APEC,
AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE (observer), CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO,
G- 2, G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NEA, NSG, OAS
(observer), OECD, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UN Security Council
(temporary), UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNRWA, UNU,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kunihiko SAITO
chancery: 2520 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 328-2187
consulate(s) general: Agana (Guam), Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston,
Chicago, Detroit, Honolulu, Houston, Kansas City (Missouri), Los
Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Portland (Oregon), San
Francisco, and Seattle
consulate(s): Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas S. FOLEY
embassy: 10-5, Akasaka 1-chome, Minato-ku (107), Tokyo
mailing address: Unit 45004, Box 258, APO AP 96337-0001
telephone: [81] (3) 3224-5000
FAX: [81] (3) 3505-1862
consulate(s) general: Naha (Okinawa), Osaka-Kobe, Sapporo
consulate(s): Fukuoka, Nagoya

Flag description: white with a large red disk (representing the sun
without rays) in the center

@Japan:Economy

Economy-overview: Government-industry cooperation, a strong work
ethic, mastery of high technology, and a comparatively small defense
allocation (roughly 1% of GDP) have helped Japan advance with
extraordinary rapidity to the rank of second most powerful economy in
the world. One notable characteristic of the economy is the working
together of manufacturers, suppliers, and distributors in closely knit
groups called keiretsu. A second basic feature has been the guarantee
of lifetime employment for a substantial portion of the urban labor
force; this guarantee is eroding. Industry, the most important sector
of the economy, is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and
fuels. The much smaller agricultural sector is highly subsidized and
protected, with crop yields among the highest in the world. Usually
self-sufficient in rice, Japan must import about 50% of its
requirements of other grain and fodder crops. Japan maintains one of
the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the
global catch. For three decades overall real economic growth had been
spectacular: a 10% average in the 1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s,
and a 4% average in the 1980s. Growth slowed markedly in 1992-95
largely because of the aftereffects of overinvestment during the late
1980s and contractionary domestic policies intended to wring
speculative excesses from the stock and real estate markets. Growth
picked up to 3.9% in 1996, largely a reflection of stimulative fiscal
and monetary policies as well as low rates of inflation. But in 1997
growth fell back to 1%. As a result of the expansionary fiscal
policies and declining tax revenues due to the recession, Japan has
one of the largest budget deficits as a percent of GDP among the
industrialized countries. The crowding of habitable land area and the
aging of the population are two other major long-run problems.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$3.08 trillion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 0.9% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$24,500 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 2%
industry: 41.5%
services: 56.5% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1.7% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 67.23 million (March 1997)
by occupation: trade and services 50%, manufacturing, mining, and
construction 33%, utilities and communication 7%, agriculture,
forestry, and fishing 6%, government 3% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 3.4% (1997)

Budget:
revenues: $497 billion
expenditures: $621 billion, including capital expenditures (public
works only) of about $72 billion (FY98/99 est.)

Industries: among world's largest and technologically advanced
producers of steel and nonferrous metallurgy, heavy electrical
equipment, construction and mining equipment, motor vehicles and
parts, electronic and telecommunication equipment, machine tools,
automated production systems, locomotives and railroad rolling stock,
ships, chemicals; textiles, processed foods

Industrial production growth rate: 4.3% (1997)

Electricity-capacity: 199.878 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 930.55 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 7,414 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit; pork,
poultry, dairy products, eggs; world's largest fish catch of 10
million metric tons in 1991

Exports:
total value: $421 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: manufactures 96% (including machinery 50%, motor vehicles
19%, consumer electronics 3%)
partners: US 27%, Southeast Asia 17%, EU 15%, China 5%

Imports:
total value: $339 billion (c.i.f., 1997)
commodities: manufactures 54%, foodstuffs and raw materials 28%,
fossil fuels 16%
partners: US 22%, Southeast Asia 15%, EU 14%, China 12%

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $8.3 billion (1998 est.)
note: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-94), $174 billion

Currency: yen ()

Exchange rates: yen () per US$1-129.45 (January 1998), 120.99 (1997),
108.78 (1996), 94.06 (1995), 102.21 (1994), 111.20 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 64 million (1987 est.)

Telephone system: excellent domestic and international service
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth stations-5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region), and 1
Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions); submarine cables to
China, Philippines, Russia, and US (via Guam)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 318, FM 58, shortwave 0

Radios: 97 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 12,350 (1 kW or greater 196)

Televisions: 100 million (1993 est.)

@Japan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 23,670.7 km
standard gauge: 2,893.1 km 1.435-m gauge (entirely electrified)
narrow gauge: 89.8 km 1.372-m gauge (89.8 km electrified); 20,656.8 km
1.067-m gauge (10,383.6 km electrified); 31 km 0.762-m gauge (3.6 km
electrified) (1994)

Highways:
total: 1.16 million km
paved: 859,560 km (including 6,070 km of expressways)
unpaved: 300,440 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: about 1,770 km; seagoing craft ply all coastal inland seas

Pipelines: crude oil 84 km; petroleum products 322 km; natural gas
1,800 km

Ports and harbors: Akita, Amagasaki, Chiba, Hachinohe, Hakodate,
Higashi-Harima, Himeji, Hiroshima, Kawasaki, Kinuura, Kobe, Kushiro,
Mizushima, Moji, Nagoya, Osaka, Sakai, Sakaide, Shimizu, Tokyo,
Tomakomai

Merchant marine:
total: 738 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 14,323,766
GRT/20,709,738 DWT
ships by type: bulk 169, cargo 55, chemical tanker 6, combination bulk
11, combination ore/oil 6, container 32, liquefied gas tanker 39, oil
tanker 244, passenger 7, passenger-cargo 2, refrigerated cargo 34,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 46, short-sea passenger 16, specialized tanker
1, vehicle carrier 70
note: Japan owns an additional 1,534 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 54,985,374 DWT operating under the registries of The Bahamas,
Burma, Cayman Islands, Cyprus, Hong Kong, Honduras, Liberia, Marshall
Islands, Norway, Panama, Philippines, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Singapore, and Vanuatu (1997 est.)

Airports: 167 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 137
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 32
1,524 to 2,437 m: 38
914 to 1,523 m: 29
under 914 m: 31 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 30
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 28 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 14 (1997 est.)

@Japan:Military

Military branches: Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (Army), Japan
Maritime Self-Defense Force (Navy), Japan Air Self-Defense Force (Air
Force)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 31,105,541 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 26,778,356 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 808,846 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $48.5 billion (FY96/97)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1% (FY96/97)

@Japan:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and
the Habomai group occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now
administered by Russia, claimed by Japan; Liancourt Rocks
(Takeshima/Tokdo) disputed with South Korea; Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku
Islands) claimed by China and Taiwan

______________________________________________________________________

JARVIS ISLAND

(territory of the US)

@Jarvis Island:Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half
of the way from Hawaii to the Cook Islands

Geographic coordinates: 0 22 S, 160 03 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 4.5 sq km
land: 4.5 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about eight times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 8 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 23 m

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can
be a maritime hazard

Environment-current issues: no natural fresh water resources

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: sparse bunch grass, prostrate vines, and low-growing
shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for
seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife; feral cats

@Jarvis Island:People

Population: uninhabited
note: Millersville settlement on western side of island occasionally
used as a weather station from 1935 until World War II, when it was
abandoned; reoccupied in 1957 during the International Geophysical
Year by scientists who left in 1958; public entry is by special-use
permit only and generally restricted to scientists and educators

@Jarvis Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Jarvis Island

Data code: DQ

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered
from Washington, DC by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US
Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge
system

Legal system: NA

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

@Jarvis Island:Economy

Economy-overview: no economic activity

@Jarvis Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only; note-there is one
boat landing area in the middle of the west coast and another near the
southwest corner of the island

Transportation-note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the west
coast

@Jarvis Island:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited
annually by the US Coast Guard

@Jarvis Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

JERSEY

(British crown dependency)

@Jersey:Geography

Location: Western Europe, island in the English Channel, northwest of
France

Geographic coordinates: 49 15 N, 2 10 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 116 sq km
land: 116 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 70 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: temperate; mild winters and cool summers

Terrain: gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 143 m

Natural resources: agricultural land

Land use:
arable land: 66%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 34%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; about 30%
of population concentrated in Saint Helier

@Jersey:People

Population: 89,136 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 8,160; female 7,567)
15-64 years: 68% (male 30,106; female 30,639)
65 years and over: 14% (male 5,243; female 7,421) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.68% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 12.27 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 9.12 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 2.75 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.67 years
male: 75.93 years
female: 81.71 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Channel Islander(s)
adjective: Channel Islander

Ethnic groups: UK and Norman-French descent

Religions: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Congregational New
Church, Methodist, Presbyterian

Languages: English (official), French (official), Norman-French
dialect spoken in country districts

Literacy: NA

@Jersey:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Bailiwick of Jersey
conventional short form: Jersey

Data code: JE

Dependency status: British crown dependency

Government type: NA

National capital: Saint Helier

Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)

Independence: none (British crown dependency)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)

Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and
practice

Legal system: English law and local statute

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief Sir
Michael WILKES (since NA 1995) and Bailiff Philip Martin BAILHACHE
(since NA 1995)
cabinet: committees appointed by the Assembly of the States
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; lieutenant
governor and bailiff appointed by the queen

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the States (57 seats, 53
elected including 12 senators popularly elected for six-year terms,
half retiring every third year, 12 constables popularly elected
triennially, and 29 deputies popularly elected triennially)
elections: last held NA (next to be held NA)
election results: percent of vote-NA; seats-independents 52

Judicial branch: Royal Court, judges elected by an electoral college
and the bailiff

Political parties and leaders: none; all independents

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (British crown dependency)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (British crown dependency)

Flag description: white with the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick
(patron saint of Ireland) extending to the corners of the flag

@Jersey:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy is based largely on financial services,
agriculture, and tourism. Potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes, and
especially flowers are important export crops, shipped mostly to the
UK. The Jersey breed of dairy cattle is known worldwide and represents
an important export earner. Milk products go to the UK and other EU
countries. In 1986 the finance sector overtook tourism as the main
contributor to GDP, accounting for 40% of the island's output. In
recent years, the government has encouraged light industry to locate
in Jersey, with the result that an electronics industry has developed
alongside the traditional manufacturing of knitwear. All raw material
and energy requirements are imported, as well as a large share of
Jersey's food needs. Light tax and death duties make the island a
popular tax haven.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$NA

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$NA

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $643.7 million
expenditures: $597.2 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995 est.)

Industries: tourism, banking and finance, dairy

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 50,000 kW standby
note: electricity supplied by France

Electricity-production: NA kWh
note: electricity supplied by France

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh (1992)

Agriculture-products: potatoes, cauliflowers, tomatoes; meat, dairy
products

Exports: $NA
commodities: light industrial and electrical goods, foodstuffs,
textiles
partners: UK

Imports: $NA
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods,
foodstuffs, mineral fuels, chemicals
partners: UK

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Jersey pound (J) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Jersey pounds (J) per US$1-0.6115 (January 1998),
0.6106 (1997), 0.6403 (1996), 0.6335 (1995), 0.6529 (1994), 0.6658
(1993); the Jersey pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 61,447 (1983 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: 3 submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: NA

@Jersey:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Gorey, Saint Aubin, Saint Helier

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Jersey:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Jersey:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

JOHNSTON ATOLL

(territory of the US)

@Johnston Atoll:Geography

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-third
of the way from Hawaii to the Marshall Islands

Geographic coordinates: 16 45 N, 169 30 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 2.8 sq km
land: 2.8 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 4.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 10 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds
with little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly flat

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Summit Peak 5 m

Natural resources: NA; guano deposits worked until depletion about
1890

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: no natural fresh water resources

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean;
Johnston Island and Sand Island are natural islands, which have been
expanded by coral dredging; North Island (Akau) and East Island
(Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral dredging; closed to the
public; former US nuclear weapons test site; site of Johnston Atoll
Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS); some low-growing vegetation

@Johnston Atoll:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there are 1,200 US military and civilian contractor personnel
(January 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: -6.41% (1998 est.)

@Johnston Atoll:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Johnston Atoll

Data code: JQ

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered
from Washington, DC, by the US Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA)
and managed cooperatively by DSWA and the Fish and Wildlife Service of
the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife
Refuge system

Legal system: NA

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

@Johnston Atoll:Economy

Economy-overview: Economic activity is limited to providing services
to US military personnel and contractors located on the island. All
food and manufactured goods must be imported.

Electricity-capacity: NA kW
note: electricity supplied by the base operating support contractor

Electricity-production: six 25,000 kWh generators
note: electricity supplied by the base operating support contractor

Communications

Telephone system: 13 outgoing and 10 incoming commercial lines;
adequate telecommunications
domestic: 60-channel submarine cable, 22 DSN circuits by satellite,
Autodin with standard remote terminal, digital telephone switch,
Military Affiliated Radio System (MARS station), UHF/VHF air-ground
radio, a link to the Pacific Consolidated Telecommunications Network
(PCTN) satellite
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM 5 channels; also 1 local volunteer
FM radio station;, shortwave NA; 1 amateur station, call sign KJ6BZ

Television broadcast stations: commercial satellite television system,
16 channels

@Johnston Atoll:Transportation

Ports and harbors: Johnston Island

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Johnston Atoll:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@Johnston Atoll:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

JORDAN

@Jordan:Geography

Location: Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 31 00 N, 36 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 89,213 sq km
land: 88,884 sq km
water: 329 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:
total: 1,619 km
border countries: Iraq 181 km, Israel 238 km, Saudi Arabia 728 km,
Syria 375 km, West Bank 97 km

Coastline: 26 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

Terrain: mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west; Great
Rift Valley separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m
highest point: Jabal Ram 1,754 m

Natural resources: phosphates, potash, shale oil

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 9%
forests and woodland: 1%
other: 85% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 630 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: limited natural fresh water resources;
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Jordan:People

Population: 4,434,978 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 985,211; female 935,982)
15-64 years: 54% (male 1,224,595; female 1,160,915)
65 years and over: 3% (male 64,406; female 63,869) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.54% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 35.18 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 3.91 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 33.29 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.84 years
male: 70.96 years
female: 74.84 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.79 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Jordanian(s)
adjective: Jordanian

Ethnic groups: Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim 96%, Christian 4% (1997 est.)

Languages: Arabic (official), English widely understood among upper
and middle classes

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 86.6%
male: 93.4%
female: 79.4% (1995 est.)

@Jordan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
conventional short form: Jordan
local long form: Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah
local short form: Al Urdun
former: Transjordan

Data code: JO

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Amman

Administrative divisions: 12 governorates (muhafazat,
singular-muhafazah); Ajlun, Al 'Aqabah, Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al
Mafraq, 'Amman, At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Jarash, Ma'an, Madaba

Independence: 25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under
British administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 May (1946)

Constitution: 8 January 1952

Legal system: based on Islamic law and French codes; judicial review
of legislative acts in a specially provided High Tribunal; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King HUSSEIN bin Talal Al-Hashimi (since 2 May 1953)
head of government: Prime Minister Abd al-Salam al-MAJALI (since 19
March 1997)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister in consultation with
the king
elections: none; the king is a constitutional monarch; prime minister
appointed by the king

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-'Umma
consists of the Senate (a 40-member body appointed by the king from
designated categories of public figures; members serve four-year
terms) and the House of Representatives (80 seats; members elected by
popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve
four-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives-last held 4 November 1997 (next to
be held NA November 2001)
election results: House of Representatives-percent of vote by
party-NA; seats by party - National Constitutional Party 2, Arab Land
Party 1, independents 75, other 2
note: the House of Representatives has been convened and dissolved by
the king several times since 1974; in November 1989 the first
parliamentary elections in 22 years were held

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

Political parties and leaders: Al-Ahrar (Freedom) Party, Dr. Ahmad
ZO'BI, secretary general; Arab Ba'th Progressive Party, Mahmoud
al-MA'AYTAH, secretary general; Arab Islamic Democratic Party (Doa'a),
Yousif ABU BAKR, secretary general; Arab Jordanian Ansar Party,
Muhammad MAJALI, secretary general; Arab Land Party, Dr. Muhammad
al-'ORAN, secretary general; Islamic Action Front, Dr. Ishaq
al-FARHAN, secretary general; Jordanian Arab Constitutional Front
Party, Milhem TELL, secretary general; Jordanian Ba'th Arab Socialist
Party, Tayseer al-HOMSI, secretary general; Jordanian Communist Party,
Ya'acoub ZAYADIN, secretary general; Jordanian Democratic Popular
Unity Party, Sa'eed MUSTAPHA, secretary general; Jordanian Labor
Party, Muhammad KHATAYIBAH, secretary general; Jordanian Peace Party,
Dr. Shaher KHREIS, secretary general; Jordanian People's Democratic
Party (HASHD), Salem NAHHAS, secretary general; Jordanian Unitary
Democratic Party, Mousa al-MA'AYTAH, secretary general; Al-Mustaqbal
(Future) Party, Suleiman 'ARAR, secretary general; National Action
Party (Haqq), Muhammad ZO'BI, secretary general; National
Constitutional Party, Abdul Hadi MAJALI, secretary general; National
Democratic Public Movement Party, Muhammad al-'AMER, secretary
general; Progressive Party, Na'el BARAKAT, secretary general; Al-Umma
(Nation) Party, Ahmad HNEIDI, secretary general

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF,
CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFCTU, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, MONUA, NAM, OIC, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNRWA, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Marwan Jamil MUASHIR
chancery: 3504 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 966-2664
FAX: [1] (202) 966-3110

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Wesley W. EGAN, Jr.
embassy: Jabel Amman, Amman
mailing address: P. O. Box 354, Amman 11118 Jordan; APO AE 09892-0200
telephone: [962] (6) 820101
FAX: [962] (6) 820159

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), white,
and green with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
bearing a small white seven-pointed star; the seven points on the star
represent the seven fundamental laws of the Koran

@Jordan:Economy

Economy-overview: Jordan is a small Arab country with inadequate
supplies of water and other natural resources such as oil and coal.
Jordan benefited from increased Arab aid during the oil boom of the
late 1970s and early 1980s, when its annual real GNP growth averaged
more than 10%. In the remainder of the 1980s, however, reductions in
both Arab aid and worker remittances slowed real economic growth to an
average of roughly 2% per year. Imports-mainly oil, capital goods,
consumer durables, and food-outstripped exports, with the difference
covered by aid, remittances, and borrowing. In mid-1989, the Jordanian
Government began debt-rescheduling negotiations and agreed to
implement an IMF-supported program designed to gradually reduce the
budget deficit and implement badly needed structural reforms. The
Persian Gulf crisis that began in August 1990, however, aggravated
Jordan's already serious economic problems, forcing the government to
shelve the IMF program, stop most debt payments, and suspend
rescheduling negotiations. Aid from Gulf Arab states, worker
remittances, and trade contracted; and refugees flooded the country,
producing serious balance-of-payments problems, stunting GDP growth,
and straining government resources. The economy rebounded in 1992,
largely due to the influx of capital repatriated by workers returning
from the Gulf, but recovery was uneven in 1994-97. The government is
implementing the reform program adopted in 1992 and continues to
secure rescheduling and write-offs of its heavy foreign debt. Debt,
poverty, and unemployment remain Jordan's biggest on-going problems.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$20.7 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5.3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$4,800 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 6%
industry: 30%
services: 64% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.15 million plus 300,000 foreign workers (1997 est.)
by occupation: industry 11.4%, commerce, restaurants, and hotels
10.5%, construction 10.0%, transport and communications 8.7%,
agriculture 7.4%, other services 52.0% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 15% official rate; note-actual rate is 20%-25%
(1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.7 billion
expenditures: $2.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $630
million (1997 est.)

Industries: phosphate mining, petroleum refining, cement, potash,
light manufacturing

Industrial production growth rate: -3.4% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 1.066 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 5.02 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,259 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, barley, citrus, tomatoes, melons, olives;
sheep, goats, poultry

Exports:
total value: $1.53 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: phosphates, fertilizers, potash, agricultural products,
manufactures
partners: Iraq, India, Saudi Arabia, EU, Indonesia, UAE

Imports:
total value: $3.7 billion (c.i.f., 1997)
commodities: crude oil, machinery, transport equipment, food, live
animals, manufactured goods
partners: EU, Iraq, US, Japan, Turkey

Debt-external: $7.3 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $424 million (1996)

Currency: 1 Jordanian dinar (JD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Jordanian dinars (JD) per US$1-0.7090 (January
1998-1996), 0.7005 (1995), 0.6987 (1994), 0.6928 (1993)
note: since May 1989, the dinar has been pegged to a basket of
currencies

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 81,500 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: adequate telephone system
domestic: microwave radio relay, cable, and radiotelephone links
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; coaxial cable and microwave radio
relay to Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Syria; microwave radio relay to
Lebanon is inactive; participant in Medarabtel

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 7, shortwave 0

Radios: 1.1 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 8 and 1 TV receive-only satellite link

Televisions: 350,000 (1992 est.)

@Jordan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 676 km
narrow gauge: 676 km 1.050-m gauge; note-an additional 110 km stretch
of the old Hejaz railroad is out of use

Highways:
total: 6,640 km
paved: 6,640 km
unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 209 km

Ports and harbors: Al 'Aqabah

Merchant marine:
total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 43,759 GRT/69,795 DWT
ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 17 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 14
over 3,047 m: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

@Jordan:Military

Military branches: Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF; includes Royal
Jordanian Land Force, Royal Naval Force, and Royal Jordanian Air
Force); Badiya (irregular) Border Guards; Ministry of the Interior's
Public Security Force (falls under JAF only in wartime or crisis
situations)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,076,618 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 766,973 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 48,706 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $627 million (1997 est.)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 7.8% (1997)

@Jordan:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND

(possession of France)

@Juan de Nova Island:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about
one-third of the way between Madagascar and Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 17 03 S, 42 45 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 4.4 sq km
land: 4.4 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about seven times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 24.1 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth the of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: NA

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 10 m

Natural resources: guano deposits and other fertilizers

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 90%
other: 10%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: periodic cyclones

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: wildlife sanctuary

@Juan de Nova Island:People

Population: uninhabited

@Juan de Nova Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Juan de Nova Island
local long form: none
local short form: Ile Juan de Nova

Data code: JU

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by a high
commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

Legal system: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (possession of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (possession of France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used

@Juan de Nova Island:Economy

Economy-overview: no economic activity

@Juan de Nova Island:Transportation

Railways:
total: NA km; short line going to a jetty

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Juan de Nova Island:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of France

@Juan de Nova Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: claimed by Madagascar

______________________________________________________________________

KAZAKHSTAN

@Kazakhstan:Geography

Location: Central Asia, northwest of China

Geographic coordinates: 48 00 N, 68 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 2,717,300 sq km
land: 2,669,800 sq km
water: 47,500 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than four times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 12,012 km
border countries: China 1,533 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km, Russia 6,846
km, Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan 2,203 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
note: Kazakhstan borders the Aral Sea (1,015 km) and the Caspian Sea
(1,894 km)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid

Terrain: extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the
plains in western Siberia to oasis and desert in Central Asia

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Vpadina Kaundy -132 m
highest point: Zhengis Shingy (Pik Khan-Tengri) 6,995 m

Natural resources: major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal,
iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum,
lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 11%
permanent pastures: 57%
forests and woodland: 4%
other: 16% (1996 est.)

Irrigated land: 22,000 sq km (1996 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes in the south, mudslides around Almaty

Environment-current issues: radioactive or toxic chemical sites
associated with its former defense industries and test ranges are
found throughout the country and pose health risks for humans and
animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the
two main rivers which flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for
irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of
chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then
picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in
the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals
and salinization from faulty irrigation practices

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Ship
Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: landlocked

@Kazakhstan:People

Population: 16,846,808 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 29% (male 2,486,607; female 2,413,207)
15-64 years: 64% (male 5,243,028; female 5,523,199)
65 years and over: 7% (male 393,950; female 786,817) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.17% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 17.24 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 10.15 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -8.79 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 58.25 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.59 years
male: 58.12 years
female: 69.33 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.12 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Kazakhstani(s)
adjective: Kazakhstani

Ethnic groups: Kazakh (Qazaq) 46%, Russian 34.7%, Ukrainian 4.9%,
German 3.1%, Uzbek 2.3%, Tatar 1.9%, other 7.1% (1996)

Religions: Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7%

Languages: Kazakh (Qazaq) official language spoken by over 40% of
population, Russian official language spoken by two-thirds of
population and used in everyday business

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 96% (1989 est.)

@Kazakhstan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Kazakhstan
conventional short form: Kazakhstan
local long form: Qazaqstan Respublikasy
local short form: none
former: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: KZ

Government type: republic

National capital: Astana (Akmola)
note: the government has recently moved from Almaty to Astana

Administrative divisions: 14 oblystar (singular-oblys) and 1 city
(qalalar, singular-qala)*; Almaty Qalasy*, Almaty Oblysy, Aqmola
Oblysy (Astana), Aqtobe Oblysy, Atyrau Oblysy, Batys Qazaqstan Oblysy
(Oral), Mangghystau Oblysy (Aqtau; formerly Gur'yev), Ongtustik
Qazaqstan Oblysy (Shymkent), Pavlodar Oblysy, Qaraghandy Oblysy,
Qostanay Oblysy, Qyzylorda Oblysy, Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy (Oskemen;
formerly Ust'-Kamenogorsk), Soltustik Qazaqstan Oblysy (Petropavl),
Zhambyl Oblysy (Taraz; formerly Dzhambul)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name
following in parentheses); in 1995 the governments of Kazakhstan and
Russia entered into an agreement whereby Russia would lease for a
period of 20 years an area of 6,000 sq km enclosing the Bayqongyr
(Baykonur) space launch facilities and the city of Bayqongyr (Leninsk)

Independence: 16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 October (1991); Republic Day,
16 December (1991)

Constitution: adopted by national referendum 30 August 1995; first
post-independence constitution was adopted 28 January 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV (chairman of the
Supreme Soviet from 22 February 1990-91, president since 1 December
1991)
head of government: Prime Minister Nurlan BALGIMBAYEV (since 10
October 1997) and First Deputy Prime Minister Uraz ZHANDOSOV (since 20
February 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 1 December 1991 (next to be held NA 2000);
note-President NAZARBAYEV's term was extended to the year 2000 by a
nationwide referendum held 30 April 1995; prime minister and first
deputy prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV elected president without
opposition; percent of vote-NA
note: President NAZARBAYEV has expanded his presidential powers by
decree: only he can initiate constitutional amendments, appoint and
dismiss the government, dissolve parliament, call referenda at his
discretion, and appoint administrative heads of regions and cities

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (47
seats; 7 senators are appointed by the president; other members are
popularly elected, two each from each oblast and Almaty, to serve
four-year terms) and the Majilis (67 seats; members are popularly
elected to serve four-year terms); note-with the oblasts being reduced
to 14, the Senate will eventually be reduced to 37
elections: Senate-(indirect) last held 5 December 1995 (next to be
held NA 1999); Majilis-last held 9 December and 23 December 1995 (next
to be held NA 1999)
election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-party members 13, no party affiliation 34, of which
"independent" state officials 25, nominated by the president 7,
elected by popular vote 15; Majilis-percent of vote by party-NA; seats
by party-PUP 24, December National Democratic Party 12, Kazakh
Agrarian Union 5, Confederation of Kazakh Trade Unions 5, KPK 2,
independents and others 19

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (44 members); Constitutional Council (7
members)

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