Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Books, poems, drama…

The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Part 19 out of 51

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 5.2 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

Net migration rate: -14.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 48.67 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 62.34 years
male: 59.5 years
female: 65.32 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.12 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Guyanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Guyanese

Ethnic groups: East Indian 49%, black 32%, mixed 12%, Amerindian 6%,
white and Chinese 1%

Religions: Christian 57%, Hindu 33%, Muslim 9%, other 1%

Languages: English, Amerindian dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 98.1%
male: 98.6%
female: 97.5% (1995 est.)

@Guyana:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Co-operative Republic of Guyana
conventional short form: Guyana
former: British Guiana

Data code: GY

Government type: republic

National capital: Georgetown

Administrative divisions: 10 regions; Barima-Waini, Cuyuni-Mazaruni,
Demerara-Mahaica, East Berbice-Corentyne, Essequibo Islands-West
Demerara, Mahaica-Berbice, Pomeroon-Supenaam, Potaro-Siparuni, Upper
Demerara-Berbice, Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo

Independence: 26 May 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Republic Day, 23 February (1970)

Constitution: 6 October 1980

Legal system: based on English common law with certain admixtures of
Roman-Dutch law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Executive President Janet JAGAN (since December 1997);
replaced Samuel HINDS
head of government: Prime Minister Samuel HINDS (since December 1997)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president, responsible
to the legislature
elections: president elected by the majority party in the National
Assembly after legislative elections which must be held within five
years; legislative elections last held 15 December 1997 (next to be
held NA 2002); prime minister appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (65 seats, 53
popularly elected; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 15 December 1997 (next to be held by March
2003)
election results: percent of vote by party-PPP 54%, PNC 41%, AFG 1%,
TUF 1%; seats by party-PPP 36, PNC 25, AFG 2, TUF 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Judicature

Political parties and leaders: People's Progressive Party (PPP),
People's National Congress (PNC), Hugh Desmond HOYTE; For a Good and
Green Guyana (GGG), Hamilton GREEN; Alliance for Guyana (AFG), Rupert
ROOPNARINE; Democratic Labor Movement (DLM), Paul TENNASSEE; People's
Democratic Movement (PDM), Llewellyn JOHN; National Democratic Front
(NDF), Joseph BACCHUS; The United Force (TUF), Manzoor NADIR; National
Republican Party (NRP), Robert GANGADEEN; Guyana Labor Party (GLP);
Guyana Democratic Party (GDP), Asgar ALLY; Guyanese Organization for
Liberty and Democracy Party (GOLD), Anthony MEKDECI

Political pressure groups and leaders: Trades Union Congress (TUC);
Guyana Council of Indian Organizations (GCIO); Civil Liberties Action
Committee (CLAC)
note: the latter two organizations are small and active but not well
organized

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB,
ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO
(subscriber), ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OIC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Ali Odeen ISHMAEL
chancery: 2490 Tracy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-6900, 6901
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James F. MACK
embassy: 99-100 Young and Duke Streets, Kingston, Georgetown
mailing address: P. O. Box 10507, Georgetown
telephone: [592] (2) 54900 through 54909, 57960 through 57969
FAX: [592] (2) 58497

Flag description: green with a red isosceles triangle (based on the
hoist side) superimposed on a long yellow arrowhead; there is a narrow
black border between the red and yellow, and a narrow white border
between the yellow and the green

@Guyana:Economy

Economy-overview: In 1997, Guyana, one of the poorest countries in the
Western Hemisphere, posted its sixth straight year of economic growth
of 5% or better, with the advance led by gold and bauxite mining and
by sugar growing. Favorable growth factors have included expansion in
the key agricultural and mining sectors, a more favorable atmosphere
for business initiative, a more realistic exchange rate, a moderate
inflation rate, and the continued support of international
organizations. Serious underlying economic problems will continue.
Electric power has been in short supply and constitutes a major
barrier to future gains in national output. The government must
persist in efforts to manage its sizable external debt and extend its
privatization program.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1.8 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,500 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 39%
industry: 28%
services: 33% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 4.5% (1997 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 12% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $278 million
expenditures: $299 million, including capital expenditures of $133
million (1996 est.)

Industries: bauxite, sugar, rice milling, timber, fishing (shrimp),
textiles, gold mining

Industrial production growth rate: 5.6% (1994 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 114,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 230 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 339 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: sugar, rice, wheat, vegetable oils; beef, pork,
poultry, dairy products; development potential exists for fishing and
forestry

Exports:
total value: $546 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: sugar, gold, bauxite/alumina, rice, shrimp, molasses
partners: Canada 33%, US 24%, UK 22% (1994 est.)

Imports:
total value: $589 million (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: manufactures, machinery, petroleum, food
partners: US 29%, Trinidad and Tobago 17%, Netherlands Antilles 17%,
UK 11%, (1994 est.)

Debt-external: $1.5 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Guyanese dollar (G$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Guyanese dollars (G$) per US$1-144.2 (January 1998),
142.4 (1997), 140.4 (1996), 142.0 (1995), 138.3 (1994), 126.7 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 33,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: fair system for long-distance calling
domestic: microwave radio relay network for trunk lines
international: tropospheric scatter to Trinidad; satellite earth
station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 3, shortwave 1

Radios: 398,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 11 (1995 est.)

Televisions: 32,000 (1992 est.)

@Guyana:Transportation

Railways:
total: 88 km
standard gauge: 40 km 1.435-m gauge (dedicated to ore transport)
narrow gauge: 48 km 0.914-m gauge (dedicated to ore transport)

Highways:
total: 7,970 km
paved: 590 km
unpaved: 7,380 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 6,000 km total of navigable waterways; Berbice, Demerara,
and Essequibo Rivers are navigable by oceangoing vessels for 150 km,
100 km, and 80 km, respectively

Ports and harbors: Bartica, Georgetown, Linden, New Amsterdam, Parika

Merchant marine:
total: 2 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,340 GRT/4,530 DWT
(1997 est.)

Airports: 50 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 45
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 34 (1997 est.)

@Guyana:Military

Military branches: Guyana Defense Force (GDF; includes Ground Forces,
Coast Guard, and Air Corps), Guyana People's Militia (GPM), Guyana
National Service (GNS)

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 201,126 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 151,963 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $7 million (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.7% (1994)

@Guyana:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: all of the area west of the Essequibo River
claimed by Venezuela; Suriname claims area between New (Upper
Courantyne) and Courantyne/Kutari [Koetari] Rivers (all headwaters of
the Courantyne)

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics from South
America-primarily Venezuela - to Europe and the US; producer of
cannabis

______________________________________________________________________

HAITI

@Haiti:Geography

Location: Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola,
between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the
Dominican Republic

Geographic coordinates: 19 00 N, 72 25 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 27,750 sq km
land: 27,560 sq km
water: 190 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 275 km
border countries: Dominican Republic 275 km

Coastline: 1,771 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade
winds

Terrain: mostly rough and mountainous

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Chaine de la Selle 2,680 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 13%
permanent pastures: 18%
forests and woodland: 5%
other: 44% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 750 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject
to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and
earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment-current issues: extensive deforestation (much of the
remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and used as
fuel); soil erosion; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the
Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation
signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography-note: shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic
(western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican
Republic)

@Haiti:People

Population: 6,780,501 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 1,465,735; female 1,422,260)
15-64 years: 53% (male 1,733,636; female 1,881,367)
65 years and over: 4% (male 138,678; female 138,825) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.51% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 32.84 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 14.17 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 98.98 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 51.4 years
male: 49.33 years
female: 53.58 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.67 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Haitian(s)
adjective: Haitian

Ethnic groups: black 95%, mulatto plus white 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%,
Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3% (1982)
note: roughly one-half of the population also practices Voodoo

Languages: French (official) 20%, Creole

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 45%
male: 48%
female: 42.2% (1995 est.)

@Haiti:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Haiti
conventional short form: Haiti
local long form: Republique d'Haiti
local short form: Haiti

Data code: HA

Government type: republic

National capital: Port-au-Prince

Administrative divisions: 9 departments, (departements,
singular-departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand'Anse, Nord, Nord-Est,
Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est

Independence: 1 January 1804 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1804)

Constitution: approved March 1987, suspended June 1988, most articles
reinstated March 1989; in October 1991, government claimed to be
observing the constitution; return to constitutional rule, October
1994

Legal system: based on Roman civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Rene Garcia PREVAL (since 7 February 1996)
head of government: Prime Minister Rosny SMARTH resigned June 1997;
currently no prime minister; ratification of a new prime minister held
up in political gridlock stemming from controversy over the 6 April
1997 elections
cabinet: Cabinet; chosen by the prime minister in consultation with
the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 17 December 1995 (next to be held by December
2000); prime minister appointed by the president, ratified by the
Congress
election results: Rene Garcia PREVAL elected president; percent of
vote-Rene Garcia PREVAL 88%, Leon JEUNE 2.5%, Victor BENOIT 2.3%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale
consists of the Senate (27 seats; members serve six-year terms;
one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies (83
seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate-last held 25 June 1995 with reruns on 13 August and
runoffs on 17 September (election held for nine seats 6 April 1997;
results disputed and runoffs postponed indefinitely); Chamber of
Deputies-last held 25 June 1995 with reruns on 13 August and runoffs
on 17 September (next Senate and Chamber elections to be held November
1998)
election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-Lavalas Political Organization 7, Lavalas family-leaning 7,
independent 2, non-active members 2, vacant 9; Chamber of
Deputies-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-Lavalas Political
Organization (OPL) 32, antineoliberal bloc 24, minor parties and
independents 22, vacant 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour de Cassation)

Political parties and leaders: Lavalas Family (FL), Jean-Bertrand
ARISTIDE; National Lavalas Political Organization (OPL), Gerard
PIERRE-CHARLES; National Front for Change and Democracy (FNCD), Evans
PAUL and Turneb DELPE; National Congress of Democratic Movements
(KONACOM), Victor BENOIT; Movement for the Installation of Democracy
in Haiti (MIDH), Marc BAZIN; National Progressive Revolutionary Party
(PANPRA), Serge GILLES; Movement for National Reconstruction (MRN),
Rene THEODORE; Haitian Christian Democratic Party (PDCH), Fritz
PIERRE; Assembly of Progressive National Democrats (RDNP), Leslie
MANIGAT; Mobilization for National Development (MDN), Hubert DE
RONCERAY; Movement for the Organization of the Country (MOP), Gesner
COMEAU and Jean MOLIERE; Open the Gate Party (PLB), Renaud BERNARDIN;
Union of Patriotic Democrats (UPD), Rockefeller GUERRE; Generation
2004, Claude ROUMAIN; Alliance for the Liberation and Advancement of
Haiti (ALAH), Reynold GEORGES; Haitian Democratic Party (PADEMH),
Clark PARENT; National Alliance for Democracy and Progress; Haiti Can
(Ayiti Kapab), Ernst VERDIEU

Political pressure groups and leaders: Roman Catholic Church;
Confederation of Haitian Workers (CTH); Federation of Workers Trade
Unions (FOS); Autonomous Haitian Workers (CATH); National Popular
Assembly (APN); Papaye Peasants Movement (MPP); Popular Organizations
Gathering Power (PROP)

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, Caricom
(observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU,
LAES, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); mission led by charge d'
affairs
chancery: 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4090 through 4092
FAX: [1] (202) 745-7215
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York, and San Juan
(Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Timothy Michael CARNEY
embassy: 5 Harry Truman Boulevard, Port-au-Prince
mailing address: P. O. Box 1761, Port-au-Prince
telephone: [509] 22-0354, 22-0368, 22-0200, 22-0612
FAX: [509] 23-1641

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red
with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which
contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll
bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength)

@Haiti:Economy

Economy-overview: About 75% of the population lives in abject poverty.
Nearly 70% of all Haitians depend on the agriculture sector, which
consists mainly of small-scale subsistence farming and employs about
two-thirds of the economically active work force. The country has
experienced little or no job creation since President PREVAL took
office in February 1996, although the informal economy is growing.
Failure to reach agreements with international sponsors have denied
Haiti badly needed budget and development assistance. Meeting aid
conditions in 1998 will be especially challenging in the face of
mounting popular criticism of reforms.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$7.1 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 1.1% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,070 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 44%
industry: 13%
services: 43% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 17% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 3.6 million (1995)
by occupation: agriculture 66%, services 25%, industry 9%
note: shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (1982)

Unemployment rate: 60% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $284 million
expenditures: $308 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY96/97 est.)

Industries: sugar refining, flour milling, textiles, cement, tourism,
light assembly industries based on imported parts

Industrial production growth rate: 2.5% (1995 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 153,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 315 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 48 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, mangoes, sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum;
wood

Exports:
total value: $90 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: light manufactures 53%, coffee 17%, other agriculture 17%
partners: US 76.3%, EU 19.8% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $665 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machines and manufactures 34%, food and beverages 22%,
petroleum products 14%, chemicals 10%, fats and oils 9%
partners: US 65.0%, EU 13.9% (1995)

Debt-external: $781 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 gourde (G) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: gourdes (G) per US$1 (end of period)-17.311 (December
1997), 17.311 (1997), 15.093 (1996), 16.160 (1995), 12.947 (1994),
12.805 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Communications

Telephones: 50,000 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: domestic facilities barely adequate, international
facilities slightly better
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 33, FM 0, shortwave 2

Radios: 320,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 32,000 (1992 est.)

@Haiti:Transportation

Railways:
total: 40 km (single track; privately owned industrial line)-closed in
early 1990s
narrow gauge: 40 km 0.760-m gauge

Highways:
total: 4,160 km
paved: 1,011 km
unpaved: 3,149 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: NEGL; less than 100 km navigable

Ports and harbors: Cap-Haitien, Gonaives, Jacmel, Jeremie, Les Cayes,
Miragoane, Port-au-Prince, Port-de-Paix, Saint-Marc

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 14 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 6 (1997 est.)

@Haiti:Military

Military branches: Haitian National Police (HNP)
note: the regular Haitian Army, Navy, and Air Force have been
demobilized but still exist on paper until/unless constitutionally
abolished

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,490,464 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 807,330 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 75,448 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA; note-mainly for police and
security activities

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Haiti:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: claims US-administered Navassa Island

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana en route
to the US and Europe

______________________________________________________________________

HEARD ISLAND AND MCDONALD ISLANDS

(territory of Australia)

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, islands in the Indian Ocean, about
two-thirds of the way from Madagascar to Antarctica

Geographic coordinates: 53 06 S, 72 31 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
total: 412 sq km
land: 412 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than 2 times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 101.9 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: Heard Island-bleak and mountainous, with a quiescent volcano;
McDonald Islands-small and rocky

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Big Ben 2,745 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: Heard Island is dominated by a dormant volcano called
Big Ben

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: primarily used for research stations

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands:People

Population: uninhabited

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands
conventional short form: Heard Island and McDonald Islands

Data code: HM

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from Canberra
by the Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories

Legal system: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands:Economy

Economy-overview: no economic activity

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of Australia

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

HOLY SEE (VATICAN CITY)

Holy See (Vatican City)

Holy See (Vatican City)
@Holy See (Vatican City):Geography

Location: Southern Europe, an enclave of Rome (Italy)

Geographic coordinates: 41 54 N, 12 27 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 0.44 sq km
land: 0.44 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 0.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries:
total: 3.2 km
border countries: Italy 3.2 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to mid-May) with
hot, dry summers (May to September)

Terrain: low hill

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: unnamed location 19 m
highest point: unnamed location 75 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (urban area)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution, Environmental Modification

Geography-note: urban; landlocked; enclave of Rome, Italy; world's
smallest state; outside the Vatican City, 13 buildings in Rome and
Castel Gandolfo (the pope's summer residence) enjoy extraterritorial
rights

@Holy See (Vatican City):People

Population: 860 (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.15% (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: none
adjective: none

Ethnic groups: Italians, Swiss, other

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: Italian, Latin, various other languages

@Holy See (Vatican City):Government

Country name:
conventional long form: The Holy See (State of the Vatican City)
conventional short form: Holy See (Vatican City)
local long form: Santa Sede (Stato della Citta del Vaticano)
local short form: Santa Sede (Citta del Vaticano)

Data code: VT

Government type: monarchical-sacerdotal state

National capital: Vatican City

Independence: 11 February 1929 (from Italy)

National holiday: Installation Day of the Pope, 22 October (1978)
(John Paul II)
note: Pope John Paul II was elected on 16 October 1978

Constitution: Apostolic Constitution of 1967 (effective 1 March 1968)

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: limited to cardinals less than 80 years old

Executive branch:
chief of state: Pope JOHN PAUL II (Karol WOJTYLA; since 16 October
1978)
head of government: Secretary of State Archbishop Angelo Cardinal
SODANO (since 2 December 1990)
cabinet: Pontifical Commission appointed by Pope
elections: pope elected for life by the College of Cardinals; election
last held 16 October 1978 (next to be held after the death of the
current pope); secretary of state appointed by the pope
election results: Karol WOJTYLA elected pope

Legislative branch: unicameral Pontifical Commission

Judicial branch: none; normally handled by Italy

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: none (exclusive of influence
exercised by church officers)

International organization participation: IAEA, ICFTU, Intelsat, IOM
(observer), ITU, OAS (observer), OSCE, UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNHCR,
UPU, WIPO, WToO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Apostolic Pro-Nuncio Archbishop Agostino
CACCIAVILLAN
chancery: 3339 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7121

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Corrine BOGGS
embassy: Villa Domiziana, Via Delle Terme Deciane 26, Rome 00153
mailing address: PSC 59, APO AE 09624
telephone: [39] (6) 46741
FAX: [39] (6) 5758346, 57300682

Flag description: two vertical bands of yellow (hoist side) and white
with the crossed keys of Saint Peter and the papal miter centered in
the white band

@Holy See (Vatican City):Economy

Economy-overview: This unique, noncommercial economy is supported
financially by contributions (known as Peter's Pence) from Roman
Catholics throughout the world, the sale of postage stamps and tourist
mementos, fees for admission to museums, and the sale of publications.
The incomes and living standards of lay workers are comparable to, or
somewhat better than, those of counterparts who work in the city of
Rome.

Labor force: NA
by occupation: dignitaries, priests, nuns, guards, and 3,000 lay
workers who live outside the Vatican

Budget:
revenues: $175.5 million
expenditures: $175 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994)

Industries: printing and production of a small amount of mosaics and
staff uniforms; worldwide banking and financial activities

Electricity-capacity: 5,000 kW standby
note: electricity supplied by Italy

Electricity-production: NA kWh
note: electricity supplied by Italy

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Currency: 1 Vatican lira (VLit) = 100 centesimi

Exchange rates: Vatican lire (VLit) per US$1-1,787.7 (January 1998),
1,703.1 (1997), 1,542.9 (1996), 1,628.9 (1995), 1,612.4 (1994),
1,573.7 (1993); note-the Vatican lira is at par with the Italian lira
which circulates freely

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 2,000

Telephone system: automatic exchange
domestic: tied into Italian system
international: uses Italian system

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1996)

Televisions: NA

@Holy See (Vatican City):Transportation

Railways:
total: 862 meters; note-connects to Italy's network at Rome's Saint
Peter's station
narrow gauge: 862 meters 1.435-m gauge

Highways: none; all city streets

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: none

Heliports: 1

@Holy See (Vatican City):Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of Italy; Swiss Papal
Guards are posted at entrances to the Vatican City

@Holy See (Vatican City):Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

HONDURAS

@Honduras:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between
Guatemala and Nicaragua and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between
El Salvador and Nicaragua

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 86 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 112,090 sq km
land: 111,890 sq km
water: 200 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries:
total: 1,520 km
border countries: Guatemala 256 km, El Salvador 342 km, Nicaragua 922
km

Coastline: 820 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: natural extension of territory or to 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains

Terrain: mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Cerro Las Minas 2,870 m

Natural resources: timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore,
antimony, coal, fish

Land use:
arable land: 15%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 14%
forests and woodland: 54%
other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 740 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; damaging
hurricanes and floods along Caribbean coast

Environment-current issues: urban population expanding; deforestation
results from logging and the clearing of land for agricultural
purposes; further land degradation and soil erosion hastened by
uncontrolled development and improper land use practices such as
farming of marginal lands; mining activities polluting Lago de Yojoa
(the country's largest source of fresh water) as well as several
rivers and streams with heavy metals

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber
94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Honduras:People

Population: 5,861,955 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 42% (male 1,248,291; female 1,204,574)
15-64 years: 55% (male 1,591,995; female 1,615,449)
65 years and over: 3% (male 96,017; female 105,629) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.33% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 31.79 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.02 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 41.88 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 65.01 years
male: 63.31 years
female: 66.8 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.12 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Honduran(s)
adjective: Honduran

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 90%, Amerindian
7%, black 2%, white 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant minority

Languages: Spanish, Amerindian dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 72.7%
male: 72.6%
female: 72.7% (1995 est.)

@Honduras:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Honduras
conventional short form: Honduras
local long form: Republica de Honduras
local short form: Honduras

Data code: HO

Government type: republic

National capital: Tegucigalpa

Administrative divisions: 18 departments (departamentos,
singular-departamento) plus probable Central District (Tegucigalpa);
Atlantida, Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso,
Francisco Morazan, Gracias a Dios, Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La
Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque, Olancho, Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982

Legal system: rooted in Roman and Spanish civil law; some influence of
English common law; accepts ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Carlos Roberto FLORES Facusse (since 27
January 1998); First Vice President William HANDAL; Second Vice
President Gladys CABALLERO de Arevalo; Third Vice President Hector
Vidal CERRATO Hernandez; note-the president is both the chief of state
and head of government
head of government: President Carlos Roberto FLORES Facusse (since 27
January 1998); First Vice President William HANDAL; Second Vice
President Gladys CABALLERO de Arevalo; Third Vice President Hector
Vidal CERRATO Hernandez; note-the president is both the chief of state
and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
election last held 30 November 1997 (next to be held NA November 2001)
election results: Carlos FLORES Facusse elected president; percent of
vote-Carlos FLORES Facusse (PLH) 53%, Nora de MELGAR (PNH) 42%, other
5%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional
(128 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year
terms)
elections: last held on 30 November 1997 (next to be held November
2001)
election results: percent of vote by party-PLH 50%, PNH 42%, PINU-SD
4%, PDCH 2%, other 2%; seats by party-PLH 70, PNH 55, PINU-SD 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica),
judges are elected for four-year terms by the National Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party (PLH), Raphael PINEDA
Ponce, president; National Party of Honduras (PNH), Nora MELGAR,
president; National Innovation and Unity Party-Social Democratic Party
(PINU-SD), Olban VALLADARES, president; Christian Democratic Party
(PDCH)

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Association of
Honduran Campesinos (ANACH); Honduran Council of Private Enterprise
(COHEP); Confederation of Honduran Workers (CTH); National Union of
Campesinos (UNC); General Workers Confederation (CGT); United
Federation of Honduran Workers (FUTH); Committee for the Defense of
Human Rights in Honduras (CODEH); Coordinating Committee of Popular
Organizations (CCOP)

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO,
G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer),
MINURSO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIH, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Edgardo DUMAS Rodriguez
chancery: 3007 Tilden Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 966-7702, 2604, 5008, 4596
FAX: [1] (202) 966-9751
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Boston, Detroit, and Jacksonville

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James Francis CREAGAN (29 July 1996)
embassy: Avenida La Paz, Apartado Postal No. 3453, Tegucigalpa
mailing address: American Embassy, APO AA 34022, Tegucigalpa
telephone: [504] 36-9320, 38-5114
FAX: [504] 36-9037

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white,
and blue with five blue five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern
centered in the white band; the stars represent the members of the
former Federal Republic of Central America-Costa Rica, El Salvador,
Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua; similar to the flag of El
Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words
REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white
band; also similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which features a triangle
encircled by the word REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA
CENTRAL on the bottom, centered in the white band

@Honduras:Economy

Economy-overview: In 1994 the REINA administration inherited an
economy in the grips of stagflation due to an unprecedented energy
crisis, declining agricultural output, and extravagant public
expenditures. In response the REINA administration cut the fiscal
deficit and enacted a number of structural reforms including passage
of a modern financial sector reform law in 1995 and a central bank
reform law in 1996. As a result, Honduras finished 1997 with improved
GDP growth and a decreasing rate of inflation. The newly elected
FLORES administration faces pressure from the international financial
community and the IMF to further decrease the fiscal deficit and
implement key reforms, including the privatization of state
enterprises such as Hondutel. Tegucigalpa will probably implement
tighter fiscal and monetary policies to keep inflation low and meet
commitments to the IMF. This may slow GDP growth to 3.5% in 1998.
Moreover, wage increases for public-sector employees, agreed to in
1997, will make it difficult for FLORES to make headway on the fiscal
deficit and inflation.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$12.7 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,200 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 20%
industry: 19%
services: 61% (1997)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 15% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.3 million (1997 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 62%, services 20%, manufacturing 9%,
construction 3%, other 6% (1985)

Unemployment rate: 6.3% (1997); underemployed 30% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $655 million
expenditures: $850 million, including capital expenditures of $150
million (1997 est.)

Industries: sugar, coffee, textiles, clothing, wood products

Industrial production growth rate: 10% (1992 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 305,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 2.8 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 516 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: bananas, coffee, citrus; beef; timber; shrimp;

Exports:
total value: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: bananas, coffee, shrimp, lobster, minerals, meat, lumber
partners: US 54%, Germany 7%, Belgium 5%, Japan 4%, Spain 3% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $1.8 billion (c.i.f. 1996)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, industrial raw
materials, chemical products, manufactured goods, fuel and oil,
foodstuffs
partners: US 43%, Guatemala 5%, Japan 5%, Germany 4%, Mexico 3%, El
Salvador 3% (1995)

Debt-external: $4.1 billion (1995)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 lempira (L) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: lempiras (L) per US$1 (end of period)-13.1332 (January
1998), 13.0942 (1997), 12.8694 (1996), 10.3432 (1995), 9.4001 (1994),
7.2600 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 105,000 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: inadequate system
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean);
connected to Central American Microwave System

Radio broadcast stations: AM 176, FM 0, shortwave 7

Radios: 2.115 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 28

Televisions: 400,000 (1992 est.)

@Honduras:Transportation

Railways:
total: 595 km
narrow gauge: 190 km 1.067-m gauge; 128 km 1.057-m gauge; 277 km
0.914-m gauge
note: in 1993, there was a total of 988 km of track

Highways:
total: 15,400 km
paved: 3,126 km
unpaved: 12,274 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 465 km navigable by small craft

Ports and harbors: La Ceiba, Puerto Castilla, Puerto Cortes, San
Lorenzo, Tela, Puerto Lempira

Merchant marine:
total: 219 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 545,829 GRT/801,456 DWT
ships by type: bulk 25, cargo 131, chemical tanker 3, container 7,
liquefied gas tanker 1, livestock carrier 2, oil tanker 19, passenger
1, passenger-cargo 3, refrigerated cargo 18, roll-on/roll-off cargo 5,
short-sea passenger 3, vehicle carrier 1
note: a flag of convenience registry; Russia owns 7 ships, Vietnam 2,
Singapore 2, North Korea 1, Brazil 1, Japan 1, Iran 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 122 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 110
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 87 (1997 est.)

@Honduras:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force, Public
Security Forces (FUSEP, now being converted to a civilian police
force)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,409,012 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 839,283 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 68,076 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $42.5 million (1997)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: about 1.5% (1997)

@Honduras:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: land boundary dispute with El Salvador mostly
resolved by 11 September 1992 International Court of Justice (ICJ)
decision; the presidents of El Salvador and Honduras signed in January
1998 an agreement allowing citizens in the 1992 demarcated areas to
choose Salvadoran or Honduran citizenship; the two countries also
agreed to a final demarcation of the border within one year; the
agreement awaits ratification by the legislative assemblies of both
countries; with respect to the maritime boundary in the Golfo de
Fonseca, ICJ referred to an earlier agreement in this century and
advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras,
and Nicaragua likely would be required; maritime boundary dispute with
Nicaragua

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for drugs and narcotics, mostly
along the Caribbean coastline; illicit producer of cannabis,
cultivated on small plots and used principally for local consumption

______________________________________________________________________

HONG KONG

(special administrative region of China)

Introduction

Current issues: Pursuant to the agreement signed by China and the UK
on 19 December 1984, Hong Kong became a special administrative region
of China on 1 July 1997. Under the terms of this agreement, China has
promised that Hong Kong shall enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all
matters except foreign and defense affairs.

@Hong Kong:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China

Geographic coordinates: 22 15 N, 114 10 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 1,092 sq km
land: 1,042 sq km
water: 50 sq km

Area-comparative: six times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 30 km
border countries: China 30 km

Coastline: 733 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy
from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall

Terrain: hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Tai Mo Shan 958 m

Natural resources: outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 22%
other: 70% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional typhoons

Environment-current issues: air and water pollution from rapid
urbanization

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: more than 200 islands

@Hong Kong:People

Population: 6,706,965 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 637,808; female 591,900)
15-64 years: 71% (male 2,360,878; female 2,425,291)
65 years and over: 11% (male 312,033; female 379,055) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.24% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 12.85 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.87 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 15.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.24 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.81 years
male: 76.07 years
female: 81.74 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.36 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Chinese
adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups: Chinese 95%, other 5%

Religions: eclectic mixture of local religions 90%, Christian 10%

Languages: Chinese (Cantonese), English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 92.2%
male: 96%
female: 88.2% (1996 est.)

@Hong Kong:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
conventional short form: Hong Kong
local long form: Xianggang Tebie Xingzhengqu
local short form: Xianggang
abbreviation: HK

Data code: HK

Dependency status: special administrative region of China

Government type: NA

National capital: Victoria

Administrative divisions: none (special administrative region of
China)

Independence: none (special administrative region of China)

National holiday: National Day, 1-2 October
note: 1 July 1997 is celebrated as Hong Kong Special Administrative
Region Establishment Day

Constitution: Basic Law approved in March 1990 by China's National
People's Congress is Hong Kong's "mini-constitution"

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: direct election 18 years of age; universal for permanent
residents living in the territory of Hong Kong for the past seven
years; indirect election limited to about 100,000 members of
functional constituencies and an 800-member Election Commission drawn
from broad regional groupings and other central government bodies

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of China JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993)
head of government: Chief Executive TUNG Chee-hwa (since 1 July 1997)
cabinet: Executive Council consists of three ex-officio members and 10
appointed members; ex-officio members are: Chief Secretary Anson CHAN
(since 29 November 1993), Financial Secretary Donald TSANG (since NA
1995), and Secretary of Justice Elsie LEUNG (since NA 1997)
elections: NA

Legislative branch: a provisional legislature replaced the unicameral
Legislative Council or LEGCO (60 seats; 30 indirectly elected by
functional constituencies, 20 elected by popular vote, and 10 elected
by election committee; members served four-year terms) on 1 July 1997
elections: indirect and direct elections for the Legislative Council
were last held on 17 September 1995; elections for the first Special
Administrative Region Legislative Council are scheduled to be held in
May 1998
election results: the following are results of the 1995 election of
the Legislative Council - percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-Democratic Party 21, Liberal Party 10, Democratic Alliance for
the Betterment of Hong Kong 6, other parties and independents 23

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party, Martin LEE, chairman;
Liberal Party, Allen LEE, chairman; Democratic Alliance for the
Betterment of Hong Kong, TSANG Yuk-shing, chairman; Hong Kong
Democratic Foundation, Dr. Patrick SHIU Kin-ying, chairman; The
Frontier, Emily LAN Wai-hang, chairwoman

Political pressure groups and leaders: Association for Democracy and
People's Livelihood (ADPL), Frederick FUNG Kin Kee, chairman; Liberal
Democratic Federation, HU Fa-kuang, chairman; Federation of Trade
Unions (pro-China), LEE Chark-tim, president; Hong Kong and Kowloon
Trade Union Council (pro-Taiwan); Confederation of Trade Unions
(pro-democracy), LEE Cheuk-yan, chairman; Hong Kong General Chamber of
Commerce; Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (pro-China); Federation
of Hong Kong Industries; Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong
Kong; Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union, CHEUNG Man-kwong,
president; Hong Kong Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic
Movement in China, Szeto WAH, chairman

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, BIS (pending
member), CCC, ESCAP (associate), ICFTU, IMO (associate), Interpol
(subbureau), IOC, ISO (correspondent), WCL, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (special administrative
region of China)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Consul General Richard A. BOUCHER
consulate(s) general: 26 Garden Road, Hong Kong
mailing address: PSC 464, Box 30, FPO AP 96522-0002
telephone: [852] 2523-9011
FAX: [852] 2845-1598

Flag description: red with a stylized, white, five-petal bauhinia
flower in the center

@Hong Kong:Economy

Economy-overview: Hong Kong has a bustling free market economy highly
dependent on international trade. Natural resources are limited, and
food and raw materials must be imported. Indeed, imports and exports,
including reexports, each exceed GDP in dollar value. Real GDP growth
averaged a remarkable 8% in 1987-88, slowed to 3.0% in 1989-90, and
picked up to 4.2% in 1991, 5.0% in 1992, 5.2% in 1993, 5.5% in 1994,
4.8% in 1995, 4.7% in 1996, and an estimated 5.5% in 1997. A shortage
of labor continues to put upward pressure on prices and the cost of
living. Even before Hong Kong reverted to Chinese administration on 1
July 1997 it had extensive trade and investment ties with China.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$175.2 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$26,800 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 0.1%
industry: 16.1%
services: 83.8% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 5.1% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 3.183 million (1997)
by occupation: wholesale and retail trade, restaurants, and hotels
32.4%, social services 9.9%, manufacturing 9.9%, financing, insurance,
and real estate 13.0%, transport and communications 5.7%, construction
2.6%, other 26.5% (June 1997)

Unemployment rate: 3.1% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $19 billion
expenditures: $14.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $289
million (FY95/96 est.)

Industries: textiles, clothing, tourism, electronics, plastics, toys,
watches, clocks

Industrial production growth rate: -3.2% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 11.3 million kW (1996)

Electricity-production: 28 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 3,968 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: fresh vegetables; poultry

Exports:
total value: $180.7 billion (including reexports; f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: clothing, textiles, yarn and fabric, footwear, electrical
appliances, watches and clocks, toys
partners: China 34%, US 21%, Japan 7%, Germany 4%, UK 3% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $198.6 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: foodstuffs, transport equipment, raw materials,
semimanufactures, petroleum; a large share is reexported
partners: China 37%, Japan 14%, Taiwan 8%, US 8%, Singapore 5% (1996)

Debt-external: none (1996)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Hong Kong dollar (HK$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Hong Kong dollars (HK$) per US$-7.74 (1997), 7.730
(1996), 7.800 (1995), 7.800 (1994), 7.800 (1993), 7.741 (1992);
note-linked to the US dollar at the rate of about 7.8 HK$ per 1 US$

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 4.37 million (1997 est.)

Telephone system: modern facilities provide excellent domestic and
international services
domestic: microwave radio relay links and extensive fiber-optic
network
international: satellite earth stations-3 Intelsat (1 Pacific Ocean
and 2 Indian Ocean); coaxial cable to Guangzhou, China; access to 5
international submarine cables providing connections to ASEAN member
nations, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: 3 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (British Broadcasting Corporation
repeater 1; British Forces Broadcasting Service repeater 1)

Televisions: 1.75 million (1992 est.)

@Hong Kong:Transportation

Railways:
total: 34 km
standard gauge: 34 km 1.435-m gauge (1996 est.)
note: also has 43 km of metro with 38 stations

Highways:
total: 1,760 km
paved: 1,760 km
unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Hong Kong

Merchant marine:
total: 182 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,644,279 GRT/9,287,704
DWT
ships by type: bulk 104, cargo 23, combination bulk 2, container 42,
liquefied gas tanker 1, multifunction large load carrier 2, oil tanker
2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea passenger
1, vehicle carrier 3
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 13 countries
among which are UK 26, South Africa 9, China 9, Japan 8, Bermuda 3,
Germany 3, Israel 2, Canada 2, Belgium 1, and Norway 1; Hong Kong owns
an additional 459 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 17,179,262 DWT
that operate under the registries of The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize,
Bermuda, Cyprus, Hong Kong, Liberia, Malta, Panama, Philippines, Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines, Singapore, and Vanuatu (1997 est.)

Airports: 3 (1998)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1998)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Hong Kong:Military

Military branches: the People's Liberation Army (PLA) has a
low-profile presence in Hong Kong

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,908,604 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,442,870 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 45,276 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of China

@Hong Kong:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: a hub for Southeast Asian heroin trade; transshipment
and money-laundering center; increasing indigenous amphetamine abuse

______________________________________________________________________

HOWLAND ISLAND

(territory of the US)

@Howland Island:Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half
of the way from Hawaii to Australia

Geographic coordinates: 0 48 N, 176 38 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 1.6 sq km
land: 1.6 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about three times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 6.4 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: low-lying, nearly level, sandy, coral island surrounded by a
narrow fringing reef; depressed central area

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 3 m

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 5%
other: 95%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can
be a maritime hazard

Environment-current issues: no natural fresh water resources

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: almost totally covered with grasses, prostrate vines,
and low-growing shrubs; small area of trees in the center; primarily a
nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and
marine wildlife; feral cats

@Howland Island:People

Population: uninhabited
note: American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and
naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during
World War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by
special-use permit only and generally restricted to scientists and
educators

@Howland Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Howland Island

Data code: HQ

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered
from Washington, DC, by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US
Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge
system

Legal system: NA

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

@Howland Island:Economy

Economy-overview: no economic activity

@Howland Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only; note-there is one
boat landing area along the middle of the west coast

Airports: airstrip constructed in 1937 for scheduled refueling stop on
the round-the-world flight of Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan-they left
Lae, New Guinea, for Howland Island, but were never seen again; the
airstrip is no longer serviceable

Transportation-note: Earhart Light is a day beacon near the middle of
the west coast that was partially destroyed during World War II, but
has since been rebuilt; named in memory of famed aviatrix Amelia
Earhart

@Howland Island:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited
annually by the US Coast Guard

@Howland Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

HUNGARY

@Hungary:Geography

Location: Central Europe, northwest of Romania

Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 93,030 sq km
land: 92,340 sq km
water: 690 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:
total: 2,009 km
border countries: Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km,
Serbia and Montenegro 151 km (all with Serbia), Slovakia 515 km,
Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the
Slovakian border

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
highest point: Kekes 1,014 m

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils

Land use:
arable land: 51%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 13%
forests and woodland: 19%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,060 sq km (1993 est.)

Environment-current issues: the approximation of Hungary's standards
in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water
pollution with environmental requirements for EU accession will
require large investments, estimated by the Government of Hungary at
$4 billion over six years; the 1997 budget allocated $9.7 million for
this purpose; the 1998 budget allocated $11.3 million; the Central
Environmental Fund, which collects monies from product charges,
environmental fines, and mining taxes, provided approximately $76.2
million in 1997 and is expected to provide $109.5 million in 1998

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography-note: landlocked; strategic location astride main land
routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between
Ukraine and Mediterranean basin

@Hungary:People

Population: 10,208,127 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 915,412; female 872,706)
15-64 years: 68% (male 3,413,170; female 3,533,085)
65 years and over: 14% (male 550,974; female 922,780) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.23% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 10.69 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 13.46 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

Book of the day: