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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.83 years
male: 66.46 years
female: 75.44 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.45 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Hungarian(s)
adjective: Hungarian

Ethnic groups: Hungarian 89.9%, Gypsy 4%, German 2.6%, Serb 2%, Slovak
0.8%, Romanian 0.7%

Religions: Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20%, Lutheran 5%, atheist
and other 7.5%

Languages: Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 98% (1980 est.)

@Hungary:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Hungary
conventional short form: Hungary
local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag
local short form: Magyarorszag

Data code: HU

Government type: republic

National capital: Budapest

Administrative divisions: 19 counties (megyek, singular-megye), 20
urban counties* (singular - megyei varos), and 1 capital city**
(fovaros); Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Bekescsaba*,
Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest**, Csongrad, Debrecen*, Dunaujvaros*,
Eger*, Fejer, Gyor*, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves,
Hodmezovasarhely*, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvar*, Kecskemet*,
Komarom-Esztergom, Miskolc*, Nagykanizsa*, Nograd, Nyiregyhaza*,
Pecs*, Pest, Somogy, Sopron*, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Szeged*,
Szekesfehervar*, Szolnok*, Szombathely*, Tatabanya*, Tolna, Vas,
Veszprem, Veszprem*, Zala, Zalaegerszeg*

Independence: 1001 (unification by King Stephen I)

National holiday: St. Stephen's Day (National Day), 20 August
(commemorates the coronation of King Stephen in 1000 AD)

Constitution: 18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19
April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for
individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime
minister and also established the principle of parliamentary
oversight; 1997 amendment streamlined the judicial system

Legal system: in process of revision, moving toward rule of law based
on Western model

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Arpad GONCZ (since 3 August 1990; previously
interim president since 2 May 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Gyula HORN (since 15 July 1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly on the
recommendation of the president
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a four-year
term; election last held 19 June 1995 (next to be held NA 1999); prime
minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the
president
election results: Arpad GONCZ elected president; a total of 335 votes
were cast by the National Assembly, Arpad GONCZ received 259; Gyula
HORN elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (386
seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of
proportional and direct representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 8 and 29 May 1994 (next to be held 10 and 24
May 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party (5% or more of the vote
required for parliamentary representation in the first round)-MSzP
33.0%, SzDSz 19.8%, MDF 11.7%, FKgP 8.9%, KDNP 7.1%, FiDeSz 7.0%, MMP
3.2%, MIEP 1.6%, other 7.7%; seats by party - MSzP 209, SzDSz 70, MDF
37, FKgP 26, KDNP 22, FiDeSz 20, other 2

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, judges are elected by the
National Assembly for a nine-year term

Political parties and leaders: Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF
[Sandor LEZSAK, chairman]; Independent Smallholders or FKgP [Jozsef
TORGYAN, president]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSzP [Gyula HORN,
president]; Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Gyorgy GICZY,
president]; Hungarian Civic Party or FiDeSz [Viktor ORBAN, chairman];
Alliance of Free Democrats or SzDSz [Ivan PETO, chairman]; Hungarian
Democratic People's Party or MDNP [Ivan SZABO, chairman]; Hungarian
Justice and Life Party or MIEP [Istvan CSURKA, chairman]; Hungarian
Workers' Party or MMP [Gyula THURMER, chairman]
note: the Hungarian Socialist (Communist) Workers' Party or MSzMP
renounced Communism and became the Hungarian Socialist Party or MSzP
in October 1989; the MDNP was formed in March 1996 by breakaway
members of the Hungarian Democratic Forum; the KDNP lost its
parliamentary faction status in July 1997 after a party split reduced
its representation below the minimum 15 required

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CCC,
CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUA, MTCR, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS
(observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNOMIG, UNU, UPU, WEU (associate partner),
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gyorgy BANLAKI
chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter F. TUFO
embassy: V. Szabadsag Ter 12, 1054 Budapest
mailing address: Pouch: American Embassy Budapest, Department of
State, Washington, DC 20521-5270
telephone: [36] (1) 267-4400, 269-9331 (after hours), 269-9339 (after
hours)
FAX: [36] (1) 269-9326

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and green

@Hungary:Economy

Economy-overview: Hungary has consolidated its March 1995
stabilization program and undergone enough restructuring to become an
established market economy. The country appears to have entered a
period of sustainable growth, gradually falling inflation, and stable
external balances. The government's main economic priorities are to
complete structural reforms, particularly the implementation of the
1997 pension reform act (the first in the region), taxation reform,
and planning for comprehensive health care, local government finance
reform, and the reform of education at all levels. Foreign investment
has totaled more than $17 billion through 1997. In recognition of
Hungary's improved macro-economic situation, all major credit-rating
agencies listed the country's foreign currency debt issuances as
investment grade in 1996. The current IMF stand-by arrangement expired
in February 1998, and Budapest and the IMF agree that there is no need
to renew it. The OECD welcomed Hungary as a member in May 1996, and in
December 1997 the EU invited Hungary to begin the accession process.
Forecasters expect 4%-5% growth in 1998.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$73.2 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4.4% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$7,400 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 7.2%
industry: 31.8%
services: 61% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 18% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 4.5 million (1996)
by occupation: services 65.0%, industry 26.7%, agriculture 8.3 (1996)

Unemployment rate: 9% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $12.1 billion
expenditures: $13.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed
foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor
vehicles

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 6.979 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 32.92 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 3,423 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar
beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products

Exports:
total value: $16 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery and equipment 36.6%, other manufactures 40.6%,
agriculture and food products 15.1%, raw materials 4.4%, fuels and
electricity 3.3% (1996)
partners: EU 62.8% (Germany 29%, Austria 10.6%, Italy 8.0%), FSU 8.6%
(1996)

Imports:
total value: $18.6 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery and equipment 36.5%, other manufactures 43.7%,
fuels and electricity 11.8%, agricultural and food products 4.4%, raw
materials 3.6% (1996)
partners: EU 59.8% (Germany 23.6%, Austria 9.5%, Italy 8.1%), FSU
14.9% (1996)

Debt-external: $27.6 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 forint (Ft) = 100 filler

Exchange rates: forints per US$1-206.260 (January 1998), 186.789
(1997), 152.647 (1996), 125.681 (1995),105.160 (1994), 91.933 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 2.16 million (1 January 1996)-there are 21.1 per 100
inhabitants, 54.1 per 100 households; mobile telephone services are
used by 267,000 subscribers

Telephone system: 14,213 telex lines; automatic telephone network
based on microwave radio relay system; the average waiting time for
telephones is expected to drop to one year by the end of 1997 (down
from over 10 years in the early 1990's); note-the former state-owned
telecommunications firm MATAV-now privatized and managed by a
US/German consortium-has ambitious plans to upgrade the inadequate
system, including a contract with the German firm Siemens and the
Swedish firm Ericsson to provide 600,000 new phone lines during
1996-98
domestic: microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth stations-1 Intelsat and 1 Intersputnik
(Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 32, FM 15, shortwave 0

Radios: 6 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 41 (Russian repeaters 8)

Televisions: 4.38 million (1993 est.)

@Hungary:Transportation

Railways:
total: 7,606 km
broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 7,394 km 1.435-m gauge (2,207 km electrified; 1,236 km
double track)
narrow gauge: 176 km 0.760-m gauge (1996)
note: Hungary and Austria jointly manage the cross-border
standard-gauge railway between Gyor, Sopron, Ebenfurt
(Gyor-Sopron-Ebenfurti Vasut Rt) a distance of about 101 km in Hungary
and 65 km in Austria

Highways:
total: 158,633 km
paved: 68,370 km (including 420 km of expressways)
unpaved: 90,263 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,622 km (1988)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,204 km; natural gas 4,387 km (1991)

Ports and harbors: Budapest, Dunaujvaros

Merchant marine:
total: 8 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 35,522 GRT/47,792
DWT (1997 est.)

Airports: 25 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 15
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1997 est.)

@Hungary:Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Air Force, Border Guard

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 2,618,416 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 2,087,877 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 74,254 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $550 million (1996)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.5% (1996)

@Hungary:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Gabcikovo Dam dispute with Slovakia (to be
resolved March 1998)

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin
and cannabis and transit point for South American cocaine destined for
Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly
for amphetamines and methamphetamines

______________________________________________________________________

ICELAND

@Iceland:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, island between the Greenland Sea and the
North Atlantic Ocean, northwest of the UK

Geographic coordinates: 65 00 N, 18 00 W

Map references: Arctic Region

Area:
total: 103,000 sq km
land: 100,250 sq km
water: 2,750 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Kentucky

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4,988 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy
winters; damp, cool summers

Terrain: mostly plateau interspersed with mountain peaks, icefields;
coast deeply indented by bays and fiords

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Hvannadalshnukur 2,119 m

Natural resources: fish, hydropower, geothermal power, diatomite

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 23%
forests and woodland: 1%
other: 76% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: earthquakes and volcanic activity

Environment-current issues: water pollution from fertilizer runoff;
inadequate wastewater treatment

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life
Conservation

Geography-note: strategic location between Greenland and Europe;
westernmost European country; more land covered by glaciers than in
all of continental Europe

@Iceland:People

Population: 271,033 (July 1998 est.)
note: population data estimates based on average growth rate may
differ slightly from official population data because of volatile
migration rates

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24% (male 32,723; female 31,196)
15-64 years: 65% (male 88,608; female 86,775)
65 years and over: 11% (male 14,324; female 17,407) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.52% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 15.11 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 6.97 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.27 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.84 years
male: 76.76 years
female: 81.05 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.04 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Icelander(s)
adjective: Icelandic

Ethnic groups: homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norwegians and
Celts

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 96%, other Protestant and Roman
Catholic 3%, none 1% (1988)

Languages: Icelandic

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100% (1976 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Iceland:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Iceland
conventional short form: Iceland
local long form: Lyoveldio Island
local short form: Island

Data code: IC

Government type: constitutional republic

National capital: Reykjavik

Administrative divisions: 23 counties (syslar, singular-sysla) and 14
independent towns* (kaupstadhir, singular-kaupstadhur); Akranes*,
Akureyri*, Arnessysla, Austur-Bardhastrandarsysla,
Austur-Hunavatnssysla, Austur-Skaftafellssysla, Borgarfjardharsysla,
Dalasysla, Eyjafjardharsysla, Gullbringusysla, Hafnarfjordhur*,
Husavik*, Isafjordhur*, Keflavik*, Kjosarsysla, Kopavogur*, Myrasysla,
Neskaupstadhur*, Nordhur-Isafjardharsysla, Nordhur-Mulasys-la,
Nordhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Olafsfjordhur*, Rangarvallasysla, Reykjavik*,
Saudharkrokur*, Seydhisfjordhur*, Siglufjordhur*, Skagafjardharsysla,
Snaefellsnes-og Hnappadalssysla, Strandasysla, Sudhur-Mulasysla,
Sudhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Vesttmannaeyjar*, Vestur-Bardhastrandarsysla,
Vestur-Hunavatnssysla, Vestur-Isafjardharsysla,
Vestur-Skaftafellssysla

Independence: 17 June 1944 (from Denmark)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Establishment of the Republic, 17
June (1944)

Constitution: 16 June 1944, effective 17 June 1944

Legal system: civil law system based on Danish law; does not accept
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON (since 1 August 1996)
head of government: Prime Minister David ODDSSON (since 30 April 1991)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
election last held 29 June 1996 (next to be held NA June 2000); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON elected president; percent of
vote-41.4%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Althing (63 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 8 April 1995 (next to be held by April 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party-Independence Party 37.1%,
Progressive Party 23.3%, Social Democratic Party 11.4%, Socialists
14.3%, People's Movement 7.2%, Women's Party 4.9%; seats by
party-Independence 25, Progressive 15, Social Democratic 7, Socialists
9, People's Movement 4, Women's Party 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Haestirettur, justices are appointed
for life by the president

Political parties and leaders: Independence Party (conservative) or IP
[David ODDSSON]; Progressive Party (liberal) or PP [Halldor
ASGRIMSSON]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Sighvatur BJORGVINSSON];
People's Alliance (left socialist) or PA [Margret FRIMANNSDOTTIR];
Women's Party or WL [Kristin ASTGEIRSDOTTIR]; People's Movement
(centrist); National Awakening (People's Revival Party) or PR [Johanna
SIGURDARDOTTIR]

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CBSS,
CCC, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, OECD, OSCE, PCA,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNMIBH, UNU, UPU, WEU (associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jon-Baldvin HANNIBALSSON
chancery: Suite 1200, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 265-6653 through 6655
FAX: [1] (202) 265-6656
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Day Olin MOUNT (22 August 1996)
embassy: Laufasvegur 21, Reykjavik
mailing address: US Embassy, PSC 1003, Box 40, FPO AE 09728-0340
telephone: [354] 5629100
FAX: [354] 5629118

Flag description: blue with a red cross outlined in white that extends
to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to
the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

@Iceland:Economy

Economy-overview: Iceland's Scandinavian-type economy is basically
capitalistic, yet with an extensive welfare system, low unemployment,
and remarkably even distribution of income. The economy depends
heavily on the fishing industry, which provides 75% of export earnings
and employs 12% of the work force. In the absence of other natural
resources-except energy-Iceland's economy is vulnerable to changing
world fish prices. The economy remains sensitive to declining fish
stocks as well as to drops in world prices for its main exports: fish
and fish products, aluminum, and ferrosilicon. The center-right
government plans to continue its policies of reducing the budget and
current account deficits, limiting foreign borrowing, containing
inflation, revising agricultural and fishing policies, diversifying
the economy, and privatizing state-owned industries. The government
remains opposed to EU membership, primarily because of Icelanders'
concern about losing control over their fishing resources. Growth is
likely to slow in 1998, to a still respectable 3.9%.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$5.71 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4.9% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$21,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 9.6%
industry: 22.1%
services: 68.3% (1991)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.3% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 131,000 (1996 est.)
by occupation: manufacturing 12.9%, fishing and fish processing 11.8%,
construction 10.7%, other services 59.5%, agriculture 5.1% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3.8% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.9 billion
expenditures: $2.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $146
million (1996 est.)

Industries: fish processing; aluminum smelting, ferrosilicon
production, geothermal power; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 1.083 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 4.916 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 18,481 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: potatoes, turnips; cattle, sheep; fish catch of
about 1.1 million metric tons in 1992

Exports:
total value: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: fish and fish products 75%, animal products, aluminum,
ferrosilicon, diatomite
partners: UK 19%, Germany 14%, US 12%, Japan 11%, Denmark 8%, France
7% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $2 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum
products, foodstuffs, textiles
partners: Germany 11%, Norway 10%, UK 10%, Denmark 9%, US 8%, Sweden
7% (1995)

Debt-external: $2.2 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Icelandic krona (IKr) = 100 aurar

Exchange rates: Icelandic kronur (IKr) per US$1-72.707 (January 1998),
70.904 (1997), 66.500 (1996), 64.692 (1995), 69.944 (1994), 67.603
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 143,600 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: adequate domestic service
domestic: the trunk network consists of coaxial and fiber-optic cables
and microwave radio relay links
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1
Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean Regions); note-Iceland shares the
Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark,
Finland, Norway, and Sweden)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 147 (transmitters and repeaters),
shortwave 0

Radios: 91,500 licensed (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 202 (transmitters and repeaters)

Televisions: 96,100 licensed (1993 est.)

@Iceland:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 12,341 km
paved: 3,196 km
unpaved: 9,145 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Akureyri, Hornafjordur, Isafjordhur, Keflavik,
Raufarhofn, Reykjavik, Seydhisfjordhur, Straumsvik, Vestmannaeyjar

Merchant marine:
total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,594 GRT/29,322 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 1, container 1, oil tanker 1,
refrigerated cargo 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 90 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 79
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 54 (1997 est.)

@Iceland:Military

Military branches: no regular armed forces; Police, Coast Guard;
note-Iceland's defense is provided by the US-manned Icelandic Defense
Force (IDF) headquartered at Keflavik

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 70,906 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 62,595 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: none

@Iceland:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving
Denmark, Ireland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a
boundary agreement in the Rockall area)

______________________________________________________________________

INDIA

@India:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of
Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 N, 77 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 3,287,590 sq km
land: 2,973,190 sq km
water: 314,400 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than one-third the size of the US

Land boundaries:
total: 14,103 km
border countries: Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km,
China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km

Coastline: 7,000 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north

Terrain: upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain
along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m

Natural resources: coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron
ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas,
diamonds, petroleum, limestone

Land use:
arable land: 56%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 23%
other: 16% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 480,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: droughts, flash floods, severe thunderstorms common;
earthquakes

Environment-current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing;
desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle
emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural
pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and
rapidly growing population is overstraining natural resources

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important
Indian Ocean trade routes

@India:People

Population: 984,003,683 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34% (male 174,578,403; female 164,755,937)
15-64 years: 61% (male 310,995,355; female 288,344,336)
65 years and over: 5% (male 23,051,278; female 22,278,374) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.71% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 25.91 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.69 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 63.14 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 62.9 years
male: 62.11 years
female: 63.73 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.24 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Indian(s)
adjective: Indian

Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3%

Religions: Hindu 80%, Muslim 14%, Christian 2.4%, Sikh 2%, Buddhist
0.7%, Jains 0.5%, other 0.4%

Languages: English enjoys associate status but is the most important
language for national, political, and commercial communication, Hindi
the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people, Bengali
(official), Telugu (official), Marathi (official), Tamil (official),
Urdu (official), Gujarati (official), Malayalam (official), Kannada
(official), Oriya (official), Punjabi (official), Assamese (official),
Kashmiri (official), Sindhi (official), Sanskrit (official),
Hindustani a popular variant of Hindu/Urdu, is spoken widely
throughout northern India
note: 24 languages each spoken by a million or more persons; numerous
other languages and dialects, for the most part mutually
unintelligible

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 52%
male: 65.5%
female: 37.7% (1995 est.)

@India:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of India
conventional short form: India

Data code: IN

Government type: federal republic

National capital: New Delhi

Administrative divisions: 25 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman
and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar,
Chandigarh*, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa,
Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka,
Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya,
Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim,
Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal

Independence: 15 August 1947 (from UK)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 26
January (1950)

Constitution: 26 January 1950

Legal system: based on English common law; limited judicial review of
legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Kicheril Raman NARAYANAN (since NA July
1997); Vice President Krishnan KANT (since NA September 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Atal Bihari VAJPAYEE (since 19
March 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of
elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of
the states for a five-year term; vice president elected by both houses
of Parliament; prime minister elected by parliamentary members of the
majority party following legislative elections
election results: Kicheril Raman NARAYANAN elected president; percent
of electoral college vote-NA; Krishnan KANT elected vice president;
percent of Parliament vote - NA; Atal Bihari VAJPAYEE elected prime
minister; percent of vote-NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the
Council of States or Rajya Sabha (a body consisting of not more than
250 members, up to 12 of which are appointed by the president, the
remainder are chosen by the elected members of the state and
territorial assemblies; members serve six-year terms) and the People's
Assembly or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 elected by popular vote, 2
appointed; members serve five-year terms)
elections: People's Assembly-last held 16 February through 7 March
1998 (next to be held NA March 2003)
election results: People's Assembly-percent of vote by party-NA; seats
by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president
and remain in office until they reach the age of 65

Political parties and leaders: Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), Kushabhau
THAKRE, president, L. K. ADVANI, A. B. VAJPAYEE; Congress (I) Party,
Sonia GANDHI, president; Janata Dal Party, Sharad YADAV, president, I.
K. GUJRAL; Janata Dal (Ajit), Ajit SINGH; Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD),
Laloo Prasad YADAV; Communist Party of India/Marxist (CPI/M),
Harkishan Singh SURJEET; Tamil Maanila Congress, G. K. MOOPANAR;
Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (a regional party in Tamil Nadu), M.
KARUNANIDHI; Samajwadi Party (SP), Mulayam Singh YADAV (president), Om
Prakash CHAUTALA, Devi LAL; Telugu Desam (Naidu) (a regional party in
Andhra Pradesh), Chandrababu NAIDU; Communist Party of India (CPI),
Indrajit GUPTA; Revolutionary Socialist Party (RSP), Tridip CHOWDHURY;
Asom Gana Parishad, Prafulla Kumar MAHANTA; Congress (Tiwari), Arjun
SINGH and N. D. TIWARI; All India Forward Bloc (AIFB), Prem Dutta
PALIWAL (chairman), Chitta BASU (general secretary); Muslim League, G.
M. BANATWALA; Madhya Pradesh Vikas Congress, Madhavro SCINDIA;
Karnataka Congress Party, S. BANGARAPPA; Shiv Sena, Bal THACKERAY;
Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), Kanshi RAM; Communist Party of
India/Marxist-Leninist (CPI/ML), Vinod MISHRA; Akali Dal factions
representing Sikh religious community in the Punjab; National
Conference (NC; a regional party in Jammu and Kashmir), Farooq
ABDULLAH; Bihar Peoples Party, Lovely ANAND; Samata Party (formerly
Janata Dal members), George FERNANDES; Indian National League,
Suliaman SAIT; Kerala Congress (Mani faction), K. M. MANI

Political pressure groups and leaders: various separatist groups
seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy; numerous religious
or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Adam Sena, Ananda
Marg, Vishwa Hindu Parishad, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
BIS (pending member), C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G- 6, G-15, G-19, G-24,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
ITU, MIPONUH, MONUA, NAM, OAS (observer), PCA, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNOMIL, UNU, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Naresh CHANDRA
chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008;
note-Embassy located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC
20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000
FAX: [1] (202) 483-3972
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard CELESTE
embassy: Shanti Path, Chanakyapuri 110021, New Delhi
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [91] (11) 688-9033, 611-3033
FAX: [91] (11) 419-0017
consulate(s) general: Calcutta, Chennai (Madras), Mumbai (Bombay)

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white,
and green with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white
band; similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk
centered in the white band

@India:Economy

Economy-overview: India's economy encompasses traditional village
farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern
industries, and a multitude of support services. 67% of India's labor
force of nearly 400 million work in agriculture, which contributes 30%
of the country's GDP. Production, trade, and investment reforms since
1991 have provided new opportunities for Indian businesspersons and an
estimated 300 million middle class consumers. New Delhi has avoided
debt rescheduling, attracted foreign investment, and revived
confidence in India's economic prospects since 1991. Many of the
country's fundamentals - including savings rates (26% of GDP) and
reserves (now about $24 billion) - are healthy. Inflation eased to 7%
in 1997, and interest rates dropped to between 10% and 13%. Even so,
the Indian Government needs to restore the early momentum of reform,
especially by continuing reductions in the extensive remaining
government regulations. Moreover, economic policy changes have not yet
significantly increased jobs or reduced the risk that international
financial strains will reemerge within the next few years. Nearly 40%
of the Indian population remains too poor to afford an adequate diet.
India's exports, currency, and foreign institutional investment were
affected by the East Asian crisis in late 1997 and early 1998, but
capital account controls, a low ratio of short-term debt to reserves,
and enhanced supervision of the financial sector helped insulate it
from near term balance-of-payments problems. Export growth, has been
slipping in 1996-97, averaging only about 4% to 5%-a large drop from
the more than 20% increases it was experiencing over the prior three
years-mainly because of the fall in Asian currencies relative to the
rupee. Energy, telecommunications, and transportation shortages and
the legacy of inefficient factories constrain industrial growth which
expanded only 6.7% in 1997-down from more than 11% in 1996. Growth of
the agricultural sector is still fairly slow rebounding to only 5.7%
in 1997 from a fall of 0.1% in 1996. Agricultural investment has
slowed, while costly subsidies on fertilizer, food distribution, and
rural electricity remain. Nevertheless, even if a series of weak
coalition governments continue to rule in New Delhi over the next few
years and are unable to push reforms aggressively, parts of the
economy that have already benefited from deregulation will continue to
grow. Indian think tanks project GDP growth of at least 5.5% in 1998.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1.534 trillion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,600 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 30%
industry: 28%
services: 42% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 7% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 390 million (1997 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 67%, services 18%, industry 15% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $39 billion
expenditures: $61 billion, including capital expenditures of $10
billion (FY97/98 est.)

Industries: textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel,
transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery

Industrial production growth rate: 6.7% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 83.288 million kW (1996)

Electricity-production: 398.28 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 427 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea,
sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry;
fish catch of about 3 million metric tons ranks India among the
world's top 10 fishing nations

Exports:
total value: $33.9 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: gems and jewelry, clothing, engineering goods, chemicals,
leather manufactures, cotton yarn, and fabric
partners: US, Hong Kong, UK, Germany

Imports:
total value: $39.7 billion (c.i.f., 1997)
commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, machinery, gems,
fertilizer, chemicals
partners: US, Belgium, Germany, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, UK, Japan

Debt-external: $90.7 billion (1997)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $1.237 billion (1993); US ODA bilateral commitments
$171 million; US Ex-Im bilateral commitments $680 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA bilateral commitments $2.48 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid $200 million; World Bank (IBRD) multilateral commitments
$2.8 billion; Asian Development Bank (AsDB) multilateral commitments
$760 million; International Finance Corporation (IFC) multilateral
commitments $200 million; other multilateral commitments $554 million
(1995-96)

Currency: 1 Indian rupee (Re) = 100 paise

Exchange rates: Indian rupees (Rs) per US$1-39.358 (January 1998),
36.313 (1997), 35.433 (1996), 32.427 (1995), 31.374 (1994), 30.493
(1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 12 million (1996)

Telephone system: probably the least adequate telephone system of any
of the industrializing countries; three of every four villages have no
telephone service; only 5% of India's villages have long-distance
service; poor telephone service significantly impedes commercial and
industrial growth and penalizes India in global markets; slow
improvement is taking place with the recent admission of private and
private-public investors, but demand for communication services is
also growing rapidly
domestic: local service is provided mostly by open wire and obsolete
electromechanical and manual switchboard systems; within the last 10
years a substantial amount of digital switch gear has been introduced
for local service; long-distance traffic is carried mostly by open
wire, coaxial cable, and low-capacity microwave radio relay; since
1985, however, significant trunk capacity has been added in the form
of fiber-optic cable and a domestic satellite system with over 100
earth stations
international: satellite earth stations-8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and
1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean Region); submarine cables to Malaysia and UAE

Radio broadcast stations: AM 96, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 70 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 274 (government controlled)

Televisions: 33 million (1992 est.)

@India:Transportation

Railways:
total: 62,660 km (12,296 km electrified; 12,617 km double track)
broad gauge: 39,612 km 1.676-m gauge
narrow gauge: 19,210 km 1.000-m gauge; 3,838 km 0.762-m and 0.610-m
gauge (1995 est.)

Highways:
total: 2.06 million km
paved: 1,034,120 km
unpaved: 1,025,880 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 16,180 km; 3,631 km navigable by large vessels

Pipelines: crude oil 3,005 km; petroleum products 2,687 km; natural
gas 1,700 km (1995)

Ports and harbors: Calcutta, Chennai (Madras), Cochin, Jawaharal
Nehru, Kandla, Mumbai (Bombay), Vishakhapatnam

Merchant marine:
total: 299 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,605,619 GRT/10,988,439
DWT
ships by type: bulk 126, cargo 58, chemical tanker 9, combination bulk
1, combination ore/oil 3, container 11, liquefied gas tanker 9, oil
tanker 75, passenger-cargo 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea
passenger 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 343 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 237
over 3,047 m: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 47
1,524 to 2,437 m: 87
914 to 1,523 m: 72
under 914 m: 19 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 106
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 47
under 914 m: 51 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 16 (1997 est.)

@India:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, various security or
paramilitary forces (includes Border Security Force, Assam Rifles, and
Coast Guard)

Military manpower-military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 263,765,005 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 154,925,081 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 10,566,718 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $8 billion (FY95/96)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.7% (FY95/96)

@India:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: boundary with China in dispute; status of
Kashmir with Pakistan; water-sharing problems with Pakistan over the
Indus River (Wular Barrage); a portion of the boundary with Bangladesh
is indefinite

Illicit drugs: world's largest licit producer of opium for the
pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is
diverted to illicit international drug markets; major transit country
for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries; illicit
producer of hashish and methaqualone; cultivated 2,050 hectares of
opium in 1997, a 34% decrease from 1996, with a potential production
of 30 metric tons, a 36% decrease from 1996

______________________________________________________________________

INDIAN OCEAN

@Indian Ocean:Geography

Location: body of water between Africa, Antarctica, Asia, and
Australia

Geographic coordinates: 30 00 S, 80 00 E

Map references: World

Area:
total: 73.6 million sq km
note: includes Andaman Sea, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Great
Australian Bight, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman, Mozambique Channel,
Persian Gulf, Red Sea, Strait of Malacca, and other tributary water
bodies

Area-comparative: slightly less than eight times the size of the US;
third-largest ocean (after the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean, but
larger than the Arctic Ocean)

Coastline: 66,526 km

Climate: northeast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon
(June to October); tropical cyclones occur during May/June and
October/November in the northern Indian Ocean and January/February in
the southern Indian Ocean

Terrain: surface dominated by counterclockwise gyre (broad, circular
system of currents) in the southern Indian Ocean; unique reversal of
surface currents in the northern Indian Ocean; low atmospheric
pressure over southwest Asia from hot, rising, summer air results in
the southwest monsoon and southwest-to-northeast winds and currents,
while high pressure over northern Asia from cold, falling, winter air
results in the northeast monsoon and northeast-to-southwest winds and
currents; ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge and
subdivided by the Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge, Southwest Indian Ocean
Ridge, and Ninety East Ridge

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Java Trench -7,258 m
highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, shrimp, sand and gravel
aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules

Natural hazards: ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme
south near Antarctica from May to October

Environment-current issues: endangered marine species include the
dugong, seals, turtles, and whales; oil pollution in the Arabian Sea,
Persian Gulf, and Red Sea

Environment-international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: major chokepoints include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of
Hormuz, Strait of Malacca, southern access to the Suez Canal, and the
Lombok Strait

@Indian Ocean:Government

Data code: none; the US Government has not approved a standard for
hydrographic codes-see the Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Codes
appendix

@Indian Ocean:Economy

Economy-overview: The Indian Ocean provides major sea routes
connecting the Middle East, Africa, and East Asia with Europe and the
Americas. It carries a particularly heavy traffic of petroleum and
petroleum products from the oilfields of the Persian Gulf and
Indonesia. Its fish are of great and growing importance to the
bordering countries for domestic consumption and export. Fishing
fleets from Russia, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan also exploit the Indian
Ocean, mainly for shrimp and tuna. Large reserves of hydrocarbons are
being tapped in the offshore areas of Saudi Arabia, Iran, India, and
western Australia. An estimated 40% of the world's offshore oil
production comes from the Indian Ocean. Beach sands rich in heavy
minerals and offshore placer deposits are actively exploited by
bordering countries, particularly India, South Africa, Indonesia, Sri
Lanka, and Thailand.

Communications

Telephone system:
international: submarine cables from India to UAE and Malaysia and
from Sri Lanka to Djibouti and Indonesia

@Indian Ocean:Transportation

Ports and harbors: Calcutta (India), Chennai (Madras; India), Colombo
(Sri Lanka), Durban (South Africa), Jakarta (Indonesia), Melbourne
(Australia), Mumbai (Bombay; India), Richard's Bay (South Africa)

@Indian Ocean:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)

______________________________________________________________________

INDONESIA

@Indonesia:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and
the Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 5 00 S, 120 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 1,919,440 sq km
land: 1,826,440 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 2,602 km
border countries: Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km

Coastline: 54,716 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior
mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m

Natural resources: petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber,
bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 7%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland: 62%
other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 45,970 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis,
earthquakes

Environment-current issues: deforestation; water pollution from
industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Marine Life Conservation

Geography-note: archipelago of 17,000 islands (6,000 inhabited);
straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes
from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

@Indonesia:People

Population: 212,941,810 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 31% (male 33,311,867; female 32,361,468)
15-64 years: 65% (male 69,215,722; female 69,578,527)
65 years and over: 4% (male 3,744,314; female 4,729,912) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.49% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 23.1 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.22 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 59.23 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 62.49 years
male: 60.28 years
female: 64.81 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.61 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic groups: Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal
Malays 7.5%, other 26%

Religions: Muslim 87%, Protestant 6%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%,
Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1985)

Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay),
English, Dutch, local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is
Javanese

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.8%
male: 89.6%
female: 78% (1995 est.)

@Indonesia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies

Data code: ID

Government type: republic

National capital: Jakarta

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (propinsi-propinsi,
singular-propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa,
singular-daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district**
(daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Bengkulu, Irian Jaya, Jakarta
Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat,
Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Lampung,
Maluku, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi
Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera
Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Timor Timur, Yogyakarta*

Independence: 17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December
1949, Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Constitution: August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949
and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by
indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of
age

Executive branch:
note: on 21 May 1998-less than three months after being reelected to a
seventh five-year term-President Gen. (Ret.) SOEHARTO resigned from
office; immediately following his resignation he announced that Vice
President HABIBIE would assume the presidency for the remainder of the
term which expires in 2003; on 28 May 1998, HABIBIE and legislative
leaders announced an agreement to hold a new presidential election in
1999
chief of state: President Bacharuddin J. HABIBIE (since 21 March
1998); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
head of government: President Bacharuddin J. HABIBIE (since 21 March
1998); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president and vice president elected by consensus by the
People's Consultative Assembly for five-year terms; election last held
10 March 1998 (next to be held NA 1999)
election results: Gen. (Ret.) SOEHARTO elected president by consensus
by the People's Consultative Assembly; Bacharuddin J. HABIBIE elected
vice president by consensus by the People's Consultative Assembly;
note-Vice President HABIBIE assumed the presidency after SOEHARTO's
resignation

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives or Dewan
Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (500 seats; 425 elected by popular vote, 75
are appointed military representatives; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 29 May 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party-Golkar 74.5%, PPP 22.43%,
PDI 3.07%; seats by party-Golkar 325, PPP 89, PDI 11
note: the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan
Rakyat or MPR) includes the DPR plus 500 indirectly selected members;
it meets every five years to elect the president and vice president
and to approve the broad outlines of national policy

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung), the judges are
appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Golkar (de facto ruling political party
based on functional groups), HARMOKO, general chairman; Indonesia
Democracy Party (PDI, federation of former Nationalist and Christian
Parties), SOERJADI, chairman; Development Unity Party (PPP, federation
of former Islamic parties), Ismail Hasan METAREUM, chairman

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP,
ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador DORODJATUN Kuntoro-Jakti
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San
Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador J. Stapleton ROY
embassy: Medan Merdeka Selatan 5, Jakarta
mailing address: Box 1, APO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 344-2211
FAX: [62] (21) 386-2259
consulate(s) general: Surabaya

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white;
similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the
flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red

@Indonesia:Economy

Economy-overview: While Indonesia was long touted for its sound
macroeconomic management and spectacular growth, the Asian financial
crisis in 1997/98 revealed the weak underpinnings of the economy: an
unhealthy banking sector, untenable levels of private foreign debt,
and uncompetitive practices that favored the financial interests of
former President SOEHARTO's family and friends. Indonesia sought IMF
assistance early in the crisis and eventually brokered a $42 billion
bailout package; but Jakarta jeopardized the program by resisting
strict IMF reforms, partly in response to the rupiah's collapse, which
lost as much as 80% of its value at one point. Economic prospects look
bleak for 1998: the economy probably will shrink between 4% to 10%,
unemployment top historic highs-in excess of 15%-and inflation move
toward hyper levels.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$960 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$4,600 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 16%
industry: 43%
services: 41% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 50% (1998 est.)

Labor force:
total: 67 million
by occupation: agriculture 44%, manufacturing 13%, construction 5%,
transport and communications 4%, other 34% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15%; underemployment 50% (1998 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $42.8 billion
expenditures: $42.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $14.4
billion (FY97/98 est.)

Industries: petroleum and natural gas, textiles, mining, cement,
chemical fertilizers, plywood, food, rubber; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 10.5% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 16.265 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 60.4 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 297 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa,
coffee, palm oil, copra, other tropical products; poultry, beef, pork,
eggs

Exports:
total value: $53.4 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: textiles/garments 20.6%, wood products 15.7%, electronics
9.9%, footwear 6.1%
partners: Japan 27.1%, US 13.9%, Singapore 8.3%, South Korea 6.4%,
Taiwan 3.9%, China 3.8%, Hong Kong 3.6% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $41.6 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: manufactures 75.3%, raw materials 9.0%, foodstuffs 7.8%,
fuels 7.7%
partners: Japan 22.7%, US 11.7%, Germany 6.9%, South Korea 6.0%,
Singapore 5.8%, Australia 5.0%, Taiwan 4.5% (1995)

Debt-external: $136 billion (yearend 1997 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: IMF program, $42 billion (1998 est.)

Currency: Indonesian rupiah (Rp)

Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1-8,000 (April 1998),
2,909.4 (1997), 2,342.3 (1996), 2,248.6 (1995), 2,160.8 (1994),
2,087.1 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 1,276,600 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: domestic service fair, international service good
domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net;
domestic satellite communications system
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and
1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 618, FM 38, shortwave 0

Radios: 28.1 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9

Televisions: 11.5 million (1992 est.)

@Indonesia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 6,458 km
narrow gauge: 5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (101 km electrified; 101 km
double track); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 393,000 km
paved: 178,815 km
unpaved: 214,185 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km,
Kalimantan 10,460 km, Sulawesi (Celebes) 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km

Pipelines: crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas
1,703 km (1989)

Ports and harbors: Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang,
Semarang, Surabaya, Ujungpandang

Merchant marine:
total: 503 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,433,857 GRT/3,510,818
DWT
ships by type: bulk 35, cargo 291, chemical tanker 8, container 11,
liquefied gas tanker 5, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 105, passenger
8, passenger-cargo 12, roll-on/roll-off cargo 10, short-sea passenger
6, specialized tanker 6, vehicle carrier 5 (1997 est.)

Airports: 442 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 124
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 40
914 to 1,523 m: 41
under 914 m: 28 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 318
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 32
under 914 m: 281 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 4 (1997 est.)

@Indonesia:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 59,862,854 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 35,148,486 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 2,286,098 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $3.3 billion (FY97/98)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.3% (FY97/98)

@Indonesia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor
Province) disputed with Portugal and not recognized by the UN; two
islands in dispute with Malaysia

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use;
possible growing role as transshipment point for Golden Triangle
heroin

______________________________________________________________________

IRAN

@Iran:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf,
and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan

Geographic coordinates: 32 00 N, 53 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 1.648 million sq km
land: 1.636 million sq km
water: 12,000 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries:
total: 5,440 km
border countries: Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan-proper
432 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan
909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km

Coastline: 2,440 km
note: Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: natural prolongation
exclusive economic zone: bilateral agreements, or median lines in the
Persian Gulf
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

Terrain: rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts,
mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Qolleh-ye Damavand 5,671 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper,
iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 27%
forests and woodland: 7%
other: 55% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 94,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms;
earthquakes along western border and in the northeast

Environment-current issues: air pollution, especially in urban areas,
from vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents;
deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; oil pollution in the
Persian Gulf; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea,
Marine Life Conservation

@Iran:People

Population: 68,959,931 (July 1998 est.)
note: includes 607,252 non-nationals (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 15,371,060; female 14,513,782)
15-64 years: 53% (male 18,469,620; female 17,810,596)
65 years and over: 4% (male 1,428,471; female 1,366,402) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 2.04% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 31.37 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 6.19 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.79 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.05 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 48.95 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.25 years
male: 66.83 years
female: 69.74 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.31 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Iranian(s)
adjective: Iranian

Ethnic groups: Persian 51%, Azerbaijani 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani
8%, Kurd 7%, Arab 3%, Lur 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, other 1%

Religions: Shi'a Muslim 89%, Sunni Muslim 10%, Zoroastrian, Jewish,
Christian, and Baha'i 1%

Languages: Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic
dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%,
other 2%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 72.1%
male: 78.4%
female: 65.8% (1994 est.)

@Iran:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Iran
conventional short form: Iran
local long form: Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran
local short form: Iran

Data code: IR

Government type: theocratic republic

National capital: Tehran

Administrative divisions: 25 provinces (ostanha, singular-ostan);
Ardabil, Azarbayjan-e Gharbi, Azarbayjan-e Sharqi, Bushehr, Chahar
Mahall va Bakhtiari, Esfahan, Fars, Gilan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam,
Kerman, Kermanshahan, Khorasan, Khuzestan, Kohkiluyeh va Buyer Ahmadi,
Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran, Semnan, Sistan va
Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan
note: there may be three new provinces named Gorgan, Qom, and Qazvin

Independence: 1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed)

National holiday: Islamic Republic Day, 1 April (1979)

Constitution: 2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of the
presidency and eliminate the prime ministership

Legal system: the Constitution codifies Islamic principles of
government

Suffrage: 15 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: supreme leader (rahbar-e moazam) and functional chief
of state-Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Ali
Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 4 June 1989)
head of government: President (Ali) Mohammad KHATAMI-Ardakani (since 3
August 1997); First Vice President Hasan Ebrahim HABIBI (since NA
August 1989)
cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president with
legislative approval
elections: supreme leader appointed for life by the Council of
Experts; president elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
election last held 23 May 1997 (next to be held NA May 2001)
election results: (Ali) Mohammad KHATAMI-Ardakani elected president;
percent of vote - (Ali) Mohammad KHATAMI-Ardakani 69%

Legislative branch: unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly or
Majles-e-Shura-ye-Eslami (270 seats; members elected by popular vote
to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 8 March and 19 April 1996 (next to be held NA
March 2000)
election results: percent of vote-NA; seats-NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Iran has no political parties; the most
important political "groupings" are-Tehran Militant Clergy
Association, Secretary General Ayatollah Mohammad EMAMI-KASHANI;
Militant Clerics Association, Mehdi MAHDAVI-KARUBI and Mohammad Asqar
MUSAVI-KHOINIHA; Servants of Reconstruction (G-6), Mohammad
HASHEMI-RAFSANJANI, Hosein MARASHI

Political pressure groups and leaders: groups that generally support
the Islamic Republic include Ansar-e Hizballah, Mojahedin of the
Islamic Revolution, Muslim Students Following the Line of the Imam,
and the Islamic Coalition Association; opposition groups include the
Liberation Movement of Iran and the Nation of Iran party; armed
political groups that have been almost completely repressed by the
government include Mojahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK), People's
Fedayeen, Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan; the Society for the
Defense of Freedom

International organization participation: CCC, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO,
G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note-Iran has an Interests
Section in the Pakistani Embassy, headed by Faramarz FATH-NEJAD;
address: Iranian Interests Section, Pakistani Embassy, 2209 Wisconsin
Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007; telephone: [1] (202) 965-4990

Diplomatic representation from the US: none; note-protecting power in
Iran is Switzerland

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white,
and red; the national emblem (a stylized representation of the word
Allah) in red is centered in the white band; ALLAH AKBAR (God is
Great) in white Arabic script is repeated 11 times along the bottom
edge of the green band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band

@Iran:Economy

Economy-overview: Iran's economy is a mixture of central planning,
state ownership of oil and other large enterprises, village
agriculture, and small-scale private trading and service ventures.
Newly elected President KHATAMI has continued to follow the market
reform plans of former President RAFSANJANI and has indicated that he
will pursue diversification of Iran's oil-reliant economy. In the
early 1990s, Iran experienced a financial crisis and was forced to
reschedule $15 billion in debt. The strong oil market in 1996 helped
ease financial pressures on Iran and allowed for Tehran's timely debt
service payments. Iran's financial situation tightened in 1997 and
early 1998 because of lower oil prices. Iran may be forced to decrease
imports and slow debt repayments if the oil market worsens further.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$371.2 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.2% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$5,500 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 21%
industry: 37%
services: 42% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 23% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 15.4 million
by occupation: agriculture 33%, manufacturing 21% (1988 est.)
note: shortage of skilled labor

Unemployment rate: more than 30% (January 1998 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $34.6 billion
expenditures: $34.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $11.8
billion (FY96/97)

Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other
construction materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining
and vegetable oil production), metal fabricating, armaments

Industrial production growth rate: 5.7% (FY95/96 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 25.117 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 79 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,222 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits,
nuts, cotton; dairy products, wool; caviar

Exports:
total value: $19 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: petroleum 80%, carpets, fruits, nuts, hides, iron, steel
partners: Japan, US, UK, Germany, South Korea, UAE

Imports:
total value: $15.6 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: machinery, military supplies, metal works, foodstuffs,
pharmaceuticals, technical services, refined oil products
partners: Germany, Italy, Japan, UAE, UK, Belgium

Debt-external: $21.9 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $40 million (1993)

Currency: 10 Iranian rials (IR) = 1 toman; note-domestic figures are
generally referred to in terms of the toman

Exchange rates: Iranian rials (IR) per US$1-1,752.14 (January 1998),
1,750.76 (1996), 1,752.92 (1997), 1,747.93 (1995), 1,748.75 (1994),
1,267.77 (1993); black market rate: 4,600 rials per US$1 (March 1997);
note-as of May 1995, the "official rate" of 1,750 rials per US$1 is
used for imports of essential goods and services and for oil exports,
whereas the "official export rate" of 3,000 rials per US$1 is used for
non-oil exports and imports not covered by the official rate

Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March

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