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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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and two members of the General Council

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Group or AND [Oscar
RIBAS Reig]; Liberal Union or UL [Francesc CERQUEDA]; New Democracy or
ND [Jaume BARTOMEU Cassany]; Andorran National Coalition or CNA
[Antoni CERQUEDA Gispert]; National Democratic Initiative or IDN
[Vincenc MATEU Zamora]; Liberal Party of Andorra (Partit Liberal
d'Andorra) or PLA [Marc FORNE]; Unio Parroquial d'Ordino or UDO
note: there are two other small parties

International organization participation: CE, ECE, ICRM, IFRCS,
Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, UN, UNESCO, WHO, WIPO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Juli MINOVES-TRIQUELL (also Permanent
Representative to the UN)
chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate
General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina
Elisenda, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: (343) 280-2227; FAX:
(343) 205-7705; note-Consul General Maurice S. PARKER makes periodic
visits to Andorra

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow
band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the
flags of Chad and Romania that do not have a national coat of arms in
the center

@Andorra:Economy

Economy-overview: Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do
economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 10 million
tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and
by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has
recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain have
been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and lower
tariffs. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also
contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is
limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food has to be
imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising.
Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture.
Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU
member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU
member for agricultural products.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1.2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$18,000 (1995 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget:
revenues: $138 million
expenditures: $177 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1993)

Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco,
banking

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 35,000 kW (1992)

Electricity-production: 140 million kWh (1992)

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh; note-Andorra exports most
of its electricity to France and Spain

Agriculture-products: small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley,
oats, vegetables; sheep raising

Exports:
total value: $47 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: electricity, tobacco products, furniture
partners: France 49%, Spain 47%

Imports:
total value: $1 billion (1995)
commodities: consumer goods, food
partners: France, Spain, US 4.2%

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes; 1 peseta (Pta) = 100
centimos; the French and Spanish currencies are used

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1-6.0836 (January 1998),
5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632
(1993); Spanish pesetas (Ptas) per US$1-153.94 (January 1998), 146.41
(1997), 126.66 (1996), 124.69 (1995), 133.96 (1994), 127.26 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 21,258 (1983 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between
exchanges
international: landline circuits to France and Spain

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 10,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 7,000 (1991 est.)

@Andorra:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 269 km
paved: 198 km
unpaved: 71 km (1991 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: none

@Andorra:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

@Andorra:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

ANGOLA

Introduction

Current issues: Civil war has been the norm since independence from
Portugal on 11 November 1975. A cease-fire between the government and
(UNITA) lasted from 31 May 1991 until October 1992 when UNITA refused
to accept its defeat in internationally monitored elections and
fighting resumed throughout much of the country. The two sides signed
another peace accord on 20 November 1994 and the cease-fire is
generally holding, but military tensions and banditry persist. The
peace accord provided for the integration of former UNITA insurgents
into the Angolan armed forces and the government. A Government of
National Unity and Reconciliation was installed in April 1997 and
military integration was declared complete in June 1997, although
UNITA filled fewer than half of the military positions allocated to
the rebels. Efforts which began in May 1997 to extend government into
UNITA-occupied areas are proceeding slowly. The original 7,200-man UN
peacekeeping force began a phased drawdown in late 1996 and all UN
military components are scheduled to depart by 30 June 1998 except for
through 1998.

@Angola:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 18 30 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1,246,700 sq km
land: 1,246,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,198 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km of which
220 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province, Republic of
the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline: 1,600 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 20 nm

Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool,
dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper,
feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 23%
forests and woodland: 43%
other: 32% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 750 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on
the plateau

Environment-current issues: the overuse of pastures and subsequent
soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification;
deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both
international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel,
resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water
pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of
potable water

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Law of the Sea
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change

Geography-note: Cabinda is separated from rest of country by the
Democratic Republic of the Congo

@Angola:People

Population: 10,864,512 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 2,471,108; female 2,401,631)
15-64 years: 52% (male 2,864,152; female 2,831,209)
65 years and over: 3% (male 137,432; female 158,980) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.84% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 43.58 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 16.79 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 132.44 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 47.86 years
male: 45.6 years
female: 50.23 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.2 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan

Ethnic groups: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico
(mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15%
(1998 est.)

Languages: Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 42%
male: 56%
female: 28% (1998 est.)

@Angola:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola
local long form: Republica de Angola
local short form: Angola
former: People's Republic of Angola

Data code: AO

Government type: transitional government, nominally a multiparty
democracy with a strong presidential system

National capital: Luanda

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias,
singular-provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango,
Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte,
Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August
1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law;
recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use
of free markets

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September
1979)
head of government: Prime Minister Fernando Franca VAN DUNEM (since 8
June 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: President DOS SANTOS originally elected without opposition
under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first
multiparty elections in 28-29 September 1992, the last elections to be
held, (next to be held NA); prime minister appointed by the president
and answerable to the Assembly
election results: DOS SANTOS received 49.6% of the total vote, making
a run-off election necessary between him and second-place finisher
Jonas SAVIMBI; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's National Union
for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) repudiated the results of
the first election; the civil war was resumed

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia
Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve
four-year terms)
elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA)
election results: percent of vote by party-MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%, others
12%; seats by party-NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao, judges of the
Supreme Court are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Popular Movement for the Liberation of
Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS], is the ruling party and has
been in power since 1975; National Union for the Total Independence of
Angola or UNITA [Jonas SAVIMBI], is the largest opposition party and
engaged in years of armed resistance before joining the current unity
government in April 1997
note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections
but won few seats and have little influence in the National Assembly

Political pressure groups and leaders: Front for the Liberation of the
Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC
note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed
struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC
(observer), ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer),
OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Antonio dos Santos FRANCA "N'dalu"
chancery: 1050 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 760, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Donald K. STEINBERG
embassy: No. 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne, Miramar, Luanda
mailing address: International mail: Caixa Postal 6484, Luanda; Pouch:
American Embassy Luanda, Department of State, Washington, DC
20521-2550
telephone: [244] (2) 345-481, 346-418
FAX: [244] (2) 346-924

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black
with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within
half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and
sickle)

@Angola:Economy

Economy-overview: Angola is an economy in disarray because of more
than 20 years of nearly continuous warfare. Despite its abundant
natural resources, output per capita is among the world's lowest.
Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 85% of the
population. Oil production and the supporting activities are vital to
the economy, contributing about 50% to GDP. Notwithstanding the
signing of a peace accord in November 1994, sporadic violence
continues, millions of land mines remain, and many farmers are
reluctant to return to their fields. As a result, much of the
country's food must still be imported. To take advantage of its rich
resources-gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries,
arable land, and large oil deposits-Angola will need to implement the
peace agreement and reform government policies. Despite the high
inflation and political difficulties, total output grew an estimated
9% in 1996, largely due to increased oil production and higher oil
prices.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$8.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 9% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$800 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 12%
industry: 56%
services: 32% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 92% (mid-1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2.783 million economically active
by occupation: agriculture 85%, industry and services 15% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: extensive unemployment and underemployment
affecting more than half the population (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $928 million
expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963
million (1992 est.)

Industries: petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar,
bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish
processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar;
textiles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 617,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 18.62 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 185 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton,
manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest
products; fish

Exports:
total value: $4 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: crude oil 90%, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas,
coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
partners: US 70%, EU

Imports:
total value: $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: capital equipment (machinery and electrical equipment),
vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles and clothing;
substantial military supplies
partners: Portugal, Brazil, US, France, Spain

Debt-external: $12.5 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $451 million (1994)

Currency: 1 kwanza (NKz) = 100 lwei

Exchange rates: kwanza (NKz) per US$1-265,000 (August 1997), 201,994
(November 1996)
note: the exchange rate is set by the National Bank of Angola (BNA);
adjusted by BNA on 19 July 1997 at 265,000 kwanzas per US$1; black
market rate was then 360,000 kwanzas per US$1

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 78,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: telephone service limited mostly to government and
business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military links
domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and
tropospheric scatter
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 13, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 6

Televisions: 50,000 (1993 est.)

@Angola:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,952 km limited trackage in use because of land mines still in
place from the civil war (1997 est.)
narrow gauge: 2,798 km 1.067-m gauge; 154 km 0.600-m gauge

Highways:
total: 72,626 km
paved: 18,157 km
unpaved: 54,469 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,295 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 179 km

Ports and harbors: Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malongo, Namibe,
Porto Amboim, Soyo

Merchant marine:
total: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 48,384 GRT/78,357 DWT
ships by type: cargo 9, oil tanker 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 252 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 32
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 220
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 32
914 to 1,523 m: 101
under 914 m: 82 (1997 est.)

@Angola:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, National
Police Force

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 2,476,766 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,246,349 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 105,283 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $1.2 billion (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 31% (1993)

@Angola:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment point for cocaine
and heroin destined for Western Europe and other African states

______________________________________________________________________

ANGUILLA

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Anguilla:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 63 10 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 91 sq km
land: 91 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 61 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m

Natural resources: salt, fish, lobster

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 100% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some
commercial salt ponds)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July
to October)

Environment-current issues: supplies of potable water sometimes cannot
meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

@Anguilla:People

Population: 11,147 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 1,558; female 1,511)
15-64 years: 65% (male 3,713; female 3,545)
65 years and over: 7% (male 359; female 461) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.25% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 17.04 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.47 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 20.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 20.16 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.37 years
male: 74.39 years
female: 80.43 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.98 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Anguillan(s)
adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic groups: black

Religions: Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%,
Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%

Languages: English (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 12 and over can read and write
total population: 95%
male: 95%
female: 95% (1984 est.)

@Anguilla:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Anguilla

Data code: AV

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: The Valley

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May

Constitution: Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended 1990

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952);
represented by Governor Alan HOOLE (since 1 November 1995)
head of government: Chief Minister Hubert HUGHES (since 16 March 1994)
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the
elected members of the House of Assembly
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor appointed
by the queen; chief minister appointed by the governor from among the
members of the House of Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats total, 7
elected by direct popular vote; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 16 March 1994 (next to be held March 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-ANA 2,
AUP 2, ADP 2, independent 1

Judicial branch: High Court, judge provided by Eastern Caribbean
Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Anguilla National Alliance or ANA
[Osbourne FLEMING]; Anguilla United Party or AUP [Hubert HUGHES];
Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP [Victor BANKS]

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CDB,
Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate), ECLAC (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
the UK)

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of
the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an
interlocking circular design on a white background with blue wavy
water below

@Anguilla:Economy

Economy-overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy
depends heavily on high-class tourism, offshore banking, lobster
fishing, and remittances from emigrants. The economy, and especially
the tourism sector, suffered a setback in late 1995 due to the effects
of Hurricane Luis in September but recovered in 1996. Anguillan
officials have put substantial effort into developing the offshore
financing sector. A comprehensive package of financial services
legislation was enacted in late 1994. In the medium term, prospects
for the economy will depend on the tourism sector and, therefore, on
continuing income growth in the industrialized nations.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$75 million (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.4% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$7,200 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3.6% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 4,400 (1992)
by occupation: commerce 36%, services 29%, construction 18%,
transportation and utilities 10%, manufacturing 3%,
agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4%

Unemployment rate: 7% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $13.5 million (1993)
expenditures: $17.6 million, including capital expenditures of
$740,000 (1995 est.)

Industries: tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: NA kW

Electricity-production: NA kWh

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture-products: pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes; sheep, goats,
pigs, cattle, poultry; fishing (including lobster)

Exports:
total value: $1.8 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: lobster, fish, livestock, salt
partners: NA

Imports:
total value: $52.7 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: NA
partners: NA

Debt-external: $8.5 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1-2.7000 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 890

Telephone system:
domestic: modern internal telephone system
international: microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin
(Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 2,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: NA

@Anguilla:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 105 km
paved: 65 km
unpaved: 40 km (1992 est.)

Ports and harbors: Blowing Point, Road Bay

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 2
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

@Anguilla:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Anguilla:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

ANTARCTICA

@Antarctica:Geography

Location: continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle

Geographic coordinates: 90 00 S, 0 00 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
total: 14 million sq km
land: 14 million sq km (280,000 sq km ice-free, 13.72 million sq km
ice-covered) (est.)
note: second-smallest continent (after Australia)

Area-comparative: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Land boundaries: 0 km
note: see entry on International disputes

Coastline: 17,968 km

Maritime claims: none, but see entry on International disputes

Climate: severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and
distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West
Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has
the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along
the coast and average slightly below freezing

Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock,
with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain
ranges up to about 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts
of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area,
and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves
along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute
11% of the area of the continent

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Vinson Massif 5,140 m

Natural resources: none presently exploited; iron ore, chromium,
copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other minerals, and coal and
hydrocarbons have been found in small, uncommercial quantities

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from
the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the
plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along
the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West
Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak

Environment-current issues: in 1995 it was reported that the ozone
shield, which protects the Earth's surface from harmful ultraviolet
radiation, had dwindled to the lowest level recorded over Antarctica
since 1975 when measurements were first taken

Environment-international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: the coldest, windiest, highest, and driest continent;
during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South
Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly
uninhabitable

@Antarctica:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note-there are seasonally
staffed research stations; Summer (January) population-over 4,115
total; Argentina 207, Australia 268, Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Chile 256,
China NA, Ecuador NA, Finland 11, France 78, Germany 32, Greenpeace
12, India 60, Italy 210, Japan 59, South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, NZ
264, Norway 23, Peru 39, Poland NA, South Africa 79, Spain 43, Sweden
10, UK 116, Uruguay NA, US 1,666, former USSR 565 (1989-90); Winter
(July) population-over 1,046 total; Argentina 150, Australia 71,
Brazil 12, Chile 73, China NA, France 33, Germany 19, Greenpeace 5,
India 1, Japan 38, South Korea 14, NZ 11, Poland NA, South Africa 12,
UK 69, Uruguay NA, US 225, former USSR 313 (1989-90); Year-round
stations-42 total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1, Chile 3, China
2, Finland 1, France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 2, South Korea 1, NZ
1, Poland 1, South Africa 3, UK 5, Uruguay 1, US 3, former USSR 6
(1990-91); Summer-only stations-over 38 total; Argentina 7, Australia
3, Chile 5, Germany 3, India 1, Italy 1, Japan 4, NZ 2, Norway 1, Peru
1, South Africa 1, Spain 1, Sweden 2, UK 1, US numerous, former USSR 5
(1989-90); note-the disintegration of the former USSR has placed the
status and future of its Antarctic facilities in doubt; stations may
be subject to closings at any time because of ongoing economic
difficulties

@Antarctica:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Antarctica

Data code: AY

Government type: Antarctic Treaty Summary-The Antarctic Treaty, signed
on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes
the legal framework for the management of Antarctica. Administration
is carried out through consultative member meetings-the 18th Antarctic
Treaty Consultative Meeting was in Japan in April 1993. Currently,
there are 42 treaty member nations: 26 consultative and 16 acceding.
Consultative (voting) members include the seven nations that claim
portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and
19 nonclaimant nations. The US and some other nations that have made
no claims have reserved the right to do so. The US does not recognize
the claims of others. The year in parentheses indicates when an
acceding nation was voted to full consultative (voting) status, while
no date indicates the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory.
Claimant nations are-Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand,
Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are-Belgium,
Brazil (1983), China (1985), Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany
(1981), India (1983), Italy (1987), Japan, South Korea (1989),
Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989), Poland (1977), South Africa, Spain
(1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay (1985), the US, and Russia. Acceding
(nonvoting) members, with year of accession in parentheses,
are-Austria (1987), Bulgaria (1978), Canada (1988), Colombia (1988),
Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1993), Denmark (1965), Greece (1987),
Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea
(1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1993), Switzerland (1990), and
Ukraine (1992). Article 1-area to be used for peaceful purposes only;
military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but
military personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research
or any other peaceful purpose; Article 2-freedom of scientific
investigation and cooperation shall continue; Article 3-free exchange
of information and personnel in cooperation with the UN and other
international agencies; Article 4-does not recognize, dispute, or
establish territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while
the treaty is in force; Article 5-prohibits nuclear explosions or
disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6-includes under the treaty
all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00 minutes south; Article
7-treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial
observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations,
and equipment; advance notice of all activities and of the
introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8-allows for
jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states;
Article 9-frequent consultative meetings take place among member
nations; Article 10-treaty states will discourage activities by any
country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty; Article
11-disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or,
ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14-deal with upholding,
interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations; other
agreements-more than 170 recommendations adopted at treaty
consultative meetings and ratified by governments include-Agreed
Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora (1964);
Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention
on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a
mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but was subsequently
rejected; the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic
Treaty was signed 4 October 1991 and entered into force 14 January
1998; this agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic
environment through five specific annexes on marine pollution, fauna,
and flora, environmental impact assessments, waste management, and
protected areas; it also prohibits all activities relating to mineral
resources except scientific research; 27 parties have ratified the
Protocol as of April 1998

Legal system: US law, including certain criminal offenses by or
against US nationals, such as murder, may apply to areas not under
jurisdiction of other countries. Some US laws directly apply to
Antarctica. For example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C.
section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the
following activities, unless authorized by regulation of statute: the
taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of nonindigenous
plants and animals; entry into specially protected or scientific
areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation
into the US of certain items from Antarctica. Violation of the
Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in fines
and one year in prison. The Departments of Treasury, Commerce,
Transportation, and Interior share enforcement responsibilities.
Public Law 95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, requires
expeditions from the US to Antarctica to notify, in advance, the
Office of Oceans and Polar Affairs, Room 5801, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans to other nations as
required by the Antarctic Treaty. For more information, contact Permit
Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation,
Arlington, Virginia 22230 (703) 306-1031.

@Antarctica:Economy

Economy-overview: No economic activity at present except for fishing
off the coast and small-scale tourism, both based abroad.

Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA

@Antarctica:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage

Airports: 18 (1997 est.); 39 landing facilities at different locations
operated by 16 national governments party to the Treaty; two
additional air facilities operated by commercial (nongovernmental)
tourist organizations; helicopter pads at 33 of these locations;
runways at 13 locations are gravel, sea ice, glacier ice, or compacted
snow surface suitable for wheeled fixed-wing aircraft; no paved
runways; 14 locations have snow-surface skiways limited to use by
ski-equipped planes-8 runways/skiways greater than 3,000 m, 12
runways/skiways 1,000 to 3,000 m, 2 runways/skiways less than 1,000 m,
and 5 of unspecified or variable length; airports generally subject to
severe restrictions and limitations resulting from extreme seasonal
and geographic conditions; airports do not meet ICAO standards;
advance approval from the respective governmental or nongovernmental
operating organization required for landing (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 18
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 5 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Antarctica:Military

Military-note: the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a
military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and
fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing
of any type of weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or
equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes

@Antarctica:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarctic
Treaty Summary above); sections (some overlapping) claimed by
Argentina, Australia, Chile, France (Adelie Land), New Zealand (Ross
Dependency), Norway (Queen Maud Land), and UK; the US and most other
nations do not recognize the territorial claims of other nations and
have made no claims themselves (the US reserves the right to do so);
no formal claims have been made in the sector between 90 degrees west
and 150 degrees west

______________________________________________________________________

ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

@Antigua and Barbuda:Geography

Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 17 03 N, 61 48 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 440 sq km
land: 440 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Redonda

Area-comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 153 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some higher
volcanic areas

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m

Natural resources: negligible; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use:
arable land: 18%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 9%
forests and woodland: 11%
other: 62% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October);
periodic droughts

Environment-current issues: water management-a major concern because
of limited natural fresh water resources-is further hampered by the
clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run
off quickly

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

@Antigua and Barbuda:People

Population: 64,006 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 26% (male 8,482; female 8,200)
15-64 years: 68% (male 21,695; female 22,042)
65 years and over: 6% (male 1,548; female 2,039) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.39% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 16.72 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.87 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 21.35 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.19 years
male: 68.82 years
female: 73.69 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.74 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic groups: black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian

Religions: Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some Roman
Catholic

Languages: English (official), local dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of
schooling
total population: 89%
male: 90%
female: 88% (1960 est.)

@Antigua and Barbuda:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Data code: AC

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Saint John's

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*,
Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint
Peter, Saint Philip

Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 November (1981)

Constitution: 1 November 1981

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March
1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the
advice of the prime minister
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
chosen by the queen on the advice of the prime minister; prime
minister appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate
(17-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of
Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional
representation to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives-last held 8 March 1994 (next to be
held NA 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-ALP 11,
UPP 5, independent 1

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint
Lucia), one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands
and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders: Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester
Bryant BIRD]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER], a
coalition of three opposition political parties-the United National
Democratic Party or UNDP; the Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or
ACLM; and the Progressive Labor Movement or PLM

Political pressure groups and leaders: Antigua Trades and Labor Union
or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh
MARSHALL]

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU,
NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lionel Alexander HURST
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 362-5211
FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225
consulate(s) general: Miami

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed 30 June 1994); the US
Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

Flag description: red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the
top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of
black (top), light blue, and white with a yellow rising sun in the
black band

@Antigua and Barbuda:Economy

Economy-overview: Tourism continues to be by far the dominant activity
in the economy accounting directly or indirectly to more than half of
GDP. Increased tourist arrivals have helped spur growth in the
construction and transport sectors. The dual island nation's
agricultural production is mainly directed to the domestic market; the
sector is constrained by the limited water supply and labor shortages
that reflect the pull of higher wages in tourism and construction.
Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major
products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components.
Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to
depend on income growth in the industrialized world, especially in the
US, which accounts for about half of all tourist arrivals.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$470 million (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$7,400 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 3.8%
industry: 18.9%
services: 77.3% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.5% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 30,000
by occupation: commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry 7%
(1983)

Unemployment rate: 5%-10%(1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $107 million
expenditures: $132 million, including capital expenditures of $18
million (1995)

Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing,
alcohol, household appliances)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 26,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 95 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,458 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts,
cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock

Exports:
total value: $45 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, food and live
animals 4%, machinery and transport equipment 17%
partners: OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and Tobago 2%,
US 0.3%

Imports:
total value: $350.8 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment,
manufactures, chemicals, oil
partners: US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%, other 50%

Debt-external: $225 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1-2.7000 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 6,700

Telephone system:
domestic: good automatic telephone system
international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station-1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands
Antilles) and Guadeloupe

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 2

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2

Televisions: 28,000 (1993 est.)

@Antigua and Barbuda:Transportation

Railways:
total: 77 km
narrow gauge: 64 km 0.760-m gauge; 13 km 0.610-m gauge (used almost
exclusively for handling sugarcane)

Highways:
total: 250 km (1996 est.)
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Saint John's

Merchant marine:
total: 440 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,025,920 GRT/2,690,028
DWT
ships by type: bulk 12, cargo 295, chemical tanker 6, combination bulk
1, container 89, liquefied gas tanker 2, oil tanker 4, refrigerated
cargo 10, roll-on/roll-off cargo 20, vehicle carrier 1
note: a flag of convenience registry: Germany owns 11 ships, Slovenia
3, Cyprus 2, and US 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Antigua and Barbuda:Military

Military branches: Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal
Antigua and Barbuda Police Force (includes the Coast Guard)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $1.4 million (FY90/91)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1% (FY90/91)

@Antigua and Barbuda:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: considered a long-time but relatively minor
transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe and
recent transshipment point for heroin from Europe to the US;
potentially more significant as a drug money-laundering center

______________________________________________________________________

ARCTIC OCEAN

@Arctic Ocean:Geography

Location: body of water mostly north of the Arctic Circle

Geographic coordinates: 90 00 N, 0 00 E

Map references: Arctic Region

Area:
total: 14.056 million sq km
note: includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea,
East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea,
Laptev Sea, Northwest Passage, and other tributary water bodies

Area-comparative: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US;
smallest of the world's four oceans (after Pacific Ocean, Atlantic
Ocean, and Indian Ocean)

Coastline: 45,389 km

Climate: polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively
narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous
darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers
characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak
cyclones with rain or snow

Terrain: central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack
that averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges
may be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort
Gyral Stream, but nearly straight line movement from the New Siberian
Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and Iceland);
the icepack is surrounded by open seas during the summer, but more
than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the encircling
land masses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental shelf (highest
percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central basin
interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen
Cordillera, and Lomonsov Ridge)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Fram Basin -4,665 m
highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits,
polymetallic nodules, oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals
and whales)

Natural hazards: ice islands occasionally break away from northern
Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland
and extreme northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually
icelocked from October to June; ships subject to superstructure icing
from October to May

Environment-current issues: endangered marine species include walruses
and whales; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from
disruptions or damage

Environment-international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern
access to the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); strategic location
between North America and Russia; shortest marine link between the
extremes of eastern and western Russia, floating research stations
operated by the US and Russia; maximum snow cover in March or April
about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean; snow cover lasts
about 10 months

@Arctic Ocean:Government

Data code: none; the US Government has not approved a standard for
hydrographic codes-see the Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data
Codes appendix

@Arctic Ocean:Economy

Economy-overview: Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of
natural resources, including petroleum, natural gas, fish, and seals.

Communications

Telephone system:
international: no submarine cables

@Arctic Ocean:Transportation

Ports and harbors: Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay
(US)

Transportation-note: sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land
routes; the Northwest Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route
(Eurasia) are important seasonal waterways

@Arctic Ocean:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: some maritime disputes (see littoral states);
Svalbard is the focus of a maritime boundary dispute between Norway
and Russia

______________________________________________________________________

ARGENTINA

@Argentina:Geography

Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean,
between Chile and Uruguay

Geographic coordinates: 34 00 S, 64 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 2,766,890 sq km
land: 2,736,690 sq km
water: 30,200 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US

Land boundaries:
total: 9,665 km
border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km,
Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km

Coastline: 4,989 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in
southwest

Terrain: rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling
plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Salinas Chicas -40 m
highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,962 m

Natural resources: fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin,
copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 52%
forests and woodland: 19%
other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 17,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes
subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can
strike the Pampas and northeast; heavy flooding

Environment-current issues: erosion results from inadequate flood
controls and improper land use practices; irrigated soil degradation;
desertification; air pollution in Buenos Aires and other major cities;
water pollution in urban areas; rivers becoming polluted due to
increased pesticide and fertilizer use

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life
Conservation

Geography-note: second-largest country in South America (after
Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between South
Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel,
Drake Passage)

@Argentina:People

Population: 36,265,463 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 27% (male 5,078,061; female 4,888,883)
15-64 years: 62% (male 11,299,155; female 11,315,522)
65 years and over: 11% (male 1,526,682; female 2,157,160) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.3% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 19.96 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.67 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 19.03 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.54 years
male: 70.9 years
female: 78.34 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.68 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Argentine(s)
adjective: Argentine

Ethnic groups: white 85%, mestizo, Amerindian, or other nonwhite
groups 15%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 90% (less than 20% practicing),
Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 6%

Languages: Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.2%
male: 96.2%
female: 96.2% (1995 est.)

@Argentina:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Argentine Republic
conventional short form: Argentina
local long form: Republica Argentina
local short form: Argentina

Data code: AR

Government type: republic

National capital: Buenos Aires

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (provincias,
singular-provincia), and 1 federal district* (distrito federal);
Buenos Aires; Catamarca; Chaco; Chubut; Cordoba; Corrientes; Distrito
Federal*; Entre Rios; Formosa; Jujuy; La Pampa; La Rioja; Mendoza;
Misiones; Neuquen; Rio Negro; Salta; San Juan; San Luis; Santa Cruz;
Santa Fe; Santiago del Estero; Tierra del Fuego, Antartida e Islas del
Atlantico Sur; Tucuman
note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica

Independence: 9 July 1816 (from Spain)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

Constitution: 1 May 1853; revised August 1994

Legal system: mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Carlos Saul MENEM (since 8 July 1989); Vice
President Carlos RUCKAUF (since 8 July 1995); note-the president is
both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Carlos Saul MENEM (since 8 July 1989);
Vice President Carlos RUCKAUF (since 8 July 1995); note-the president
is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 14 May 1995 (next
to be held 1999)
election results: Carlos Saul MENEM reelected president; percent of
vote-NA

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of the Senate (72 seats; formerly, three members appointed by
each of the provincial legislatures; presently transitioning to
one-third of the members being elected every three years to a
nine-year term) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; one-half of
the members elected every two years to four-year terms)
elections: Senate-last held NA May 1995 (next to be held NA 1998);
Chamber of Deputies-last held 26 October 1997 (next to be held NA
1999)
election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-PJ 39, UCR 1, others 32; Chamber of Deputies-percent of vote by
party-NA; seats by party-PJ 119, UCR 69, Frepaso 36, other 33

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), the nine Supreme Court
judges are appointed by the president with approval of the Senate

Political parties and leaders: Justicialist Party or PJ [Carlos Saul
MENEM] (Peronist umbrella political organization); Radical Civic Union
or UCR [Fernando DE LA RUA]; Union of the Democratic Center or UCD
(conservative party); Dignity and Independence Political Party or
MODIN (right-wing party); Front for a Country in Solidarity or Frepaso
(a four party coalition) [leader Carlos ALVAREZ]; Action for the
Republic [Domingo CAVALLO]; New Leadership [Gustavo BELIZ]; several
provincial parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Peronist-dominated labor
movement; General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning
umbrella labor organization); Argentine Industrial Union
(manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Society (large
landowners' association); Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs
(CILFA); business organizations; students; the Roman Catholic Church;
the Armed Forces

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer),
Australia Group, BCIE, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G- 6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24,
G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MINUGUA, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MTCR, NSG (observer),
OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Diego Ramiro GUELAR
chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6400 through 6403
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James R. CHEEK has retired; replacement
to be appointed in 1998
embassy: 4300 Colombia, 1425 Buenos Aires
mailing address: International mail: use street address; APO address:
Unit 4334, APO AA 34034
telephone: [54] (1) 777-4533, 4534
FAX: [54] (1) 777-0197

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top),
white, and light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow
sun with a human face known as the Sun of May

@Argentina:Economy

Economy-overview: Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a
highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector,
and a diversified industrial base. Nevertheless, following decades of
mismanagement and statist policies, the economy in the late 1980s was
plagued with huge external debts and recurring bouts of
hyperinflation. Elected in 1989, in the depths of recession, President
MENEM has implemented a comprehensive economic restructuring program
that has put Argentina on a path of stable, sustainable growth.
Argentina's currency has traded at par with the US dollar since April
1991, and inflation has fallen to its lowest level in 50 years.
Argentines have responded to price stability by repatriating capital
and investing in domestic industry. Growth averaged more than 8%
between 1991 and 1994, then fell 4.6% in 1995, largely in reaction to
the Mexican peso crisis. The economy has since recovered strongly.
However, unemployment remains nearly 14%, and Buenos Aires still
depends on foreign capital to meet the bulk of its financing needs.
The IMF has urged additional economic reforms to ensure equitable
long-term growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$348.2 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 8.4% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$9,700 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 7%
industry: 36%
services: 57% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 0.3% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 14.5 million (1995 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 12%, industry 31%, services 57% (1985 est.)

Unemployment rate: 13.7% (October 1997)

Budget:
revenues: $55 billion
expenditures: $59 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997
est.)

Industries: food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables,
textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

Industrial production growth rate: 8.7% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 19.61 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 65.72 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,960 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, corn, sorghum, soybeans, sugar beets;
livestock

Exports:
total value: $25.4 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: meat, wheat, corn, oilseed, manufactures, fuels
partners: Brazil 26.1%, US 8.5%, Chile 7.0%, Netherlands 5.7%, Italy
3.5% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $30.3 billion (c.i.f., 1997)
commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, transport
equipment, agricultural products
partners: Brazil 20.8%, US 20.7%, Italy 6.3%, Germany 6.2%, France
5.2% (1995)

Debt-external: $115 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 nuevo peso argentino = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: pesos per US$1-0.99950 (January 1998), 0.99950 (1997),
0.99966 (1996), 0.99975 (1995), 0.99901 (1994), 0.99895 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 4.6 million (1990)

Telephone system: 12,000 public telephones; extensive modern system
but many families do not have telephones; despite extensive use of
microwave radio relay, the telephone system frequently grounds out
during rainstorms, even in Buenos Aires
domestic: microwave radio relay and a domestic satellite system with
40 earth stations serve the trunk network
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 260, FM 100, shortwave 6

Radios: 22.3 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 231

Televisions: 7.165 million (1991 est.)

@Argentina:Transportation

Railways:
total: 37,910 km
broad gauge: 24,124 km 1.676-m gauge (142 km electrified)
standard gauge: 2,765 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 11,021 km 1.000-m gauge (26 km electrified)

Highways:
total: 218,276 km
paved: 63,518 km (including 567 km of expressways)
unpaved: 154,758 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 11,000 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 4,090 km; petroleum products 2,900 km; natural
gas 9,918 km

Ports and harbors: Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Comodoro Rivadavia,
Concepcion del Uruguay, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Necochea, Rio
Gallegos, Rosario, Santa Fe, Ushuaia

Merchant marine:
total: 34 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 268,492 GRT/388,524 DWT
ships by type: cargo 11, container 2, oil tanker 13, railcar carrier
1, refrigerated cargo 6, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 1,411 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 137
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 25
1,524 to 2,437 m: 55
914 to 1,523 m: 44
under 914 m: 8 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1,274
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 65
914 to 1,523 m: 635
under 914 m: 570 (1997 est.)

@Argentina:Military

Military branches: Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic
(includes Naval Aviation, Marines, and Coast Guard), Argentine Air
Force, National Gendarmerie, National Aeronautical Police Force

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 9,056,532 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 7,344,910 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 332,008 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $4.6 billion (1997)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.5% (1997)

@Argentina:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: short section of the southwestern boundary
with Chile is indefinite; claims UK-administered Falkland Islands
(Islas Malvinas); claims UK-administered South Georgia and the South
Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica

Illicit drugs: increasing use as a transshipment country for cocaine
headed for Europe and the US

______________________________________________________________________

ARMENIA

Introduction

Current issues: Armenia's leaders remain preoccupied by Armenia's
10-year conflict with Azerbaijan over the Nagorno-Karabakh enclave.
Although a cease-fire has been in effect since May 1994, the sides
have not made substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution. In
January 1998, differences between President TER-PETROSSIAN and members
of his cabinet over the Nagorno-Karabakh peace process came to a head.

Book of the day: