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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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Communications

Telephones: 3.02 million (1992 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: microwave radio relay extends throughout country; system
centered in Tehran
international: satellite earth stations-3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region); HF radio and
microwave radio relay to Turkey, Pakistan, Syria, Kuwait, Tajikistan,
and Uzbekistan; submarine fiber-optic cable to UAE

Radio broadcast stations: AM 77, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 14.3 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 28

Televisions: 3.9 million (1992 est.)

@Iran:Transportation

Railways:
total: 7,286 km
broad gauge: 94 km 1.676-m gauge
standard gauge: 7,192 km 1.435-m gauge (146 km electrified) (1996
est.)

Highways:
total: 162,000 km
paved: 81,000 km (including 470 km of expressways)
unpaved: 81,000 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 904 km; the Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime
traffic for about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 m and is in
use

Pipelines: crude oil 5,900 km; petroleum products 3,900 km; natural
gas 4,550 km

Ports and harbors: Abadan (largely destroyed in fighting during
1980-88 war), Ahvaz, Bandar 'Abbas, Bandar-e Anzali, Bushehr, Bandar-e
Khomeyni, Bandar-e Lengeh, Bandar-e Mahshahr, Bandar-e Torkaman,
Chabahar (Bandar Beheshti), Jazireh-ye Khark, Jazireh-ye Lavan,
Jazireh-ye Sirri, Khorramshahr (limited operation since November
1992), Now Shahr

Merchant marine:
total: 135 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,465,226 GRT/6,128,443
DWT
ships by type: bulk 47, cargo 34, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk
2, container 4, liquefied gas tanker 1, multifunction large-load
carrier 6, oil tanker 23, refrigerated cargo 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo
10, short-sea passenger 1
note: Iran owns an additional 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
245,742 DWT that operate under the registries of Cyprus, Honduras, and
Panama (1997 est.)

Airports: 280 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 103
over 3,047 m: 36
2,438 to 3,047 m: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 27
914 to 1,523 m: 21
under 914 m: 5 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 177
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 124
under 914 m: 34 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 11 (1997 est.)

@Iran:Military

Military branches: Islamic Republic of Iran regular forces (includes
Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces), Revolutionary Guards
(includes Ground, Air, Navy, Qods, and Basij-mobilization-forces), Law
Enforcement Forces

Military manpower-military age: 21 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 16,270,295 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 9,672,021 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 671,734 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: according to official Iranian
data, Iran budgeted 8,283.9 billion rials for defense in 1997;
note-conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using current
exchange rates could produce misleading results

@Iran:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations in
1990 but are still trying to work out written agreements settling
outstanding disputes from their eight-year war concerning border
demarcation, prisoners-of-war, and freedom of navigation and
sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab waterway; Iran occupies two islands
in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE: Lesser Tunb (called Tunb as
Sughra in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek in Persian by
Iran) and Greater Tunb (called Tunb al Kubra in Arabic by UAE and
Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg in Persian by Iran); it jointly administers
with the UAE an island in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE (called
Abu Musa in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Abu Musa in Persian by
Iran)-over which Iran has taken steps to exert unilateral control
since 1992, including access restrictions and a military build-up on
the island; the UAE has garnered significant diplomatic support in the
region in protesting these Iranian actions; Caspian Sea boundaries are
not yet determined among Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and
Turkmenistan

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium poppy for the domestic and
international drug trade; net opiate importer but also a key
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin to Europe

______________________________________________________________________

IRAQ

@Iraq:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and
Kuwait

Geographic coordinates: 33 00 N, 44 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 437,072 sq km
land: 432,162 sq km
water: 4,910 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Idaho

Land boundaries:
total: 3,631 km
border countries: Iran 1,458 km, Jordan 181 km, Kuwait 242 km, Saudi
Arabia 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turkey 331 km

Coastline: 58 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: not specified
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless
summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish
borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that
melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central
and southern Iraq

Terrain: mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border in
south with large flooded areas; mountains along borders with Iran and
Turkey

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Gundah Zhur 3,608 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 9%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 79% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 25,500 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dust storms, sandstorms, floods

Environment-current issues: government water control projects have
drained most of the inhabited marsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by
drying up or diverting the feeder streams and rivers; a once sizable
population of Shi'a Muslims, who have inhabited these areas for
thousands of years, has been displaced; furthermore, the destruction
of the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area's wildlife
populations; inadequate supplies of potable water; development of
Tigris-Euphrates Rivers system contingent upon agreements with
upstream riparian Turkey; air and water pollution; soil degradation
(salinization) and erosion; desertification

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

@Iraq:People

Population: 21,722,287 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (male 4,865,820; female 4,711,791)
15-64 years: 53% (male 5,794,336; female 5,662,163)
65 years and over: 3% (male 320,672; female 367,505) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.2% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 38.58 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 6.57 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 62.41 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.52 years
male: 65.54 years
female: 67.56 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.23 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Iraqi(s)
adjective: Iraqi

Ethnic groups: Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or
other 5%

Religions: Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or
other 3%

Languages: Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian,
Armenian

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 58%
male: 70.7%
female: 45% (1995 est.)

@Iraq:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Iraq
conventional short form: Iraq
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Iraqiyah
local short form: Al Iraq

Data code: IZ

Government type: republic

National capital: Baghdad

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (muhafazat,
singular-muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah,
An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'mim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk,
Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit

Independence: 3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under
British administration)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 17 July (1968)

Constitution: 22 September 1968, effective 16 July 1970 (provisional
Constitution); new constitution drafted in 1990 but not adopted

Legal system: based on Islamic law in special religious courts, civil
law system elsewhere; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President SADDAM Husayn (since 16 July 1979); Vice
President Taha Muhyi al-Din MARUF (since 21 April 1974); Vice
President Taha Yasin RAMADAN (since 23 March 1991)
head of government: Prime Minister SADDAM Husayn (since 29 May 1994);
Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Mikhail AZIZ (since NA 1979); Deputy Prime
Minister Taha Yasin RAMADAN (since NA May 1994); Deputy Prime Minister
Muhammad Hamza al-ZUBAYDI (since NA May 1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
note: there is also a Revolutionary Command Council; Chairman SADDAM
Husayn, Vice Chairman Izzat IBRAHIM al-Duri
elections: president and vice presidents elected by a two-thirds
majority of the Revolutionary Command Council; election last held 17
October 1995 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: SADDAM Husayn reelected president; percent of
vote-99%; Taha Muhyi al-Din MARUF and Taha Yasin RAMADAN elected vice
presidents; percent of vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-Watani
(250 seats; 30 appointed by SADDAM Husayn to represent the three
northern provinces of Dahuk, Arbil, and As Sulaymaniyah; 220 elected
by popular vote; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 24 March 1996 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-NA

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

Political parties and leaders: Ba'th Party, SADDAM Husayn, central
party leader

Political pressure groups and leaders: political parties and activity
severely restricted; opposition to regime from disaffected members of
the Ba'th Party, Army officers, tribes, and Shi'a religious and ethnic
Kurdish dissidents; the Green Party (government-controlled)

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF,
CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note-Iraq has an Interest
Section in the Algerian Embassy headed by Dr. Khairi AL ZUBAYDI;
address: Iraqi Interests Section, Algerian Embassy, 1801 P Street NW,
Washington, DC 20036; telephone: [1] (202) 483-7500; FAX: [1] (202)
462-5066

Diplomatic representation from the US: none; note-the US has an
Interests Section in the Polish Embassy in Baghdad, which is in the
Masbah Quarter (opposite the Foreign Ministry Club); address: P. O.
Box 2447 Alwiyah, Baghdad; telephone: [964] (1) 719-6138, 719-6139,
718-1840, 719-3791; FAX: [964] (1) 718-9297

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and black with three green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line
centered in the white band; the phrase ALLAHU AKBAR (God is Great) in
green Arabic script-Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar
to the left of the middle star-was added in January 1991 during the
Persian Gulf crisis; similar to the flag of Syria that has two stars
but no script and the flag of Yemen that has a plain white band; also
similar to the flag of Egypt that has a symbolic eagle centered in the
white band

@Iraq:Economy

Economy-overview: The Ba'thist regime engages in extensive central
planning and management of industrial production and foreign trade
while leaving some small-scale industry and services and most
agriculture to private enterprise. The economy has been dominated by
the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign
exchange earnings. In the 1980s, financial problems caused by massive
expenditures in the eight-year war with Iran and damage to oil export
facilities by Iran led the government to implement austerity measures
and to borrow heavily and later reschedule foreign debt payments; Iraq
suffered economic losses of at least $100 billion from the war. After
the end of hostilities in 1988, oil exports gradually increased with
the construction of new pipelines and restoration of damaged
facilities. Agricultural development remained hampered by labor
shortages, salinization, and dislocations caused by previous land
reform and collectivization programs. The industrial sector, although
accorded high priority by the government, also was under financial
constraints. Iraq's seizure of Kuwait in August 1990, subsequent
international economic embargoes, and military action by an
international coalition beginning in January 1991 drastically changed
the economic picture. The UN-sponsored economic embargo has reduced
exports and imports and has contributed to the sharp rise in prices.
The Iraqi Government has been unwilling to abide by UN resolutions so
that the economic embargo could be removed. The government's policies
of supporting large military and internal security forces and of
allocating resources to key supporters of the regime have exacerbated
shortages. Industrial and transportation facilities, which suffered
severe damage, have been partially restored. At current prices, oil
exports are about one-third of their prewar level because of the
implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 986-the UN's
oil-for-goods program-in December 1996. Shortages of spare parts
continue. In accord with the oil-for-goods deal, Iraq is allowed to
export $2 billion worth of oil in exchange for badly needed food and
medicine. The first oil was pumped in December 1996, and the first
supplies of food and medicine arrived in April 1997. Per capita output
for 1995-97 and living standards are well below the 1989-90 level, but
any estimates have a wide range of error.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$42.8 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 0% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 4.4 million (1989)
by occupation: services 48%, agriculture 30%, industry 22%
note: severe labor shortage; expatriate labor force was about
1,600,000 (July 1990); since then, it has declined substantially

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials,
food processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 6.83 million kW (1996)

Electricity-production: 31.8 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,362 kWh (1996 est.)

Agriculture-products: wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, other
fruit, cotton; cattle, sheep

Exports: $NA
commodities: crude oil
partners: Jordan, Turkey (1996)

Imports: $NA
commodities: manufactures, food
partners: France, Turkey, Jordan, Vietnam, Australia (1996)

Debt-external: very heavy relative to GDP but amount unknown (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Iraqi dinar (ID) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Iraqi dinars (ID) per US$1-0.3109 (fixed official rate
since 1982); black market rate-Iraqi dinars (ID) per US$1-1,530
(December 1997), 3,000 (December 1995); subject to wide fluctuations

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 632,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: reconstitution of damaged telecommunication
facilities began after the Gulf war; most damaged facilities have been
rebuilt
domestic: the network consists of coaxial cables and microwave radio
relay links
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region) and 1
Arabsat (inoperative); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to
Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and Turkey; Kuwait line is probably
nonoperational

Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 4.02 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 13

Televisions: 1 million (1992 est.)

@Iraq:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,032 km
standard gauge: 2,032 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways:
total: 47,400 km
paved: 40,764 km
unpaved: 6,636 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,015 km; Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime
traffic for about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 meters and is
in use; Tigris and Euphrates Rivers have navigable sections for
shallow-draft watercraft; Shatt al Basrah canal was navigable by
shallow-draft craft before closing in 1991 because of the Persian Gulf
war

Pipelines: crude oil 4,350 km; petroleum products 725 km; natural gas
1,360 km

Ports and harbors: Umm Qasr, Khawr az Zubayr, and Al Basrah have
limited functionality

Merchant marine:
total: 35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 791,485 GRT/1,428,307 DWT
ships by type: cargo 14, oil tanker 16, passenger 1, passenger-cargo
1, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 (1997 est.)

Airports: 111 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 76
over 3,047 m: 22
2,438 to 3,047 m: 33
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 7 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 35
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 10 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 4 (1997 est.)

@Iraq:Military

Military branches: Army, Republican Guard and Special Republican
Guard, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Border Guard Force,
Internal Security Forces

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 5,247,809 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 2,941,014 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 253,504 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Iraq:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations in
1990 but are still trying to work out written agreements settling
outstanding disputes from their eight-year war concerning border
demarcation, prisoners-of-war, and freedom of navigation and
sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab waterway; in November 1994, Iraq
formally accepted the UN-demarcated border with Kuwait which had been
spelled out in Security Council Resolutions 687 (1991), 773 (1993),
and 883 (1993); this formally ends earlier claims to Kuwait and to
Bubiyan and Warbah islands; dispute over water development plans by
Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

______________________________________________________________________

IRELAND

@Ireland:Geography

Location: Western Europe, occupying five-sixths of the island of
Ireland in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Great Britain

Geographic coordinates: 53 00 N, 8 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 70,280 sq km
land: 68,890 sq km
water: 1,390 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 360 km
border countries: UK 360 km

Coastline: 1,448 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: not specified
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild
winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the
time

Terrain: mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged
hills and low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Carrauntoohill 1,041 m

Natural resources: zinc, lead, natural gas, barite, copper, gypsum,
limestone, dolomite, peat, silver

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 68%
forests and woodland: 5%
other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: water pollution, especially of lakes, from
agricultural runoff

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Endangered
Species, Marine Life Conservation, Tropical Timber 94

Geography-note: strategic location on major air and sea routes between
North America and northern Europe; over 40% of the population resides
within 60 miles of Dublin

@Ireland:People

Population: 3,619,480 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (male 406,741; female 384,459)
15-64 years: 67% (male 1,218,514; female 1,200,214)
65 years and over: 11% (male 173,978; female 235,574) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.36% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 13.49 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.51 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.04 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.19 years
male: 73.44 years
female: 79.11 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Irishman(men), Irishwoman(men), Irish (collective plural)
adjective: Irish

Ethnic groups: Celtic, English

Religions: Roman Catholic 93%, Anglican 3%, none 1%, unknown 2%, other
1% (1981)

Languages: Irish (Gaelic), spoken mainly in areas located along the
western seaboard, English is the language generally used

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98% (1981 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Ireland:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Ireland

Data code: EI

Government type: republic

National capital: Dublin

Administrative divisions: 26 counties; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork,
Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim,
Limerick, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon,
Sligo, Tipperary, Waterford, Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow

Independence: 6 December 1921 (from UK)

National holiday: Saint Patrick's Day, 17 March

Constitution: 29 December 1937; adopted 1 July 1937 by plebiscite

Legal system: based on English common law, substantially modified by
indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme
Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mary MCALEESE (since 11 November 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Bertie AHERN (since 26 June 1997)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with previous nomination
by the prime minister and approval of the House of Representatives
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
election last held 31 October 1997 (next to be held NA November 2001);
prime minister nominated by the House of Representatives and appointed
by the president
election results: Mary MCALEESE elected president; percent of
vote-Mary MCALEESE 44.8%, Mary BANOTTI 29.6%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Oireachtas consists of the
Senate or Seanad Eireann (60 seats, 49 elected by the universities and
from candidates put forward by five vocational panels, 11 are
nominated by the prime minister; members serve five-year terms) and
the House of Representatives or Dail Eireann (166 seats; members are
elected by direct popular vote and proportional representation to
serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate-last held NA August 1997 (next to be held NA 2002);
House of Representatives-last held 6 June 1997 (next to be held NA
2002)
election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-NA; House of Representatives-percent of vote by party-NA; seats
by party-Fianna Fail 77, Fine Gael 54, Labor Party 17, Progressive
Democrats 4, Democratic Left 4, Greens 2, Sinn Fein 1, independents 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the president on
the advice of the government (prime minister and cabinet)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Left [Proinsias DE ROSSA];
Fianna Fail [Bertie AHERN]; Labor Party [Ruairi QUINN]; Fine Gael
[John BRUTON]; Communist Party of Ireland [Michael O'RIORDAN]; Sinn
Fein [Gerry ADAMS]; Progressive Democrats [Mary HARNEY]; The Workers'
Party [Marion DONNELLY]; Green Alliance [Patricia HOWARD]
note: Prime Minister AHERN heads a two-party coalition consisting of
Fianna Fail and the Progressive Democrats

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CCC,
CE, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM,
IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NEA, NSG, OECD, OSCE, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOP,
UNPREDEP, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sean O'HUIGINN
chancery: 2234 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-3939
FAX: [1] (202) 232-5993
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jean Kennedy SMITH
embassy: 42 Elgin Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [353] (1) 6688777
FAX: [353] (1) 6689946

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side),
white, and orange; similar to the flag of Cote d'Ivoire, which is
shorter and has the colors reversed-orange (hoist side), white, and
green; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter and has
colors of green (hoist side), white, and red

@Ireland:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy is small and trade dependent.
Agriculture, once the most important sector, is now dwarfed by
industry, which accounts for 38% of GDP, about 80% of exports, and
employs 27% of the labor force. Although exports remain the primary
engine for Ireland's robust growth, the economy is also benefiting
from a rise in consumer spending and recovery in both construction and
business investment. Since the 1980s, inflation has fallen sharply and
chronic trade deficits have been transformed into annual surpluses.
Unemployment remains a serious problem, however, and job creation is
the main focus of government policy. To ease unemployment, Dublin
aggressively courts foreign investors and recently created a new
industrial development agency to aid small indigenous firms.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$59.9 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$18,600 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 8.5%
industry: 38.3%
services: 53.2% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1.6% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 1.52 million (1997 est.)
by occupation: services 62.1%, manufacturing and construction 27.0%,
agriculture, forestry, and fishing 10.0%, utilities 0.9% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: 11.8% (1997)

Budget:
revenues: $20.6 billion
expenditures: $20.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.2
billion (1997)

Industries: food products, brewing, textiles, clothing, chemicals,
pharmaceuticals, machinery, transportation equipment, glass and
crystal

Industrial production growth rate: 10.1% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 3.62 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 16.586 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 4,672 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat;
meat and dairy products

Exports:
total value: $54.8 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: chemicals, data processing equipment, industrial
machinery, live animals, animal products
partners: EU 66% (UK 22%, Germany 13%, France 8%), US 6%

Imports:
total value: $44.9 billion (c.i.f., 1997)
commodities: food, animal feed, data processing equipment, petroleum
and petroleum products, machinery, textiles, clothing
partners: EU 52% (UK 29%, Germany 10.2%, France 4%), US 12%

Debt-external: $14 billion (1996)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $81 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Irish pound (Ir) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Irish pounds (Ir) per US$1-0.7233 (January 1997),
0.6588 (1997), 0.6248 (1996), 0.6235 (1995), 0.6676 (1994), 0.6816
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 900,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: modern digital system using cable and microwave
radio relay
domestic: microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 45, shortwave 0

Radios: 2.2 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 86 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 1.025 million (1990 est.)

@Ireland:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,947 km
broad gauge: 1,947 km 1.600-m gauge (38 km electrified; 485 km double
track) (1996)

Highways:
total: 92,500 km
paved: 87,042 km (including 80 km of expressways)
unpaved: 5,458 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: limited for commercial traffic

Pipelines: natural gas 225 km

Ports and harbors: Arklow, Cork, Drogheda, Dublin, Foynes, Galway,
Limerick, New Ross, Waterford

Merchant marine:
total: 39 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 116,059 GRT/149,149 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 30, chemical tanker 1, container 3, oil
tanker 2, short-sea passenger 2 (1997 est.)

Airports: 44 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 15
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 7 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 29
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 25 (1997 est.)

@Ireland:Military

Military branches: Army (includes Naval Service and Air Corps),
National Police (Garda Siochana)

Military manpower-military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 967,621 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 784,766 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 35,338 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $618 million (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.3% (1994)

@Ireland:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Northern Ireland question with the UK
(historic peace agreement approved 10 April 1998); Rockall continental
shelf dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and the UK (Ireland and the
UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area)

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for and consumer of hashish from
North Africa to the UK and Netherlands and of European-produced
synthetic drugs; transshipment point for heroin and cocaine

______________________________________________________________________

ISRAEL

(also see separate

Introduction

Current issues: The territories occupied by Israel since the 1967 war
are not included in the data below, unless otherwise noted. In keeping
with the framework established at the Madrid Conference in October
1991, bilateral negotiations are being conducted between Israel and
Palestinian representatives, and Israel and Syria, to achieve a
permanent settlement between them. On 25 April 1982, Israel withdrew
from the Sinai pursuant to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace treaty.
Outstanding territorial and other disputes with Jordan were resolved
in the 26 October 1994 Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace.

@Israel:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt
and Lebanon

Geographic coordinates: 31 30 N, 34 45 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 20,770 sq km
land: 20,330 sq km
water: 440 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries:
total: 1,006 km
border countries: Egypt 255 km, Gaza Strip 51 km, Jordan 238 km,
Lebanon 79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank 307 km

Coastline: 273 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas

Terrain: Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central
mountains; Jordan Rift Valley

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m
highest point: Har Meron 1,208 m

Natural resources: copper, phosphates, bromide, potash, clay, sand,
sulfur, asphalt, manganese, small amounts of natural gas and crude oil

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland: 6%
other: 66% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: sandstorms may occur during spring and summer

Environment-current issues: limited arable land and natural fresh
water resources pose serious constraints; desertification; air
pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; groundwater pollution
from industrial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, and
pesticides

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography-note: there are 207 Israeli settlements and civilian land
use sites in the West Bank, 42 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights,
24 in the Gaza Strip, and 29 in East Jerusalem (August 1997 est.)

@Israel:People

Population: 5,643,966 (July 1998 est.)
note: includes 155,000 Israeli settlers in the West Bank, 17,000 in
the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 6,000 in the Gaza Strip, and
164,000 in East Jerusalem (August 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 814,558; female 776,630)
15-64 years: 62% (male 1,751,111; female 1,745,499)
65 years and over: 10% (male 239,658; female 316,510) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.91% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 19.99 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 6.19 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 5.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.02 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.41 years
male: 76.52 years
female: 80.39 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.71 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Israeli(s)
adjective: Israeli

Ethnic groups: Jewish 82% (Israel-born 50%,
Europe/Americas/Oceania-born 20%, Africa-born 7%, Asia-born 5%),
non-Jewish 18% (mostly Arab) (1993 est.)

Religions: Judaism 82%, Islam 14% (mostly Sunni Muslim), Christian 2%,
Druze and other 2%

Languages: Hebrew (official), Arabic used officially for Arab
minority, English most commonly used foreign language

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95%
male: 97%
female: 93% (1992 est.)

@Israel:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: State of Israel
conventional short form: Israel
local long form: Medinat Yisra'el
local short form: Yisra'el

Data code: IS

Government type: republic

National capital: Jerusalem
note: Israel proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital in 1950, but the US,
like nearly all other countries, maintains its Embassy in Tel Aviv

Administrative divisions: 6 districts (mehozot, singular-mehoz);
Central, Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv

Independence: 14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under
British administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 14 May 1948 (Israel declared
independence on 14 May 1948, but the Jewish calendar is lunar and the
holiday may occur in April or May)

Constitution: no formal constitution; some of the functions of a
constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948),
the basic laws of the parliament (Knesset), and the Israeli
citizenship law

Legal system: mixture of English common law, British Mandate
regulations, and, in personal matters, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim
legal systems; in December 1985, Israel informed the UN Secretariat
that it would no longer accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ezer WEIZMAN (since 13 May 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Binyamin NETANYAHU (since 18 June
1996)
cabinet: Cabinet selected from and approved by the Knesset
elections: president elected by the Knesset for a five-year term;
election last held 4 March 1998 (next to be held NA March 2003); prime
minister elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last
held 29 May 1996 (next to be held NA 2000); note-in March 1992, the
Knesset approved legislation, effective in 1996, which allowed for the
direct election of the prime minister; under the new law, each voter
casts two ballots-one for the direct election of the prime minister
and one for the party in the Knesset; the candidate that receives the
largest percentage of the popular vote then works to form a coalition
with other parties to achieve a parliamentary majority of 61 seats;
finally, the candidate must submit his or her cabinet to the Knesset
for approval and this must be done within 45 days of the election; in
contrast to the old system, under the new law, the prime minister's
party need not be the single-largest party in the Knesset
election results: Ezer WEIZMAN elected president by the Knesset with a
total of 63 votes, other candidate, Shaul AMOR, received 49 votes
(there were seven abstentions and one absence); Binyamin NETANYAHU
elected prime minister; percent of vote - Binyamin NETANYAHU 50.4%,
Shimon PERES 49.5%

Legislative branch: unicameral Knesset or parliament (120 seats;
members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 29 May 1996 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-Labor
Party 34, Likud Party 32, SHAS 10, MERETZ 9, National Religious Party
9, Yisra'el Ba'Aliya 7, Hadash-Balad 5, Third Way 4, United Arab List
4, United Jewish Torah 4, Moledet 2; note-Likud, Tzomet, and Gesher
candidates ran on a joint list

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, appointed for life by the president

Political parties and leaders:
government coalition: Likud Party, Prime Minister Binyamin NETANYAHU;
Tzomet, Rafael EITAN; SHAS, Arieh DERI; National Religious Party,
Yitzhak LEVI; Yisra'el Ba'Aliya, Natan SHARANSKY; United Jewish Torah,
Meir PORUSH; Third Way, Avigdor KAHALANI
opposition: Labor Party, Ehud BARAK; MERETZ, Yossi SARID; United Arab
List, Abd al-Malik DAHAMSHAH; Hadash-Balad, Hashim MAHAMID
other: Moledet, Rehavam ZEEVI; Gesher, David LEVI

Political pressure groups and leaders: Gush Emunim, Israeli
nationalists advocating Jewish settlement on the West Bank and Gaza
Strip; Peace Now supports territorial concessions in the West Bank and
is critical of government's Lebanon policy

International organization participation: AG (observer), BSEC
(observer), CCC, CE (observer), CERN (observer), EBRD, ECE, FAO, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, OAS (observer), OSCE
(partner), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Zalman SHOVAL
chancery: 3514 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 364-5500
FAX: [1] (202) 364-5607
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles,
Miami, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Edward WALKER
embassy: 71 Hayarkon Street, Tel Aviv
mailing address: PSC 98, Box 100, APO AE 09830
telephone: [972] (3) 519-7575
FAX: [972] (3) 517-3227
consulate(s) general: Jerusalem; note-an independent US mission,
established in 1928, whose members are not accredited to a foreign
government

Flag description: white with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star)
known as the Magen David (Shield of David) centered between two equal
horizontal blue bands near the top and bottom edges of the flag

@Israel:Economy

Economy-overview: Israel has a technologically advanced market economy
with substantial government participation. It depends on imports of
crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military equipment. Despite
limited natural resources, Israel has intensively developed its
agricultural and industrial sectors over the past 20 years.
Manufacturing and construction employ about 28% of Israeli workers;
agriculture, forestry, and fishing only 2.6%; and services the rest.
Israel is largely self-sufficient in food production except for
grains. Diamonds, high-technology equipment, and agricultural products
(fruits and vegetables) are leading exports. Israel usually posts
sizable current account deficits, which are covered by large transfer
payments from abroad and by foreign loans. Roughly half of the
government's external debt is owed to the US, which is its major
source of economic and military aid. To earn needed foreign exchange,
Israel has been targeting high-technology niches in international
markets, such as medical scanning equipment. The influx of Jewish
immigrants from the former USSR topped 750,000 during the period
1989-97, bringing the population of Israel from the former Soviet
Union to one million, or one-sixth of the total population. Initially
this great influx increased unemployment, intensified housing
problems, and strained the government budget. At the same time, the
immigrants bring to the economy scientific and professional expertise
of substantial value for the future.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$96.7 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 1.9% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$17,500 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 2%
industry: 17%
services: 81% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 9% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 2.3 million (1997)
by occupation: public services 31.3%, manufacturing 20.2%, finance and
business 13.1%, commerce 12.8%, construction 7.5%, personal and other
services 6.4%, transport, storage, and communications 6.2%,
agriculture, forestry, and fishing 2.6% (1996)

Unemployment rate: 7.7% (1997)

Budget:
revenues: $55 billion
expenditures: $58 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998
est.)

Industries: food processing, diamond cutting and polishing, textiles
and apparel, chemicals, metal products, military equipment, transport
equipment, electrical equipment, potash mining, high-technology
electronics, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 5.4% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 7.736 million kW (1996)

Electricity-production: 32.5 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 5,387 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: citrus and other fruits, vegetables, cotton;
beef, poultry, dairy products

Exports:
total value: $20.7 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: machinery and equipment, cut diamonds, chemicals,
textiles and apparel, agricultural products, metals
partners: EU 32%, US 31%, Japan 7% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $28.6 billion (c.i.f., 1997)
commodities: military equipment, investment goods, rough diamonds,
oil, consumer goods
partners: EU 52%, US 20%, Japan (1996)

Debt-external: $18.7 billion (1997)

Economic aid:
recipient: $1.2 billion (1997) from the US

Currency: 1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot

Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1-3.5340 (December
1997), 3.4494 (1997), 3.1917 (1996), 3.0113 (1995), 3.0111 (1994),
2.8301 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year (since 1 January 1992)

Communications

Telephones: 2.6 million (1996)

Telephone system: most highly developed system in the Middle East
although not the largest
domestic: good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay
international: 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations-3 Intelsat
(2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 45, shortwave 0

Radios: 2.25 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 20

Televisions: 1.5 million (1993 est.)

@Israel:Transportation

Railways:
total: 610 km
standard gauge: 610 km 1.435-m gauge (1996)

Highways:
total: 15,065 km
paved: 15,065 km (including 56 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1996)

Pipelines: crude oil 708 km; petroleum products 290 km; natural gas 89
km

Ports and harbors: Ashdod, Ashqelon, Elat (Eilat), Hadera, Haifa, Tel
Aviv-Yafo

Merchant marine:
total: 27 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 803,383 GRT/947,678 DWT
ships by type: cargo 2, container 24, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 (1997
est.)

Airports: 54 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 31
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 7 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 23
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 18 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1997 est.)

@Israel:Military

Military branches: Israel Defense Forces (includes ground, naval, and
air components), Pioneer Fighting Youth (Nahal), Frontier Guard, Chen
(women); note-historically there have been no separate Israeli
military services

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,446,634
females age 15-49: 1,414,898 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,183,989
females: 1,153,670 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 50,824
females: 48,661 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $9.3 billion (1997)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 9.5% (1997)

@Israel:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli-occupied
with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim
Agreement-permanent status to be determined through further
negotiation; Golan Heights is Israeli-occupied; Israeli troops in
southern Lebanon since June 1982

Illicit drugs: increasingly concerned about cocaine and heroin abuse
and trafficking

______________________________________________________________________

ITALY

@Italy:Geography

Location: Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central
Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia

Geographic coordinates: 42 50 N, 12 50 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 301,230 sq km
land: 294,020 sq km
water: 7,210 sq km
note: includes Sardinia and Sicily

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Arizona

Land boundaries:
total: 1,932.2 km
border countries: Austria 430 km, France 488 km, Holy See (Vatican
City) 3.2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 232 km, Switzerland 740 km

Coastline: 7,600 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in
south

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mont Blanc 4,807 m

Natural resources: mercury, potash, marble, sulfur, dwindling natural
gas and crude oil reserves, fish, coal

Land use:
arable land: 31%
permanent crops: 10%
permanent pastures: 15%
forests and woodland: 23%
other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 27,100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: regional risks include landslides, mudflows,
avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence
in Venice

Environment-current issues: air pollution from industrial emissions
such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from
industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes;
inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Tropical Timber 94

Geography-note: strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as
well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe

@Italy:People

Population: 56,782,748 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 14% (male 4,192,662; female 3,955,857)
15-64 years: 68% (male 19,265,714; female 19,369,554)
65 years and over: 18% (male 4,098,526; female 5,900,435) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: -0.08% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 9.13 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 10.18 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.38 years
male: 75.26 years
female: 81.7 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.19 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Italian(s)
adjective: Italian

Ethnic groups: Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-,
and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and
Greek-Italians in the south)

Religions: Roman Catholic 98%, other 2%

Languages: Italian, German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are
predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority
in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the
Trieste-Gorizia area)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 98%
female: 96% (1990 est.)

@Italy:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Italian Republic
conventional short form: Italy
local long form: Repubblica Italiana
local short form: Italia
former: Kingdom of Italy

Data code: IT

Government type: republic

National capital: Rome

Administrative divisions: 20 regions (regioni, singular-regione);
Abruzzi, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna,
Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Lazio, Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise,
Piemonte, Puglia, Sardegna, Sicilia, Toscana, Trentino-Alto Adige,
Umbria, Valle d'Aosta, Veneto

Independence: 17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Republic, 2 June (1946)

Constitution: 1 January 1948

Legal system: based on civil law system, with ecclesiastical law
influence; appeals treated as trials de novo; judicial review under
certain conditions in Constitutional Court; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (except in senatorial elections,
where minimum age is 25)

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Oscar Luigi SCALFARO (since 28 May 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister (referred to in Italy as the
president of the Council of Ministers) Romano PRODI (since 18 May
1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and
approved by the president
elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of
both houses of Parliament and 58 regional representatives for a
seven-year term; election last held 25 May 1992 (next to be held NA
1999); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Oscar Luigi SCALFARO elected president; percent of
electoral college vote-NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlamento consists of the
Senate or Senato della Repubblica (326 seats, 315 popularly elected of
which 232 are directly elected and 83 by regional proportional
representation, 11 appointed senators-for-life; members serve
five-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera dei Deputati
(630 seats; 475 are directly elected, 155 by regional proportional
representation; members serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate-last held 21 April 1996 (next to be held by NA April
2001); Chamber of Deputies-last held 21 April 1996 (next to be held by
NA April 2001)
election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-Olive Tree 157, Freedom Alliance 116, Northern League 27,
Refounded Communists 10, regional lists 3, Social Movement-Tricolor
Flames 1, Panella Reformers 1; Chamber of Deputies-percent of vote by
party-NA; seats by party-Olive Tree 284, Freedom Alliance 246,
Northern League 59, Refounded Communists 35, Southern Tyrol List 3,
Autonomous List 2, other 1

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court or Corte Costituzionale,
composed of 15 judges (one-third appointed by the president, one-third
elected by Parliament, one-third elected by the ordinary and
administrative supreme courts)

Political parties and leaders:
Olive Tree (Ulivo): Democratic Party of the Left or PDS [Massimo
D'ALEMA]; Greens (Verdi) [Luigi MANCONI]; Italian Renewal or RI
[Lamberto DINI]; Italian Popular Party or PPI [Franco MARINI-elected
12 January 1997]
Freedom Pole: Forza Italia or FI [Silvio BERLUSCONI]; National
Alliance or AN [Gianfranco FINI]; Christian Democratic Center or CCD
[Clemente MASTELLA]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Rocco
BUTTIGLIONE]
other: Northern League or NL [Umberto BOSSI]; Communism Refoundation
or RC [Fausto BERTINOTTI]; Italian Social Movement-Tricolor Flame or
MSI-Fiamma Tricolore [Pino RAUTI]; Pannella-Sgarbi's List (Lista
Pannella-Sgarbi) [Marco PANNELLA]; Italian Socialists or SI (also
called Radical Party or PR) [Ottaviano DEL TURCO]; Autonomous List (a
group of minor parties); Southern Tyrols List or SVP (German speakers)

Political pressure groups and leaders: the Roman Catholic Church;
three major trade union confederations (Confederazione Generale
Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL which is PDS-dominated, Confederazione
Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL which is centrist, and
Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL which is center-right); Italian
manufacturers and merchants associations (Confindustria,
Confcommercio); organized farm groups (Confcoltivatori,
Confagricoltura)

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CE
(observer), CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G-
7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINUGUA, MINURSO, MTCR, NAM (guest),
NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU,
WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ferdinando SALLEO
chancery: 1601 Fuller Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 and 2700 16th
Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 328-5500
FAX: [1] (202) 483-2187
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New York, Los
Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco
consulate(s): Detroit and New Orleans

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas M. FOGLIETTA
embassy: Via Veneto 119/A, 00187-Rome
mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100, APO AE 09624
telephone: [39] (6) 46741
FAX: [39] (6) 488-2672
consulate(s) general: Florence, Milan, Naples

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side),
white, and red; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and is
green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the
Cote d'Ivoire, which has the colors reversed-orange (hoist side),
white, and green

@Italy:Economy

Economy-overview: Since World War II, the Italian economy has changed
from one based on agriculture into a ranking industrial economy, with
approximately the same total and per capita output as France and the
UK. This basically capitalistic economy is still divided into a
developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less
developed agricultural south, with large public enterprises and more
than 20% unemployment. Most raw materials needed by industry and over
75% of energy requirements must be imported. In the second half of
1992, Rome became unsettled by the prospect of not qualifying to
participate in EU plans for economic and monetary union later in the
decade; thus, it finally began to address its huge fiscal imbalances.
Subsequently, the government has adopted fairly stringent budgets,
abandoned its inflationary wage indexation system, and started to
scale back its generous social welfare programs, including pension and
health care benefits. In November 1996 the lire rejoined the European
monetary system, which it had left in September 1992 when under
extreme pressure in currency markets. Italy faces the problem of
restructuring its economy to meet Maastricht criteria for inclusion in
the EMU, together with other problems of refurbishing a tottering
communications system, curbing industrial pollution, and adjusting to
new EU and global competitive forces.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1.24 trillion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 1.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$21,500 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 3.3%
industry: 33%
services: 63.7% (1994)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1.9% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 22.851 million
by occupation: services 61%, industry 32%, agriculture 7% (1996)

Unemployment rate: 12.2% (December 1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $416 billion
expenditures: $506 billion, including capital expenditures of $47
billion (1996 est.)

Industries: tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food
processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics

Industrial production growth rate: 0.5% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 57.186 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 225.179 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 4,509 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar
beets, soybeans, grain, olives; meat and dairy products; fish catch of
525,000 metric tons in 1990

Exports:
total value: $250.8 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: metals, textiles and clothing, production machinery,
motor vehicles, transportation equipment, chemicals
partners: EU 53.4%, US 7.8%, OPEC 3.8%

Imports:
total value: $190 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: industrial machinery, chemicals, transport equipment,
petroleum, metals, food, agricultural products
partners: EU 45.5%, OPEC 4.8%, US 4.3%

Debt-external: $45 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $3.043 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 Italian lira (Lit) = 100 centesimi

Exchange rates: Italian lire (Lit) per US$1-1,787.7 (January 1998),
1,703.1 (1997), 1,542.9 (1996), 1,628.9 (1995), 1,612.4 (1994),
1,573.7 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 25.6 million (1996 est.)

Telephone system: modern, well-developed, fast; fully automated
telephone, telex, and data services
domestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks
international: satellite earth stations-3 Intelsat (with a total of 5
antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat
(Atlantic Ocean region), and NA Eutelsat; 21 submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM 135, FM 28 (repeaters 1,840), shortwave 0

Radios: 45.7 million (1996 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 83 (repeaters 1,000)

Televisions: 17 million (1996 est.)

@Italy:Transportation

Railways:
total: 19,437 km
standard gauge: 18,103 km 1.435-m gauge; Italian Railways (FS)
operates 15,942 km of the total standard gauge routes (11,299 km
electrified)
narrow gauge: 56 km 1.000-m gauge (56 km electrified); 1,278 km
0.950-m gauge (19 km electrified) (1996)

Highways:
total: 317,000 km
paved: 317,000 km (including 9,500 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 2,400 km for various types of commercial traffic, although
of limited overall value

Pipelines: crude oil 1,703 km; petroleum products 2,148 km; natural
gas 19,400 km

Ports and harbors: Ancona, Augusta (Sicily), Bari, Cagliari
(Sardinia), Catania (Sicily), Gaeta, Genoa, La Spezia, Livorno,
Naples, Oristano (Sardinia), Palermo (Sicily), Piombino, Porto Torres
(Sardinia), Ravenna, Savona, Trieste, Venice

Merchant marine:
total: 365 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,032,728 GRT/7,076,307
DWT
ships by type: bulk 29, cargo 47, chemical tanker 39, combination
ore/oil 2, container 15, liquefied gas tanker 30, multifunction
large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 98, passenger 5, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 51, short-sea passenger 30, specialized tanker 11, vehicle
carrier 7 (1997 est.)

Airports: 136 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 96
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 33
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 30
under 914 m: 12 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 40
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 18 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1997 est.)

@Italy:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Carabinieri

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 14,249,145 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 12,314,086 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 324,437 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $20.4 billion (1995)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.9% (1995)

@Italy:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Italy is negotiating with Slovenia over
property and minority rights issues dating from World War II; Croatia
and Italy made progress toward resolving a bilateral issue dating from
WWII over property and ethnic minority rights

Illicit drugs: important gateway for and consumer of Latin American
cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market

______________________________________________________________________

JAMAICA

@Jamaica:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, south of Cuba

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 77 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 10,990 sq km
land: 10,830 sq km
water: 160 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,022 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Blue Mountain Peak 2,256 m

Natural resources: bauxite, gypsum, limestone

Land use:
arable land: 14%
permanent crops: 6%
permanent pastures: 24%
forests and woodland: 17%
other: 39% (1993 est.)
note: irrigated land-3% (350 sq km)(1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 350 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hurricanes (especially July to November)

Environment-current issues: deforestation; coastal waters polluted by
industrial waste, sewage, and oil spills; damage to coral reefs; air
pollution in Kingston results from vehicle emissions

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the
Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica
Channel, the main sea lanes for Panama Canal

@Jamaica:People

Population: 2,634,678 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (male 425,233; female 406,529)
15-64 years: 62% (male 806,846; female 817,145)
65 years and over: 6% (male 79,125; female 99,800) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.7% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 20.91 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.45 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -8.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.47 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.37 years
male: 73.01 years
female: 77.84 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.33 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Jamaican(s)
adjective: Jamaican

Ethnic groups: black 90.4%, East Indian 1.3%, white 0.2%, Chinese
0.2%, mixed 7.3%, other 0.6%

Religions: Protestant 61.3% (Church of God 21.2%, Baptist 8.8%,
Anglican 5.5%, Seventh-Day Adventist 9%, Pentecostal 7.6%, Methodist
2.7%, United Church 2.7%, Brethren 1.1%, Jehovah's Witness 1.6%,
Moravian 1.1%), Roman Catholic 4%, other, including some spiritual
cults 34.7%

Languages: English, Creole

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 85%
male: 80.8%
female: 89.1% (1995 est.)

@Jamaica:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Jamaica

Data code: JM

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Kingston

Administrative divisions: 14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston,
Manchester, Portland, Saint Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine, Saint
Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny,
Westmoreland

Independence: 6 August 1962 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day (first Monday in August) (1962)

Constitution: 6 August 1962

Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Howard Felix COOKE (since 1 August
1991)
head of government: Prime Minister Percival James PATTERSON (since 30
March 1992) and Deputy Prime Minister Seymour MULLINGS (since NA 1993)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
the prime minister
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
appointed by the queen on the recommendation of the prime minister;
prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the governor
general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (a
21-member body appointed by the governor general on the
recommendations of the prime minister and the leader of the
opposition; ruling party 13 seats, opposition 8 seats) and the House
of Representatives (60 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 18 December 1997 (next to be held by March 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-PNP 50,
JLP 10

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the governor
general on advice of the prime minister

Political parties and leaders: People's National Party (PNP), P. J.
PATTERSON; Jamaica Labor Party (JLP), Edward SEAGA; National
Democratic Movement (NDM), Bruce GOLDING

Political pressure groups and leaders: Rastafarians (black

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